Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4276

Search results for: multiple window with buffer

4276 Wind Fragility of Window Glass in 10-Story Apartment with Two Different Window Models

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, WooYoung Jung

Abstract:

Damage due to high wind is not limited to load resistance components such as beam and column. The majority of damage is due to breach in the building envelope such as broken roof, window, and door. In this paper, wind fragility of window glass in residential apartment was determined to compare the difference between two window configuration models. Monte Carlo Simulation method had been used to derive damage data and analytical fragilities were constructed. Fragility of window system showed that window located in leeward wall had higher probability of failure, especially those close to the edge of structure. Between the two window models, Model 2 had higher probability of failure, this was due to the number of panel in this configuration.

Keywords: wind fragility, glass window, high rise building, wind disaster

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4275 Comparison of Wind Fragility for Window System in the Simplified 10 and 15-Story Building Considering Exposure Category

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, WooYoung Jung

Abstract:

Window system in high rise building is occasionally subjected to an excessive wind intensity, particularly during typhoon. The failure of window system did not affect overall safety of structural performance; however, it could endanger the safety of the residents. In this paper, comparison of fragility curves for window system of two residential buildings was studied. The probability of failure for individual window was determined with Monte Carlo Simulation method. Then, lognormal cumulative distribution function was used to represent the fragility. The results showed that windows located on the edge of leeward wall were more susceptible to wind load and the probability of failure for each window panel increased at higher floors.

Keywords: wind fragility, window system, high rise building, wind disaster

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
4274 Effect of Orientation of the Wall Window on Energy Saving under Clear Sky Conditions

Authors: Madhu Sudan, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the effect of wall window orientation on Daylight Illuminance Ratio (DIR) and energy saving in a building known as “SODHA BERS COMPLEX (SBC)” at Varanasi, UP, India. The building has been designed incorporating all passive concepts for thermal comfort as well daylighting concepts to maximize the use of natural daylighting for the occupants in the day to day activities. The annual average DIR and the energy saving has been estimated by using the DIR model for wall window with different orientations under clear sky condition. It has been found that for south oriented window the energy saving per square meter is more compared to the other orientations due to the higher level of solar insolation for the south window in northern hemisphere whereas energy saving potential is minimum for north oriented wall window. The energy saving potential was 26%, 81% and 51% higher for east, south and west oriented window in comparison to north oriented window. The average annual DIR has same trends of variation as the annual energy saving and it is maximum for south oriented window and minimum for north oriented window.

Keywords: clear sky, daylight factor, energy saving, wall window

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
4273 Optimization of Cu (In, Ga)Se₂ Based Thin Film Solar Cells: Simulation

Authors: Razieh Teimouri

Abstract:

Electrical modelling of Cu (In,Ga)Se₂ thin film solar cells is carried out with compositionally graded absorber and CdS buffer layer. Simulation results are compared with experimental data. Surface defect layers (SDL) are located in CdS/CIGS interface for improving open circuit voltage simulated structure through the analysis of the interface is investigated with or without this layer. When SDL removed, by optimizing the conduction band offset (CBO) position of the buffer/absorber layers with its recombination mechanisms and also shallow donor density in the CdS, the open circuit voltage increased significantly. As a result of simulation, excellent performance can be obtained when the conduction band of window layer positions higher by 0.2 eV than that of CIGS and shallow donor density in the CdS was found about 1×10¹⁸ (cm⁻³).

Keywords: CIGS solar cells, thin film, SCAPS, buffer layer, conduction band offset

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
4272 The Effect of Window Position and Ceiling Height on Cooling Load in Architectural Studio

Authors: Seyedehzahra Mirrahimi

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of variations in window and ceiling heights on cooling inside an architectural training studio with a full-width window. For architectural training, students use the studio more often than they use ordinary classrooms. Therefore, studio dimensions and size, and the window position, directly influence the cooling load. Energy for cooling is one of the most expensive costs in the studio because of the high activity levels of students during the warm season. The methodology of analysis involves measuring energy changes in the Energy Plus software in Kish Island. It was proved that the cooling energy in an architecture studio can be increased by changing window levels and ceiling heights to add a range of cooling energy.

