Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2170

Search results for: anti corrosion

2170 Homogeneous Anti-Corrosion Coating of Spontaneously Dissolved Defect-Free Graphene

Authors: M. K. Bin Subhan, P. Cullen, C. Howard

Abstract:

A recent study by the World Corrosion Organization estimated that corrosion related damage causes $2.5tr worth of damage every year. As such, a low cost easily scalable solution is required to the corrosion problem which is economically viable. Graphene is an ideal anti-corrosion barrier layer material due to its excellent barrier properties and chemical stability, which makes it impermeable to all molecules. However, attempts to employ graphene as a barrier layer has been hampered by the fact that defect sites in graphene accelerate corrosion due to the inert nature of graphene which promotes galvanic corrosion at the expense of the metal. The recent discovery of spontaneous dissolution of charged graphite intercalation compounds in aprotic solvents enables defect free graphene platelets to be employed for anti-corrosion applications. These ‘inks’ of defect-free charged graphene platelets in solution can be coated onto a metallic surfaces via electroplating to form a homogeneous barrier layer. In this paper, initial data showing homogeneous coatings of graphene barrier layers on steel coupons via electroplating will be presented. This easily scalable technique also provides a controllable method for applying different barrier thicknesses from ultra thin layers to thick opaque coatings making it useful for a wide range of applications.

Keywords: anti-corrosion, defect-free, electroplating, graphene

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2169 The Effects of Oxygen Partial Pressure to the Anti-Corrosion Layer in the Liquid Metal Coolant: A Density Functional Theory Simulation

Authors: Rui Tu, Yakui Bai, Huailin Li

Abstract:

The lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy is a promising candidate of coolant in the fast neutron reactors and accelerator-driven systems (ADS) because of its good properties, such as low melting point, high neutron yields and high thermal conductivity. Although the corrosion of the structure materials caused by the liquid metal (LM) coolant is a challenge to the safe operating of a lead-bismuth eutectic nuclear reactor. Thermodynamic theories, experiential formulas and experimental data can be used for explaining the maintenance of the protective oxide layers on stainless steels under satisfaction oxygen concentration, but the atomic scale insights of such anti-corrosion mechanisms are little known. In the present work, the first-principles calculations are carried out to study the effects of oxygen partial pressure on the formation energies of the liquid metal coolant relevant impurity defects in the anti-corrosion oxide films on the surfaces of the structure materials. These approaches reveal the microscope mechanisms of the corrosion of the structure materials, especially for the influences from the oxygen partial pressure. The results are helpful for identifying a crucial oxygen concentration for corrosion control, which can ensure the systems to be operated safely under certain temperatures.

Keywords: oxygen partial pressure, liquid metal coolant, TDDFT, anti-corrosion layer, formation energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
2168 High-Temperature Corrosion of Weldment of Fe-2%Mn-0.5%Si Steel in N2/H2O/H2S-Mixed Gas

Authors: Sang Hwan Bak, Min Jung Kim, Dong Bok Lee

Abstract:

Fe-2%Mn-0.5%Si-0.2C steel was welded and corroded at 600, 700 and 800oC for 20 h in 1 atm of N2/H2S/H2O-mixed gas in order to characterize the high-temperature corrosion behavior of the welded joint. Corrosion proceeded fast and almost linearly. It increased with an increase in the corrosion temperature. H2S formed FeS owing to sulfur released from H2S. The scales were fragile and nonadherent.

Keywords: Fe-Mn-Si steel, corrosion, welding, sulfidation, H2S gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
2167 Corrosion Protection of Structural Steel by Surfactant Containing Reagents

Authors: D. Erdenechimeg, T. Bujinlkham, N. Erdenepurev

Abstract:

The anti-corrosion performance of fatty acid coated mild steel samples is studied. Samples of structural steel coated with collector reagents deposited from surfactant in ethanol solution and overcoated with an epoxy barrier paint. A quantitative corrosion rate was determined by linear polarization resistance method using biopotentiostat/galvanostat 400. Coating morphology was determined by scanning electronic microscopy. A test for hydrophobic surface of steel by surfactant was done. From the samples, the main component or high content iron was determined by chemical method and other metal contents were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. Prior to measuring the corrosion rate, mechanical and chemical treatments were performed to prepare the test specimens. Overcoating the metal samples with epoxy barrier paint after exposing them with surfactant the corrosion rate can be inhibited by 34-35 µm/year.

