Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 95

Search results for: volunteer

95 Factors That Influence Decision Making of Foreign Volunteer Tourists in Thailand

Authors: Paramet Damchoo


The purpose of this study is to study the factors that influence the decision making of foreign volunteer tourists in Thailand. A sample size was 400 drawn from 10 provinces of Thailand using cluster sampling method. The factor analysis was used to analysis the data. The findings indicate that volunteer tourism which was based in Thailand contained a total of 45 activities which could be divided into 4 categories. The most of these tourists were from Europe including UK and Scandinavia which was 54.50 percent. Moreover, the tourists were male rather than female and 63.50 Percent of them ware younger than 20 years old. It is also found that there are 67.00 percent of the tourists used website to find where the volunteer tourism was based. Finally, the factors that influence the decision making of foreign volunteer tourists in Thailand consist of a wide variety of activities together with a flexibility in their activities and also low prices.

Keywords: decision making, volunteer tourism, special interest tourism, GAP year

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94 Using the Transtheoretical Model to Investigate Stages of Change in Regular Volunteer Service among Seniors in Community

Authors: Pei-Ti Hsu, I-Ju Chen, Jeu-Jung Chen, Cheng-Fen Chang, Shiu-Yan Yang


Taiwan now is an aging society Research on the elderly should not be confined to caring for seniors, but should also be focused on ways to improve health and the quality of life. Senior citizens who participate in volunteer services could become less lonely, have new growth opportunities, and regain a sense of accomplishment. Thus, the question of how to get the elderly to participate in volunteer service is worth exploring. Apply the Transtheoretical Model to understand stages of change in regular volunteer service and voluntary service behaviour among the seniors. 1525 adults over the age of 65 from the Renai district of Keelung City were interviewed. The research tool was a self-constructed questionnaire and individual interviews were conducted to collect data. Then the data was processed and analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 (Windows version) statistical software program. In the past six months, research subjects averaged 9.92 days of volunteer services. A majority of these elderly individuals had no intention to change their regular volunteer services. We discovered that during the maintenance stage, the self-efficacy for volunteer services was higher than during all other stages, but self-perceived barriers were less during the preparation stage and action stage. Self-perceived benefits were found to have an important predictive power for those with regular volunteer service behaviors in the previous stage, and self-efficacy was found to have an important predictive power for those with regular volunteer service behaviors in later stages. The research results support the conclusion that community nursing staff should group elders based on their regular volunteer services change stages and design appropriate behavioral change strategies.

Keywords: seniors, stages of change in regular volunteer services, volunteer service behavior, self-efficacy, self-perceived benefits

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93 History and Survey on Volunteer Fire Departments in Serbia

Authors: Mirjana Đ. Laban, Dragan N. Đurica, Nemanja M. Erceg


Volunteer fire departments (VFD) in Serbia were established as civic associations in XIX Century. The founders and members of the first VFDs were prominent members of local communities. Today, those are volunteer organizations for preventing and extinguishing fires and rescuing people and property in various accidents. The paper presents the results of research about the number and resources of active VFDs done in Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia and about activities they perform today. The survey was done based on data provided by all registered VFDs in Vojvodina. Firefighters Association of Vojvodina includes 35 municipal firefighting associations, 230 volunteer fire departments with 5,300 active members in qualified fire units and more than 15,000 supporting members. Volunteer involvement is primarily an expression of high moral values and as such it has to be respected and stimulated. Better position of the volunteers would have a major impact on the formation of safety culture concept and general public awareness of fire safety and risk reduction, and therefore the security of the society as a whole. Volunteer fire departments make a significant contribution to educate young people and prevent catastrophic consequences of fires and natural disasters.

Keywords: education, prevention, rescue, volunteer fire departments

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92 Phenomenological Analysis on the Experience of Volunteer Activities in Pre-Medical School Students

Authors: S. J. Yune, K. H. Park


The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of medical students in volunteer activities and to draw implications for medical education. For this purpose, the questionnaire and the reflection essay on the volunteer experience of 54 students in the first year and 57 students in the second year were analyzed and analyzed. As a result, the participation of the students in the volunteer activities was the highest in the first semester and once a month in the second grade. Activities were mostly through volunteer organizations. The essence of the volunteering activities experience revealed through reflection essays was 'I want to avoid with fear' and 'I feel far away' in the recognition before volunteering activities. In terms of knowledge after participating in volunteer activities, 'breaking eggs and getting to know the world' and 'intellectual growth through social experience' appeared. In terms of attitude, it revealed 'deep reflection on me and others', 'understanding of service life'. And in terms of behavior, 'Begin preparing for a life of service' appeared. The results of this study revealed that volunteering activities provide students with opportunities for growth and development. In order to obtain more meaningful results, consciousness education related to social service should be done in advance.