Keywords: cooling energy, Energy Plus, studio classroom, window position

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
4271 Automatic Post Stroke Detection from Computed Tomography Images

Authors: C. Gopi Jinimole, A. Harsha

Abstract:

For detecting strokes, Computed Tomography (CT) scan is preferred for imaging the abnormalities or infarction in the brain. Because of the problems in the window settings used to evaluate brain CT images, they are very poor in the early stage infarction detection. This paper presents an automatic estimation method for the window settings of the CT images for proper contrast of the hyper infarction present in the brain. In the proposed work the window width is estimated automatically for each slice and the window centre is changed to a new value of 31HU, which is the average of the HU values of the grey matter and white matter in the brain. The automatic window width estimation is based on the average of median of statistical central moments. Thus with the new suggested window centre and estimated window width, the hyper infarction or post-stroke regions in CT brain images are properly detected. The proposed approach assists the radiologists in CT evaluation for early quantitative signs of delayed stroke, which leads to severe hemorrhage in the future can be prevented by providing timely medication to the patients.

Keywords: computed tomography (CT), hyper infarction or post stroke region, Hounsefield Unit (HU), window centre (WC), window width (WW)

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
4270 Efficient DCT Architectures

Authors: Mr. P. Suryaprasad, R. Lalitha

Abstract:

This paper presents an efficient area and delay architectures for the implementation of one dimensional and two dimensional discrete cosine transform (DCT). These are supported to different lengths (4, 8, 16, and 32). DCT blocks are used in the different video coding standards for the image compression. The 2D- DCT calculation is made using the 2D-DCT separability property, such that the whole architecture is divided into two 1D-DCT calculations by using a transpose buffer. Based on the existing 1D-DCT architecture two different types of 2D-DCT architectures, folded and parallel types are implemented. Both of these two structures use the same transpose buffer. Proposed transpose buffer occupies less area and high speed than existing transpose buffer. Hence the area, low power and delay of both the 2D-DCT architectures are reduced.

Keywords: transposition buffer, video compression, discrete cosine transform, high efficiency video coding, two dimensional picture

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
4269 Energy Absorption Characteristic of a Coupler Rubber Buffer Used in Rail Vehicles

Authors: Zhixiang Li, Shuguang Yao, Wen Ma

Abstract:

Coupler rubber buffer has been widely applied on the high-speed trains and the main function of the rubber buffer is dissipating the impact energy between vehicles. The rubber buffer consists of two groups of rubbers, which are both pre-compressed and then installed into the frame body. This paper focuses on the energy absorption characteristics of the rubber buffers particularly. Firstly, the quasi-static compression tests were carried out for 1 and 3 pairs of rubber sheets and some energy absorption responses relationship, i.e. Eabn = n×Eab1, Edissn = n×Ediss1, and Ean = Ea1, were obtained. Next, a series of quasi-static tests were performed for 1 pair of rubber sheet to investigate the energy absorption performance with different compression ratio of the rubber buffers. Then the impact tests with five impact velocities were conducted and the coupler knuckle was destroyed when the impact velocity was 10.807 km/h. The impact tests results showed that with the increase of impact velocity, the Eab, Ediss and Ea of rear buffer increased a lot, but the three responses of front buffer had not much increase. Finally, the results of impact tests and quasi-static tests were contrastively analysed and the results showed that with the increase of the stroke, the values of Eab, Ediss, and Ea were all increase. However, the increasing rates of impact tests were all larger than that of quasi-static tests. The maximum value of Ea was 68.76% in impact tests, it was a relatively high value for vehicle coupler buffer. The energy capacity of the rear buffer was determined for dynamic loading, it was 22.98 kJ.

Keywords: rubber buffer, coupler, energy absorption, impact tests

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4268 Effects of Bacteria on Levels of AFM1 in Phosphate Buffer at Different Level of Energy Source

Authors: Ali M. Elgerbi, Obied A. Alwan, Al-Taher O. Alzwei, Abdurrahim A. Elouzi

Abstract:

The binding of AFM1 to bacteria in phosphate buffer solution depended on many factors such as: availability of energy, incubation period, species and strain of bacteria. Increase in concentration of sugar showed higher removal of AFM1 and faster than in phosphate buffer alone. With 1.0% glucose lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria showed toxin removal ranging from 7.7 to 39.7% whereas with 10.0% glucose the percentage removal was 21.8 to 45.4% at 96 hours of incubation.

