Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 642

Search results for: ceramic membranes

642 Treatment of Greywater at Household by Using Ceramic Tablet Membranes

Authors: Abdelkader T. Ahmed


Greywater is any wastewater draining from a household including kitchen sinks and bathroom tubs, except toilet wastes. Although this used water may contain grease, food particles, hair, and any number of other impurities, it may still be suitable for reuse after treatment. Greywater reusing serves two purposes including reduction the amount of freshwater needed to supply a household, and reduction the amount of wastewater entering sewer systems. This study aims to investigate and design a simple and cheap unit to treat the greywater in household via using ceramic membranes and reuse it in supplying water for toilet flushing. The study include an experimental program for manufacturing several tablet ceramic membranes from clay and sawdust with three different mixtures. The productivity and efficiency of these ceramic membranes were investigated by chemical and physical tests for greywater before and after filtration through these membranes. Then a treatment unit from this ceramic membrane was designed based on the experimental results of lab tests. Results showed that increase sawdust percent with the mixture increase the flow rate and productivity of treated water but decrease in the same time the water quality. The efficiency of the new ceramic membrane reached 95%. The treatment unit save 0.3 m3/day water for toilet flushing without need to consume them from the fresh water supply network.

Keywords: ceramic membranes, filtration, greywater, wastewater treatment

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641 Preparation and Characterizations of Natural Material Based Ceramic Membranes

Authors: In-Hyuck Song, Jang-Hoon Ha


Recently, porous ceramic membranes have attracted great interest due to their outstanding thermal and chemical stability. In this paper, we report the results of our efforts to determine whether we could prepare a diatomite-kaolin composite coating to be deposited over a sintered diatomite support layer that could reduce the largest pore size of the sintered diatomite membrane while retaining an acceptable level of permeability. We determined under what conditions such a composite coating over a support layer could be prepared without the generation of micro-cracks during drying and sintering. The pore characteristics of the sintered diatomite membranes were studied by scanning electron microscopy and capillary flow porosimetry.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, diatomite, water treatment, sintering

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640 Preparation of Ceramic Hollow Fiber Membranes for CO2 Capture

Authors: Kai-Wei Huang, Yi-Feng Lin


The purpose of this study is to have chemical resistance, high heat resistance and mechanical strength of ceramic hollow fiber membrane into a membrane contactor, and the combustion process is applied (Post-combustion capture) of the carbon dioxide absorption device. In this paper, we would investigate the effect of the ceramic membrane hydrophobicity to the flux of the carbon dioxide adsorption. To improve the applicability of the ceramic film. We use the dry-wet spinning method with the high temperature sintering process for preparing a ceramic hollow fiber membranes to increase the filling density per unit volume of the membrane. The PESf/Al2O3 ratio of 1:5 was prepared ceramic hollow fibers membrane precursors and investigate the relationship of the different sintering temperature to the membrane pore size and porosity. It can be found that the membrane via the sintering temperature of 1400 °C prepared with the highest porosity of 70%, while the membrane via the sintering temperature of 1600 °C prepared although has a minimum porosity of about 54%, but also has the smallest average pore size of about 0.2 μm. The hydrophilic ceramic hollow fiber membranes which after high-temperature sintering were changed into hydrophobic successfully via the 0.02M FAS modifier. The hydrophobic ceramic hollow fiber membranes with different sintering temperature, the membrane which was prepared via 1400 °C sintering has the highest carbon dioxide adsorption about 4.2 × 10-4 (mole/m2s). The membrane prepared via 1500 °C sintering has the carbon dioxide adsorption about 3.8 × 10-3 (mole/m2s),and the membrane prepared via 1600 °C sintering has the lowest carbon dioxide adsorption about 2.68 × 10-3 (mole/m2s).All of them have reusability and in long time operation, the membrane which was prepared via 1600 °C sintering has the smallest pores and also could operate for three days. After the test, the 1600 °C sintering ceramic hollow fiber membrane was most suitable for the factory.

Keywords: carbon dioxide capture, membrane contactor, ceramic membrane, ceramic hollow fiber membrane

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639 Layer-by-Layer Modified Ceramic Membranes for Micropollutant Removal

Authors: Jenny Radeva, Anke-Gundula Roth, Christian Goebbert, Robert Niestroj-Pahl, Lars Daehne, Axel Wolfram, Juergen Wiese


Ceramic membranes for water purification combine excellent stability with long-life characteristics and high chemical resistance. Layer-by-Layer coating is a well-known technique for customization and optimization of filtration properties of membranes but is mostly used on polymeric membranes. Ceramic membranes comprising a metal oxide filtration layer of Al2O3 or TiO2 are charged and therefore highly suitable for polyelectrolyte adsorption. The high stability of the membrane support allows efficient backwash and chemical cleaning of the membrane. The presented study reports metal oxide/organic composite membrane with an increased rejection of bivalent salts like MgSO4 and the organic micropollutant Diclofenac. A self-build apparatus was used for applying the polyelectrolyte multilayers on the ceramic membrane. The device controls the flow and timing of the polyelectrolytes and washing solutions. As support for the Layer-by-Layer coat, ceramic mono-channel membranes were used with an inner capillary of 8 mm diameter, which is connected to the coating device. The inner wall of the capillary is coated subsequently with polycat- and anions. The filtration experiments were performed with a feed solution of MgSO4 and Diclofenac. The salt content of the permeate was detected conductometrically and Diclofenac was measured with UV-Adsorption. The concluded results show retention values of magnesium sulfate of 70% and diclofenac retention of 60%. Further experimental research studied various parameters of the composite membrane-like Molecular Weight Cut Off and pore size, Zeta potential and its mechanical and chemical robustness.

