Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Selin Top

15 Precarious Employment Experience; Developing a Precariousness Scale

Authors: Gul Selin Erben

Abstract:

Precariousness can be evaluated as the new employment climate of the neo-liberal employment markets. As the word refers to a new mode of employment experience and working practices, it was felt as a necessity to reveal the basic characteristics of this kind of employment experience. Furthermore, according to the literature, precarious employment practices have some negative outcomes such as alienation, sense of anger, and anomy. Thus, it has quite significant to reveal the conditions' characteristics and practices of precarious employment. This study has the purpose to develop an instrument which measures the precarious employment practices. In order to develop a precariousness scale, the relevant literature was examined, and 30 statements were established as a result of the literature review. The development and validation of the scale were done by a sample of 123 individuals who work in different sectors in İstanbul as a white color employee. Convenience sampling was used as a sampling methodology. Reliability and factor analysis were conducted. As a result of the exploratory factor analysis, 3 dimensions were gathered.

Keywords: employment, employment experience, precariousness, scale development

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14 Bringing Ethics to a Violent System

Authors: Zeynep Selin Acar

Abstract:

In international system, there has always been a cycle of violence, war and peace. As there travels the time, after Christianity and later Just War theorists, international relations theorists have been tried to limit violence and war. As pieces of international law, Peace of Augsburg, Kellog-Briand Pact, League of Nations Covenant and UN Charter were and are still not effective to prevent war. Moreover, in order to find a way around these rules, it is believed that a new excuse started to be used instead of violence or war, humanitarian intervention. However, it has neither a legal nor a universally accepted framework. As a result, it is open to be manipulated by states. In order to prevent this, Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) which gives a state the responsibility to protect its citizens against violence, is created. Additionally, RtoP transfers this responsibility to regional or international group of states at the time when a state is the origin of violence. In the lights of these, this paper analyzes RtoP as an ethical approach to war and peace studies because it provides other states as guardians and care-takers of people who do not belong to them or do not share any togetherness.

Keywords: ethics, humanitarian intervention, responsibility to protect, UN charter

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13 Generalized Additive Model Approach for the Chilean Hake Population in a Bio-Economic Context

Authors: Selin Guney, Andres Riquelme

Abstract:

The traditional bio-economic method for fisheries modeling uses some estimate of the growth parameters and the system carrying capacity from a biological model for the population dynamics (usually a logistic population growth model) which is then analyzed as a traditional production function. The stock dynamic is transformed into a revenue function and then compared with the extraction costs to estimate the maximum economic yield. In this paper, the logistic population growth model for the population is combined with a forecast of the abundance and location of the stock by using a generalized additive model approach. The paper focuses on the Chilean hake population. This method allows for the incorporation of climatic variables and the interaction with other marine species, which in turn will increase the reliability of the estimates and generate better extraction paths for different conservation objectives, such as the maximum biological yield or the maximum economic yield.

Keywords: bio-economic, fisheries, GAM, production

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12 A Light in the Road of Protection of Civilians: Responsibility to Protect

Authors: Zeynep Selin Acar

Abstract:

In the world of wars, it is aimed to find ways to protect civilians propound by political elites. Current threats may come from edges of the security concerns, meaning uncontrollable terrorist groups, unanticipated government-supported armed groups or separatists, and unimaginable merge of the previous with foreign supports or oppositions of which could flow into all groups– flaws of international state system. These threats resulted in transformation of inter-state system into a world system with distinctive actors and brought along the changes in strategic plans of political and military bodies, as well as adaptations of principles framing the strategies in terms of may-be-applicable international law constrained by ethical considerations. This paper aims to analyse the Responsibility to Protect (RtoP), being one of those, with its criteria aiming to regulate military interventions taking the protection of civilians both as the reason for intervention, jus ad bellum or right to war, and as the duties during the intervention, jus in bello or how to conduct the war. In addition it will discuss the rise of its bindingness in terms of Responsibility Not to Veto (RNtoV), Franco/Mexican Political Declaration opened in signature for UN member states on September 2015.