Keywords: aflatoxin M1, lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria , binding, phosphate buffer

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4267 Unbalanced Mean-Time and Buffer Effects in Lines Suffering Breakdown

Authors: Sabry Shaaban, Tom McNamara, Sarah Hudson

Abstract:

This article studies the performance of unpaced serial production lines that are subject to breakdown and are imbalanced in terms of both of their processing time means (MTs) and buffer storage capacities (BCs). Simulation results show that the best pattern in terms of throughput is a balanced line with respect to average buffer level; the best configuration is a monotone decreasing MT order, together with an ascending BC arrangement. Statistical analysis shows that BC, patterns of MT and BC imbalance, line length and degree of imbalance all contribute significantly to performance. Results show that unbalanced lines cope well with unreliability.

Keywords: unreliable unpaced serial lines, simulation, unequal mean operation times, uneven buffer capacities, patterns of imbalance, throughput, average buffer level

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
4266 A Virtual Grid Based Energy Efficient Data Gathering Scheme for Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

Authors: Siddhartha Chauhan, Nitin Kumar Kotania

Abstract:

Traditional Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) generally use static sinks to collect data from the sensor nodes via multiple forwarding. Therefore, network suffers with some problems like long message relay time, bottle neck problem which reduces the performance of the network. Many approaches have been proposed to prevent this problem with the help of mobile sink to collect the data from the sensor nodes, but these approaches still suffer from the buffer overflow problem due to limited memory size of sensor nodes. This paper proposes an energy efficient scheme for data gathering which overcomes the buffer overflow problem. The proposed scheme creates virtual grid structure of heterogeneous nodes. Scheme has been designed for sensor nodes having variable sensing rate. Every node finds out its buffer overflow time and on the basis of this cluster heads are elected. A controlled traversing approach is used by the proposed scheme in order to transmit data to sink. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is verified by simulation.

Keywords: buffer overflow problem, mobile sink, virtual grid, wireless sensor networks

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4265 Fill Rate Window as a Criterion for Spares Allocation

Authors: Michael Dreyfuss, Yahel Giat

Abstract:

Limited battery range and long recharging times are the greatest obstacles to the successful adoption of electric cars. One of the suggestions to overcome these problems is that carmakers retain ownership of batteries and provide battery swapping service so that customers exchange their depleted batteries for recharged batteries. Motivated by this example, we consider the problem of optimal spares allocation in an exchangeable-item, multi-location repair system. We generalize the standard service measures of fill rate and average waiting time to reflect the fact that customers penalize the service provider only if they have to wait more than a ‘tolerable’ time window. These measures are denoted as the window fill rate and the truncated waiting time, respectively. We find that the truncated waiting time is convex and therefore a greedy algorithm solves the spares allocation problem efficiently. We show that the window fill rate is generally S-shaped and describe an efficient algorithm to find a near-optimal solution and detail a priori and a posteriori upper bounds to the distance from optimum. The theory is complemented with a large scale numerical example demonstrating the spare battery allocation in battery swapping stations.

Keywords: convex-concave optimization, exchangeable item, M/G/infinity, multiple location, repair system, spares allocation, window fill rate

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4264 Modeling of Silicon Window Layers for Solar Cells Based SIGE

Authors: Meriem Boukais, B. Dennai, A. Ould- Abbas

Abstract:

The efficiency of SiGe solar cells might be improved by a wide-band-gap window layer. In this work we were simulated using the one dimensional simulation program called analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures (AMPS-1D). In the modeling, the thickness of silicon window was varied from 80 to 150 nm. The rest of layer’s thicknesses were kept constant, by varying thickness of window layer the simulated device performance was demonstrate in the form of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and quantum efficiency (QE).

Keywords: modeling, SiGe, AMPS-1D, quantum efficiency, conversion, efficiency

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4263 Simulation Of Silicon Window Layers For Solar Cells Based Sige

Authors: Boukais Meriem, B. Dennai, A. Ould-Abbas

Abstract:

The efficiency of SiGe solar cells might be improved by a wide-band-gap window layer. In this work we were simulated using the one dimensional simulation program called analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures (AMPS-1D). In the simulation, the thickness of silicon window was varied from 80 to 150 nm. The rest of layer’s thicknesses were kept constant, by varying thickness of window layer the simulated device performance was demonstrate in the form of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and quantum efficiency (QE).