Keywords: corrosion, linear polarization resistance, coating, surfactant

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2166 The Effect of the Proportion of Carbon on the Corrosion Rate of Carbon-Steel

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi, Ahmed A. Hablous, Mofied M. Elnemry

Abstract:

The carbon steel is of one of the most common mineral materials used in engineering and industrial applications in order to have access to the required mechanical properties, especially after the change of carbon ratio, but this may lead to stimulate corrosion. It has been used in models of solids with different carbon ratios such as 0.05% C, 0.2% C, 0.35% C, 0.5% C, and 0.65% C and have been studied using three testing durations which are 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 8 weeks and among different corrosion environments such as atmosphere, fresh water, and salt water. This research is for the purpose of finding the effect of the carbon content on the corrosion resistance of steels in different corrosion medium by using the weight loss technique as a function of the corrosion resistance. The results that have been obtained through this research shows that a correlation can be made between corrosion rates and steel's carbon content, and the corrosion resistance decreases with the increase in carbon content.

Keywords: proportion of carbon in the steel, corrosion rate, erosion, corrosion resistance in carbon-steel

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2165 Effect of Soil Corrosion in Failures of Buried Gas Pipelines

Authors: Saima Ali, Pathamanathan Rajeev, Imteaz A. Monzur

Abstract:

In this paper, a brief review of the corrosion mechanism in buried pipe and modes of failure is provided together with the available corrosion models. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis is performed to understand the influence of corrosion model parameters on the remaining life estimation. Further, the probabilistic analysis is performed to propagate the uncertainty in the corrosion model on the estimation of the renaming life of the pipe. Finally, the comparison among the corrosion models on the basis of the remaining life estimation will be provided to improve the renewal plan.

Keywords: corrosion, pit depth, sensitivity analysis, exposure period

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
2164 Vegetable Oil-Based Anticorrosive Coatings for Metals Protection

Authors: Brindusa Balanuca, Raluca Stan, Cristina Ott, Matei Raicopol

Abstract:

The current study aims to develop anti corrosive coatings using vegetable oil (VO)-based polymers. Due to their chemical versatility, reduced costs and more important, higher hydrophobicity, VO’s are great candidates in the field of anti-corrosive materials. Lignin (Ln) derivatives were also used in this research study in order to achieve performant hydrophobic anti-corrosion layers. Methods Through a rational functionalization pathway, the selected VO (linseed oil) is converted to more reactive monomer – methacrylate linseed oil (noted MLO). The synthesized MLO cover the metals surface in a thin layer and through different polymerization techniques (using visible radiation or temperature, respectively) and well-established reaction conditions, is converted to a hydrophobic coating capable to protect the metals against corrosive factors. In order to increase the anti-corrosion protection, lignin (Ln) was selected to be used together with MLO macromonomer. Thus, super hydrophobic protective coatings will be formulated. Results The selected synthetic strategy to convert the VO in more reactive compounds – MLO – has led to a functionalization degree of greater than 80%. The obtained monomers were characterized through NMR and FT-IR by monitoring the characteristic signals after each synthesis step. Using H-NMR data, the functionalization degrees were established. VO-based and also VO-Ln anti corrosion formulations were both photochemical and thermal polymerized in specific reaction conditions (initiators, temperature range, reaction time) and were tested as anticorrosive coatings. Complete and advances characterization of the synthesized materials will be presented in terms of thermal, mechanical and morphological properties. The anticorrosive properties were also evaluated and will be presented. Conclusions Through the design strategy briefly presented, new composite materials for metal corrosion protection were successfully developed, using natural derivatives: vegetable oils and lignin, respectively.

Keywords: anticorrosion protection, hydrophobe layers, lignin, methacrylates, vegetable oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
2163 Hybrid Sol-Gel Coatings for Corrosion Protection of AA6111-T4 Aluminium Alloy

Authors: Shadatul Hanom Rashid, Xiaorong Zhou

Abstract:

Hybrid sol-gel coatings are the blend of both advantages of inorganic and organic networks have been reported as environmentally friendly anti-corrosion surface pre-treatment for several metals, including aluminum alloys. In this current study, Si-Zr hybrid sol-gel coatings were synthesized from (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS), tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and zirconium(IV) propoxide (TPOZ) precursors and applied on AA6111 aluminum alloy by dip coating technique. The hybrid sol-gel coatings doped with different concentrations of cerium nitrate (Ce(NO3)3) as a corrosion inhibitor were also prepared and the effect of Ce(NO3)3 concentrations on the morphology and corrosion resistance of the coatings were examined. The surface chemistry and morphology of the hybrid sol-gel coatings were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion behavior of the coated aluminum alloy samples was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results revealed that good corrosion resistance of hybrid sol-gel coatings were prepared from hydrolysis and condensation reactions of GPTMS, TEOS and TPOZ precursors deposited on AA6111 aluminum alloy. When the coating doped with cerium nitrate, the properties were improved significantly. The hybrid sol-gel coatings containing lower concentration of cerium nitrate offer the best inhibition performance. A proper doping concentration of Ce(NO3)3 can effectively improve the corrosion resistance of the alloy, while an excessive concentration of Ce(NO3)3 would reduce the corrosion protection properties, which is associated with defective morphology and instability of the sol-gel coatings.