Keywords: civilian protection, protection as responsibility, responsibility to protect, responsibility not to veto

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11 Experimental and Computational Analysis of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic Beams with Piezoelectric Fibers

Authors: Selin Kunc, Srinivas Koushik Gundimeda, John A. Gallagher, Roselita Fragoudakis

Abstract:

This study investigates the behavior of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) laminated beams additionally reinforced with piezoelectric fibers. The electromechanical behavior of piezoelectric materials coupled with high strength/low weight GFRP laminated beams can have significant application in a wide range of industries. Energy scavenging through mechanical vibrations is the focus of this study, and possible applications can be seen in the automotive industry. This study examines the behavior of such composite laminates using Classical Lamination Theory (CLT) under three-point bending conditions. Fiber orientation is optimized for the desired stiffness and deflection that yield maximum energy output. Finite element models using ABAQUS/CAE are verified through experimental testing. The optimum stacking sequences examined are [0o]s, [ 0/45o]s, and [45/-45o]s. Results show the superiority of the stacking sequence [0/45o]s, providing higher strength at a lower weight, and maximum energy output. Furthermore, laminated GFRP beams additionally reinforced with piezoelectric fibers can be used under bending to not only replace metallic component while providing similar strength at a lower weight but also provide an energy output.

Keywords: classical lamination theory (CLT), energy scavenging, glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP), piezoelectric fibers

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10 Effects of Tomato-Crispy Salad Intercropping on Diameter of Tomato Fruits under Greenhouse Conditions

Authors: Halil Demir, Ersin Polat

Abstract:

This study, in which crispy salad plants was cultivated between the two rows of tomato, was conducted in Spring 2007 in a research glasshouse at Akdeniz University. Crispy salad (Lactuca sativa var. crispa cv. Bohemia) plants were intercropped with tomato (Solanum lycopersicon cv. Selin F1) plants as the main crop. Tomato seedlings were planted according to double line plantation system with 100 cm large spacing, 50 cm narrow spacing and 50 cm within row plant spacing. In both control and intercropping applications, each plot was 9.75 m2 according to plantation distances and there were 26 plants per each plot for tomato. Crispy salad seedlings were planted with 30 cm spacing as one row in the middle of tomato plants and with 30x30 spacing as two rows between plants rows. Moreover, salad seedlings were transplanted between tomato plants above the tomato rows that were planted in two rows with intervals of 50 cm and also with 25x25 cm spacing as the third row in the middle of tomato rows. While tomato plants were growing during the research, fruit width and height were measured periodically with 15 days in the tomato fruits of the third cluster from the formation of fruit to fruit ripening. According to results, while there were no differences between cropping systems in terms of fruit width, the highest fruit height was found in Control trial in the first measurement. In the second measurement while the highest fruit width was determined with 64.39 mm in Control, there were no differences between cropping systems. In the third measurement, the highest fruit width and height were obtained from Control with 68.47 mm and 55.52 mm, respectively. As a conclusion the trial, which crispy salad seedlings were planted with 30x30 cm spacing as two rows between tomato plants rows, was determined as a best intercropping application.

Keywords: crispy salad, glasshouse, intercropping, tomato

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9 The Factors That Influence the Self-Sufficiency and the Self-Efficacy Levels among Oncology Patients

Authors: Esra Danaci, Tugba Kavalali Erdogan, Sevil Masat, Selin Keskin Kiziltepe, Tugba Cinarli, Zeliha Koc

Abstract:

This study was conducted in a descriptive and cross-sectional manner to determine that factors that influence the self-efficacy and self-sufficiency levels among oncology patients. The research was conducted between January 24, 2017 and September 24, 2017 in the oncology and hematology departments of a university hospital in Turkey with 179 voluntary inpatients. The data were collected through the Self-Sufficiency/Self-Efficacy Scale and a 29-question survey, which was prepared in order to determine the sociodemographic and clinical properties of the patients. The Self-Sufficiency/Self-Efficacy Scale is a Likert-type scale with 23 articles. The scale scores range between 23 and 115. A high final score indicates a good self-sufficiency/self-efficacy perception for the individual. The data were analyzed using percentage analysis, one-way ANOVA, Mann Whitney U-test, Kruskal Wallis test and Tukey test. The demographic data of the subjects were as follows: 57.5% were male and 42.5% were female, 82.7% were married, 46.4% were primary school graduate, 36.3% were housewives, 19% were employed, 93.3% had social security, 52.5% had matching expenses and incomes, 49.2% lived in the center of the city. The mean age was 57.1±14.6. It was determined that 22.3% of the patients had lung cancer, 19.6% had leukemia, and 43.6% had a good overall condition. The mean self-sufficiency/self-efficacy score was 83,00 (41-115). It was determined that the patients' self-sufficiency/self-efficacy scores were influenced by some of their socio-demographic and clinical properties. This study has found that the patients had high self-sufficiency/self-efficacy scores. It is recommended that the nursing care plans should be developed to improve their self-sufficiency/self-efficacy levels in the light of the patients' sociodemographic and clinical properties.

Keywords: oncology, patient, self-efficacy, self-sufficiency

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8 Rethinking the Smartness for Sustainable Development Through the Relationship between Public and Private Actors

Authors: Selin Tosun

Abstract:

The improvements in technology have started to transform the way we live, work, play, and commute in our cities. The emerging smart city understanding has been paving the way for more efficient, more useful, and more profitable cities. Smart sensors, smart lighting, smart waste, water and electricity management, smart transportation and communication systems are introduced to cities at a rapid pace. In today's world, innovation is often correlated with start-up companies and technological pioneers seeking broader economic objectives such as production and competitiveness. The government's position is primarily that of an enabler, with creativity mostly coming from the private sector. The paper argues that to achieve sustainable development, the ways in which smart and sustainable city approaches are being applied to cities need to be redefined. The research aims to address common discussions in the discourse of smart and sustainable cities criticizing the priority of lifestyle sterilization over human-centered sustainable interventions and social innovation strategies. The dichotomy between the fact that smart cities are mostly motivated by the competitive global market and the fact that the delocalization is, in fact, their biggest problem in the way of becoming authentic, sustainable cities is the main challenge that we face today. In other words, the key actors in smart cities have different and somewhat conflicting interests and demands. By reviewing the roles of the public and private actors in smart city making, the paper aspires to reconceptualize the understanding of “smartness” in achieving sustainable development in which the “smartness” is understood as a multi-layered complex phenomenon that can be channeled through different dynamics. The case cities around the world are explored and compared in terms of their technological innovations, governance and policy innovations, public-private stakeholder relationships, and the understanding of the public realm. The study aims to understand the current trends and general dynamics in the field, key issues that are being addressed, the scale that is preferred to reflect upon and the projects that are designed for the particular issues.

Keywords: smart city, sustainable development, technological innovation, social innovation

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7 The Effect of Bihemisferic Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Therapy on Upper Extremity Motor Functions in Stroke Patients

Authors: Dilek Cetin Alisar, Oya Umit Yemisci, Selin Ozen, Seyhan Sozay

Abstract:

New approaches and treatment modalities are being developed to make patients more functional and independent in stroke rehabilitation. One of these approaches is transcranial direct stimulation therapy (tDCS), which aims to improve the hemiplegic upper limb function of stroke patients. tDCS therapy is not in the routine rehabilitation program; however, the studies about tDCS therapy on stroke rehabilitation was increased in recent years. Evaluate the effect of tDCS treatment on upper extremity motor function in patients with subacute stroke was aimed in our study. 32 stroke patients (16 tDCS group, 16 sham groups) who were hospitalized for rehabilitation in Başkent University Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic between 01.08.2016-20.01-2018 were included in the study. The conventional upper limb rehabilitation program was used for both tDCS and control group patients for 3 weeks, 5 days a week, for 60-120 minutes a day. In addition to the conventional stroke rehabilitation program in the tDAS group, bihemispheric tDCS was administered for 30 minutes daily. Patients were evaluated before treatment and after 1 week of treatment. Functional independence measure self-care score (FIM), Brunnstorm Recovery Stage (BRS), and Fugl-Meyer (FM) upper extremity motor function scale were used. There was no difference in demographic characteristics between the groups. There were no significant differences between BRS and FM scores in two groups, but there was a significant difference FIM score (p=0.05. FIM, BRS, and FM scores are significantly in the tDCS group, when before therapy and after 1 week of therapy, however, no difference is found in the shame group (p < 0,001). When FBS and FM scores were compared, there were statistical significant differences in tDCS group (p < 0,001). In conclusion, this randomized double-blind study showed that bihemispheric tDCS treatment was found to be superior to upper extremity motor and functional enhancement in addition to conventional rehabilitation methods in subacute stroke patients. In order for tDCS therapy to be used routinely in stroke rehabilitation, there is a need for more comprehensive, long-termed, randomized controlled clinical trials in order to find answers to many questions, such as the duration and intensity of treatment.

Keywords: cortical stimulation, motor function, rehabilitation, stroke

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6 Sympathetic Skin Response and Reaction Times in Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis; An Overlooked Electrodiagnostic Study

Authors: Oya Umit Yemisci, Nur Saracgil Cosar, Tubanur Ozturk Sisman, Selin Ozen

Abstract:

Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) may result in a wide spectrum of reversible abnormalities in the neuromuscular function. Usually, proximal muscle-related symptoms and neuropathic findings such as mild axonal peripheral neuropathy have been reported. Sympathetic skin responses are useful in evaluating sudomotor activity of the unmyelinated sympathetic fibers of the autonomic nervous system. Neurocognitive impairment may also be a prominent feature of hypothyroidism, particularly in elderly patients. Electromyographic reaction times as a highly sensitive parameter provides. Objective data concerning cognitive and motor functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate peripheral nerve functions, sympathetic skin response and electroneuromyographic (ENMG) reaction times in euthyroid and subclinically hypothyroid patients with a diagnosis of AIT and compare to those of a control group. Thirty-five euthyroid, 19 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and 35 age and sex-matched healthy subjects were included in the study. Motor and sensory nerve conduction studies, sympathetic skin responses recorded from hand and foot by stimulating contralateral median nerve and simple reaction times by stimulating tibial nerve and recording from extensor indicis proprius muscle were performed to all patients and control group. Only median nerve sensory conduction velocities of the forearm were slower in patients with AIT compared to the control group (p=0.019). Otherwise, nerve conduction studies and sympathetic skin responses showed no significant difference between the patients and the control group. However, reaction times were shorter in the healthy subjects compared to AIT patients. Prolongation in the reaction times may be considered as a parameter reflecting the alterations in the cognitive functions related to the primary disease process in AIT. Combining sympathetic skin responses with more quantitative tests such as cardiovascular tests and sudomotor axon reflex testing may allow us to determine higher rates of involvement of the autonomic nervous system in AIT.