Keywords: volunteering activity, pre-medical school student, reflection essay, qualitative analysis

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91 The Comparison of Personality Background of Volunteer and Non-Volunteer Subjects

Authors: Laszlo Dorner


Background: In the last few decades there has been a significant discussion within the researchers of prosocial behavior about to what extent personality characteristics matter in determining the quality and frequency of helping behaviors. Of these community activities the most important is formal volunteering which mainly realises in civil services and organizations. Recently many researches have been showed up regarding the personality factors and motivations behind volunteering). Most of these researches found strong correlation between Agreeableness and Extraversion as global traits and the time spent on volunteering and its frequency as well. Aims of research: In this research we investigate the relation between formal volunteer activities and global traits in a Hungarian volunteer sample. We hypothetise that the results appeared in the previous researches show the same pattern in Hungary as well: volunteering would be related to Agreeableness and Extraversion. We also assume that the time spent on volunteering is related to these traits, since these traits would serve as an indicator of long-term volunteering. Methods: We applied the Hungarian adaptation of Big Five Questionnaire created by Caprara, Barbaranelli és Borgogni. This self-reported questionnaire contains 132 items, and explore 5 main traits examining the person’s most important emotional and motivational features regarding its personality. This research took into account the most important socio-economical factors (age, gender, religiosity, income) which can determine volunteer activities per se. The data is evaluated by SPSS 19.0 Statistical Software. Sample: 92 volunteer (formal, mainly the volunteers of Hungarian Red Cross and Hospice Organizations)and 92 non volunteer person, with matched subsamples by the factors of age, gender and qualification. Results: The volunteer subsample shows higher values of Energy and significantly higher values of Agreeableness and Openness, however, regarding Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability the differences are not significant between the volunteer and non-volunteer subsamples.

Keywords: Big Five, comparative analysis, global traits, volunteering

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90 Post Earthquake Volunteer Learning That Build up Caring Learning Communities

Authors: Naoki Okamura


From a perspective of moral education, this study has examined the experiences of a group of college students who volunteered in disaster areas after the magnitude 9.0 Earthquake, which struck the Northeastern region of Japan in March, 2011. The research, utilizing the method of grounded theory, has uncovered that most of the students have gone through positive changes in their development of moral and social characters, such as attaining deeper sense of empathy and caring personalities. The study expresses, in identifying the nature of those transformations, that the importance of volunteer work should strongly be recognized by the colleges and universities in Japan, in fulfilling their public responsibility of creating and building learning communities that are responsible and caring.

Keywords: moral development, moral education, service learning, volunteer learning

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89 Importance-Performance Analysis of Volunteer Tourism in Ethiopia: Host and Guest Case Study

Authors: Zita Fomukong Andam


With a general objective of evaluating the importance and Performance attributes of Volunteer Tourism in Ethiopia and also specifically intending to rank out the importance to evaluate the competitive performance of Ethiopia to host volunteer tourists, laying them in a four quadrant grid and conduct the IPA Iso-Priority Line comparison of Volunteer Tourism in Ethiopia. From hosts and guests point of view, a deeper research discourse was conducted with a randomly selected 384 guests and 165 hosts in Ethiopia. Findings of the discourse through an exploratory research design on both the hosts and the guests confirm that attributes of volunteer tourism generally and marginally fall in the South East quadrant of the matrix where their importance is relatively higher than their performance counterpart, also referred as ‘Concentrate Here’ quadrant. The fact that there are more items in this particular place in both the host and guest study, where they are highly important, but their relative performance is low, strikes a message that the country has more to do. Another focus point of this study is mapping the scores of attributes regarding the guest and host importance and performance against the Iso-Priority Line. Results of Iso-Priority Line Analysis of the IPA of Volunteer Tourism in Ethiopia from the Host’s Perspective showed that there are no attributes where their importance is exactly the same as their performance. With this being found, the fact that this research design inhabits many characters of exploratory nature, it is not confirmed research output. This paper reserves from prescribing anything to the applied world before further confirmatory research is conducted on the issue and rather calls the scientific community to augment this study through comprehensive, exhaustive, extensive and extended works of inquiry in order to get a refined set of recommended items to the applied world.

Keywords: volunteer tourism, competitive performance importance-performance analysis, Ethiopian tourism

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88 Other End of the Leash: The Volunteer Handlers Perspective of Animal-Assisted Interventions

Authors: Julie A. Carberry, Victor Maddalena


Animal-Assisted Interventions (AAIs) have existed in various forms for centuries. In the past 30 years, there has been a dramatic increase in popularity. AAIs are now part of the lives of persons of all ages in many types of institutions. Anecdotal evidence of the benefits of AAIs have led to widespread adoption, yet there remains a lack of solid research base for support. The research question was, what are the lived experiences of AAI volunteer handlers are? An interpretive phenomenological methodology was used for this qualitative study. Data were collected from 1 - 2 hour-long semi-structured interviews and 1 observational field visit. All interviews were conducted, transcribed, and coded for themes by the principal investigator. Participants must have been an active St. John Ambulance Therapy Dog Program volunteer for a least one year. In total, 14 volunteer handlers, along with some of their dogs, were included. The St. John Ambulance is a not for profit organization that provides training and community services to Canadians. The Therapy Dog Program is 1 of the 4 nationally recognized core community service programs. The program incorporates dogs in the otherwise traditional therapeutic intervention of friendly visitation with clients. The lack of formal objectives and goals, and a trained therapist defines the program as an Animal-Assisted Activity (AAA), which is a type of AAI. Since the animals incorporated are dogs, the program is specifically a Canine-Assisted Activity (CAA), which is a type of Canine-Assisted Intervention (CAI). Six themes emerged from the analysis of the data: (a) a win-win-win situation for all parties involved – volunteer handlers, clients, and the dogs, (b) being on the other end of the leash: functions of the role of volunteer handler, (c) the importance of socialization: from spreading smiles to creating meaningful connections, (d) the role of the dog: initiating interaction and providing comfort, (e) an opportunity to feel good and destress, and (f) altruism versus personal rewards. Other insights were found regarding the program, clients, and staff. Possible implications from this research include increased organizational recruitment and retention of volunteer handlers and as well as increased support for CAAs and other CAIs that incorporate teams of volunteer handlers and their dogs. This support could, in turn, add overall support for the acceptance and broad implementation of AAIs as an alternative and or complementary non-pharmaceutical therapeutic intervention.