Keywords: AA6111, Ce(NO3)3, corrosion, hybrid sol-gel coatings

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
2162 Development of Excellent Water-Repellent Coatings for Metallic and Ceramic Surfaces

Authors: Aditya Kumar

Abstract:

One of the most fascinating properties of various insects and plant surfaces in nature is their water-repellent (superhydrophobicity) capability. The nature offers new insights to learn and replicate the same in designing artificial superhydrophobic structures for a wide range of applications such as micro-fluidics, micro-electronics, textiles, self-cleaning surfaces, anti-corrosion, anti-fingerprint, oil/water separation, etc. In general, artificial superhydrophobic surfaces are synthesized by creating roughness and then treating the surface with low surface energy materials. In this work, various super-hydrophobic coatings on metallic surfaces (aluminum, steel, copper, steel mesh) were synthesized by chemical etching process using different etchants and fatty acid. Also, SiO2 nano/micro-particles embedded polyethylene, polystyrene, and poly(methyl methacrylate) superhydrophobic coatings were synthesized on glass substrates. Also, the effect of process parameters such as etching time, etchant concentration, and particle concentration on wettability was studied. To know the applications of the coatings, surface morphology, contact angle, self-cleaning, corrosion-resistance, and water-repellent characteristics were investigated at various conditions. Furthermore, durabilities of coatings were also studied by performing thermal, ultra-violet, and mechanical stability tests. The surface morphology confirms the creation of rough microstructures by chemical etching or by embedding particles, and the contact angle measurements reveal the superhydrophobic nature. Experimentally it is found that the coatings have excellent self-cleaning, anti-corrosion and water-repellent nature. These coatings also withstand mechanical disturbances such surface bending, adhesive peeling, and abrasion. Coatings are also found to be thermal and ultra-violet stable. Additionally, coatings are also reproducible. Hence aforesaid durable superhydrophobic surfaces have many potential industrial applications.

Keywords: superhydrophobic, water-repellent, anti-corrosion, self-cleaning

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
2161 The Corrosion Resistance of the 32CrMoV13 Steel Nitriding

Authors: Okba Belahssen, Lazhar Torchane, Said Benramache, Abdelouahed Chala

Abstract:

This paper presents corrosion behavior of the plasma-nitrided 32CrMoV13 steel. Different kinds of samples were tested: non-treated, plasma nitrided samples. The structure of layers was determined by X-ray diffraction, while the morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion behavior was evaluated by electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy). The corrosion tests were carried out in acid chloride solution (HCl 1M). Experimental results showed that the nitrides ε-Fe2−3N and γ′-Fe4N present in the white layer are nobler than the substrate but may promote, by galvanic effect, a localized corrosion through open porosity. The better corrosion protection was observed for nitrided sample.

Keywords: plasma-nitrided, 32CrMoV13 steel, corrosion, EIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
2160 Walnut (Juglans Regia) Extracts: Investigation of Antioxidant Effect, Total Phenols and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity

Authors: N. Saki, S. Nalbantoglu, M. Akin, G. Arabaci

Abstract:

Walnut has a great range of phenolic profile and it is used in Asia and Africa for treatment of many diseases and cancer. Phenolic compounds play a number of crucial roles in complex metabolism of plants and of also fruit trees. Consumption of certain phenolics in the food is considered beneficial for human nutrition. Phenolic compounds known as anti-radical inactivators with their high antioxidant activities and these activities play an important role in inhibition of multi-metal corrosion. Many common corrosion inhibitors that are still in use today are health hazards. Therefore, there is still an increased attention directed towards the development of environmentally compatible, nonpolluting corrosion inhibitors. The present study reports the total phenols content, antioxidant potentials and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the walnut (Juglans regia L.) produced in Turkey. The anti-tyrosinase activity was investigated for walnut at 2 h extraction time and all extracts exhibited tyrosinase activity. The results of this study suggested that walnut can be used as an excellent, easily accessible source of natural antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Juglans Regia, total phenols, tyrosinase activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
2159 Corrosion Monitoring Techniques Impact on Concrete Durability: A Review

