Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: separator

55 The Effect of Inlet Baffle Position in Improving the Efficiency of Oil and Water Gravity Separator Tanks

Authors: Haitham A. Hussein, Rozi Abdullah, Issa Saket, Md. Azlin

Abstract:

The gravitational effect has been extensively applied to separate oil from water in water and wastewater treatment systems. The maximum oil globules removal efficiency is improved by obtaining the best flow uniformity in separator tanks. This study used 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to investigate the effect of different inlet baffle positions inside the separator tank. Laboratory experiment has been conducted, and the measured velocity fields which were by Nortek Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) are used to verify the CFD model. Computational investigation results indicated that the construction of an inlet baffle in a suitable location provides the minimum recirculation zone volume, creates the best flow uniformity, and dissipates kinetic energy in the oil and water separator tank. Useful formulas were predicted to design the oil and water separator tanks geometry based on an experimental model.

Keywords: oil/water separator tanks, inlet baffles, CFD, VOF

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
54 Numerical Investigation of the Performance of a Vorsyl Separator Using a Euler-Lagrange Approach

Authors: Guozhen Li, Philip Hall, Nick Miles, Tao Wu, Jie Dong

Abstract:

This paper presents a Euler-Lagrange model of the water-particles multiphase flows in a Vorsyl separator where particles with different densities are separated. A series of particles with their densities ranging from 760 kg/m3 to 1380 kg/m3 were fed into the Vorsyl separator with water by means of tangential inlet. The simulation showed that the feed materials acquired centrifugal force which allows most portion of the particles with a density less than water to move to the center of the separator, enter the vortex finder and leave the separator through the bottom outlet. While the particles heavier than water move to the wall, reach the throat area and leave the separator through the side outlet. The particles were thus separated and particles collected at the bottom outlet are pure and clean. The influence of particle density on separation efficiency was investigated which demonstrated a positive correlation of the separation efficiency with increasing density difference between medium liquid and the particle. In addition, the influence of the split ratio on the performance was studied which showed that the separation efficiency of the Vorsyl separator can be improved by the increase of split ratio. The simulation also suggested that the Vorsyl separator may not function when the feeding velocity is smaller than a certain critical feeding in velocity. In addition, an increasing feeding velocity gives rise to increased pressure drop, however does not necessarily increase the separation efficiency.

Keywords: Vorsyl separator, separation efficiency, CFD, split ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
53 Air Pollution Control from Rice Shellers - a Case Study

Authors: S. M. Ahuja

Abstract:

A Rice Sheller is used for obtaining polished white rice from paddy. There are about 3000 Rice Shellers in Punjab and 50000 in India. During the process of shelling lot of dust is emitted from different unit operations like paddy silo, paddy shaker, bucket elevators, huskers, paddy separator etc. These dust emissions have adverse effect on the health of the workers and the wear and tear of the shelling machinery is also fast. All the dust emissions spewing out of these unit operations of a rice Sheller were contained by providing suitable hoods and enclosures while ensuring their workability. These were sucked by providing an induced draft fan followed by a high efficiency cyclone separator that has got an overall dust collection efficiency of more than 90 %. This cyclone separator replaced two cyclone separators and a filter bag house, which the Rice Sheller was already having. The dust concentration in the stack after the installation of cyclone separator is well within the stipulated standards. Besides controlling pollution there is improvement in the quality of products like bran and the life of shelling machinery has also enhanced. The payback period of this technology is less than four shelling months.

Keywords: air pollution, cyclone separator, pneumatic conveying, rice shellers

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
52 Enhancement of MIMO H₂S Gas Sweetening Separator Tower Using Fuzzy Logic Controller Array

Authors: Muhammad M. A. S. Mahmoud

Abstract:

Natural gas sweetening process is a controlled process that must be done at maximum efficiency and with the highest quality. In this work, due to complexity and non-linearity of the process, the H₂S gas separation and the intelligent fuzzy controller, which is used to enhance the process, are simulated in MATLAB – Simulink. The new design of fuzzy control for Gas Separator is discussed in this paper. The design is based on the utilization of linear state-estimation to generate the internal knowledge-base that stores input-output pairs. The obtained input/output pairs are then used to design a feedback fuzzy controller. The proposed closed-loop fuzzy control system maintains the system asymptotically-stability while it enhances the system time response to achieve better control of the concentration of the output gas from the tower. Simulation studies are carried out to illustrate the Gas Separator system performance.