Keywords: water purification, polyelectrolytes, membrane modification, layer-by-layer coating, ceramic membranes

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638 Influence of Layer-by-Layer Coating Parameters on the Properties of Hybrid Membrane for Water Treatment

Authors: Jenny Radeva, Anke-Gundula Roth, Christian Goebbert, Robert Niestroj-Pahl, Lars Daehne, Axel Wolfram, Juergen WIese


The presented investigation studies the correlation between the process parameters of Layer-by-Layer (LbL) coatings and properties of the produced hybrid membranes for water treatment. The coating of alumina ceramic support membrane with polyelectrolyte multilayers on top results in hybrid membranes with increased fouling resistant behavior, high retention (up to 90%) of salt ions and various pharmaceuticals, selectivity to various organic molecules as known from LbL coated polyether sulfone membranes and the possibility of pH response control. Chosen polyelectrolytes were added to the support using the LbL-coating process. Parameters like the type of polyelectrolyte, ionic strength, and pH were varied in order to find the most suitable process conditions and to study how they influence the properties of the final product. The applied LbL-films was investigated in respect to its homogeneity and penetration depth. The analysis of the layer buildup was performed using fluorescence labeled polyelectrolyte molecules and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy as well as Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Furthermore, the influence of the coating parameters on the porosity, surface potential, retention, and permeability of the developed hybrid membranes were estimated. In conclusion, a comparison was drawn between the filtration performance of the uncoated alumina ceramic membrane and modified hybrid membranes.

Keywords: water treatment, membranes, ceramic membranes, hybrid membranes, layer-by-layer modification

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637 Removal of Pharmaceuticals from Aquarius Solutions Using Hybrid Ceramic Membranes

Authors: Jenny Radeva, Anke-Gundula Roth, Christian Goebbert, Robert Niestroj-Pahl, Lars Daehne, Axel Wolfram, Juergen Wiese


The technological advantages of ceramic filtration elements were combined with polyelectrolyte films in the development process of hybrid membrane for the elimination of pharmaceuticals from Aquarius solutions. Previously extruded alumina ceramic membranes were coated with nanosized polyelectrolyte films using Layer-by-Layer technology. The polyelectrolyte chains form a network with nano-pores on the ceramic surface and promote the retention of small molecules like pharmaceuticals and microplastics, which cannot be eliminated using standard ultrafiltration methods. Additionally, the polyelectrolyte coat contributes with its adjustable (based on application) Zeta Potential for repulsion of contaminant molecules with opposite charges. Properties like permeability, bubble point, pore size distribution and Zeta Potential of ceramic and hybrid membranes were characterized using various laboratory and pilot tests and compared with each other. The most significant role for the membrane characterization played the filtration behavior investigation, during which retention against widely used pharmaceuticals like Diclofenac, Ibuprofen and Sulfamethoxazol was subjected to series of filtration tests. The presented study offers a new perspective on nanosized molecules removal from aqueous solutions and shows the importance of combined techniques application for the elimination of pharmaceutical contaminants from drinking water.

Keywords: water treatment, hybrid membranes, layer-by-layer coating, filtration, polyelectrolytes

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636 Hydrothermal Synthesis of ZIF-7 Crystals and Their Composite ZIF-7/CS Membranes for Water/Ethanol Separation

Authors: Kai-Sheng Ji, Yi-Feng Lin


The pervaporation process for solvent and water separation has attracted research attention due to its lower energy consumption compared with conventional distillation processes. The membranes used for the pervaporation approach should exhibit high flux and separation factors. In this study, the ZIF-7 crystal particles were successfully incorporated into chitosan (CS) membranes to form ZIF-7/CS mixed-matrix membranes. The as-prepared ZIF-7/CS mixed-matrix membranes were used to separate mixtures of water/ethanol at 25℃ in the pervaporation process. The mixed-matrix membranes with different ZIF-7 wt% incorporation showed better separation efficiency than the pristine CS membranes because of the smaller pore size of the mixed-matrix membranes. The separation factor and the flux of the ZIF-7/CS membranes clearly exceed the upper limit of the previously reported CS-based and mixed-matrix membranes.

