Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: hydrometallurgy

11 Recovery of Au and Other Metals from Old Electronic Components by Leaching and Liquid Extraction Process

Authors: Tomasz Smolinski, Irena Herdzik-Koniecko, Marta Pyszynska, M. Rogowski


Old electronic components can be easily found nowadays. Significant quantities of valuable metals such as gold, silver or copper are used for the production of advanced electronic devices. Old useless electronic device slowly became a new source of precious metals, very often more efficient than natural. For example, it is possible to recover more gold from 1-ton personal computers than seventeen tons of gold ore. It makes urban mining industry very profitable and necessary for sustainable development. For the recovery of metals from waste of electronic equipment, various treatment options based on conventional physical, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes are available. In this group hydrometallurgy processes with their relatively low capital cost, low environmental impact, potential for high metal recoveries and suitability for small scale applications, are very promising options. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology has great experience in hydrometallurgy processes especially focused on recovery metals from industrial and agricultural wastes. At the moment, urban mining project is carried out. The method of effective recovery of valuable metals from central processing units (CPU) components has been developed. The principal processes such as acidic leaching and solvent extraction were used for precious metals recovery from old processors and graphic cards. Electronic components were treated by acidic solution at various conditions. Optimal acid concentration, time of the process and temperature were selected. Precious metals have been extracted to the aqueous phase. At the next step, metals were selectively extracted by organic solvents such as oximes or tributyl phosphate (TBP) etc. Multistage mixer-settler equipment was used. The process was optimized.

Keywords: electronic waste, leaching, hydrometallurgy, metal recovery, solvent extraction

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10 Hydrometallurgical Production of Nickel Ores from Field Bugetkol

Authors: A. T. Zhakiyenova, E. E. Zhatkanbaev, Zh. K. Zhatkanbaeva


Nickel plays an important role in mechanical engineering and creation of military equipment; practically all steel are alloyed by nickel and other metals for receiving more durable, heat-resistant, corrosion-resistant steel and cast iron. There are many ways of processing of nickel in the world. Generally, it is igneous metallurgy methods. In this article, the review of majority existing ways of technologies of processing silicate nickel - cobalt ores is considered. Leaching of ores of a field Bugetkol is investigated by solution of sulfuric acid. We defined a specific consumption of sulfuric acid in relation to the mass of ore and to the mass of metal.

Keywords: cobalt, degree of extraction, hydrometallurgy, igneous metallurgy, leaching, matte, nickel

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9 Recovery of Zn from Different Çinkur Leach Residues by Acidic Leaching

Authors: Mehmet Ali Topçu, Aydın Ruşen


Çinkur is the only plant in Turkey that produces zinc from primary ore containing zinc carbonate from its establishment until 1997. After this year, zinc concentrate coming from Iran was used in this plant. Therefore, there are two different leach residues namely Turkish leach residue (TLR) and Iranian leach residue (ILR), in Çinkur stock piles. This paper describes zinc recovery by sulphuric acid (H2SO4) treatment for each leach residue and includes comparison of blended of TLR and ILR. Before leach experiments; chemical, mineralogical and thermal analysis of three different leach residues was carried out by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), respectively. Leaching experiments were conducted at optimum conditions; 100 oC, 150 g/L H2SO4 and 2 hours. In the experiments, stirring rate was kept constant at 600 r/min which ensures complete mixing in leaching solution. Results show that zinc recovery for Iranian LR was higher than Turkish LR due to having different chemical composition from each other.