Keywords: animal-assisted activity, animal-assisted intervention, canine-assisted activity, canine-assisted intervention, perspective, qualitative, volunteer handler

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87 The Opinions of Nursing Students Regarding Humanized Care through Volunteer Activities at Boromrajonani College of Nursing, Chonburi

Authors: P. Phenpun, S. Wareewan


This qualitative study aimed to describe the opinions in relation to humanized care emerging from the volunteer activities of nursing students at Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chonburi, Thailand. One hundred and twenty-seven second-year nursing students participated in this study. The volunteer activity model was composed of preparation, implementation, and evaluation through a learning log, in which students were encouraged to write their daily activities after completing practical training at the healthcare center. The preparation content included three main categories: service minded, analytical thinking, and client participation. The preparation process took over three days that accumulates up to 20 hours only. The implementation process was held over 10 days, but with a total of 70 hours only, with participants taking part in volunteer work activities at a healthcare center. A learning log was used for evaluation and data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings were as follows. With service minded, there were two subcategories that emerged from volunteer activities, which were service minded towards patients and within themselves. There were three categories under service minded towards patients, which were rapport, compassion, and empathy service behaviors, and there were four categories under service minded within themselves, which were self-esteem, self-value, management potential, and preparedness in providing good healthcare services. In line with analytical thinking, there were two components of analytical thinking, which were analytical skill for their works and analytical thinking for themselves. There were four subcategories under analytical thinking for their works, which were evidence based thinking, real situational thinking, cause analysis thinking, and systematic thinking, respectively. There were four subcategories under analytical thinking for themselves, which were comparative between themselves, towards their clients that leads to the changing of their service behaviors, open-minded thinking, modernized thinking, and verifying both verbal and non-verbal cues. Lastly, there were three categories under participation, which were mutual rapport relationship; reconsidering client’s needs services and providing useful health care information.

Keywords: humanized care service, volunteer activity, nursing student, learning log

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86 Empowering Volunteers at Tawanchai Centre for Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate

Authors: Suteera Pradubwong, Darawan Augsornwan, Pornpen Pathumwiwathana, Benjamas Prathanee, Bowornsilp Chowchuen


Background: Cleft lip and palate (CLP) congenital anomalies have a high prevalence in the Northeast of Thailand. A care team’s understand of treatment plan would help to guide the family of patients with CLP to achieve the treatment. Objectives: To examine the impact of the empowering volunteer project, established in the northeast Thailand. Materials and Methods: The Empowering Volunteer project was conducted in 2008 under the Tawanchai Royal Granted project. The patients and family’s general information, treatment, the group brainstorming, and satisfaction with the project were analyzed. Results: Participants were 12 children with CLP, their families and five volunteers with CLP; the participating patients were predominantly females and the mean, age was 12.2 years. The treatment comprised of speech training, dental hygiene care, bone graft and orthodontic treatment. Four issues were addressed including: problems in taking care of breast feeding; instructions’ needs for care at birth; difficulty in access information and society impact; and needs in having a network of volunteers. Conclusions: Empowering volunteer is important for holistic care of patients with CLP which provides easy access and multiple channels for patients and their families. It should be developed as part of the self-help and family support group, the development of community based team and comprehensive CLP care program.

Keywords: self-help and family support group, community based model, volunteer, cleft lip-cleft palate

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85 Global LGBTQ+ Civic Engagement and Volunteerism: Research Insights and Future Directions

Authors: Trevor G. Gates


In global communities, volunteering is an important yet rapidly changing mechanism of civic engagement. However, the volunteer rate in the US significantly declined by as much as five percent during the last two decades, resulting in increased interest in what it takes to attract and recruit volunteers. Volunteers are utilized across a number of sectors, including working within the social welfare sector either with disadvantaged individuals and communities or indirectly through advocacy As with many mainstream community groups, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer+ (LGBTQ+) organizations actively rely on the contributions of volunteers. Consequently, community organizations must adopt strategies to attract and retain volunteers to continue to deliver their services and remain competitive. For LGBTQ+ organizations, this means an increased understanding of volunteers’ motivations and, in particular, LGBTQ+ volunteers, as they have historically been more involved due to ongoing stigmatization. In this paper, I reviewed existing literature in order to provide insights for non-profits who are managing volunteer resources for LGBTQ+ people by identifying important characteristics of LGBTQ+ volunteers and discussing what volunteering entails. Motivational factors are outlined, and the role of volunteerism in the LGBTQ+ community is explored. The benefits of volunteering and the needs of volunteers are discussed.