Keywords: sympathetic skin response, simple reaction time, chronic autoimmune thyroiditis

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5 Methodological Approach for Historical Building Retrofit Based on Energy and Cost Analysis in the Different Climatic Zones

Authors: Selin Guleroglu, Ilker Kahraman, E. Selahattin Umdu

Abstract:

In today’s world, the building sector has a significant impact on primary energy consumption and CO₂ emissions. While new buildings must have high energy performance as indicated by the Energy Performance Directive in Buildings (EPBD), published by the European Union (EU), the energy performance of the existing buildings must also be enhanced with cost-efficient methods. Turkey has a high historical building density similar to south European countries, and the high energy consumption is the main contributor in the energy consumptioın of Turkey, which is rather higher than European counterparts. Historic buildings spread around Turkey for four main climate zones covering very similar climate characteristics to both the north and south European countries. The case study building is determined as the most common building type in Turkey. This study aims to investigate energy retrofit measures covering but not limited to passive and active measures to improve the energy performance of the historical buildings located in different climatic zones within the limits of preservation of the historical value of the building as a crucial constraint. Passive measures include wall, window, and roof construction elements, and active measures HVAC systems in retrofit scenarios. The proposed methodology can help to reach up to 30% energy saving based on primary energy consumption. DesignBuilder, an energy simulation tool, is used to determine the energy performance of buildings with suggested retrofit measures, and the Net Present Value (NPV) method is used for cost analysis of them. Finally, the most efficient energy retrofit measures for all buildings are determined by analyzing primary energy consumption and the cost performance of them. Results show that heat insulation, glazing type, and HVAC system has an important role in energy saving. Also, it found that these parameters have a different positive or negative effect on building energy consumption in different climate zones. For instance, low e glazing has a positive impact on the energy performance of the building in the first zone, while it has a negative effect on the building in the forth zone. Another important result is applying heat insulation has minimum impact on building energy performance compared to other zones.

Keywords: energy performance, climatic zones, historic building, energy retrofit measures, NPV

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4 Hospital Wastewater Treatment by Ultrafiltration Membrane System

Authors: Selin Top, Raul Marcos, M. Sinan Bilgili

Abstract:

Although there have been several studies related to collection, temporary storage, handling and disposal of solid wastes generated by hospitals, there are only a few studies related to liquid wastes generated by hospitals or hospital wastewaters. There is an important amount of water consumptions in hospitals. While minimum domestic water consumption per person is 100 L/day, water consumption per bed in hospitals is generally ranged between 400-1200 L. This high amount of consumption causes high amount of wastewater. The quantity of wastewater produced in a hospital depends on different factors: bed numbers, hospital age, accessibility to water, general services present inside the structure (kitchen, laundry, laboratory, diagnosis, radiology, and air conditioning), number and type of wards and units, institution management policies and awareness in managing the structure in safeguarding the environment, climate and cultural and geographic factors. In our country, characterization of hospital wastewaters conducted by classical parameters in a very few studies. However, as mentioned above, this type of wastewaters may contain different compounds than domestic wastewaters. Hospital Wastewater (HWW) is wastewater generated from all activities of the hospital, medical and non medical. Nowadays, hospitals are considered as one of the biggest sources of wastewater along with urban sources, agricultural effluents and industrial sources. As a health-care waste, hospital wastewater has the same quality as municipal wastewater, but may also potentially contain various hazardous components due to using disinfectants, pharmaceuticals, radionuclides and solvents making not suitable the connection of hospital wastewater to the municipal sewage network. These characteristics may represent a serious health hazard and children, adults and animals all have the potential to come into contact with this water. Therefore, the treatment of hospital wastewater is an important current interest point to focus on. This paper aims to approach on the investigation of hospital wastewater treatment by membrane systems. This study aim is to determined hospital wastewater’s characterization and also evaluates the efficiency of hospital wastewater treatment by high pressure filtration systems such as ultrafiltration (UF). Hospital wastewater samples were taken directly from sewage system from Şişli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, located in the district of Şişli, in the European part of Istanbul. The hospital is a 784 bed tertiary care center with a daily outpatient department of 3850 patients. Ultrafiltration membrane is used as an experimental treatment and the influence of the pressure exerted on the membranes was examined, ranging from 1 to 3 bar. The permeate flux across the membrane was observed to define the flooding membrane points. The global COD and BOD5 removal efficiencies were 54% and 75% respectively for ultrafiltration, all the SST removal efficiencies were above 90% and a successful removal of the pathological bacteria measured was achieved.