Keywords: SiGe, AMPS-1D, simulation, conversion, efficiency, quantum efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 589
4262 Window Display Design of Thai Craft Product Affecting Perceptions of Thai and Foreign Tourists

Authors: Kanokwan Somoon, Chumporn Moorapun

Abstract:

A product’s perceived value may increase purchase intention. Value perceptions may differ among cultures. Window displays can be used to increase products’ information and value. This study aims to investigate the relationship between window display design elements and value perceptions of local products between two different cultures. The research methodology is based on survey research. Several window displays in favorite of tourist spots were selected as a unit of study. Also, 100 tourists (56 Thai tourists and 44 foreign tourists) were asked to complete a questionnaire. T-Tests were used to analyze the comparison. Then, the results were compared to Thai and foreign tourists. Finally, the results find that Thai and foreign tourists have different perception towards three design elements that are size of the window, props and colour lighting. The differences of their perceptions signify the different cultural values they adhere to.

Keywords: cross-culture, window display, Thai craft product, environmental perception

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
4261 A New Approach for Improving Accuracy of Multi Label Stream Data

Authors: Kunal Shah, Swati Patel

Abstract:

Many real world problems involve data which can be considered as multi-label data streams. Efficient methods exist for multi-label classification in non streaming scenarios. However, learning in evolving streaming scenarios is more challenging, as the learners must be able to adapt to change using limited time and memory. Classification is used to predict class of unseen instance as accurate as possible. Multi label classification is a variant of single label classification where set of labels associated with single instance. Multi label classification is used by modern applications, such as text classification, functional genomics, image classification, music categorization etc. This paper introduces the task of multi-label classification, methods for multi-label classification and evolution measure for multi-label classification. Also, comparative analysis of multi label classification methods on the basis of theoretical study, and then on the basis of simulation was done on various data sets.

Keywords: binary relevance, concept drift, data stream mining, MLSC, multiple window with buffer

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4260 Riparian Buffer Strips’ Capability of E. coli Removal in New York Streams

Authors: Helen Sanders, Joshua Cousins

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether riparian buffer strips could be used to reduce Escherichia Coli (E. coli) runoff into streams in Central New York. Mainstream methods currently utilized to reduce E. coli runoff include fencing and staggered fertilizing plans for agriculture. These methods still do not significantly limit E. coli and thus, pose a serious health risk to individuals who swim in contaminated waters or consume contaminated produce. One additional method still in research development involves the planting of vegetated riparian buffers along waterways. Currently, riparian buffer strips are primarily used for filtration of nitrate and phosphate runoff to slow erosion, regulate pH and, improve biodiversity within waterways. For my research, four different stream sites were selected for the study, in which rainwater runoff was collected at both the riparian buffer and the E. coli sourced runoff upstream. Preliminary results indicate that there is an average 70% decrease in E. coli content in streams at the riparian buffer strips compared to upstream runoff. This research could be utilized to include vegetated buffer planting as a method to decrease manure runoff into essential waterways.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, riparian buffer strips, vegetated riparian buffers, runoff, filtration

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4259 Implementing Two Rotatable Circular Polarized Glass Made Window to Reduce the Amount of Electricity Usage by Air Condition System

Authors: Imtiaz Sarwar

Abstract:

Air conditioning in homes may account for one-third of the electricity during period in summer when most of the energy is required in large cities. It is not consuming only electricity but also has a serious impact on environment including greenhouse effect. Circular polarizer filter can be used to selectively absorb or pass clockwise or counter-clock wise circularly polarized light. My research is about putting two circular polarized glasses parallel to each other and make a circular window with it. When we will place two circular polarized glasses exactly same way (0 degree to each other) then nothing will be noticed rather it will work as a regular window through which all light and heat can pass on. While we will keep rotating one of the circular polarized glasses, the angle between the glasses will keep increasing and the window will keep blocking more and more lights. It will completely block all the lights and a portion of related heat when one of the windows will reach 90 degree to another. On the other hand, we can just open the window when fresh air is necessary. It will reduce the necessity of using Air condition too much or consumer will use electric fan rather than air conditioning system. Thus, we can save a significant amount of electricity and we can go green.