Keywords: gas separator, gas sweetening, intelligent controller, fuzzy control

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
51 Experimental and Computational Investigations of Baffle Position Effects on ‎the Performance of Oil and Water Separator Tanks

Authors: Haitham A. Hussein, Rozi Abdullah‏‎, Md Azlin Md Said ‎

Abstract:

Gravity separator tanks are used to separate oil from water in treatment units. Achieving the best flow ‎uniformity in a separator tank will improve the maximum removal efficiency of oil globules from water. ‎In this study, the effect on hydraulic performance of different baffle structure positions inside a tank ‎was investigated. Experimental data and 2D computation fluid dynamics were used for analysis. In the ‎numerical model, two-phase flow (drift flux model) was used to validate one-phase flow. For ‎laboratory measurements, the velocity fields were measured using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The ‎measurements were compared with the result of the computational model. The results of the ‎experimental and computational simulations indicate that the best location of a baffle structure is ‎achieved when the standard deviation of the velocity profile and the volume of the circulation zone ‎inside the tank are minimized.‎

Keywords: gravity separator tanks, CFD, baffle position, two phase flow, ADV, oil droplet

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
50 Vortex Separator for More Accurate Air Dry-Bulb Temperature Measurement

Authors: Ahmed N. Shmroukh, I. M. S. Taha, A. M. Abdel-Ghany, M. Attalla

Abstract:

Fog systems application for cooling and humidification is still limited, although these systems require less initial cost compared with that of other cooling systems such as pad-and-fan systems. The undesirable relative humidity and air temperature inside the space which have been cooled or humidified are the main reasons for its limited use, which results from the poor control of fog systems. Any accurate control system essentially needs air dry bulb temperature as an input parameter. Therefore, the air dry-bulb temperature in the space needs to be measured accurately. The Scope of the present work is the separation of the fog droplets from the air in a fogged space to measure the air dry bulb temperature accurately. The separation is to be done in a small device inside which the sensor of the temperature measuring instrument is positioned. Vortex separator will be designed and used. Another reference device will be used for measuring the air temperature without separation. A comparative study will be performed to reach at the best device which leads to the most accurate measurement of air dry bulb temperature. The results showed that the proposed devices improved the measured air dry bulb temperature toward the correct direction over that of the free junction. Vortex device was the best. It respectively increased the temperature measured by the free junction in the range from around 2 to around 6°C for different fog on-off duration.

Keywords: fog systems, measuring air dry bulb temperature, temperature measurement, vortex separator

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
49 Effect of Different Parameters of Converging-Diverging Vortex Finders on Cyclone Separator Performance

Authors: V. Kumar, K. Jha

Abstract:

The present study is done to explore design modifications of the vortex finder, as it has a significant effect on the cyclone separator performance. It is evident that modifications of the vortex finder improve the performance of the cyclone separator significantly. The study conducted strives to improve the overall performance of cyclone separators by utilizing a converging-diverging (CD) vortex finder instead of the traditional uniform diameter vortex finders. The velocity and pressure fields inside a Stairmand cyclone separator with body diameter 0.29m and vortex finder diameter 0.1305m are calculated. The commercial software, Ansys Fluent v14.0 is used to simulate the flow field in a uniform diameter cyclone and six cyclones modified with CD vortex finders. Reynolds stress model is used to simulate the effects of turbulence on the fluid and particulate phases, discrete phase model is used to calculate the particle trajectories. The performance of the modified vortex finders is compared with the traditional vortex finder. The effects of the lengths of the converging and diverging sections, the throat diameter and the end diameters of the convergent divergent section are also studied to achieve enhanced performance. The pressure and velocity fields inside the vortex finder are presented by means of contour plots and velocity vectors and changes in the flow pattern due to variation of the geometrical variables are also analysed. Results indicate that a convergent-divergent vortex finder is capable of decreasing the pressure drop than that achieved through a uniform diameter vortex finder. It is also observed that the end diameters of the CD vortex finder, the throat diameter and the length of the diverging part of the vortex finder have a significant impact on the cyclone separator performance. Increase in the lower diameter of the vortex finder by 66% results in 11.5% decrease in the dimensionless pressure drop (Euler number) with 5.8% decrease in separation efficiency. Whereas 50% decrease in the throat diameter gives 5.9% increase in the Euler number with 10.2% increase in the separation efficiency and increasing the length of the diverging part gives 10.28% increase in the Euler number with 5.74% increase in the separation efficiency. Increasing the upper diameter of the CD vortex finder is seen to produce an adverse effect on the performance as it increases the pressure drop significantly and decreases the separation efficiency. Increase in length of the converging is not seen to affect the performance significantly. From the present study, it is concluded that convergent-divergent vortex finders can be used in place of uniform diameter vortex finders to achieve a better cyclone separator performance.

Keywords: convergent-divergent vortex finder, cyclone separator, discrete phase modeling, Reynolds stress model

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
48 Preliminary Study of Water-Oil Separation Process in Three-Phase Separators Using Factorial Experimental Designs and Simulation

Authors: Caroline M. B. De Araujo, Helenise A. Do Nascimento, Claudia J. Da S. Cavalcanti, Mauricio A. Da Motta Sobrinho, Maria F. Pimentel

Abstract:

Oil production is often followed by the joint production of water and gas. During the journey up to the surface, due to severe conditions of temperature and pressure, the mixing between these three components normally occurs. Thus, the three phases separation process must be one of the first steps to be performed after crude oil extraction, where the water-oil separation is the most complex and important step, since the presence of water into the process line can increase corrosion and hydrates formation. A wide range of methods can be applied in order to proceed with oil-water separation, being more commonly used: flotation, hydrocyclones, as well as the three phase separator vessels. Facing what has been presented so far, it is the aim of this paper to study a system consisting of a three-phase separator, evaluating the influence of three variables: temperature, working pressure and separator type, for two types of oil (light and heavy), by performing two factorial design plans 23, in order to find the best operating condition. In this case, the purpose is to obtain the greatest oil flow rate in the product stream (m3/h) as well as the lowest percentage of water in the oil stream. The simulation of the three-phase separator was performed using Aspen Hysys®2006 simulation software in stationary mode, and the evaluation of the factorial experimental designs was performed using the software Statistica®. From the general analysis of the four normal probability plots of effects obtained, it was observed that interaction effects of two and three factors did not show statistical significance at 95% confidence, since all the values were very close to zero. Similarly, the main effect "separator type" did not show significant statistical influence in any situation. As in this case, it has been assumed that the volumetric flow of water, oil and gas were equal in the inlet stream, the effect separator type, in fact, may not be significant for the proposed system. Nevertheless, the main effect “temperature” was significant for both responses (oil flow rate and mass fraction of water in the oil stream), considering both light and heavy oil, so that the best operation condition occurs with the temperature at its lowest level (30oC), since the higher the temperature, the liquid oil components pass into the vapor phase, going to the gas stream. Furthermore, the higher the temperature, the higher the formation water vapor, so that ends up going into the lighter stream (oil stream), making the separation process more difficult. Regarding the “working pressure”, this effect showed to be significant only for the oil flow rate, so that the best operation condition occurs with the pressure at its highest level (9bar), since a higher operating pressure, in this case, indicated a lower pressure drop inside the vessel, generating lower level of turbulence inside the separator. In conclusion, the best-operating condition obtained for the proposed system, at the studied range, occurs for temperature is at its lowest level and the working pressure is at its highest level.

Keywords: factorial experimental design, oil production, simulation, three-phase separator

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
47 Studies on Design of Cyclone Separator with Tri-Chambered Filter Unit for Dust Removal in Rice Mills

Authors: T. K. Chandrashekar, R. Harish Kumar, T. B. Prasad, C. R. Rajashekhar

Abstract:

Cyclone separators are normally used for dust collection in rice mills for a long time. However, their dust collection efficiency is lower and is influenced by factors like geometry, exit pipe dimensions and length, humidity, and temperature at dust generation place. The design of cyclone has been slightly altered, and the new design has proven to be successful in collecting the dust particles of size up to 10 microns, the major modification was to change the height of exit pipe of the cyclone chamber to have optimum dust collection. The cyclone is coupled with a tri-chambered filter unit with three geo text materials filters of different mesh size to capture the dust less than 10 micron.

Keywords: cyclone-separator, rice mill, tri chambered filter, dust removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
46 Analysis of Possible Equipment in the Reduction Unit of a Low Tonnage Liquefied Natural Gas Production Plant

Authors: Pavel E. Mikriukov

Abstract:

The demand for natural gas (NG) is increasing every year around the world, so it is necessary to produce and transport NG in large quantities. To solve this problem, liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants are used, using different equipment and different technologies to achieve the required LNG quality. To determine the best efficiency of the LNG liquefaction plant, it is necessary to analyze the equipment used in this process and identify other technological solutions for LNG production using more productive and energy-efficient equipment. Based on this, mathematical models of the technological process of the LNG plant were created, which are based on a two-circuit system of heat exchange equipment and a nitrogen isolated cycle for NG cooling. The final liquefaction of natural gas is performed on the construction of the basic principle of the Joule-Thompson effect. The pressure and temperature drop are considered on different types of equipment such as throttle valve, which was used in the basic scheme; turbo expander and supersonic separator, which act as new equipment, to be compared with the efficiency of the basic scheme of the unit. New configurations of LNG plants are suggested, which can be used in almost all LNG facilities. As a result of the analysis, it turned out that the turbo expander and the supersonic separator have comparatively equal potential in comparison with the baseline scheme execution on the throttle valve. A more rational method of selecting the technology and the equipment used for natural gas liquefaction can improve the efficiency of low-tonnage plants and reduce the cost of gas for own needs.

Keywords: gas liquefaction, gas, Joule-Thompson effect, LNG, low-tonnage LNG, supersonic separator, Throttle valve, turbo expander

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45 Investigation of Droplet Size Produced in Two-Phase Gravity Separators

Authors: Kul Pun, F. A. Hamad, T. Ahmed, J. O. Ugwu, J. Eyers, G. Lawson, P. A. Russell

Abstract:

Determining droplet size and distribution is essential when determining the separation efficiency of a two/three-phase separator. This paper investigates the effect of liquid flow and oil pad thickness on the droplet size at the lab scale. The findings show that increasing the inlet flow rates of the oil and water results in size reduction of the droplets and increasing the thickness of the oil pad increases the size of the droplets. The data were fitted with a simple Gaussian model, and the parameters of mean, standard deviation, and amplitude were determined. Trends have been obtained for the fitted parameters as a function of the Reynolds number, which suggest a way forward to better predict the starting parameters for population models when simulating separation using CFD packages. The key parameter to predict to fix the position of the Gaussian distribution was found to be the mean droplet size.