Keywords: hydrometallurgy, leaching, metal extraction, metal recovery

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8 Biosorption of Gold from Chloride Media in a Simultaneous Adsorption-Reduction Process

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Yen Ning Lee


Conventional hydrometallurgical processing of metals involves the use of large quantities of toxic chemicals. Realizing a need to develop sustainable technologies, extensive research studies are being carried out to recover and recycle base, precious and rare earth metals from their pregnant leach solutions (PLS) using green chemicals/biomaterials prepared from biomass wastes derived from agriculture, marine and forest resources. Our innovative research showed that bio-adsorbents prepared from such biomass wastes can effectively adsorb precious metals, especially gold after conversion of their functional groups in a very simple process. The highly effective ‘Adsorption-coupled-Reduction’ phenomenon witnessed appears promising for the potential use of this gold biosorption process in the mining industry. Proper management and effective use of biomass wastes as value added green chemicals will not only reduce the volume of wastes being generated every day in our society, but will also have a high-end value to the mining and mineral processing industries as those biomaterials would be cheap, but very selective for gold recovery/recycling from low grade ore, leach residue or e-wastes.

Keywords: biosorption, hydrometallurgy, gold, adsorption, reduction, biomass, sustainability

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7 Recovery of Metals from Electronic Waste by Physical and Chemical Recycling Processes

Authors: Muammer Kaya


The main purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of various physical and chemical processes for electronic waste (e-waste) recycling, their advantages and shortfalls towards achieving a cleaner process of waste utilization, with especial attention towards extraction of metallic values. Current status and future perspectives of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) recycling are described. E-waste characterization, dismantling/ disassembly methods, liberation and classification processes, composition determination techniques are covered. Manual selective dismantling and metal-nonmetal liberation at – 150 µm at two step crushing are found to be the best. After size reduction, mainly physical separation/concentration processes employing gravity, electrostatic, magnetic separators, froth floatation etc., which are commonly used in mineral processing, have been critically reviewed here for separation of metals and non-metals, along with useful utilizations of the non-metallic materials. The recovery of metals from e-waste material after physical separation through pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical or biohydrometallurgical routes is also discussed along with purification and refining and some suitable flowsheets are also given. It seems that hydrometallurgical route will be a key player in the base and precious metals recoveries from e-waste. E-waste recycling will be a very important sector in the near future from economic and environmental perspectives.

Keywords: e-waste, WEEE, recycling, metal recovery, hydrometallurgy, pirometallurgy, biometallurgy

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6 Process for Separating and Recovering Materials from Kerf Slurry Waste

Authors: Tarik Ouslimane, Abdenour Lami, Salaheddine Aoudj, Mouna Hecini, Ouahiba Bouchelaghem, Nadjib Drouiche


Slurry waste is a byproduct generated from the slicing process of multi-crystalline silicon ingots. This waste can be used as a secondary resource to recover high purity silicon which has a great economic value. From the management perspective, the ever increasing generation of kerf slurry waste loss leads to significant challenges for the photovoltaic industry due to the current low use of slurry waste for silicon recovery. Slurry waste, in most cases, contains silicon, silicon carbide, metal fragments and mineral-oil-based or glycol-based slurry vehicle. As a result, of the global scarcity of high purity silicon supply, the high purity silicon content in slurry has increasingly attracted interest for research. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for high purity silicon recovery from kerf slurry waste. Hydrometallurgy is continuously a matter of study and research. However, in this review paper, several new techniques about the process of high purity silicon recovery from slurry waste are introduced. The purpose of the information presented is to improve the development of a clean and effective recovery process of high purity silicon from slurry waste.

Keywords: Kerf-loss, slurry waste, silicon carbide, silicon recovery, photovoltaic, high purity silicon, polyethylen glycol

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5 Influence of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag on Geotechnical Characteristics of Jarosite Waste