Keywords: circular polarizer, window, air condition, light, energy

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4258 Life Cycle Assessment as a Decision Making for Window Performance Comparison in Green Building Design

Authors: Ghada Elshafei, Abdelazim Negm

Abstract:

Life cycle assessment is a technique to assess the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product, process, or service, by compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases; evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with identified inputs and releases; and interpreting the results to help you make a more informed decision. In this paper, the life cycle assessment of aluminum and beech wood as two commonly used materials in Egypt for window frames are heading, highlighting their benefits and weaknesses. Window frames of the two materials have been assessed on the basis of their production, energy consumption and environmental impacts. It has been found that the climate change of the windows made of aluminum and beech wood window, for a reference window (1.2m × 1.2m), are 81.7 mPt and - 52.5 mPt impacts respectively. Among the most important results are: fossil fuel consumption, potential contributions to the green building effect and quantities of solid waste tend to be minor for wood products compared to aluminum products; incineration of wood products can cause higher impacts of acidification and eutrophication than aluminum, whereas thermal energy can be recovered.

Keywords: aluminum window, beech wood window, green building, life cycle assessment, life cycle analysis, SimaPro software, window frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
4257 Sundarban as a Buffer against Storm Surge Flooding

Authors: Mohiuddin Sakib, Fatin Nihal, Anisul Haque, Munsur Rahman, Mansur Ali

Abstract:

Sundarban, the largest mangrove forest in the world, is known to act as a buffer against the cyclone and storm surge. Theoretically, Sundarban absorbs the initial thrust of the wind and acts to ‘resist’ the storm surge flooding. The role of Sundarban was evident during the cyclone Sidr when the Sundarban solely defended the initial thrust of the cyclonic wind and the resulting storm surge inundation. In doing this, Sundarban sacrificed 30% of its plant habitats. Although no scientific study has yet been conducted, it is generally believed that Sundarban will continuously play its role as a buffer against the cyclone when landfall of the cyclone is at or close to the Sundarban. Considering these facts, the present study mainly focused on a scientific insight into the role of Sundarban as a buffer against the present-day cyclone and storm surge and also its probable role on the impacts of future storms of similar nature but with different landfall locations. The Delft 3D dashboard and flow model are applied to compute the resulting inundation due to cyclone induced storm surge. The results show that Sundarban indeed acts as a buffer against the storm surge inundation when cyclone landfall is at or close to Sundarban.

Keywords: buffer, Mangrove forest, Sidr, landfall, roughness

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4256 Analysis of Formation Methods of Range Profiles for an X-Band Coastal Surveillance Radar

Authors: Nguyen Van Loi, Le Thanh Son, Tran Trung Kien

Abstract:

The paper deals with the problem of the formation of range profiles (RPs) for an X-band coastal surveillance radar. Two popular methods, the difference operator method, and the window-based method, are reviewed and analyzed via two tests with different datasets. The test results show that although the original window-based method achieves a better performance than the difference operator method, it has three main drawbacks that are the use of 3 or 4 peaks of an RP for creating the windows, the extension of the window size using the power sum of three adjacent cells in the left and the right sides of the windows and the same threshold applied for all types of vessels to finish the formation process of RPs. These drawbacks lead to inaccurate RPs due to the low signal-to-clutter ratio. Therefore, some suggestions are proposed to improve the original window-based method.

Keywords: range profile, difference operator method, window-based method, automatic target recognition

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4255 Optimizing the Window Geometry Using Fractals

Authors: K. Geetha Ramesh, A. Ramachandraiah

Abstract:

In an internal building space, daylight becomes a powerful source of illumination. The challenge therefore, is to develop means of utilizing both direct and diffuse natural light in buildings while maintaining and improving occupant's visual comfort, particularly at greater distances from the windows throwing daylight. The geometrical features of windows in a building have significant effect in providing daylight. The main goal of this research is to develop an innovative window geometry, which will effectively provide the daylight component adequately together with internal reflected component(IRC) and also the external reflected component(ERC), if any. This involves exploration of a light redirecting system using fractal geometry for windows, in order to penetrate and distribute daylight more uniformly to greater depths, minimizing heat gain and glare, and also to reduce building energy use substantially. Of late the creation of fractal geometrical window and the occurrence of daylight illuminance due to such windows is becoming an interesting study. The amount of daylight can change significantly based on the window geometry and sky conditions. This leads to the (i) exploration of various fractal patterns suitable for window designs, and (ii) quantification of the effect of chosen fractal window based on the relationship between the fractal pattern, size, orientation and glazing properties for optimizing daylighting. There are a lot of natural lighting applications able to predict the behaviour of a light in a room through a traditional opening - a regular window. The conventional prediction methodology involves the evaluation of the daylight factor, the internal reflected component and the external reflected component. Having evaluated the daylight illuminance level for a conventional window, the technical performance of a fractal window for an optimal daylighting is to be studied and compared with that of a regular window. The methodologies involved are highlighted in this paper.