Authors: Victor A. Okenyi, Kehinde A. Alawode

Abstract:

Corrosion of reinforcement in concrete structures remains a durability issue in structural engineering with the increasing cost of repair and maintenance. The mechanism and factors influencing reinforcement corrosion in concrete with various electrochemical monitoring techniques including non-destructive, destructive techniques and the roles of sensors have been reviewed with the aim of determining the monitoring technique that proved most effective in determining corrosion parameters and more practicable for the assessment of concrete durability. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and linear polarization resistance (LPR) techniques showed great performance in evaluating corrosion kinetics and corrosion rate, respectively, while the gravimetric weight loss (GWL) technique provided accurate measurements. However, no single monitoring technique showed to be the ultimate technique, and this calls for more research work in the development of more dynamic monitoring tools capable of considering all possible corrosion factors in the corrosion monitoring process.

Keywords: corrosion, concrete structures, durability, non-destructive technique, sensor

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2158 Ionic Liquids as Corrosion Inhibitors in CO2 Capture Systems

Authors: A. Acidi, A. Abbaci

Abstract:

We present the viability of using thermally stable, practically non-volatile ionic liquids as corrosion inhibitors in aqueous monoethanolamine system. Carbon steel 1020, which widely used as construction material in CO2 capture plants, has been taken as a test material. Corrosion inhibition capacities of typical room-temperature ionic liquids constituting imidazolium cation in concentration range ≤ 3% by weight in CO2 capture applications were investigated. Electrochemical corrosion experiments using the potentiodynamic polarization technique for measuring corrosion current were carried out. The results show that ionic liquids possess ability to suppressing severe operational problems of corrosion in typical CO2 capture plants.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, carbon steel, monoethanolamine, corrosion rate, ionic liquids, tafel fit

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
2157 On-Plot Piping Corrosion Analysis for Gas and Oil Separation Plants (GOSPs)

Authors: Sultan A. Al Shaqaq

Abstract:

Corrosion is a serious challenge for a piping system in our Gas and Oil Separation Plant (GOSP) that causes piping failures. Two GOSPs (Plant-A and Plant-B) observed chronic corrosion issue with an on-plot piping system that leads to having more piping replacement during the past years. Since it is almost impossible to avoid corrosion, it is becoming more obvious that managing the corrosion level may be the most economical resolution. Corrosion engineers are thus increasingly involved in approximating the cost of their answers to corrosion prevention, and assessing the useful life of the equipment. This case study covers the background of corrosion encountered in piping internally and externally in these two GOSPs. The collected piping replacement data from year of 2011 to 2014 was covered. These data showed the replicate corrosion levels in an on-plot piping system. Also, it is included the total piping replacement with drain lines system and other service lines in plants (Plant-A and Plant-B) at Saudi Aramco facility.

Keywords: gas and oil separation plant, on-plot piping, drain lines, Saudi Aramco

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2156 Corrosion Monitoring of Weathering Steel in a Simulated Coastal-Industrial Environment

Authors: Thee Chowwanonthapunya, Junhua Dong, Wei Ke

Abstract:

The atmospheres in many cities along the coastal lines in the world have been rapidly changed to coastal-industrial atmosphere. Hence, it is vital to investigate the corrosion behavior of steel exposed to this kind of environment. In this present study, Electrochemical Impedance Spectrography (EIS) and film thickness measurements were applied to monitor the corrosion behavior of weathering steel covered with a thin layer of the electrolyte in a wet-dry cyclic condition, simulating a coastal-industrial environment at 25 oC and 60 % RH. The results indicate that in all cycles, the corrosion rate increases during the drying process due to an increase in anion concentration and an acceleration of oxygen diffusion enhanced by the effect of the thinning out of the electrolyte. During the wet-dry cyclic corrosion test, the long-term corrosion behavior of this steel depends on the periods of exposure. Corrosion process is first accelerated and then decelerated. The decelerating corrosion process is contributed to the formation of the protective rust, favored by the wet-dry cycle and the acid regeneration process during the rusting process.