Keywords: pervaporation, chitosan, ZIF-7, memberane separation

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635 Rare Earth Metal Ion-Doped SiO2 Nanocomposite Membranes for Gas Separation in Steam Atmosphere

Authors: Md. Hasan Zahir


Y2O3-doped silica membranes were synthesized with the sol-gel method by using a tetraethyl orthosilicate-derived sol mixed with yttrium nitrate hexahydrate. These solutions were used to fabricate hydrogen separation microporous membranes with a sandwich-type structure on γ-Al2O3 supported by tubular α-Al2O3. Pore size distribution measurements were conducted directly on the membranes before and after hydrothermal treatment with a nano-permporometer. The gas permeance properties of the membranes were measured in the temperature range 100–500°C. The Y-doped SiO2 membrane (Si/Y = 3/1) was found to exhibit asymptotically stable permeances of 2.39×10-7 mol m-2 s -1 Pa-1 for He and 6.19 ×10-10 mol m-2 s -1 Pa-1 for CO2, with a high selectivity of 386 (He/CO2) at 500°C for 20 h in the presence of steam. The Y-doped silica membranes exhibit very high gas permeances for molecules with smaller kinetic diameters. The apparent activation energies of the H2 permeance at 400°C were 24.2±0.2 and 21.3±0.7 kJ mol−1 for SiO2 and Si/Y, respectively. Very high permeances were obtained for N2 and O2, 2.2 and 5 × 10-8 mol m-2 s -1 Pa-1 respectively, which demonstrates that these materials are promising air purification and/or separation systems that block larger impurity molecules by molecular sieving effects. Y-doped SiO2 exhibits greater hydrothermal stability at high temperatures and higher selectivity than SiO2 membranes.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, gas separation, hydrothermal stability, rare earth doped-Silica

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634 Physicochemical Characterization of MFI–Ceramic Hollow Fibres Membranes for CO2 Separation with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher


This paper present some preliminary work on the preparation and physicochemical caracterization of nanocomposite MFI-alumina structures based on alumina hollow fibres. The fibers are manufactured by a wet spinning process. α-alumina particles were dispersed in a solution of polysulfone in NMP. The resulting slurry is pressed through the annular gap of a spinneret into a precipitation bath. The resulting green fibres are sintered. The mechanical strength of the alumina hollow fibres is determined by a three-point-bending test while the pore size is characterized by bubble-point testing. The bending strength is in the range of 110 MPa while the average pore size is 450 nm for an internal diameter of 1 mm and external diameter of 1.7 mm. To characterize the MFI membranes various techniques were used for physicochemical characterization of MFI–ceramic hollow fibres membranes: The nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy combined with X emission microanalysis. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Microanalysis by the X-ray were used to observe the morphology of the hollow fibre membranes (thickness, infiltration into the carrier, defects, homogeneity). No surface film, has been obtained, as observed by SEM and EDX analysis and confirmed by high temperature variation of N2 and CO2 gas permeances before cation exchange. Local analysis and characterise (SEM and EDX) and overall (by ICP elemental analysis) were conducted on two samples exchanged to determine the quantity and distribution of the cation of cesium on the cross section fibre of the zeolite between the cavities.

Keywords: physicochemical characterization of MFI, ceramic hollow fibre, CO2, ion-exchange

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633 Experimental Study - Inorganic Membranes for Air Separation

Authors: Adesola O. Orimoloye, Mohammed N. Kajama, Edward Gobina


Gas permeation of Oxygen [O2] and Nitrogen [N2] were investigated at room temperature using 15 and 6000nm pore diameter tubular commercial alumina ceramic membranes with pressure values ranging 1.00 to 2.50 bar. The flow rates of up to 2.59 and 2.77 l/min were achieved for O2 and N2 respectively. The ratio of O2/N2 flow rates were used to compute the O2/N2 selectivity. The experimental O2/N2 selectivity obtained for 15 nm was 1.05 while the 6000 nm indicated 0.95.

Keywords: gas separation, nitrogen, oxygen, selectivity

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632 Experimental Study of Hydrogen and Water Vapor Extraction from Helium with Zeolite Membranes for Tritium Processes

Authors: Rodrigo Antunes, Olga Borisevich, David Demange


The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) has identified zeolite membranes as most promising for tritium processes in the future fusion reactors. Tritium diluted in purge gases or gaseous effluents, and present in both molecular and oxidized forms, can be pre-concentrated by a stage of zeolite membranes followed by a main downstream recovery stage (e.g., catalytic membrane reactor). Since 2011 several membrane zeolite samples have been tested to measure the membrane performances in the separation of hydrogen and water vapor from helium streams. These experiments were carried out in the ZIMT (Zeolite Inorganic Membranes for Tritium) facility where mass spectrometry and cold traps were used to measure the membranes’ performances. The membranes were tested at temperatures ranging from 25 °C up to 130 °C, at feed pressures between 1 and 3 bar, and typical feed flows of 2 l/min. During this experimental campaign, several zeolite-type membranes were studied: a hollow-fiber MFI nanocomposite membrane purchased from IRCELYON (France), and tubular MFI-ZSM5, NaA and H-SOD membranes purchased from Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems (IKTS, Germany). Among these membranes, only the MFI-based showed relevant performances for the H2/He separation, with rather high permeances (~0.5 – 0.7 μmol/sm2Pa for H2 at 25 °C for MFI-ZSM5), however with a limited ideal selectivity of around 2 for H2/He regardless of the feed concentration. Both MFI and NaA showed higher separation performances when water vapor was used instead; for example, at 30 °C, the separation factor for MFI-ZSM5 is approximately 10 and 38 for 0.2% and 10% H2O/He, respectively. The H-SOD evidenced to be considerably defective and therefore not considered for further experiments. In this contribution, a comprehensive analysis of the experimental methods and results obtained for the separation performance of different zeolite membranes during the past four years in inactive environment is given. These results are encouraging for the experimental campaign with molecular and oxidized tritium that will follow in 2017.