Keywords: daylighting, fractal geometry, fractal window, optimization

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4254 The Operating Behaviour of Unbalanced Unpaced Merging Assembly Lines

Authors: S. Shaaban, T. McNamara, S. Hudson

Abstract:

This paper reports on the performance of deliberately unbalanced, reliable, non-automated and assembly lines that merge, whose workstations differ in terms of their mean operation times. Simulations are carried out on 5- and 8-station lines with 1, 2 and 4 buffer capacity units, % degrees of line imbalance of 2, 5 and 12, and 24 different patterns of means imbalance. Data on two performance measures, namely throughput and average buffer level were gathered, statistically analysed and compared to a merging balanced line counterpart. It was found that the best configurations are a balanced line arrangement and a monotone decreasing order for each of the parallel merging lines, with the first generally resulting in a lower throughput and the second leading to a lower average buffer level than those of a balanced line.

Keywords: average buffer level, merging lines, simulation, throughput, unbalanced

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4253 Different Cathode Buffer Layers in Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Radia Kamel

Abstract:

Considerable progress has been made in the development of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs) based on a blend of p-type and n-type organic semiconductors. To optimize the interfacial properties between the active layer and the electrode, a cathode buffer layer (CBL) is introduced. This layer can reduce the leakage current, increasing the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor while improving the OSC stability. In this work, the performance of PM6:Y6 OSC with 1-Chloronaphthalene as an additive is examined. To accomplish this, three CBLs PNDIT-F3N-Br, ZrAcac, and PDINO, are compared using the conventional configuration. The device with PNDIT-F3N-Br as CBL exhibits the highest power conversion efficiency of 16.04%. The results demonstrate that modifying the cathode buffer layer is crucial for achieving high-performance OSCs.

Keywords: bulk heterojunction, cathode buffer layer, efficiency, organic solar cells

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4252 Experimental and Numerical Study on Energy Absorption Characteristic of a Coupler Rubber Buffer Used in Rail Vehicles

Authors: Zhixiang Li, Shuguang Yao, Wen Ma

Abstract:

Coupler rubber buffer has been widely applied on the high-speed trains and the main function of the rubber buffer is dissipating the impact energy between vehicles. The rubber buffer consists of two groups of rubbers, which are both pre-compressed and then installed into the frame body. This work focuses on the energy absorption capacity of each group of buffers particularly. The quasi-static compression tests were carried out to obtain the pre-compression force and the load-defection response of the buffers. Then a finite element (FE) model was constructed using Ls_dyna program. The rubber material was modeled with a tabulated method easily, in which no more material constants need to be fitted. The simulation results agreed with the experimental results well. Numerical study of the buffers was performed using the validated FE model and the influence of the initial pressure on the buffers was obtained. In addition, the interaction between the two groups of buffers was also investigated and the optimum distribution of the two was found.

Keywords: initial pressure, rubber buffer, simulation, tabulated method

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
4251 Efficient Frequent Itemset Mining Methods over Real-Time Spatial Big Data

Authors: Hamdi Sana, Emna Bouazizi, Sami Faiz

Abstract:

In recent years, there is a huge increase in the use of spatio-temporal applications where data and queries are continuously moving. As a result, the need to process real-time spatio-temporal data seems clear and real-time stream data management becomes a hot topic. Sliding window model and frequent itemset mining over dynamic data are the most important problems in the context of data mining. Thus, sliding window model for frequent itemset mining is a widely used model for data stream mining due to its emphasis on recent data and its bounded memory requirement. These methods use the traditional transaction-based sliding window model where the window size is based on a fixed number of transactions. Actually, this model supposes that all transactions have a constant rate which is not suited for real-time applications. And the use of this model in such applications endangers their performance. Based on these observations, this paper relaxes the notion of window size and proposes the use of a timestamp-based sliding window model. In our proposed frequent itemset mining algorithm, support conditions are used to differentiate frequents and infrequent patterns. Thereafter, a tree is developed to incrementally maintain the essential information. We evaluate our contribution. The preliminary results are quite promising.