Authors: Chayan Gupta, Arun Prasad


The quick evolution of industrialization causes the scarcity of precious land. Thus, it is vital need to influence the R&D societies to achieve sustainable, economic and social benefits from huge utilization of waste for universal aids. The current study promotes the influence of steel industries waste i.e. ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) in geotechnical properties of jarosite waste (solid waste residues produced from hydrometallurgy operations involved in extraction of Zinc). Numerous strengths tests (unconfined compression (qu) and splitting tensile strength (qt)) are conducted on jarosite-GGBS blends (GGBS, 10-30%) with different curing periods (7, 28 & 90 days). The results indicate that both qu and qt increase with the increase in GGBS content along with curing periods. The increased strength with the addition of GGBS is also observed from microstructural study, which illustrates the occurrence of larger agglomeration of jarosite-GGBS blend particles. The Freezing-Thawing (F-T) durability analysis is also conducted for all the jarosite-GGBS blends and found that the reduction in unconfined compressive strength after five successive F-T cycles enhanced from 62% (natural jarosite) to 48, 42 and 34% at 7, 14 and 28 days curing periods respectively for stabilized jarosite-GGBS samples containing 30% GGBS content. It can be concluded from this study that blending of cementing additives (GGBS) with jarosite waste resulted in a significant improvement in geotechnical characteristics.

Keywords: jarosite, GGBS, strength characteristics, microstructural study, durability analysis

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4 Challenges in the Characterization of Black Mass in the Recovery of Graphite from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

Authors: Anna Vanderbruggen, Kai Bachmann, Martin Rudolph, Rodrigo Serna


Recycling of lithium-ion batteries has attracted a lot of attention in recent years and focuses primarily on valuable metals such as cobalt, nickel, and lithium. Despite the growth in graphite consumption and the fact that it is classified as a critical raw material in the European Union, USA, and Australia, there is little work focusing on graphite recycling. Thus, graphite is usually considered waste in recycling treatments, where graphite particles are concentrated in the “black mass”, a fine fraction below 1mm, which also contains the foils and the active cathode particles such as LiCoO2 or LiNiMnCoO2. To characterize the material, various analytical methods are applied, including X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), and SEM-based automated mineralogy. The latter consists of the combination of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is a powerful and well-known method for primary material characterization; however, it has not yet been applied to secondary material such as black mass, which is a challenging material to analyze due to fine alloy particles and to the lack of an existing dedicated database. The aim of this research is to characterize the black mass depending on the metals recycling process in order to understand the liberation mechanisms of the active particles from the foils and their effect on the graphite particle surfaces and to understand their impact on the subsequent graphite flotation. Three industrial processes were taken into account: purely mechanical, pyrolysis-mechanical, and mechanical-hydrometallurgy. In summary, this article explores various and common challenges for graphite and secondary material characterization.

Keywords: automated mineralogy, characterization, graphite, lithium ion battery, recycling

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3 Ferrites of the MeFe2O4 System (Me – Zn, Cu, Cd) and Their Two Faces

Authors: B. S. Boyanov, A. B. Peltekov, K. I. Ivanov


The ferrites of Zn, Cd, Cu, and mixed ferrites with NiO, MnO, MgO, CoO, ZnO, BaO combine the properties of dielectrics, semiconductors, ferro-magnets, catalysts, etc. The ferrites are used in an impressive range of applications due to their remarkable properties. A specific disadvantage of ferrites is that they are undesirably obtained in a lot of processes connected with metal production. They are very stable and poorly soluble compounds. The obtained ZnFe2O4 in zinc production connecting about 15% of the total zinc remains practically insoluble in dilute solutions of sulfuric acid. This decreases the degree of recovery of zinc and necessitates to further process the zinc-containing cake. In this context, the ferrites; ZnFe2O4, CdFe2O4, and CuFe2O4 are synthesized in laboratory conditions using ceramic technology. Their homogeneity and structure are proven by X-Ray diffraction analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The synthesized ferrites are subjected to strong acid and high temperature leaching with solutions of H2SO4, HCl, and HNO3 (7, 10 and 15 %). The results indicate that the highest degree of leaching of Zn, Cd, and Cu from the ferrites is achieved by use of HCl. The resulting values for the degree of leaching of metals using H2SO4 are lower, but still remain significantly higher for all of the experimental conditions compared to the values obtained using HNO3. Five zinc sulfide concentrates are characterized for iron content by chemical analysis, Web-based Information System, and iron phases by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The charging was optimized using the criterion of minimal amount of zinc ferrite produced when roasting the concentrates in a fluidized bed. The results obtained are interpreted in terms of the hydrometallurgical zinc production and maximum recovery of zinc, copper and cadmium from initial zinc sulfide concentrates after their roasting.