Keywords: gas separation, nuclear fusion, tritium processes, zeolite membranes

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631 Local Activities of the Membranes Associated with Glycosaminoglycan-Chitosan Complexes in Bone Cells

Authors: Chih-Chang Yeh, Min-Fang Yang, Hsin-I Chang


Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide derived from the partial deacetylation of chitin. Hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparin (HP) are anionic glycosaminoglycans (GCGs) which can regulate osteogenic activity. In this study, chitosan membranes were prepared by glutaraldehyde crosslinking reaction and then complexed with three different types of GCGs. 7F2 osteoblasts-like cells and macrophages Raw264.7 were used as models to study the influence of chitosan membranes on osteometabolism. Although chitosan membranes are highly hydrophilic, the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes showed about 60-70% cell attachment. Furthermore, the membranes associated with HP-chitosan complexes could increase ALP activity in comparison with chitosan films only. Three types of the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes could significantly inhibit LPS induced-nitric oxide expression. In addition, chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA can down-regulate tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity but not CS-chitosan complexes. Based on these results, we conclude that chitosan membranes associated with HP can increase ALP activity in osteoblasts and chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA reduce TRAP activity in osteoclasts.

Keywords: osteoblast, osteoclast, chitosan, glycosaminoglycan

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630 Porous Alumina-Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite Membranes Processed via Spark Plasma Sintering for Heavy Metal Removal from Contaminated Water

Authors: H. K. Shahzad, M. A. Hussein, F. Patel, N. Al-Aqeeli, T. Laoui


The purpose of the present study was to use the adsorption mechanism with microfiltration synergistically for efficient heavy metal removal from contaminated water. Alumina (Al2O3) is commonly used for ceramic membranes development while recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been considered among the best adsorbent materials for heavy metals. In this work, we combined both of these materials to prepare porous Al2O3-CNTs nanocomposite membranes via Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique. Alumina was used as a base matrix while CNTs were added as filler. The SPS process parameters i.e. applied pressure, temperature, heating rate, and holding time were varied to obtain the best combination of porosity (64%, measured according to ASTM c373-14a) and strength (3.2 MPa, measured by diametrical compression test) of the developed membranes. The prepared membranes were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission secondary electron microscopy (FE-SEM), contact angle and porosity measurements. The results showed that properties of the synthesized membranes were highly influenced by the SPS process parameters. FE-SEM images revealed that CNTs were reasonably dispersed in the alumina matrix. The porous membranes were evaluated for their water flux transport as well as their capacity to adsorb heavy metals ions. Selected membranes were able to remove about 97% cadmium from contaminated water. Further work is underway to enhance the removal efficiency of the developed membranes as well as to remove other heavy metals such as arsenic and mercury.

Keywords: heavy metal removal, inorganic membrane, nanocomposite, spark plasma sintering

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629 The Effect of Arabic Gum on Polyethersulfone Membranes

Authors: Yehia Manawi, Viktor Kochkodan, Muataz Hussien


In this paper, the effect of adding Arabic Gum (AG) to the dope solutions of polyethersulfone (PES) was studied. The aim of adding AG is to enhance the properties of ultrafiltration membranes such as hydrophilicity, porosity and selectivity. several AG loading (0.1-3.0 wt.%) in PES/ N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) casting solutions were prepared to fabricate PES membranes using phase inversion technique. The surface morphology, hydrophilicity and selectivity of the cast PES/AG membranes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements. The selectivity of the fabricated membranes was also tested by filtration of oil solutions (1 ppm) and found to show quite high removal efficiency. The effect of adding AG to PES membranes was found to increase the permeate flux and porosity as well as reducing surface roughness and the contact angle of the membranes.

Keywords: antifouling, Arabic gum, polyethersulfone membrane, ultrafiltration

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628 Preparation of hydrophobic silica membranes supported on alumina hollow fibers for pervaporation applications

Authors: Ami Okabe, Daisuke Gondo, Akira Ogawa, Yasuhisa Hasegawa, Koichi Sato, Sadao Araki, Hideki Yamamoto