Keywords: atmospheric corrosion, EIS, low alloy, rust

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
2155 Designing Self-Healing Lubricant-Impregnated Surfaces for Corrosion Protection

Authors: Sami Khan, Kripa Varanasi

Abstract:

Corrosion is a widespread problem in several industries and developing surfaces that resist corrosion has been an area of interest since the last several decades. Superhydrophobic surfaces that combine hydrophobic coatings along with surface texture have been shown to improve corrosion resistance by creating voids filled with air that minimize the contact area between the corrosive liquid and the solid surface. However, these air voids can incorporate corrosive liquids over time, and any mechanical faults such as cracks can compromise the coating and provide pathways for corrosion. As such, there is a need for self-healing corrosion-resistance surfaces. In this work, the anti-corrosion properties of textured surfaces impregnated with a lubricant have been systematically studied. Since corrosion resistance depends on the area and physico-chemical properties of the material exposed to the corrosive medium, lubricant-impregnated surfaces (LIS) have been designed based on the surface tension, viscosity and chemistry of the lubricant and its spreading coefficient on the solid. All corrosion experiments were performed in a standard three-electrode cell using iron, which readily corrodes in a 3.5% sodium chloride solution. In order to obtain textured iron surfaces, thin films (~500 nm) of iron were sputter-coated on silicon wafers textured using photolithography, and subsequently impregnated with lubricants. Results show that the corrosion rate on LIS is greatly reduced, and offers an over hundred-fold improvement in corrosion protection. Furthermore, it is found that the spreading characteristics of the lubricant are significant in ensuring corrosion protection: a spreading lubricant (e.g., Krytox 1506) that covers both inside the texture, as well as the top of the texture, provides a two-fold improvement in corrosion protection as compared to a non-spreading lubricant (e.g., Silicone oil) that does not cover texture tops. To enhance corrosion protection of surfaces coated with a non-spreading lubricant, pyramid-shaped textures have been developed that minimize exposure to the corrosive solution, and a consequent twenty-fold increased in corrosion protection is observed. An increase in viscosity of the lubricant scales with greater corrosion protection. Finally, an equivalent cell-circuit model is developed for the lubricant-impregnated systems using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Lubricant-impregnated surfaces find attractive applications in harsh corrosive environments, especially where the ability to self-heal is advantageous.

Keywords: lubricant-impregnated surfaces, self-healing surfaces, wettability, nano-engineered surfaces

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
2154 Improvement of Resistance Features of Anti- Mic Polyaspartic Coating (DTM) Using Nano Silver Particles by Preventing Biofilm Formation

Authors: Arezoo Assarian, Reza Javaherdashti

Abstract:

Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is an electrochemical process that can affect both metals and non-metals. The cost of MIC can amount to 40% of the cost of corrosion. MIC is enhanced via factors such as but not limited to the presence of certain bacteria and archaea as well as mechanisms such as external electron transfer. There are five methods by which electrochemical corrosion, including MIC, can be prevented, of which coatings are an effective method due to blinding anode, cathode and, electrolyte from each other. Conventional ordinary coatings may themselves become nutrient sources for the bacteria and therefore show low efficiency in dealing with MIC. Recently our works on polyaspartic coating (DTM) have shown promising results, therefore nominating DTM as the most appropriate coating material to manage both MIC and general electrochemical corrosion very efficiently. Nanosilver particles are known for their antimicrobial properties that make them of desirable distractive impacts on any germs. This coating will be formulated based on Nanosilver phosphate and copper II oxide in the resin network and co-reactant. The nanoparticles are light and heat-sensitive agents. The method which is used to keep nanoparticles in the film coating is the encapsulation of active ingredients. By this method, it will prevent incompatibility between different particles. For producing microcapsules, the interfacial cross-linking method will be used. This is achieved by adding an active ingredient to an aqueous solution of the cross-linkable polymer. In this paper, we will first explain the role of coating materials in controlling and preventing electrochemical corrosion. We will explain MIC and some of its fundamental principles, such as bacteria establishment (biofilm) and the role they play in enhancing corrosion via mechanisms such as the establishment of differential aeration cells. Later we will explain features of DTM coatings that highly contribute to preventing biofilm formation and thus microbial corrosion.

Keywords: biofilm, corrosion, microbiologically influenced corrosion(MIC), nanosilver particles, polyaspartic coating (DTM)

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2153 Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of New Developed Titanium Alloys in Ringer’s Solution

Authors: Yasser M. Abd-elrhman, Mohamed A. Gepreel, Kiochi Nakamura, Ahmed Abd El-Moneim, Sengo Kobayashi, Mervat M. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Titanium alloys are known as highly bio compatible metallic materials due to their high strength, low elastic modulus, and high corrosion resistance in biological media. Besides other important material features, the corrosion parameters and corrosion products are responsible for limiting the biological and chemical bio compatibility of metallic materials that produce undesirable reactions in implant-adjacent and/or more distant tissues. Electrochemical corrosion behaviors of novel beta titanium alloys, Ti-4.7Mo-4.5Fe, Ti-3Mo-0.5Fe, and Ti-2Mo-0.5Fe were characterized in naturally aerated Ringer’s solution at room temperature compared with common used biomedical titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V. The corrosion resistance of titanium alloys were investigated through open circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization measurements and optical microscope (OM). A high corrosion resistance was obtained for all alloys due to the stable passive film formed on their surfaces. The new present alloys are promising metallic biomaterials for the future, owing to their very low elastic modulus and good corrosion resistance capabilities.