Keywords: volunteer, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender

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84 Voluntary Work Monetary Value and Cost-Benefit Analysis with 'Value Audit and Voluntary Investment' Technique: Case Study of Yazd Red Crescent Society Youth Members Voluntary Work in Health and Safety Plan for New Year's Passengers

Authors: Hamed Seddighi Khavidak


Voluntary work has a lot of economic and social benefits for a country, but the economic value is ignored because it is voluntary. The aim of this study is reviewing Monetary Value of Voluntary Work methods and comparing opportunity cost method and replacement cost method both in theory and in practice. Beside monetary value, in this study, we discuss cost-benefit analysis of health and safety plan in the New Year that conducted by young volunteers of Red Crescent society of Iran. Method: We discussed eight methods for monetary value of voluntary work including: Alternative-Employment Wage Approach, Leisure-Adjusted OCA, Volunteer Judgment OCA, Replacement Wage Approach, Volunteer Judgment RWA, Supervisor Judgment RWA, Cost of Counterpart Goods and Services and Beneficiary Judgment. Also, for cost benefit analysis we drew on 'value audit and volunteer investment' (VIVA) technique that is used widely in voluntary organizations like international federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent societies. Findings: In this study, using replacement cost approach, voluntary work by 1034 youth volunteers was valued 938000000 Riyals and using Replacement Wage Approach it was valued 2268713232 Riyals. Moreover, Yazd Red Crescent Society spent 212800000 Riyals on food and other costs for these volunteers. Discussion and conclusion: In this study, using cost benefit analysis method that is Volunteer Investment and Value Audit (VIVA), VIVA rate showed that for every Riyal that the Red Crescent Society invested in the health and safety of New Year's travelers in its volunteer project, four Riyals returned, and using the wage replacement approach, 11 Riyals returned. Therefore, New Year's travelers health and safety project were successful and economically, it was worthwhile for the Red Crescent Society because the output was much bigger than the input costs.

Keywords: voluntary work, monetary value, youth, red crescent society

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83 Quality Assurance in Translation Crowdsourcing: The TED Open Translation Project

Authors: Ya-Mei Chen


The participatory culture enabled by Web 2.0 technologies has led to the emergence of online translation crowdsourcing, which mainly relies on the collective intelligence of volunteer translators. Due to the fact that many volunteer translators do not have formal translator training, concerns have been raised about the quality of crowdsourced translations. Some empirical research has been done to examine the translation quality of for-profit crowdsourcing initiatives. However, quality assurance of non-profit translation crowdsourcing has rarely been explored in detail. Using the TED Open Translation Project as a case study, this paper investigates how the translation-review-approval method adopted by TED can (1) direct the volunteer translators’ use of translation strategies as well as the reviewers’ adoption of revising strategies and (2) shape the final translation products. To well examine the actual effect of TED’s translation-review-approval method, this paper will focus on its two major quality assurance mechanisms, that is, TED’s style guidelines and quality review. Based on an anonymous questionnaire, this research will first explore whether the volunteer translators and reviewers are aware of the style guidelines and whether their use of translation strategies is similar to that advised in the guidelines. The questionnaire, which will be posted online, will consist of two parts: demographic information and translation strategies. The invitations to complete it will then be distributed through TED Translator Facebook groups. With an aim to investigate if the style guidelines have any substantial impacts on actual subtitling practices, a comparison will be made between the original English subtitles of 20 TED talks (each around 5 to 7 minutes) and their Chinese subtitle translations to identify regularly adopted strategies. Concerning the function of the reviewing stage, a comparative study will be conducted between the drafts of Chinese subtitles for 10 short English talks and the revised versions of these drafts so as to examine the actual revising strategies and their effect on translation quality. According to the results obtained from the questionnaire and textual comparisons, this paper will provide in-depth analysis of quality assurance of the TED Open Translation Project. It is hoped that this research, through a detailed investigation of non-profit translation crowdsourcing, can enable translation researchers and practitioners to have a better understanding of quality control in translation crowdsourcing in the digital age.

Keywords: quality assurance, TED, translation crowdsourcing, volunteer translators

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82 Influence of Menstrual Cycle on the Pharmacokinetics of Antibiotics

Authors: Sandhyarani Guggilla


For several reasons no two individuals can be considered identical and hence individualization of therapy is the current trend in treating the patients. Influence of menstrual cycle on the pharmacokinetics of Doxycycline. Twelve healthy female volunteers have been included in the study after obtaining written informed consent. The age ranged from 16 to 25 years. Experimental design: The volunteer selection and recruitment will be carried out after obtaining informed consent from each volunteer. The drug administration will be done to each volunteer at 7 a.m along with a glass of water after an overnight fasting on 3rd, 13th and 23rd day of menstrual cycle. These saliva samples will be stored under frozen conditions until HPLC analysis. Results: In the present study the changes in estrogen levels during ovulatory phase have not shown any influence onAUCo-t of Doxycycline. Only AUCo-t of doxycycline showed an increasing trend with increasing levels of estrogen in ovulatory phase, but not in other phases. Even though the FSH levels differed significantly among volunteers during different phases FSH does not seem to influence the overall pharmacokinetic behavior of Doxycycline during different phases. The present study indicated only the trend that the hormone levels may influence the pharmacokinetic behavior of the Doxycycline. Conclusion: In the present study the changes in hormones have shown an increasing C-max, increasing AUCo-t of Doxycycline pharmacokinetics significantly in follicular phase than ovulatory and luteal phases among volunteers during different phases. In other pharmacokinetic properties like clearance, biological half-life, volume of distribution, mean residence time the change was not significant.