Membrane separation draws attention as the energy-saving technology. Pervaporation (PV) uses hydrophobic ceramic membranes to separate organic compounds from industrial wastewaters. PV makes it possible to separate organic compounds from azeotropic mixtures and from aqueous solutions. For the PV separation of low concentrations of organics from aqueous solutions, hydrophobic ceramic membranes are expected to have high separation performance compared with that of conventional hydrophilic membranes. Membrane separation performance is evaluated based on the pervaporation separation index (PSI), which depends on both the separation factor and the permeate flux. Ingenuity is required to increase the PSI such that the permeate flux increases without reducing the separation factor or to increase the separation factor without reducing the flux. A thin separation layer without defects and pinholes is required. In addition, it is known that the flux can be increased without reducing the separation factor by reducing the diffusion resistance of the membrane support. In a previous study, we prepared hydrophobic silica membranes by a molecular templating sol−gel method using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to form pores suitable for permitting the passage of organic compounds through the membrane. We separated low-concentration organics from aqueous solutions by PV using these membranes. In the present study, hydrophobic silica membranes were prepared on a porous alumina hollow fiber support that is thinner than the previously used alumina support. Ethyl acetate (EA) is used in large industrial quantities, so it was selected as the organic substance to be separated. Hydrophobic silica membranes were prepared by dip-coating porous alumina supports with a -alumina interlayer into a silica sol containing CTAB and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) as the silica precursor. Membrane thickness increases with the lifting speed of the sol in the dip-coating process. Different thicknesses of the γ-alumina layer were prepared by dip-coating the support into a boehmite sol at different lifting speeds (0.5, 1, 3, and 5 mm s-1). Silica layers were subsequently formed by dip-coating using an immersion time of 60 s and lifting speed of 1 mm s-1. PV measurements of the EA (5 wt.%)/water system were carried out using VTMS hydrophobic silica membranes prepared on -alumina layers of different thicknesses. Water and EA flux showed substantially constant value despite of the change of the lifting speed to form the γ-alumina interlayer. All prepared hydrophobic silica membranes showed the higher PSI compared with the hydrophobic membranes using the previous alumina support of hollow fiber.

Keywords: membrane separation, pervaporation, hydrophobic, silica

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627 Performance Evaluation of an Inventive Co2 Gas Separation Inorganic Ceramic Membrane System

Authors: Ngozi Claribelle Nwogu, Mohammed Nasir Kajama, Oyoh Kechinyere, Edward Gobina


Atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions are considered as the greatest environmental challenge the world is facing today. The challenges to control the emissions include the recovery of CO2 from flue gas. This concern has been improved due to recent advances in materials process engineering resulting in the development of inorganic gas separation membranes with excellent thermal and mechanical stability required for most gas separations. This paper therefore evaluates the performance of a highly selective inorganic membrane for CO2 recovery applications. Analysis of results obtained is in agreement with experimental literature data. Further results show the prediction performance of the membranes for gas separation and the future direction of research. The materials selection and the membrane preparation techniques are discussed. Method of improving the interface defects in the membrane and its effect on the separation performance has also been reviewed and in addition advances to totally exploit the potential usage of this innovative membrane.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, gas separation, inorganic ceramic membrane, permselectivity

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626 The Use of Arabic Gum Mixed with Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Dodecylamine to Fabricate Superior Ultrafiltration Membranes

Authors: Yehia Manawi, Viktor Kochkodan, Muataz Hussien


In this paper, the effect of adding Arabic Gum (AG) and carbon nanotubes functionalized with dodecylamine (CNT-DDA) to the casting solutions of polysulfone (PS) was investigated. The aim of adding AG and CNT-DDA was to enhance the properties of ultrafiltration membranes such as hydrophilicity, porosity and selectivity. Different CNT-DDA loadings (0.1-3.0 wt.%) in 2 wt.% AG were added to PS/dimethylacetamide (DMAc) casting solutions to prepare PS membranes using phase inversion technique. The surface morphology, hydrophilicity and selectivity of the cast PS/AG/CNT-DDA membranes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements. The selectivity of the fabricated membranes was also tested by filtration of BSA solutions (1 ppm) and found to show quite high removal efficiency. The effect of adding AG and CNT-DDA to PS membranes was found to increase the hydrophilicity, porosity and hence the permeate flux of the fabricated membranes.

Keywords: Arabic gum, hydrophilicity, polysulfone membrane, ultrafiltration

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625 Preparation and CO2 Permeation Properties of Carbonate-Ceramic Dual-Phase Membranes

Authors: H. Ishii, S. Araki, H. Yamamoto


In recent years, the carbon dioxide (CO2) separation technology is required in terms of the reduction of emission of global warming gases and the efficient use of fossil fuels. Since the emission amount of CO2 gas occupies the large part of greenhouse effect gases, it is considered that CO2 have the most influence on global warming. Therefore, we need to establish the CO2 separation technologies with high efficiency at low cost. In this study, we focused on the membrane separation compared with conventional separation technique such as distillation or cryogenic separation. In this study, we prepared carbonate-ceramic dual-phase membranes to separate CO2 at high temperature. As porous ceramic substrate, the (Pr0.9La0.1)2(Ni0.74Cu0.21Ga0.05)O4+σ, La0.6Sr0.4Ti0.3 Fe0.7O3 and Ca0.8Sr0.2Ti0.7Fe0.3O3-α (PLNCG, LSTF and CSTF) were examined. PLNCG, LSTF and CSTF have the perovskite structure. The perovskite structure has high stability and shows ion-conducting doped by another metal ion. PLNCG, LSTF and CSTF have perovskite structure and has high stability and high oxygen ion diffusivity. PLNCG, LSTF and CSTF powders were prepared by a solid-phase process using the appropriate carbonates or oxides. To prepare porous substrates, these powders mixed with carbon black (20 wt%) and a few drops of polyvinyl alcohol (5 wt%) aqueous solution. The powder mixture were packed into stainless steel mold (13 mm) and uniaxially pressed into disk shape under a pressure of 20 MPa for 1 minute. PLNCG, LSTF and CSTF disks were calcined in air for 6 h at 1473, 1573 and 1473 K, respectively. The carbonate mixture (Li2CO3/Na2CO3/K2CO3: 42.5/32.5/25 in mole percent ratio) was placed inside a crucible and heated to 793 K. Porous substrates were infiltrated with the molten carbonate mixture at 793 K. Crystalline structures of the fresh membranes and after the infiltration with the molten carbonate mixtures were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement. We confirmed the crystal structure of PLNCG and CSTF slightly changed after infiltration with the molten carbonate mixture. CO2 permeation experiments with PLNCG-carbonate, LSTF-carbonate and CSTF-carbonate membranes were carried out at 773-1173 K. The gas mixture of CO2 (20 mol%) and He was introduced at the flow rate of 50 ml/min to one side of membrane. The permeated CO2 was swept by N2 (50 ml/min). We confirmed the effect of ceramic materials and temperature on the CO2 permeation at high temperature.