Keywords: real-time spatial big data, frequent itemset, transaction-based sliding window model, timestamp-based sliding window model, weighted frequent patterns, tree, stream query

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4250 A Petri Net Model to Obtain the Throughput of Unreliable Production Lines in the Buffer Allocation Problem

Authors: Joselito Medina-Marin, Alexandr Karelin, Ana Tarasenko, Juan Carlos Seck-Tuoh-Mora, Norberto Hernandez-Romero, Eva Selene Hernandez-Gress

Abstract:

A production line designer faces with several challenges in manufacturing system design. One of them is the assignment of buffer slots in between every machine of the production line in order to maximize the throughput of the whole line, which is known as the Buffer Allocation Problem (BAP). The BAP is a combinatorial problem that depends on the number of machines and the total number of slots to be distributed on the production line. In this paper, we are proposing a Petri Net (PN) Model to obtain the throughput in unreliable production lines, based on PN mathematical tools and the decomposition method. The results obtained by this methodology are similar to those presented in previous works, and the number of machines is not a hard restriction.

Keywords: buffer allocation problem, Petri Nets, throughput, production lines

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4249 Network Coding with Buffer Scheme in Multicast for Broadband Wireless Network

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Ramkumar Jayaraman, Rajakumar Arul, Kottilingam Kottursamy

Abstract:

Broadband Wireless Network (BWN) is the promising technology nowadays due to the increased number of smartphones. Buffering scheme using network coding considers the reliability and proper degree distribution in Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) multi-hop network. Using network coding, a secure way of transmission is performed which helps in improving throughput and reduces the packet loss in the multicast network. At the outset, improved network coding is proposed in multicast wireless mesh network. Considering the problem of performance overhead, degree distribution makes a decision while performing buffer in the encoding / decoding process. Consequently, BuS (Buffer Scheme) based on network coding is proposed in the multi-hop network. Here the encoding process introduces buffer for temporary storage to transmit packets with proper degree distribution. The simulation results depend on the number of packets received in the encoding/decoding with proper degree distribution using buffering scheme.

Keywords: encoding and decoding, buffer, network coding, degree distribution, broadband wireless networks, multicast

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
4248 A Study of New Window Typology for Palestinian Residential Building for More Sustainable Building

Authors: Nisreen Ardda

Abstract:

Fenestrations are one of the main building envelope elements that play an important role in home social-ecological l factors. They play a vital role in providing natural lighting and ventilation, visual, thermal, and acoustical comfort, and also provide weather-tightness, privacy, a feeling of openness. In most home buildings, fenestrations are controlled manually by the occupants, which significantly impacts occupants' comfort and energy use. Culture plays a central role in the Palestinians window operation behavior. Improved windows design that provides the desired privacy while maintaining the appropriate function of fenestration (natural lighting, thermal comfort, and visual openness) is becoming a necessity. Therefore, this paper proposes a window typology to achieve the social and environmental factors in residential buildings in the West Bank. The window typology and reference building were designed in Rivet 2021, and natural ventilation was carried out in Design Builder 4.3.0.039. The results showed that the proposed typology provides the desired privacy and the feeling of openness without compromising natural ventilation as the existing window did.

Keywords: window design, passive design, sustainable built environment, building material

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4247 Design of a Phemt Buffer Amplifier in Mm-Wave Band around 60 GHz

Authors: Maryam Abata, Moulhime El Bekkali, Said Mazer, Catherine Algani, Mahmoud Mehdi

Abstract:

One major problem of most electronic systems operating in the millimeter wave band is the signal generation with a high purity and a stable carrier frequency. This problem is overcome by using the combination of a signal with a low frequency local oscillator (LO) and several stages of frequency multipliers. The use of these frequency multipliers to create millimeter-wave signals is an attractive alternative to direct generation signal. Therefore, the isolation problem of the local oscillator from the other stages is always present, which leads to have various mechanisms that can disturb the oscillator performance, thus a buffer amplifier is often included in oscillator outputs. In this paper, we present the study and design of a buffer amplifier in the mm-wave band using a 0.15μm pHEMT from UMS foundry. This amplifier will be used as a part of a frequency quadrupler at 60 GHz.

Keywords: Mm-wave band, local oscillator, frequency quadrupler, buffer amplifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 433