Keywords: menstrual cycle, doxycycline, estrogen, FSH, ovulatory phase

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81 Exploring the Non-Verbalizable in Conservation Grazing: The Contradictions Illuminated by a ‘Go-Along’ Methodology

Authors: James Ormrod


This paper is concerned with volunteer livestock checking. Based on a pilot study consisting of ‘go-along’ interviews with livestock checkers, it argues that there are limitations to the insights that can be generated from approaches to ‘discourse analysis’ that would focus only on the verbalizable aspects of the practice. Volunteer livestock checking takes place across Europe as part of conservation projects aimed at maintaining particular habitats through the reintroduction of grazing animals. Volunteers are variously called ‘urban shepherds’, because these practices often take place on urban fringes, or ‘lookerers’, as their role is to make visual checks on the animals. Pilot research that took place on the South Downs (a chalk downland habitat on the South Coast of the UK) involved researchers accompanying volunteers as they checked on livestock. They were asked to give an account of what they were doing and then answer semi-structured interview questions. Participants drew on popular discourses on conservation and biodiversity, as framed by the local council who run the programme. They also framed their relationships to the animals in respect to the more formal limitations of their role as identified through the conservation programme. And yet these discourses, significant as they are, do not adequately explain why volunteers are drawn to, and emotionally invested in, lookering. The methodology employed allowed participants instead to gesture to features of the landscape and to recall memories, and for the researchers to see how volunteers interacted with the animals and the landscape in embodied and emotionally loaded ways. The paper argues that a psychosocial perspective that pays attention to the contradictions and tensions made visible through this methodology helps develop a fuller understanding of volunteer livestock checking as a social practice.

Keywords: conservation, human-animal relations, lookering, volunteering

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80 The Results of Reading Test on Movement Staff Notation System

Authors: Sonay Ödemiş


Movement Staff Notation System (MSNS) is a movement transcription, analyzing method, and it's been constantly improved since it was first developed in 2005. This method is based on human anatomy, is being used and applied in the lessons at The Department of Turkish Folk Dances in Istanbul Technical University, nowadays. In this research, it is aimed to discover, how MSNS can help to participants about learning the basic movements of lower extremity. This experiment has six volunteers who were randomly selected. Each volunteer has been graded for their dance backgrounds and all the volunteers have been studied for six weeks. Each week has included different topic and examples such as contacts on foot, jumps, timing, directions and basic symbols of MSNS. Examples have changed from easy to hard. On conclusion, 6 volunteer subjects were tested in final test. The tests were recorded with the camera. In this presentation, it will be explained and detailed the results of the reading test on MSNS. Some of important video records will be watched and interpreted after the test. As a conclusion, all the scores will be interpreted and assessed from different perspectives.

Keywords: dance notation, Turkish dances, reading test, Education

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79 The Educational Role of Non-Governmental Organizations among Young Refugees: An Ethnographic Study

Authors: Ceyda Sensin


Chios Island in Greece hosts many refugees from the Middle East since the Turkey-EU Refugee Deal. Thus, it has become commonplace for non-governmental organizations (NGO) to provide help for refugees in various ways. The purpose of this research is to identify ways in which improvements can be made in the educational services offered to young adult refugees (age group 14-22) by the NGO’s. To meet this aim, an unstructured observational technique was used in this qualitative study. The data was collected as a participant observer in February 2018. According to the observations made in this study, it came out that international NGOs may utilize volunteering team members on an urgent basis since they are a free resource from all around the world. In this study, it was observed that the volunteering team members without any teaching qualifications or teaching experience have struggled with reaching refugee students with or without potential mental health problems from exposure to stress, turmoil and trauma. Therefore, this study highly recommends the use of more relevantly trained professionals, alongside the volunteer staff. Alternatively, the volunteer staffs need to have teacher training and periodical refresher training.

Keywords: ethnographic study, non-governmental organizations, refugees, qualitative research method

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78 The Relation of Motivation and Reward with Volunteer Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence from Omani Non-Profit Organization

Authors: Ali Al Shamli, Talal AlMamari


Background: The relationship between motivation and satisfaction is posited to be mediated by reward. In this study, the motivation construct was measured by a motivation scale. The scale when factor analysed generated five factors. These factors were referred as; 1) leisure motivation, 2) egoistic motivation, 3) external motivation, 4) purposive, and 5) material motivation. The reward construct was measured by using a five-item scale whereas the satisfaction construct was measured by using a 13-item scale. The scale when factor analysed produced three factors which are referred as; 1) satisfaction A, 2) satisfaction B, and 3) satisfaction C. Objective: The main purpose of the present paper was to find out the relation of motivation and reward with volunteer satisfaction at national sports organizations (NPSOs) in Oman. Methods: This current study adopts a cross-sectional design as the data collection is done only once whereas the mode of administration was postal questionnaire where each questionnaire was posted, completed, and returned using the self-addressed envelope after its completion. The population of the study consisted of (160) boards and directors members of NPSOs (Non-Profit Sports Organization Services) in Oman from all 43 sports club. Results: The findings provided new empirical evidence that supported the argument of the relationship between motivation and satisfaction is indeed, mediated by reward. However, this study differs in that the relationship was tested based on the first-order constructs which were derived from the underlying dimensions of both motivation and satisfaction constructs. It was established that the relationships between motivation B and motivation C with satisfaction A are mediated by reward. Conclusion: In light of study findings, there is a direct relationship between developmental motivation and experiential satisfaction, a direct relationship between social motivation and relational satisfaction, as well as personal motivation and relational satisfaction, is mediated by reward. Therefore, Omani volunteers are less reliant on the reward as evidenced by the direct relationship between motivation A and satisfaction and between motivation C and satisfaction A. More tests in different settings will provide more understanding on volunteer motivation.