Keywords: membrane, perovskite structure, dual-phase, carbonate

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624 Ultrathin Tin-Silicalite 1 Zeolite Membrane in Ester Solvent Recovery

Authors: Kun Liang Ang, Eng Toon Saw, Wei He, Xuecheng Dong, Seeram Ramakrishna


Ester solvents are widely used in pharmaceutical, printing and flavor industry due to their good miscibility, low toxicity, and high volatility. Through pervaporation, these ester solvents can be recovered from industrial wastewater. While metal-doped silicalite 1 zeolite membranes are commonly used in organic solvent recovery in the pervaporation process, these ceramic membranes suffer from low membrane permeation flux, mainly due to the high thickness of the metal-doped zeolite membrane. Herein, a simple method of fabricating an ultrathin tin-silicalite 1 membrane supported on alumina tube is reported. This ultrathin membrane is able to achieve high permeation flux and separation factor for an ester in a diluted aqueous solution. Nanosized tin-Silicalite 1 seeds which are smaller than 500nm has been formed through hydrothermal synthesis. The sn-Silicalite 1 seeds were then seeded onto alumina tube through dip coating, and the tin-Silicalite 1 membrane was then formed by hydrothermal synthesis in an autoclave through secondary growth method. Multiple membrane synthesis factors such as seed size, ceramic substrate surface pore size selection, and secondary growth conditions were studied for their effects on zeolite membrane growth. The microstructure, morphology and the membrane thickness of tin-Silicalite 1 zeolite membrane were examined. The membrane separation performance and stability will also be reported.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, pervaporation, solvent recovery, Sn-MFI zeolite

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623 Hybrid Treatment Method for Decolorization of Mixed Dyes: Rhodamine-B, Brilliant Green and Congo Red

Authors: D. Naresh Yadav, K. Anand Kishore, Bhaskar Bethi, Shirish H. Sonawane, D. Bhagawan


The untreated industrial wastewater discharged into the environment causes the contamination of soil, water and air. Advanced treatment methods for enhanced wastewater treatment are attracting substantial interest among the currently employed unit processes in wastewater treatment. The textile industry is one of the predominant in wastewater production at current industrialized situation. The refused dyes at textile industry need to be treated in proper manner before its discharge into water bodies. In the present investigation, hybrid treatment process has been developed for the treatment of synthetic mixed dye wastewater. Photocatalysis and ceramic nanoporous membrane are mainly used for process integration to minimize the fouling and increase the flux. Commercial semiconducting powders (TiO2 and ZnO) has used as a nano photocatalyst for the degradation of mixed dye in the hybrid system. Commercial ceramic nanoporous tubular membranes have been used for the rejection of dye and suspended catalysts. Photocatalysis with catalyst has shown the average of 34% of decolorization (RB-32%, BG-34% and CR-36%), whereas ceramic nanofiltration has shown the 56% (RB-54%, BG-56% and CR-58%) of decolorization. Integration of photocatalysis and ceramic nanofiltration has shown 96% (RB-94%, BG-96% and CR-98%) of dye decolorization over 90 min of operation.

Keywords: photocatalysis, ceramic nanoporous membrane, wastewater treatment, advanced oxidation process, process integration

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622 Modeling of the Pores Form Influence on the Hydraulic Resistance of Membranes and Their Permeability

Authors: Zhanat Umarova


Until the present time, modeling of the pores form influence on the hydraulic resistance of membranes and their permeability has not been analyzed. The aim of the given work is the theoretical consideration of the issue on the productivity of polymer membranes with the profile pores and determination of the optimum form of pores.