Keywords: two-phase separator, average bubble droplet, bubble size distribution, liquid-liquid phase

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44 Experimental, Computational Fluid Dynamics and Theoretical Study of Cyclone Performance Based on Inlet Velocity and Particle Loading Rate

Authors: Sakura Ganegama Bogodage, Andrew Yee Tat Leung

Abstract:

This paper describes experimental, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and theoretical analysis of a cyclone performance, operated 1.0 g/m3 solid loading rate, at two different inlet velocities (5 m/s and 10 m/s). Comparing experimental results with theoretical and CFD simulation results, it is pronounced that the influence of solid in processing flow is significant than expected. Experimental studies based on gas- solid flows of cyclone separators are complicated as they required advanced sensitive measuring techniques, especially flow characteristics. Thus, CFD modelling and theoretical analysis are economical in analyzing cyclone separator performance but detailed clarifications of the application of these in cyclone separator performance evaluation is not yet discussed. The present study shows the limitations of influencing parameters of CFD and theoretical considerations, comparing experimental results and flow characteristics from CFD modelling.

Keywords: cyclone performance, inlet velocity, pressure drop, solid loading rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
43 Prediction for the Pressure Drop of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone in Sub-Sea Production System

Authors: Xu Rumin, Chen Jianyi, Yue Ti, Wang Yaan

Abstract:

With the rapid development of subsea oil and gas exploitation, the demand for the related underwater process equipment is increasing fast. In order to reduce the energy consuming, people tend to separate the gas and oil phase directly on the seabed. Accordingly, an advanced separator is needed. In this paper, the pressure drop of a new type of separator named Gas Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) which is used in the subsea system is investigated by both experiments and numerical simulation. In the experiments, the single phase flow and gas-liquid two phase flow in GLCC were tested. For the simulation, the performance of GLCC under both laboratory and industrial conditions was calculated. The Eulerian model was implemented to describe the mixture flow field in the GLCC under experimental conditions and industrial oil-natural gas conditions. Furthermore, a relationship among Euler number (Eu), Reynolds number (Re), and Froude number (Fr) is generated according to similarity analysis and simulation data, which can present the GLCC separation performance of pressure drop. These results can give reference to the design and application of GLCC in deep sea.

Keywords: dimensionless analysis, gas-liquid cylindrical cyclone, numerical simulation, pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
42 Removal of Tar Contents in Syngas by Using Different Fuel from Downdraft Biomass Gasification System

Authors: Muhammad Awais, Wei Li, Anjum Munir

Abstract:

Biomass gasification is a process of converting solid biomass ingredients into a combustible gas which can be used in electricity generation. Regardless of their applications in many fields, biomass gasification technology is still facing many cleaning issues of syngas. Tar production in biomass gasification process is one of the biggest challenges for this technology. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the tar contents in syngas produced from wood chips, corn cobs, coconut shells and mixture of corn cobs and wood chips as biomass fuel and tar removal efficiency of different cleaning units integrated with gassifier. Performance of different cleaning units, i.e., cyclone separator, wet scrubber, biomass filter, and auxiliary filter was tested under two biomass fuels. Results of this study indicate that wood chips produced less tar of 1736 mg/Nm³ as compared to corn cobs which produced tor 2489 mg/Nm³. It is also observed that coconut shells produced a high amount of tar. It was observed that when wood chips were used as a fuel, syngas tar contents were reduced from 6600 to 112 mg/Nm³ while in case of corn cob, they were reduced from 7500 mg/Nm³ to 220 mg/Nm³. Overall tar removal efficiencies of cyclone separator, wet scrubber, biomass filter, and auxiliary filter was 72%, 63%, 74%, 35% respectively.

Keywords: biomass, gasification, tar, cleaning system, biomass filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
41 Polypyrrole as Bifunctional Materials for Advanced Li-S Batteries

Authors: Fang Li, Jiazhao Wang, Jianmin Ma

Abstract:

The practical application of Li-S batteries is hampered due to poor cycling stability caused by electrolyte-dissolved lithium polysulfides. Dual functionalities such as strong chemical adsorption stability and high conductivity are highly desired for an ideal host material for a sulfur-based cathode. Polypyrrole (PPy), as a conductive polymer, was widely studied as matrixes for sulfur cathode due to its high conductivity and strong chemical interaction with soluble polysulfides. Thus, a novel cathode structure consisting of a free-standing sulfur-polypyrrole cathode and a polypyrrole coated separator was designed for flexible Li-S batteries. The PPy materials show strong interaction with dissoluble polysulfides, which could suppress the shuttle effect and improve the cycling stability. In addition, the synthesized PPy film with a rough surface acts as a current collector, which improves the adhesion of sulfur materials and restrain the volume expansion, enhancing the structural stability during the cycling process. For further enhancing the cycling stability, a PPy coated separator was also applied, which could make polysulfides into the cathode side to alleviate the shuttle effect. Moreover, the PPy layer coated on commercial separator is much lighter than other reported interlayers. A soft-packaged flexible Li-S battery has been designed and fabricated for testing the practical application of the designed cathode and separator, which could power a device consisting of 24 light-emitting diode (LED) lights. Moreover, the soft-packaged flexible battery can still show relatively stable cycling performance after repeated bending, indicating the potential application in flexible batteries. A novel vapor phase deposition method was also applied to prepare uniform polypyrrole layer coated sulfur/graphene aerogel composite. The polypyrrole layer simultaneously acts as host and adsorbent for efficient suppression of polysulfides dissolution through strong chemical interaction. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the polypyrrole could trap lithium polysulfides through stronger bonding energy. In addition, the deflation of sulfur/graphene hydrogel during the vapor phase deposition process enhances the contact of sulfur with matrixes, resulting in high sulfur utilization and good rate capability. As a result, the synthesized polypyrrole coated sulfur/graphene aerogel composite delivers a specific discharge capacity of 1167 mAh g⁻¹ and 409.1 mAh g⁻¹ at 0.2 C and 5 C respectively. The capacity can maintain at 698 mAh g⁻¹ at 0.5 C after 500 cycles, showing an ultra-slow decay rate of 0.03% per cycle.

Keywords: polypyrrole, strong chemical interaction, long-term stability, Li-S batteries

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
40 Variation of Airfoil Pressure Profile Due to Confined Air Streams: Application in Gas-Oil Separators

Authors: Amir Hossein Haji, Nabeel Al-Rawahi, Gholamreza Vakili-Nezhaad

Abstract:

An innovative design has been examined for a gas-oil separator based on pressure reduction over an airfoil surface. The primary motivations are to shorten the release trajectory of the bubbles by minimizing the thickness of the oil layer as well as improving uniform pressure reduction zones. Restricted airflow over an airfoil is investigated for its effect on the pressure drop enhancement and the maximum attainable attack angle prior to the stall condition. Aerodynamic separation is delayed based on numerical simulation of Wortmann FX 63137 Airfoil in a confined domain using FLUENT 6.3.26. The proposed set up results in higher pressure drop compared with the free stream case. With the aim of optimum power consumption we have pursued further restriction to an air jet case over the airfoil. Then, a curved strip model is suggested for the air jet which can be applied as an analysis/design tool for the best performance conditions. Pressure reduction is shown to be inversely proportional to the curvature of the upper airfoil profile. This reduction occurs within the tracking zones where the air jet is effectively attached to the airfoil surface. The zero slope condition is suggested to estimate the onset of these zones after which the minimum curvature should be searched. The corresponding zero slope curvature is applied for estimation of the maximum pressure drop which shows satisfactory agreement with the simulation results.

Keywords: airfoil, air jet, curved fluid flow, gas-oil separator

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
39 Investigation of the Operational Principle and Flow Analysis of a Newly Developed Dry Separator

Authors: Sung Uk Park, Young Su Kang, Sangmo Kang, Young Kweon Suh

Abstract:

Mineral product, waste concrete (fine aggregates), waste in the optical field, industry, and construction employ separators to separate solids and classify them according to their size. Various sorting machines are used in the industrial field such as those operating under electrical properties, centrifugal force, wind power, vibration, and magnetic force. Study on separators has been carried out to contribute to the environmental industry. In this study, we perform CFD analysis for understanding the basic mechanism of the separation of waste concrete (fine aggregate) particles from air with a machine built with a rotor with blades. In CFD, we first performed two-dimensional particle tracking for various particle sizes for the model with 1 degree, 1.5 degree, and 2 degree angle between each blade to verify the boundary conditions and the method of rotating domain method to be used in 3D. Then we developed 3D numerical model with ANSYS CFX to calculate the air flow and track the particles. We judged the capability of particle separation for given size by counting the number of particles escaping from the domain toward the exit among 10 particles issued at the inlet. We confirm that particles experience stagnant behavior near the exit of the rotating blades where the centrifugal force acting on the particles is in balance with the air drag force. It was also found that the minimum particle size that can be separated by the machine with the rotor is determined by its capability to stay at the outlet of the rotor channels.

Keywords: environmental industry, separator, CFD, fine aggregate

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
38 Resolving Increased Water-Cut in South and East Kuwait Areas through Water Knock-Out Facility Project

Authors: Sunaitan Al Mutairi, Kumar Vallatharasu, Batool Ismaeel

Abstract:

The Water Knock-Out (WKO) facility project is to handle the undesirable impact of the increasing water production rate in South and East Kuwait (S&EK) areas and break the emulsions and ensure sufficient separation of water at the new upstream facility, to reduce the load on the existing separation equipment in the Gathering Centers (GC). As the existing separation equipment in the Gathering Centers are not efficient to separate the emulsions, the Compact Electrostatic Coalescer (CEC) and Vessel Internal Electrostatic Coalescer (VIEC) technologies have been selected for enhancing the liquid-liquid separation by using the alternating voltage/frequency on electrical fields, to handle the increasing water-cut in S&EK. In the Compact Electrostatic Coalescer (CEC) technology method, the CEC equipment is installed downstream of the inlet separator externally, whereas in the Vessel Internal Electrostatic Coalescer (VIEC) technology method, the VIEC is built inside the treater vessel, downstream of the inlet separator with advanced internals for implementing electrocoalescence of water particles and hence enhancing liquids separation. The CEC and VIEC technologies used in the Water Knockout Facility project has the ability to resolve the increasing water cut in the S&EK area and able to enhance the liquid-liquid separation in the WKO facility separation equipment. In addition, the WKO facility is minimizing the load on the existing Gathering Center’s separation equipment, by tackling the high water-cut wells, upstream of each GC. The required performances at the outlet of the WKO facility are Oil in Water 100ppmv, Water in Oil 15% volume, liquid carryover in gas 0.1 US gal/MMSCFD, for the water cut ranging from 37.5 to 75% volume. The WKO facility project is used to sustain, support and maintain Greater Burgan production at 1.7 Million Barrels of Oil Per Day (MMBOPD), by handling the increasing water production rate.

Keywords: emulsion, increasing water-cut, production, separation equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
37 Comparison of Cyclone Design Methods for Removal of Fine Particles from Plasma Generated Syngas

Authors: Mareli Hattingh, I. Jaco Van der Walt, Frans B. Waanders

Abstract:

A waste-to-energy plasma system was designed by Necsa for commercial use to create electricity from unsorted municipal waste. Fly ash particles must be removed from the syngas stream at operating temperatures of 1000 °C and recycled back into the reactor for complete combustion. A 2D2D high efficiency cyclone separator was chosen for this purpose. During this study, two cyclone design methods were explored: The Classic Empirical Method (smaller cyclone) and the Flow Characteristics Method (larger cyclone). These designs were optimized with regard to efficiency, so as to remove at minimum 90% of the fly ash particles of average size 10 μm by 50 μm. Wood was used as feed source at a concentration of 20 g/m3 syngas. The two designs were then compared at room temperature, using Perspex test units and three feed gases of different densities, namely nitrogen, helium and air. System conditions were imitated by adapting the gas feed velocity and particle load for each gas respectively. Helium, the least dense of the three gases, would simulate higher temperatures, whereas air, the densest gas, simulates a lower temperature. The average cyclone efficiencies ranged between 94.96% and 98.37%, reaching up to 99.89% in individual runs. The lowest efficiency attained was 94.00%. Furthermore, the design of the smaller cyclone proved to be more robust, while the larger cyclone demonstrated a stronger correlation between its separation efficiency and the feed temperatures. The larger cyclone can be assumed to achieve slightly higher efficiencies at elevated temperatures. However, both design methods led to good designs. At room temperature, the difference in efficiency between the two cyclones was almost negligible. At higher temperatures, however, these general tendencies are expected to be amplified so that the difference between the two design methods will become more obvious. Though the design specifications were met for both designs, the smaller cyclone is recommended as default particle separator for the plasma system due to its robust nature.

Keywords: Cyclone, design, plasma, renewable energy, solid separation, waste processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
36 Comparison of Inexpensive Cell Disruption Techniques for an Oleaginous Yeast

Authors: Scott Nielsen, Luca Longanesi, Chris Chuck

Abstract:

Palm oil is obtained from the flesh and kernel of the fruit of oil palms and is the most productive and inexpensive oil crop. The global demand for palm oil is approximately 75 million metric tonnes, a 29% increase in global production of palm oil since 2016. This expansion of oil palm cultivation has resulted in mass deforestation, vast biodiversity destruction and increasing net greenhouse gas emissions. One possible alternative is to produce a saturated oil, similar to palm, from microbes such as oleaginous yeast. The yeasts can be cultured on sugars derived from second-generation sources and do not compete with tropical forests for land. One highly promising oleaginous yeast for this application is Metschnikowia pulcherrima. However, recent techno-economic modeling has shown that cell lysis and standard lipid extraction are major contributors to the cost of the oil. Typical cell disruption techniques to extract either single cell oils or proteins have been based around bead-beating, homogenization and acid lysis. However, these can have a detrimental effect on lipid quality and are energy-intensive. In this study, a vortex separator, which produces high sheer with minimal energy input, was investigated as a potential low energy method of lysing cells. This was compared to four more traditional methods (thermal lysis, acid lysis, alkaline lysis, and osmotic lysis). For each method, the yeast loading was also examined at 1 g/L, 10 g/L and 100 g/L. The quality of the cell disruption was measured by optical cell density, cell counting and the particle size distribution profile comparison over a 2-hour period. This study demonstrates that the vortex separator is highly effective at lysing the cells and could potentially be used as a simple apparatus for lipid recovery in an oleaginous yeast process. The further development of this technology could potentially reduce the overall cost of microbial lipids in the future.