Keywords: hydrometallurgy, inorganic acids, solubility, zinc ferrite

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2 HCl-Based Hydrometallurgical Recycling Route for Metal Recovery from Li-Ion Battery Wastes

Authors: Claudia Schier, Arvid Biallas, Bernd Friedrich


The demand for Li-ion-batteries owing to their benefits, such as; fast charging time, high energy density, low weight, large temperature range, and a long service life performance is increasing compared to other battery systems. These characteristics are substantial not only for battery-operated portable devices but also in the growing field of electromobility where high-performance energy storage systems in the form of batteries are highly requested. Due to the sharp rising production, there is a tremendous interest to recycle spent Li-Ion batteries in a closed-loop manner owed to the high content of valuable metals such as cobalt, manganese, and lithium as well as regarding the increasing demand for those scarce applied metals. Currently, there are just a few industrial processes using hydrometallurgical methods to recover valuable metals from Li-ion-battery waste. In this study, the extraction of valuable metals from spent Li-ion-batteries is investigated by pretreated and subsequently leached battery wastes using different precipitation methods in a comparative manner. For the extraction of lithium, cobalt, and other valuable metals, pelletized battery wastes with an initial Li content of 2.24 wt. % and cobalt of 22 wt. % is used. Hydrochloric acid with 4 mol/L is applied with 1:50 solid to liquid (s/l) ratio to generate pregnant leach solution for subsequent precipitation steps. In order to obtain pure precipitates, two different pathways (pathway 1 and pathway 2) are investigated, which differ from each other with regard to the precipitation steps carried out. While lithium carbonate recovery is the final process step in pathway 1, pathway 2 requires a preliminary removal of lithium from the process. The aim is to evaluate both processes in terms of purity and yield of the products obtained. ICP-OES is used to determine the chemical content of leach liquor as well as of the solid residue.

Keywords: hydrochloric acid, hydrometallurgy, Li-ion-batteries, metal recovery

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1 Optimization of Titanium Leaching Process Using Experimental Design

Authors: Arash Rafiei, Carroll Moore


Leaching process as the first stage of hydrometallurgy is a multidisciplinary system including material properties, chemistry, reactor design, mechanics and fluid dynamics. Therefore, doing leaching system optimization by pure scientific methods need lots of times and expenses. In this work, a mixture of two titanium ores and one titanium slag are used for extracting titanium for leaching stage of TiO2 pigment production procedure. Optimum titanium extraction can be obtained from following strategies: i) Maximizing titanium extraction without selective digestion; and ii) Optimizing selective titanium extraction by balancing between maximum titanium extraction and minimum impurity digestion. The main difference between two strategies is due to process optimization framework. For the first strategy, the most important stage of production process is concerned as the main stage and rest of stages would be adopted with respect to the main stage. The second strategy optimizes performance of more than one stage at once. The second strategy has more technical complexity compared to the first one but it brings more economical and technical advantages for the leaching system. Obviously, each strategy has its own optimum operational zone that is not as same as the other one and the best operational zone is chosen due to complexity, economical and practical aspects of the leaching system. Experimental design has been carried out by using Taguchi method. The most important advantages of this methodology are involving different technical aspects of leaching process; minimizing the number of needed experiments as well as time and expense; and concerning the role of parameter interactions due to principles of multifactor-at-time optimization. Leaching tests have been done at batch scale on lab with appropriate control on temperature. The leaching tank geometry has been concerned as an important factor to provide comparable agitation conditions. Data analysis has been done by using reactor design and mass balancing principles. Finally, optimum zone for operational parameters are determined for each leaching strategy and discussed due to their economical and practical aspects.

Keywords: titanium leaching, optimization, experimental design, performance analysis

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