Keywords: modeling, polymer membranes, permeability, pore’s density

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621 Ceramic Membrane Filtration Technologies for Oilfield Produced Water Treatment

Authors: Mehrdad Ebrahimi, Oliver Schmitz, Axel Schmidt, Peter Czermak


“Produced water” (PW) is any fossil water that is brought to the surface along with crude oil or natural gas. By far, PW is the largest waste stream by volume associated with oil and gas production operations. Due to the increasing volume of waste all over the world in the current decade, the outcome and effect of discharging PW on the environment has lately become a significant issue of environmental concerns. Therefore, there is a need for new technologies for PW treatment due to increase focus on water conservation and environmental regulation. The use of membrane processes for treatment of PW has several advantages over many of the traditional separation techniques. In oilfield produced water treatment with ceramic membranes, process efficiency is characterized by the specific permeate flux and by the oil separation performance. Apart from the membrane properties, the permeate flux during filtration of oily wastewaters is known to be strongly dependent on the constituents of the feed solution, as well as on process conditions, e.g. trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and cross-flow velocity (CFV). The research project presented in these report describes the application of different ceramic membrane filtration technologies for the efficient treatment of oil-field produced water and different model oily solutions.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, membrane fouling, oil rejection, produced water treatment

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620 Prussian Blue/Chitosan Mixed-Matrix Membranes with Improved Separation Performance of Ethanol/Water Mixtures

Authors: Ting-YuLiu, Yi-Feng Lin


Porous Prussian Blue (PB) nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into chitosan (CS) membranes to form PB/CS mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) and the as-prepared PB/CS MMMs were used to dehydration of ethanol at 25 oC in the pervaporation process. The effect of PB loading in CS matrix on pervaporation performance was investigated. The FESEM, EDS, FTIR and XRD measurements were also used for the characterization of the PB/CS MMMs. The PB/CS membranes with 30 wt% PB loading show the best performance with the permeate flux of 614 g/m2h and the separation factor of 1472. The pervaporation using the PB/CS membranes exhibits outstanding performance as compared with the previously reported CS based membranes and MMMs. The present work demonstrates good pervaporation performance of the PB/CS MMMs for the separation of 90wt% ethanol aqueous solution, moreover, it has an opportunity for dehydration of bioethanol in this system of pervaporation.

Keywords: pervaporation, chitosan, Prussian blue, mixed-matrix membrane

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619 Using Nanofiber-Like Attapulgite Microfiltration Membranes to Treat Oily Wastewater

Authors: Shouyong Zhou, Meisheng Li, Yijiang Zhao


The environmentally acceptable disposal of oily wastewater is a current challenge to many industries. The membrane separation technologies, which is no phase change, without pharmaceutical dosing, reprocessing costs low, less energy consumption, etc., have been widely applied in oily wastewater treatment. In our lab, a kind of low cost ceramic microfiltration membranes with a separation layer of attapulgite nanofibers (attapulgite nanofiber-like microfiltration membranes) has been prepared and applied in the purification of cellulase fermentation broth and TiO2 nanoparticles system successfully. In this paper, this new attapulgite nanofiber-like microfiltration membrane was selected to try to separate water from oily wastewater. The oil-in water emulsion was obtained from mixing 1 g/L engine oil, 0.5 g/L Tween-80, 0.5 g/L Span-80 and distilled water at mild speed in blender for 2 min. The particle size distribution of the oil-in-water emulsion was controlled. The maximum steady flux and COD rejection for a 0.2 um attapulgite nanofiber-like microfiltration membrane can reach about 450 L. m-2. h-1 and 98% at 0.2 MPa. The results obtained in this work indicated that the attapulgite microfiltration membrane may represent a feasible pretreatment for oily wastewater.

Keywords: attapulgite, microfiltration membrane, oily wastewater, cross-flow filtration

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618 Synthesis of Electrospun Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/Polyvinylidene Fluoriure (PVDF) Nanofibrous Membranes for CO₂ Capture

Authors: Wen-Wen Wang, Qian Ye, Yi-Feng Lin


Carbon dioxide emissions are expected to increase continuously, resulting in climate change and global warming. As a result, CO₂ capture has attracted a large amount of research attention. Among the various CO₂ capture methods, membrane technology has proven to be highly efficient in capturing CO₂, because it can be scaled up, low energy consumptions and small area requirements for use by the gas separation. Various nanofibrous membranes were successfully prepared by a simple electrospinning process. The membrane contactor combined with chemical absorption and membrane process in the post-combustion CO₂ capture is used in this study. In a membrane contactor system, the highly porous and water-repellent nanofibrous membranes were used as a gas-liquid interface in a membrane contactor system for CO₂ absorption. In this work, we successfully prepared the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) porous membranes with an electrospinning process. Afterwards, the as-prepared water-repellent PVDF porous membranes were used for the CO₂ capture application. However, the pristine PVDF nanofibrous membranes were wetted by the amine absorbents, resulting in the decrease in the CO₂ absorption flux, the hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials were added into the PVDF nanofibrous membranes to improve the solvent resistance of the membranes. To increase the hydrophobic properties and CO₂ absorption flux, more hydrophobic surfaces of the PDMS/PVDF nanofibrous membranes are obtained by the grafting of fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) on the membranes surface. Furthermore, the highest CO₂ absorption flux of the PDMS/PVDF nanofibrous membranes is reached after the FAS modification with four times. The PDMS/PVDF nanofibrous membranes with 60 wt% PDMS addition can be a long and continuous operation of the CO₂ absorption and regeneration experiments. It demonstrates the as-prepared PDMS/PVDF nanofibrous membranes could potentially be used for large-scale CO₂ absorption during the post-combustion process in power plants.