Keywords: hospital wastewater, membrane, ultrafiltration, treatment

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3 Changes in Attitudes of State Towards Orthodox Church: Greek Case after Eurozone Crisis in Alexis Tsipras Era

Authors: Zeynep Selin Balci, Altug Gunal

Abstract:

Religion has always an effect on the policies of states. In the case of religion having a central role in defining identity, especially when becoming an independent state, the bond between religious authority and state cannot easily be broken. As independence of Greece from the Ottoman Empire was acquired at the same time with the creation of its own church under the name of the Church of Greece by declaring its independence from the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate in Istanbul, the new church became an important part of Greek national identity. As the Church has the ability to influence Greeks, its rituals, public appearances, and practices are used to provide support to the state. Although there sometimes have been controversies between church and state, it has always been a fact that church is an integral part of the state, which is proved by that paying the salaries of priest by state payroll and them being naturally civil servants. European Union membership, on the other hand, has a changing impact on this relationship. This impact started to be more visible in 2000 when then government decided to exclude the religion section from identity cards. Church’s reaction was to gather people around recalling their religious identity and followed by redefining the content of nationality, which aspired nationalist fronts. After 2015 when leftist coalition Syriza and its self-described atheist leader came to power, the situation for nationalists and Church became more tangling in addition to the economic crisis started in 2010 and evolved into the Eurozone crisis by affecting not only Greece but also other members. Although the church did not have direct confrontations with the government, the fact that Tsipras refused to take the oath on Bible created tensions because it was not acceptable for a state whose Constitution starts ‘in the name of the Holy, Consubstantial and Indivisible Trinity’. Moreover, austerity measures to overcome the economic crisis, which affected the everyday life of citizens in terms of both prices and salaries, did not harm the church’s economic situation much. Considering church being the second biggest landowner after state and paying no taxes, the fact that church was exempt from austerity measures showed to the government the necessity to find a way to make church contribute to solution for the crisis. In 2018, when the government agreed with the head of the church on cutting off the priests from government payroll automatically meaning to end priests’ civil servant status, it created tensions both for church and in society. As a result of the elections held in July 2019, Tsipras could not have the chance to apply the decision as he left the office. In light of these, this study aims to analyze the position of the church in the economic crisis and its effects on Tsipras term. In order to sufficiently understand this, it is to look at the historical changing points of Church’s influence in Greek’s eyes.

Keywords: Eurozone crisis, Greece, Orthodox Church, Tsipras

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2 Pre-Industrial Local Architecture According to Natural Properties

Authors: Selin Küçük

Abstract:

Pre-industrial architecture is integration of natural and subsequent properties by intelligence and experience. Since various settlements relatively industrialized or non-industrialized at any time, ‘pre-industrial’ term does not refer to a definite time. Natural properties, which are existent conditions and materials in natural local environment, are climate, geomorphology and local materials. Subsequent properties, which are all anthropological comparatives, are culture of societies, requirements of people and construction techniques that people use. Yet, after industrialization, technology took technique’s place, cultural effects are manipulated, requirements are changed and local/natural properties are almost disappeared in architecture. Technology is universal, global and expands simply; conversely technique is time and experience dependent and should has a considerable cultural background. This research is about construction techniques according to natural properties of a region and classification of these techniques. Understanding local architecture is only possible by searching its background which is hard to reach. There are always changes in positive and negative in architectural techniques through the time. Archaeological layers of a region sometimes give more accurate information about transformation of architecture. However, natural properties of any region are the most helpful elements to perceive construction techniques. Many international sources from different cultures are interested in local architecture by mentioning natural properties separately. Unfortunately, there is no literature deals with this subject as far as systematically in the correct way. This research aims to improve a clear perspective of local architecture existence by categorizing archetypes according to natural properties. The ultimate goal of this research is generating a clear classification of local architecture independent from subsequent (anthropological) properties over the world such like a handbook. Since local architecture is the most sustainable architecture with refer to its economic, ecologic and sociological properties, there should be an excessive information about construction techniques to be learned from. Constructing the same buildings in all over the world is one of the main criticism of modern architectural system. While this critics going on, the same buildings without identity increase incrementally. In post-industrial term, technology widely took technique’s place, yet cultural effects are manipulated, requirements are changed and natural local properties are almost disappeared in architecture. These study does not offer architects to use local techniques, but it indicates the progress of pre-industrial architectural evolution which is healthier, cheaper and natural. Immigration from rural areas to developing/developed cities should be prohibited, thus culture and construction techniques can be preserved. Since big cities have psychological, sensational and sociological impact on people, rural settlers can be convinced to not to immigrate by providing new buildings designed according to natural properties and maintaining their settlements. Improving rural conditions would remove the economical and sociological gulf between cities and rural. What result desired to arrived in, is if there is no deformation (adaptation process of another traditional buildings because of immigration) or assimilation in a climatic region, there should be very similar solutions in the same climatic regions of the world even if there is no relationship (trade, communication etc.) among them.