Keywords: titanium alloys, corrosion resistance, Ringer’s solution, electrochemical corrosion

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2152 NaCl Erosion-Corrosion of Mild Steel under Submerged Impingement Jet

Authors: M. Sadique, S. Ainane, Y. F. Yap, P. Rostron, E. Al Hajri

Abstract:

The presence of sand in production lines in the oil and gas industries causes material degradation due to erosion-corrosion. The material degradation caused by erosion-corrosion in pipelines can result in a high cost of monitoring and maintenance and in major accidents. The process of erosion-corrosion consists of erosion, corrosion, and their interactions. Investigating and understanding how the erosion-corrosion process affects the degradation process in certain materials will allow for a reduction in economic loss and help prevent accidents. In this study, material loss due to erosion-corrosion of mild steel under impingement of sand-laden water at 90˚ impingement angle is investigated using a submerged impingement jet (SIJ) test. In particular, effects of jet velocity and sand loading on TWL due to erosion-corrosion, weight loss due to pure erosion and erosion-corrosion interactions, at a temperature of 29-33 °C in sea water environment (3.5% NaCl), are analyzed. The results show that the velocity and sand loading have a great influence on the removal of materials, and erosion is more dominant under all conditions studied. Changes in the surface characteristics of the specimen after impingement test are also discussed.

Keywords: erosion-corrosion, flow velocity, jet impingement, sand loading

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2151 Comparative Study of Impedance Parameters for 42CrMo4 Steel Nitrided and Exposed at Electrochemical Corrosion

Authors: M. H. Belahssen, S. Benramache

Abstract:

This paper presents corrosion behavior of alloy 42CrMo4 steel nitrided by plasma. Different samples nitrided were tested. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the tests were carried out in acid chloride solution 1M. The best corrosion protection was observed for nitrided samples. The aim of this work is to compare equivalents circuits corresponding to Nyquist curves simulated and experimental and select who gives best results of impedance parameters with lowest error.

Keywords: pasma nitriding, steel, alloy 42CrMo4, elecrochemistry, corrosion behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
2150 Corrosion Characteristics and Electrochemical Treatment of Heritage Silver Alloys

Authors: Ahmad N. Abu-Baker

Abstract:

This study investigated the corrosion of a group of heritage silver-copper alloy coins and their conservation treatment by potentiostatic methods. The corrosion products of the coins were characterized by a combination of scanning electron microscopy/ energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Cathodic polarization curves, measured by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), also identified the corrosion products and the working conditions to treat the coins using a potentiostatic reduction method, which was monitored by chronoamperometry. The corrosion products showed that the decay mechanisms were dominated by selective attack on the copper-rich phases of the silver-copper alloys, which is consistent with an internal galvanic corrosion phenomenon, which leads to the deposition of copper corrosion products on the surface of the coins. Silver chloride was also detected on the coins, which reflects selective corrosion of the silver-rich phases under different chemical environments. The potentiostatic treatment showed excellent effectiveness in determining treatment parameters and monitoring the reduction process of the corrosion products on the coins, which helped to preserve surface details in the cleaning process and to prevent over-treatment.

Keywords: silver alloys, corrosion, conservation, heritage

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2149 Evaluation of Corrosion Property of Aluminium-Zirconium Dioxide (AlZrO2) Nanocomposites

Authors: M. Ramachandra, G. Dilip Maruthi, R. Rashmi

Abstract:

This paper aims to study the corrosion property of aluminum matrix nanocomposite of an aluminum alloy (Al-6061) reinforced with zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) particles. The zirconium dioxide particles are synthesized by solution combustion method. The nanocomposite materials are prepared by mechanical stir casting method, varying the percentage of n-ZrO2 (2.5%, 5% and 7.5% by weight). The corrosion behavior of base metal (Al-6061) and Al/ZrO2 nanocomposite in seawater (3.5% NaCl solution) is measured using the potential control method. The corrosion rate is evaluated by Tafel extrapolation technique. The corrosion potential increases with the increase in wt.% of n-ZrO2 in the nanocomposite which means the decrease in corrosion rate. It is found that on addition of n-ZrO2 particles to the aluminum matrix, the corrosion rate has decreased compared to the base metal.