Keywords: CO₂ capture, electrospinning process, membrane contactor, nanofibrous membranes, PDMS/PVDF

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617 Chemical Stability and Characterization of Ion Exchange Membranes for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

Authors: Min-Hwa Lim, Mi-Jeong Park, Ho-Young Jung


Imidazolium-brominated polyphenylene oxide (Im-bPPO) is based on the functionalization of bromomethylated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO) using 1-Methylimdazole. For the purpose of long cycle life of vanadium redox battery (VRB), the chemical stability of Im-bPPO, sPPO (sulfonated 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and Fumatech membranes were evaluated firstly in the 0.1M vanadium (V) solution dissolved in 3M sulfuric acid (H2SO4) for 72h, and UV analyses of the degradation products proved that ether bond in PPO backbone was vulnerable to be attacked by vanadium (V) ion. It was found that the membranes had slightly weight loss after soaking in 2 ml distilled water included in STS pressure vessel for 1 day at 200◦C. ATR-FT-IR data indicated before and after the degradation of the membranes. Further evaluation on the degradation mechanism of the menbranes were carried out in Fenton’s reagent solution for 72 h at 50 ◦C and analyses of the membranes before and after degradation confirmed the weight loss of the membranes. The Fumatech membranes exhibited better performance than AEM and CEM, but Nafion 212 still suffers chemical degradation.

Keywords: vanadium redox flow battery, ion exchange membrane, permeability, degradation, chemical stability

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616 Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan / Polyacrylic Acid / Ag-nanoparticles Composite Membranes

Authors: Abdel-Mohdy, A. Abou-Okeil, S. El-Sabagh, S. M. El-Sawy


Chitosan polyacrylic acid composite membranes were prepared by a bulk polymerization method in the presence of N, N'-methylene bisacrylamide (crosslinker) and ammonium persulphate as initiator. Membranes prepared from this copolymer in presence and absence of Ag nanoparticles were characterized by measuring mechanical and physical properties, water up-take and antibacterial properties. The results obtained indicated that the prepared membranes have antibacterial properties which increases with adding Ag nanoparticles.

Keywords: Ag nanoparticles , antimicrobial, Membrane, composites, mechanical properties, physical properties

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615 Fabrication of a High-Performance Polyetherimide Membrane for Helium Separation

Authors: Y. Alqaheem, A. Alomair, F. Altarkait, F. Alswaileh, Nusrat Tanoli


Helium market is continuously growing due to its essential uses in the electronic and healthcare sectors. Currently, helium is produced by cryogenic distillation but the process is uneconomical especially for low production volumes. On the other hand, polymeric membranes can provide a cost-effective solution for helium purification due to their low operating energy. However, the preparation of membranes involves the use of very toxic solvents such as chloroform. In this work, polyetherimide membranes were prepared using a less toxic solvent, n-methylpyrrolidone with a polymer-to-solvent ratio of 27 wt%. The developed membrane showed a superior helium permeability of 15.9 Barrer that surpassed the permeability of membranes made by chloroform.

Keywords: helium separation, polyetherimide, dense membrane, gas permeability

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614 In-situ Performance of Pre-applied Bonded Waterproofing Membranes at Contaminated Test Slabs

Authors: Ulli Heinlein, Thomas Freimann


Pre-applied bonded membranes are used as positive-side waterproofing on concrete basements, are installed before the concrete work, and achieve a tear-resistant and waterproof bond with the subsequently placed fresh concrete. This bond increases redundancy compared to lose waterproofing membranes by preventing lateral water migrations in the event of damage. So far, the membranes have been tested in the laboratory, but it is not yet known how they behave on construction sites in the presence of dirt, soil, cement paste or moisture. This article, therefore, conducts investigations on six construction sites using 18 test slabs where the pre-applied bonded membranes are selectively contaminated or wetted. Subsequently, cores are taken, and the influence of the contaminations on the adhesive tensile strength and waterproof bond is tested. Pre-applied bonded membranes with smooth or granular but closed surfaces show no sensitivity to wetness, whereas open-pored membranes with nonwovens do not tolerate standing water. Contaminations decline the performance of all pre-applied bonded membranes since a separating layer is formed between the bonding layer and the concrete. The influence depends on the thickness of the contamination and its mechanical properties.

Keywords: waterproofing, positive-side waterproofing, basement, pre-applied bonded waterproofing membrane, In-situ testing, lateral water migrations

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613 Technological Properties and Characterization of Ceramic Slurries Based on Yttrium Iii Oxide for Shell Moulds Preparation

Authors: D. Jakubowska, M. Malek, P. Wisniewski, J. Mizera, K. J. Kurzydlowski


The goal of this study was to analyze the technological properties of ceramic slurries based on Ytttria (Y2O3) for fabrication “prime coat” in ceramic shell moulds for investment casting process. The Yttria with two different granulation of (200# and 325#) in ratio-65%-35% by weight were used for preparation the ceramic slurries. Solid phase was 77 wt.%. The experiment was carried out for 96h. Main technological properties like: viscosity, pH, plate weight test, and density were measured every 24h. Additionally, dynamic viscosity was performed after 96h of test. For further material characterization SEM observations, Zeta potential, XRD measurements were done. Those research showed that Yttria ceramic slurries had very promising properties and there are perspective for future fabrication.

Keywords: ceramic slurries, mechanizal properties, viscosity, fabrication

Procedia PDF Downloads 402