Keywords: palm oil substitute, metschnikowia pulcherrima, cell disruption, cell lysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
35 Protein-Enrichment of Oilseed Meals by Triboelectrostatic Separation

Authors: Javier Perez-Vaquero, Katryn Junker, Volker Lammers, Petra Foerst

Abstract:

There is increasing importance to accelerate the transition to sustainable food systems by including environmentally friendly technologies. Our work focuses on protein enrichment and fractionation of agricultural side streams by dry triboelectrostatic separation technology. Materials are fed in particulate form into a system dispersed in a highly turbulent gas stream, whereby the high collision rate of particles against surfaces and other particles greatly enhances the electrostatic charge build-up over the particle surface. A subsequent step takes the charged particles to a delimited zone in the system where there is a highly uniform, intense electric field applied. Because the charge polarity acquired by a particle is influenced by its chemical composition, morphology, and structure, the protein-rich and fiber-rich particles of the starting material get opposite charge polarities, thus following different paths as they move through the region where the electric field is present. The output is two material fractions, which differ in their respective protein content. One is a fiber-rich, low-protein fraction, while the other is a high-protein, low-fiber composition. Prior to testing, materials undergo a milling process, and some samples are stored under controlled humidity conditions. In this way, the influence of both particle size and humidity content was established. We used two oilseed meals: lupine and rapeseed. In addition to a lab-scale separator to perform the experiments, the triboelectric separation process could be successfully scaled up to a mid-scale belt separator, increasing the mass feed from g/sec to kg/hour. The triboelectrostatic separation technology opens a huge potential for the exploitation of so far underutilized alternative protein sources. Agricultural side-streams from cereal and oil production, which are generated in high volumes by the industries, can further be valorized by this process.

Keywords: bench-scale processing, dry separation, protein-enrichment, triboelectrostatic separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
34 Condition Monitoring for Controlling the Stability of the Rotating Machinery

Authors: A. Chellil, I. Gahlouz, S. Lecheb, A. Nour, S. Chellil, H. Mechakra, H. Kebir

Abstract:

In this paper, the experimental study for the instability of a separator rotor is presented, under dynamic loading response in the harmonic analysis condition. The analysis of the stress which operates the rotor is done. Calculations of different energies and the virtual work of the aerodynamic loads from the rotor are developed. Numerical calculations on the model develop of three dimensions prove that the defects effect has a negative effect on the stability of the rotor. Experimentally, the study of the rotor in the transient system allowed to determine the vibratory responses due to the unbalances and various excitations.

Keywords: rotor, frequency, finite element, specter

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
33 Modelisation of a Full-Scale Closed Cement Grinding

Authors: D. Touil, L. Ouadah

Abstract:

An industrial model of cement grinding circuit is proposed on the basis of sampling surveys undertaken in the Meftah cement plant in Algiers, Algeria. The ball mill is described by a series of equal fully mixed stages that incorporates the effect of air sweeping. The kinetic parameters of this material in the energy normalized form obtained using the data of batch dry ball milling are taken into account in developing the present scale-up procedure. The dynamic separator is represented by the air classifier selectivity equation corrected by empirical factors. The model is incorporated in computer program that predict full size distributions and mass flow rates for all streams in a circuit under a particular set of operating conditions.

Keywords: grinding circuit, clinker, cement, modeling, population balance, energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
32 Predicting the Effect of Silicon Electrode Design Parameters on Thermal Performance of a Lithium-Ion Battery

Authors: Harika Dasari, Eric Eisenbraun

Abstract:

The present study models the role of electrode structural characteristics on the thermal behavior of lithium-ion batteries. Preliminary modeling runs have employed a 1D lithium-ion battery coupled to a two-dimensional axisymmetric model using silicon as the battery anode material. The two models are coupled by the heat generated and the average temperature. Our study is focused on the silicon anode particle sizes and it is observed that silicon anodes with nano-sized particles reduced the temperature of the battery in comparison to anodes with larger particles. These results are discussed in the context of the relationship between particle size and thermal transport properties in the electrode.

Keywords: particle size, NMC, silicon, heat generation, separator

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
31 Hydrogen Production Using Solar Energy

Authors: I. M. Sakr, Ali M. Abdelsalam, K. A. Ibrahim, W. A. El-Askary

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental study for hydrogen production using alkaline water electrolysis operated by solar energy. Two methods are used and compared for separation between the cathode and anode, which are acrylic separator and polymeric membrane. Further, the effects of electrolyte concentration, solar insolation, and space between the pair of electrodes on the amount of hydrogen produced and consequently on the overall electrolysis efficiency are investigated. It is found that the rate of hydrogen production increases using the polymeric membrane installed between the electrodes. The experimental results show also that, the performance of alkaline water electrolysis unit is dominated by the electrolyte concentration and the gap between the electrodes. Smaller gaps between the pair of electrodes are demonstrated to produce higher rates of hydrogen with higher system efficiency.