Keywords: non-profit sports organization, sport and reward, volunteers in sport, satisfaction in sport

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77 Elderly for Elderly: The Role of Community Volunteer, a Case Study from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in Kesennuma, Japan

Authors: Kensuke Otsuyama


The United Nation World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction was held in Sendai, Japan, in 2015 and priorities for actions until 2030 were adopted for the next 15 years. Although one of these priorities is to ‘build back better’, there is neither a consensus definition of better recovery, nor indicators to measure better recovery. However, the community is considered as a key driver of recovery nowadays, and participation is a key word for effective recovery. In order to understand more about participatory community recovery, the author investigated recovery from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (GEJET) in Kesennuma, a severely affected city. The research sought to: 1) Identify the elements that contribute to better recovery at the community level, and 2) analyze the role of community volunteers for disaster risk reduction for better recovery. A Participatory Community Recovery Index (PCRI) was created as a tool to measure community recovery. The index adopts seven primary indicators and 20 tertiary indicators, including: socio-economic aspect, housing, health, environment, self-organization, transformation, and institution. The index was applied to nine districts in Kesennuma city. Secondary and primary data by questionnaire surveys with local residents’ organization leaders and interviews with crisis management department officials in city government were also obtained. The indicator results were transformed into scores among 1 to 5, and the results were shown for each district. Based on the result of PCRI, it was found that the s Local Social Welfare Council played an important role in facilitating better recovery, enhancing community volunteer involvement to allow elderly residents to initiate local volunteer work for more affected single-living elderly people. Volunteers for the elderly by the elderly played a crucial role to strengthen community bonding in Kesennuma. In this research, the potential of community volunteers and inter-linkage with DRR activities are discussed.

Keywords: recovery, participation, the great East Japan earthquake and tsunami, community volunteers

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76 Comparison of Dynamic Balance Ability and Flexibility in Different Sports

Authors: Inci Kesilmis, Manolya Akin, Mehmet Melih Kesilmis


The aim of this research was to compare dynamic balance ability (bipedal, right, left foot) and plantar-dorsi flexion range of motion in fencers and swimmers. 43 fencers participated as volunteer with mean age 15.74±1.90year and mean training year 4.97±2.37year. 25 swimmers participated as volunteer with mean age 15.36±1.65 yr. and mean training year 5.98±2.35 yr. Dynamic balance measured while participants were standing in the anatomical position with prokin tecno body for bipedal, right, left foot. Plantar and dorsal flexion range of motion measured while participants in seated position on the examination table and goniometer placed on the lateral malleolus. For statistical analyses; independent samples t test was used. There were significant differences between bipedal (p < 0.05), right foot (p < 0.05), left foot (p < 0.05) dynamic balance ability in favor of fencers. Also there was significant difference between right and left foot dorsal flexion range of motion (p < 0.001) in favor of fencers. There was no significant difference in plantar flexion range of motion between fencers and swimmers. The difference observed in fencers may be due to the use of more dorsal flexion in action moves and that swimming does not impact loading sport and it is performed in pool.

Keywords: fencing, swimming, dynamic balance, flexibility

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75 Under the 'Umbrella' Project: A Volunteer-Mentoring Approach for Socially Disadvantaged University Students

Authors: Evridiki Zachopoulou, Vasilis Grammatikopoulos, Michail Vitoulis, Athanasios Gregoriadis


In the last ten years, the recent economic crisis in Greece has decreased the financial ability and strength of several families when it comes to supporting their children’s studies. As a result, the number of students who are significantly delaying or even dropping out of their university studies is constantly increasing. The students who are at greater risk for academic failure are those who are facing various problems and social disadvantages, like health problems, special needs, family poverty or unemployment, single-parent students, immigrant students, etc. The ‘Umbrella’ project is a volunteer-based initiative to tackle this problem at International Hellenic University. The main purpose of the project is to provide support to disadvantaged students at a socio-emotional, academic, and practical level in order to help them complete their undergraduate studies. More specifically, the ‘Umbrella’ project has the following goals: (a) to develop a consulting-supporting network based on volunteering senior students, called ‘i-mentors’. (b) to train the volunteering i-mentors and create a systematic and consistent support procedure for students at-risk, (c), to develop a service that, parallel to the i-mentor network will be ensuring opportunities for at-risk students to find a job, (d) to support students who are coping with accessibility difficulties, (e) to secure the sustainability of the ‘Umbrella’ project after the completion of the funding of the project. The innovation of the Umbrella project is in its holistic-person-centered approach that will be providing individualized support -via the i-mentors network- to any disadvantaged student that will come ‘under the Umbrella.’