Keywords: Al6061 alloy, corrosion, solution, stir casting, combustion, potentiostat, zirconium dioxide

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2148 Investigation of Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Anti-Corrosive Behavior of Al2O3/Cr2O3 Nanocomposite on Zn Rich Bath

Authors: N. Malatji, A. P. I. Popoola

Abstract:

Zn-Al2O3 and Cr2O3 nanocomposite coatings were successfully produced by electrodeposition technique from chloride acidic bath. Particle loading of Al2O3 (50nm) particles were varied from 5-10 g/L and for Cr2O3(100nm) was 10-20 g/L. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) affixed with energy dispersive spectrometry was used to study the surface morphology and content of the nanoparticles incorporated into the coatings. Microhardness, thermal stability, wear and corrosion behavior of the coatings were also evaluated to study the effect of these nanoparticles on these properties. Zn-Al2O3 nanocomposite was found to exhibit good surface properties especially corrosion resistance. On the other side, Cr2O3 incorporation resulted in the improvement of only mechanical properties. Therefore, Zn-Al2O3 proved to be a better coating for most industrial applications where both chemical and mechanical properties are required.

Keywords: electrodeposition, nanocomposite coatings, corrosion, thermal stability, tribology

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
2147 Investigation of the Inhibition Effect of 2,3-Diaminopyridine on Mild Steel Corrosion in Solution Simulating Water of Pores Concrete in Absence and Presence of Chloride Ions

Authors: Fatiha Benghanem, Mokhtar Berarma, Saida Keraghel, Ali Ourari

Abstract:

Corrosion is the result of the reaction between a material and its environment. Steel in concrete is protected from corrosion by a passive film promoted by concrete alkalinity. For the initiation of corrosion, this protective film must be destroyed and this can be mainly done in two ways: by the attack of chlorides on the steel or by carbonation of the cover concrete due the reaction with carbon dioxide, which causes reduction in the alkalinity of concrete. The literature reports several ways to decrease or to prevent reinforcement corrosion. Among them, the use of corrosion inhibitors has been an envisaged solution. Two approaches are generally used to evaluate the efficiency of inhibitors for concrete application; one uses simulated pore solution testing , and the other uses actual concrete or mortar specimens. Both methods are some times used in conjunction. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 2,3-diaminopyridine as a corrosion inhibitors of steel in alkaline media which simulate the electrolyte in the concrete pores. The effectiveness of this compound as corrosion inhibitor was investigated by measuring the corrosion potentials, the polarization curves and the corrosion current densities of steel with and without chlorides. The study of corrosion inhibition by this compound led to the conclusion that he has low rates of inhibition in the absence of aggressive ions and high rates in their presence. This type of organic compounds are promoting for the protection of armatures in concrete.

Keywords: corrosion, inhibitors, mild steel, conjunction

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2146 High-Temperature Corrosion of Aluminized and Chromized Fe-25.8%Cr-19.5%Ni Alloys in N2/H2S/H2O-mixed Gases

Authors: Min Jung Kim, Dong Bok Lee

Abstract:

Alloys of Fe-25.8%Cr-19.5%Ni (SUS310 stainless steel) were either chromized or aluminized via pack cementation, and corroded at 800 oC for 100 h in 1 atm of (0.9448 atm of N2+0.031 atm of H2O+0.0242 atm of H2S)-mixed gases. The chromized layer consisted primarily of Cr1.36Fe0.52 and some Cr23C6. Its corrosion resulted in the formation of Cr2S3 and some FeS and Fe5Ni4S8. The aluminized coating consisted primarily of FeAl. Its corrosion resulted in the formation of α-Al2O3, Al2S3, and Cr2S3. Aluminizing was more effective than chromizing in increasing the corrosion resistance of the substrate, due mainly to the formation of α-Al2O3.

Keywords: aluminizing, chromizing, corrosion, H2S gas

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2145 Characterisation and in vitro Corrosion Resistance of Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite and Hydroxyapatite: Silicon Oxide Coatings on 316L SS

Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Buta Singh Sidhu

Abstract:

In the current investigation plasma spray technique was used for depositing hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA – silicon oxide (SiO2) coatings on 316L SS substrate. In HA-SiO2 coating, 20 wt% SiO2 was mixed with HA. The feedstock and coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The corrosion resistance of the uncoated, HA coated and HA + 20 wt% SiO2 coated 316L SS was investigated by electrochemical corrosion testing in simulated human body fluid (Ringer’s solution). The influence of SiO2 (20 wt%) on corrosion resistance was determined. After the corrosion testing, the samples were analyzed by XRD and SEM/EDX analyses. The addition of SiO2 reduces the crystallinity of the coating. The corrosion resistance of the 316L SS was found to increase after the deposition of the HA + 20 wt% SiO2 and HA coatings.