Keywords: climate zones, geomorphology, local architecture, local materials

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1 Fuzzy Time Series- Markov Chain Method for Corn and Soybean Price Forecasting in North Carolina Markets

Authors: Selin Guney, Andres Riquelme

Abstract:

Among the main purposes of optimal and efficient forecasts of agricultural commodity prices is to guide the firms to advance the economic decision making process such as planning business operations and marketing decisions. Governments are also the beneficiaries and suppliers of agricultural price forecasts. They use this information to establish a proper agricultural policy, and hence, the forecasts affect social welfare and systematic errors in forecasts could lead to a misallocation of scarce resources. Various empirical approaches have been applied to forecast commodity prices that have used different methodologies. Most commonly-used approaches to forecast commodity sectors depend on classical time series models that assume values of the response variables are precise which is quite often not true in reality. Recently, this literature has mostly evolved to a consideration of fuzzy time series models that provide more flexibility in terms of the classical time series models assumptions such as stationarity, and large sample size requirement. Besides, fuzzy modeling approach allows decision making with estimated values under incomplete information or uncertainty. A number of fuzzy time series models have been developed and implemented over the last decades; however, most of them are not appropriate for forecasting repeated and nonconsecutive transitions in the data. The modeling scheme used in this paper eliminates this problem by introducing Markov modeling approach that takes into account both the repeated and nonconsecutive transitions. Also, the determination of length of interval is crucial in terms of the accuracy of forecasts. The problem of determining the length of interval arbitrarily is overcome and a methodology to determine the proper length of interval based on the distribution or mean of the first differences of series to improve forecast accuracy is proposed. The specific purpose of this paper is to propose and investigate the potential of a new forecasting model that integrates methodologies for determining the proper length of interval based on the distribution or mean of the first differences of series and Fuzzy Time Series- Markov Chain model. Moreover, the accuracy of the forecasting performance of proposed integrated model is compared to different univariate time series models and the superiority of proposed method over competing methods in respect of modelling and forecasting on the basis of forecast evaluation criteria is demonstrated. The application is to daily corn and soybean prices observed at three commercially important North Carolina markets; Candor, Cofield and Roaring River for corn and Fayetteville, Cofield and Greenville City for soybeans respectively. One main conclusion from this paper is that using fuzzy logic improves the forecast performance and accuracy; the effectiveness and potential benefits of the proposed model is confirmed with small selection criteria value such MAPE. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of integrating fuzzy logic and nonarbitrary determination of length of interval for the reliability and accuracy of price forecasts. The empirical results represent a significant contribution to our understanding of the applicability of fuzzy modeling in commodity price forecasts.

Keywords: commodity, forecast, fuzzy, Markov

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