Keywords: peer mentoring, student support, socially disadvantaged students, volunteerism in higher education

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74 The Changes in Motivations and the Use of Translation Strategies in Crowdsourced Translation: A Case Study on Global Voices’ Chinese Translation Project

Authors: Ya-Mei Chen


Online crowdsourced translation, an innovative translation practice brought by Web 2.0 technologies and the democratization of information, has become increasingly popular in the Internet era. Carried out by grass-root internet users, crowdsourced translation contains fundamentally different features from its off-line traditional counterpart, such as voluntary participation and parallel collaboration. To better understand such a participatory and collaborative nature, this paper will use the online Chinese translation project of Global Voices as a case study to investigate the following issues: (1) the changes in volunteer translators’ and reviewers’ motivations for participation, (2) translators’ and reviewers’ use of translation strategies and (3) the correlations of translators’ and reviewers’ motivations and strategies with the organizational mission, the translation style guide, the translator-reviewer interaction, the mediation of the translation platform and various types of capital within the translation field. With an aim to systematically explore the above three issues, this paper will collect both quantitative and qualitative data and then draw upon Engestrom’s activity theory and Bourdieu’s field theory as a theoretical framework to analyze the data in question. An online anonymous questionnaire will be conducted to obtain the quantitative data. The questionnaire will contain questions related to volunteer translators’ and reviewers’ backgrounds, participation motivations, translation strategies and mutual relations as well as the operation of the translation platform. Concerning the qualitative data, they will come from (1) a comparative study between some English news texts published on Global Voices and their Chinese translations, (2) an analysis of the online discussion forum associated with Global Voices’ Chinese translation project and (3) the information about the project’s translation mission and guidelines. It is hoped that this research, through a detailed sociological analysis of a cause-driven crowdsourced translation project, can enable translation researchers and practitioners to adequately meet the translation challenges appearing in the digital age.

Keywords: crowdsourced translation, global voices, motivation, translation strategies

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73 The Effects of Parent Psycho-Education Program on Problem-Solving Skills of Parents

Authors: Tuba Bagatarhan, Digdem Muge Siyez


The aim of this research is to examine the effects of the psycho-education program on problem-solving skills of parents of high school students in the risk group for Internet addiction. A quasi-experimental design based on the pre-test, post-test and follow up test including experimental and control groups was used in the research. The independent variable of the study was the parent psycho-education program on problem-solving skills; the dependent variable was the problem-solving skills of parents. The research was conducted with the parents of 52 tenth-grade students in the risk group for Internet addiction from two high schools and volunteer to participate research on evaluation of the effectiveness of internet addiction prevention psycho-education program within the scope of another study. In this study, as 26 students were in the experimental groups in the first-high school, the parents of these 26 students were asked if they would like to participate in the parent psycho-education program on parental problem-solving skills. The parents were volunteer to participate in parent psycho-education program assigned experimental group (n=13), the other parents assigned control group 1 (n=13) in the first high school. The parents of the 26 students were randomly assigned to the control group 2 (n=13) and control group 3 (n=13) in the second high school. The data of the research was obtained via the problem behavior scale - coping - parents form and demographic questionnaire. Four-session parent psycho-education program to cope with Internet addiction and other problem behaviors in their children was applied to the experimental group. No program was applied to the control group 1, control group 2 and control group 3. In addition, an internet addiction prevention psycho-education program was applied to the children of the parents in experimental group and control group 1 within the scope of another study. In the analysis of the obtained data, two-factor variance analysis for repeated measures on one factor was used. Bonferroni post-hoc test was used to find the source of intergroup difference. According to the findings, the psycho-education program significantly increases parents’ problem-solving abilities, and the increase has continued throughout the follow-up test.

Keywords: internet addiction, parents, prevention, psyho-education

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72 Comparison of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses Following In-Water and On-Land Jump in Postmenopausal Women

Authors: Kuei-Yu Chien, Nai-Wen Kan, Wan-Chun Wu, Guo-Dong Ma, Shu-Chen Chen


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and lactate following continued high-intensity interval exercise in water and on land. The results of studies can be an exercise program design reference for health care and fitness professionals. Method: A total of 20 volunteer postmenopausal women was included in this study. The inclusion criteria were: duration of menopause > 1 year; and sedentary lifestyle, defined as engaging in moderate-intensity exercise less than three times per week, or less than 20 minutes per day. Participants need to visit experimental place three times. The first time visiting, body composition was performed and participant filled out the questionnaire. Participants were assigned randomly to the exercise environment (water or land) in second and third time visiting. Water exercise testing was under water of trochanter level. In continuing jump testing, each movement consisted 10-second maximum volunteer jump for two sets. 50% heart rate reserve dynamic resting (walking or running) for one minute was within each set. SBP, DBP, HR, RPE of whole body/thigh (RPEW/RPET) and lactate were performed at pre and post testing. HR, RPEW, and RPET were monitored after 1, 2, and 10 min of exercise testing. SBP and DBP were performed after 10 and 30 min of exercise testing. Results: The responses of SBP and DBP after exercise testing in water were higher than those on land. Lactate levels after exercise testing in water were lower than those on land. The responses of RPET were lower than those on land post exercise 1 and 2 minutes. The heart rate recovery in water was faster than those on land at post exercise 5 minutes. Conclusion: This study showed water interval jump exercise induces higher cardiovascular responses with lower RPE responses and lactate levels than on-land jumps exercise in postmenopausal women. Fatigue is one of the major reasons to obstruct exercise behavior. Jump exercise could enhance cardiorespiratory fitness, the lower-extremity power, strength, and bone mass. There are several health benefits to the middle to older adults. This study showed that water interval jumping could be more relaxed and not tried to reach the same land-based cardiorespiratory exercise intensity.