Keywords: hydrogen production, water electrolysis, solar energy, concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
30 Naphtha Catalytic Reform: Modeling and Simulation of Unity

Authors: Leal Leonardo, Pires Carlos Augusto de Moraes, Casiraghi Magela

Abstract:

In this work were realized the modeling and simulation of the catalytic reformer process, of ample form, considering all the equipment that influence the operation performance. Considered it a semi-regenerative reformer, with four reactors in series intercalated with four furnaces, two heat exchanges, one product separator and one recycle compressor. A simplified reactional system was considered, involving only ten chemical compounds related through five reactions. The considered process was the applied to aromatics production (benzene, toluene, and xylene). The models developed to diverse equipment were interconnecting in a simulator that consists of a computer program elaborate in FORTRAN 77. The simulation of the global model representative of reformer unity achieved results that are compatibles with the literature ones. It was then possible to study the effects of operational variables in the products concentration and in the performance of the unity equipment.

Keywords: catalytic reforming, modeling, simulation, petrochemical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 431
29 Experimental Study on Dehumidification Performance of Supersonic Nozzle

Authors: Esam Jassim

Abstract:

Supersonic nozzles are commonly used to purify natural gas in gas processing technology. As an innovated technology, it is employed to overcome the deficit of the traditional method, related to gas dynamics, thermodynamics and fluid dynamics theory. An indoor test rig is built to study the dehumidification process of moisture fluid. Humid air was chosen for the study. The working fluid was circulating in an open loop, which had provision for filtering, metering, and humidifying. A stainless steel supersonic separator is constructed together with the C-D nozzle system. The result shows that dehumidification enhances as NPR increases. This is due to the high intensity in the turbulence caused by the shock formation in the divergent section. Such disturbance strengthens the centrifugal force, pushing more particles toward the near-wall region. In return return, the pressure recovery factor, defined as the ratio of the outlet static pressure of the fluid to its inlet value, decreases with NPR.

Keywords: supersonic nozzle, dehumidification, particle separation, nozzle geometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
28 Thin and Flexible Zn-Air Battery by Inexpensive Screen Printing Technique

Authors: Sira Suren, Soorathep Kheawhom

Abstract:

This work focuses the development of thin and flexible zinc-air battery. The battery with an overall thickness of about 300 μm was fabricated by an inexpensive screen-printing technique. Commercial nano-silver ink was used as both current collectors and catalyst layer. Carbon black ink was used to fabricate cathode electrode. Polypropylene membrane was used as the cathode substrate and separator. 9 M KOH was used as the electrolyte. A mixture of Zn powder and ZnO was used to prepare the anode electrode. Types of conductive materials (Bi2O3, Na2O3Si and carbon black) for the anode and its concentration were investigated. Results showed that the battery using 29% carbon black showed the best performance. The open-circuit voltage and energy density observed were 1.6 V and 694 Wh/kg, respectively. When the battery was discharged at 10 mA/cm2, the potential voltage observed was 1.35 V. Furthermore, the battery was tested for its flexibility. Upon bending, no significant loss in performance was observed.

Keywords: flexible, Gel Electrolyte, screen printing, thin battery, Zn-Air battery

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
27 A Flexible High Energy Density Zn-Air Battery by Screen Printing Technique

Authors: Sira Suren, Soorathep Kheawhom

Abstract:

This work investigates the development of a high energy density zinc-air battery. Printed and flexible thin film zinc-air battery with an overall thickness of about 350 μm was fabricated by an inexpensive screen-printing technique. Commercial nano-silver ink was used as both current collectors and catalyst layer. Carbon black ink was used to fabricate cathode electrode. Polypropylene membrane was used as the cathode substrate and separator. 9 M KOH was used as the electrolyte. A mixture of Zn powder, ZnO, and Bi2O3 was used to prepare the anode electrode. The suitable concentration of Bi2O3 and types of binders (styrene-butadiene and sodium silicate) were investigated. Results showed that battery using 20% Bi2O3 and sodium silicate binder provided the best performance. The open-circuit voltage and energy density observed were 1.59 V and 690 Wh/kg, respectively. When the battery was discharged at 20 mA/cm2, the potential voltage observed was 1.3 V. Furthermore, the battery was tested for its flexibility. Upon bending, no significant loss in performance was observed.

Keywords: flexible, printed battery, screen printing, Zn-air

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
26 CFD Modeling and Optimization of Gas Cyclone Separator for Performance Improvement

Authors: N. Beit Saeid

Abstract:

Cyclones are used in the field of air industrial gases pollution and control the pollution with centrifugal forces that is generated with spatial geometry of the cyclone. Their simple design, low capital and maintenance costs and adaptability to a wide range of operating conditions have made cyclones one of the most widely used industrial dust collectors. Their cost of operation is proportional to the fan energy required to overcome their pressure drop. Optimized geometry of outlet diffuser of the cyclones potentially could reduce exit pressure losses without affecting collection efficiency. Three rectangular outlets and a radial outlet with a variable opening had been analyzed on two cyclones. Pressure drop was investigated for inlet velocities from about 10 to 20 m s−1. The radial outlet reduced cyclone pressure drop by between 8.7 and 11.9 percent when its exit area was equal to the flow area of the cyclone vortex finder or gas exit. A simple payback based on avoided energy costs was estimated to be between 3600 and 5000 h, not including installation cost.

Keywords: cyclone, CFD, optimization, genetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 308