Keywords: HA, SiO2, corrosion, Ringer’s solution, 316L SS

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2144 Investigation of the Corroded Steel Beam

Authors: Hesamaddin Khoshnoodi, Ahmad Rahbar Ranji

Abstract:

Corrosion in steel structures is one of the most important issues that should be considered in designing and constructing. Corrosion reduces the cross section and load capacity of element and leads to costly damage of structures. In this paper, the corrosion has been modeled for moment stresses. Moreover, the steel beam has been modeled using ABAQUS advanced finite element software. The conclusions of this study demonstrated that the displacement of the analyzed composite steel girder bridge might increase.

Keywords: Abaqus, Corrosion, deformation, Steel Beam

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2143 Study of the Behavior of Copper Immersed in Sea Water of the Bay of Large Agadir by Electrochemical Methods

Authors: Aicha Chaouay, Lahsen Bazzi, Mustapha Hilali

Abstract:

Seawater has chemical and biological characteristics making it particularly aggressive in relation to the corrosion of many materials including copper and steels low or moderate allies. Note that these materials are widely used in the manufacture of port infrastructure in the marine environment. These structures are exposed to two types of corrosion including: general corrosion and localized corrosion caused by the presence of sulfite-reducing micro-organisms. This work contributes to the study of the problematic related to bacterial contamination of the marine environment of large Agadir and evaluating the impact of this pollution on the corrosion resistance of copper. For the realization of this work, we conducted monthly periodic draws between (October 2012 February 2013) of seawater from the Anza area of the Bay of Agadir. Thus, after each sampling, a study of the electro chemical corrosion behavior of copper was carried out. Electro chemical corrosion parameters such as the corrosion potential, the corrosion current density, the charge transfer resistance and the double layer capacity were evaluated. The electro chemical techniques used in this work are: the route potentiodynamic polarization curves and electro chemical impedance.

Keywords: Bay of Agadir, microbial contamination, seawater (Morocco), corrosion, copper

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2142 Corrosion Behaviour of Hypereutectic Al-Si Automotive Alloy in Different pH Environment

Authors: M. Al Nur, M. S. Kaiser

Abstract:

Corrosion behaviour of hypereutectic Al-19Si automotive alloy in different pH=1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 environments was carried out using conventional gravimetric measurements and was complemented by resistivity, optical micrograph, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray analyzer (EDX) investigations. Gravimetric analysis confirmed that the highest corrosion rate is shown at pH 13 followed by pH 1. Minimum corrosion occurs in the pH range of 3.0 to 11 due to establishment of passive layer on the surface. The highest corrosion rate at pH 13 is due to the presence of sodium hydroxide in the solution which dissolves the surface oxide film at a steady rate. At pH 1, it can be attributed that the presence of aggressive chloride ions serves to pick up the damage of the passive films at localized regions. With varying exposure periods by both, the environment complies with the normal corrosion rate profile that is an initial steep rise followed by a nearly constant value of corrosion rate. Resistivity increases in case of pH 1 solution for the higher pit formation and decreases at pH 13 due to formation of thin film. The SEM image of corroded samples immersed in pH 1 solution clearly shows pores on the surface and in pH 13 solution, and the corrosion layer seems more compact and homogenous and not porous.

Keywords: Al-Si alloy, corrosion, pH, resistivity, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

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2141 Zamzam Water as Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel Rebar in Rainwater and Simulated Acid Rain

Authors: Ahmed A. Elshami, Stephanie Bonnet, Abdelhafid Khelidj

Abstract:

Corrosion inhibitors are widely used in concrete industry to reduce the corrosion rate of steel rebar which is present in contact with aggressive environments. The present work aims to using Zamzam water from well located within the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia 20 m (66 ft) east of the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam as corrosion inhibitor for steel in rain water and simulated acid rain. The effect of Zamzam water was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Potentiodynamic polarization techniques in Department of Civil Engineering - IUT Saint-Nazaire, Nantes University, France. Zamzam water is considered to be one of the most important steel corrosion inhibitor which is frequently used in different industrial applications. Results showed that zamzam water gave a very good inhibition for steel corrosion in rain water and simulated acid rain.

Keywords: Zamzam water, corrosion inhibitor, rain water, simulated acid rain

Procedia PDF Downloads 281