Keywords: interval exercise, power, recovery, fatigue

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71 Breath Ethanol Imaging System Using Real Time Biochemical Luminescence for Evaluation of Alcohol Metabolic Capacity

Authors: Xin Wang, Munkbayar Munkhjargal, Kumiko Miyajima, Takahiro Arakawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi


The measurement of gaseous ethanol plays an important role of evaluation of alcohol metabolic capacity in clinical and forensic analysis. A 2-dimensional visualization system for gaseous ethanol was constructed and tested in visualization of breath and transdermal alcohol. We demonstrated breath ethanol measurement using developed high-sensitive visualization system. The concentration of breath ethanol calculated with the imaging signal was significantly different between the volunteer subjects of ALDH2 (+) and (-).

Keywords: breath ethanol, ethnaol imaging, biochemical luminescence, alcohol metabolism

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70 The Effect of the Hemispheres of the Brain and the Tone of Voice on Persuasion

Authors: Rica Jell de Laza, Jose Alberto Fernandez, Andrea Marie Mendoza, Qristin Jeuel Regalado


This study investigates whether participants experience different levels of persuasion depending on the hemisphere of the brain and the tone of voice. The experiment was performed on 96 volunteer undergraduate students taking an introductory course in psychology. The participants took part in a 2 x 3 (Hemisphere: left, right x Tone of Voice: positive, neutral, negative) Mixed Factorial Design to measure how much a person was persuaded. Results showed that the hemisphere of the brain and the tone of voice used did not significantly affect the results individually. Furthermore, there was no interaction effect. Therefore, the hemispheres of the brain and the tone of voice employed play insignificant roles in persuading a person.

Keywords: dichotic listening, brain hemisphere, tone of voice, persuasion

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69 Implementing a Mobility Platform to Connect Hubs in Rural Areas

Authors: E. Neidhardt


Mobility is not only an aspect of personal freedom, but for many people mobility is also a requirement to be able to satisfy the needs of daily life. They must buy food, get to work, or go to the doctor. Many people are dependent on public transport to satisfy their needs. Especially in rural areas with a low population density this is difficult. In these areas it is often not cost-effective to provide public transport with sufficient coverage and frequency. Therefore, the available public transport is unattractive. As a result, people use their own car, which is not desirable from a sustainable point of view. Children and some elderly people also do not have this option. Sometimes people organize themselves and volunteer transport services are created, which function similarly to the demand-oriented taxis. With a platform for demand-oriented transport, we want to make the available public transport more usable and attractive by linking scheduled transport with voluntary transport services.

Keywords: demand-oriented, HubChain, living lab, public transport

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68 Theoretical Aspects and Practical Approach in the Research of the Human Capital of Student Volunteer Community

Authors: Kalinina Anatasiia, Pevnaya Mariya


The article concerns theoretical basis in the research of student volunteering, identifies references of student volunteering as a social community, classifies human capital indicators of student volunteers. Also there are presented the results of research of 450 student volunteers in Russia concerning the correlation between international volunteering and indicators of human capital of youth. Findings include compared characteristics of human capital of “potential” and “real” international student volunteers. Factor analysis revealed two categories of active students categories of active students.

Keywords: human capital, international volunteering, student volunteering, social community, youth volunteering, youth politics

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67 Musical Composition by Computer with Inspiration from Files of Different Media Types

Authors: Cassandra Pratt Romero, Andres Gomez de Silva Garza


This paper describes a computational system designed to imitate human inspiration during musical composition. The system is called MIS (Musical Inspiration Simulator). The MIS system is inspired by media to which human beings are exposed daily (visual, textual, or auditory) to create new musical compositions based on the emotions detected in said media. After building the system we carried out a series of evaluations with volunteer users who used MIS to compose music based on images, texts, and audio files. The volunteers were asked to judge the harmoniousness and innovation in the system's compositions. An analysis of the results points to the difficulty of computational analysis of the characteristics of the media to which we are exposed daily, as human emotions have a subjective character. This observation will direct future improvements in the system.

Keywords: human inspiration, musical composition, musical composition by computer, theory of sensation and human perception

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66 Polymorphisms of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) and Susceptibility to Endometriosis

Authors: Z. Chekini, P. Afsharian, F. Ramezanali, A. A. Akhlaghi, R. Aflatoonian


Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine that involves in pathophysiological events of endometriosis. We aimed to evaluate the association between mRNA expression levels and polymorphisms of MIF in endometriosis. Seventy endometriosis patients and 70 volunteer fertile women were recruited. RFLP was applied to determine -173G/C polymorphism. ORF polymorphisms and -794(CATT)5-8 were detected by sequencing. Q-PCR was used for expression study of 14 ectopic tissues of patients. Homozygote of CATT5 was observed only in controls. The CATT5/G haplotype related to controls (p=0.094, OR=0.61). Expression level of MIF with -794(CATT)6,7/-173GC was significantly more than the other haplotypes (p=0.00). We identified four SNPs including: +254rs2096525 (p=0.843), +626rs33958703 (p=0.029), +656rs2070766 (p=0.703) and +509rs182012324 (p=1.00). In conclusion, increased repeat of CATT and presence of C allele in promoter of MIF were significantly associated with mRNA level in patients. It seems that +509rs182012324 and +626rs33958703 SNPs were significantly correlated with susceptibility to endometriosis.

Keywords: endometriosis, haplotype, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, polymorphism

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