Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4273

Search results for: chemical vapor deposition

4273 Surface Functionalization of Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown Graphene Film

Authors: Prashanta Dhoj Adhikari


We report the introduction of the active surface functionalization group on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene film by wet deposition method. The activity of surface functionalized group was tested with surface modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and found that both materials were amalgamated by chemical bonding. The introduction of functional group on the graphene film surface and its vigorous role to bind CNTs with the present technique could provide an efficient, novel route to device fabrication.

Keywords: chemical vapor deposition, graphene film, surface functionalization

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4272 Generation of Charged Nanoparticles in the Gas Phase and their Contribution to Deposition of GaN Films and Nanostructures during Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

Authors: Jin-Woo Park, Sung-Soo Lee, Nong-Moon Hwang


The generation of charged nanoparticles in the gas phase during the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has been frequently reported with their subsequent deposition into films and nanostructures in many systems such as carbon, silicon and zinc oxide. The microstructure evolution of films and nanostructures is closely related with the size distribution of charged nanoparticles. To confirm the generation of charged nanoparticles during GaN, the generation of GaN charged nanoparticles was examined in an atmospheric pressure CVD process using a Differential Mobility Analyser (DMA) combined with a Faraday Cup Electrometer (FCE). It was confirmed that GaN charged nanoparticles were generated under the condition where GaN nanostructures were synthesized on the bare and Au-coated Si substrates. In addition, the deposition behaviour depends strongly on the charge transfer rate of metal substrates. On the metal substrates of a lower CTR such as Mo, the deposition rate of GaN was much lower than on those of a higher CTR such as Fe. GaN nanowires tend to grow on the substrates of a lower CTR whereas GaN thin films tend to be deposited on the substrates of a higher CTR.

Keywords: chemical vapour deposition, charged cluster model, generation of charged nanoparticles, deposition behaviour, nanostructures, gan, charged transfer rate

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4271 Effect of the Deposition Time of Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline Si Grown on Porous Alumina Film on Glass Substrate by Plasma Processing Chemical Vapor Deposition

Authors: F. Laatar, S. Ktifa, H. Ezzaouia


Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) method is used to deposit hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films (nc-Si: H) on Porous Anodic Alumina Films (PAF) on glass substrate at different deposition duration. Influence of the deposition time on the physical properties of nc-Si: H grown on PAF was investigated through an extensive correlation between micro-structural and optical properties of these films. In this paper, we present an extensive study of the morphological, structural and optical properties of these films by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques and a UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer. It was found that the changes in DT can modify the films thickness, the surface roughness and eventually improve the optical properties of the composite. Optical properties (optical thicknesses, refractive indexes (n), absorption coefficients (α), extinction coefficients (k), and the values of the optical transitions EG) of this kind of samples were obtained using the data of the transmittance T and reflectance R spectra’s recorded by the UV–Vis–NIR spectrometer. We used Cauchy and Wemple–DiDomenico models for the analysis of the dispersion of the refractive index and the determination of the optical properties of these films.

Keywords: hydragenated nanocrystalline silicon, plasma processing chemical vapor deposition, X-ray diffraction, optical properties

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4270 Electrical Properties of CVD-Graphene on SiC

Authors: Bilal Jabakhanji, Dimitris Kazazis, Adrien Michon, Christophe Consejo, Wilfried Desrat, Benoit Jouault


In this paper, we investigate the electrical properties of graphene grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on the Si face of SiC substrates. Depending on the growth condition, hole or electron doping can be achieved, down to a few 1011cm−2. The high homogeneity of the graphene and the low intrinsic carrier concentration, allow the remarkable observation of the Half Integer Quantum Hall Effect, typical of graphene, at the centimeter scale.

Keywords: graphene, quantum hall effect, chemical vapor, deposition, silicon carbide

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4269 Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) Process Investigation for Co Thin Film as a TSV Alternative Seed Layer

Authors: Sajjad Esmaeili, Robert Krause, Lukas Gerlich, Alireza Mohammadian Kia, Benjamin Uhlig


This investigation aims to develop the feasible and qualitative process parameters for the thin films fabrication into ultra-large through-silicon-vias (TSVs) as vertical interconnections. The focus of the study is on TSV metallization and its challenges employing new materials for the purpose of rapid signal propagation in the microsystems technology. Cobalt metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (Co-MOCVD) process enables manufacturing an adhesive and excellent conformal ultra-thin film all the way through TSVs in comparison with the conventional non-conformal physical vapor deposition (PVD) process of copper (Cu) seed layer. Therefore, this process provides a Cu seed-free layer which is capable of direct Cu electrochemical deposition (Cu-ECD) on top of it. The main challenge of this metallization module is to achieve the proper alternative seed layer with less roughness, sheet resistance and granular organic contamination (e.g. carbon) which intensify the Co corrosion under the influence of Cu electrolyte.

Keywords: Cobalt MOCVD, direct Cu electrochemical deposition (ECD), metallization technology, through-silicon-via (TSV)

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4268 Fabrication of Pure and Doped MAPbI3 Thin Films by One Step Chemical Vapor Deposition Method for Energy Harvesting Applications

Authors: S. V. N. Pammi, Soon-Gil Yoon


In the present study, we report a facile chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for Perovskite MAPbI3 thin films by doping with Br and Cl. We performed a systematic optimization of CVD parameters such as deposition temperature, working pressure and annealing time and temperature to obtain high-quality films of CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx and CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction pattern showed that the perovskite films have a large grain size when compared to traditional spin coated thin films. To the best of our knowledge, there are very few reports on highly quality perovskite thin films by various doping such as Br and Cl using one step CVD and there is scope for significant improvement in device efficiency. In addition, their band-gap can be conveniently and widely tuned via doping process. This deposition process produces perovskite thin films with large grain size, long diffusion length and high surface coverage. The enhancement of the output power, CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) dye films when compared to spin coated films and enhancement in output power by doping in doped films was demonstrated in detail. The facile one-step method for deposition of perovskite thin films shows a potential candidate for photovoltaic and energy harvesting applications.

Keywords: perovskite thin films, chemical vapor deposition, energy harvesting, photovoltaics

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4267 Electrochemical Performance of Carbon Nanotube Based Supercapacitor

Authors: Jafar Khan Kasi, Ajab Khan Kasi, Muzamil Bokhari


Carbon nanotube is one of the most attractive materials for the potential applications of nanotechnology due to its excellent mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties. In this paper we report a supercapacitor made of nickel foil electrodes, coated with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) thin film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. Chemical vapor deposition method was used for the growth of MWCNTs and ethanol was used as a hydrocarbon source. High graphitic multiwall carbon nanotube was found at 750 C analyzing by Raman spectroscopy. We observed the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor by cyclic voltammetry. The electrodes of supercapacitor fabricated from MWCNTs exhibit considerably small equivalent series resistance (ESR), and a high specific power density. Electrophoretic deposition is an easy method in fabricating MWCNT electrodes for high performance supercapacitor.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, chemical vapor deposition, catalyst, charge, cyclic voltammetry

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4266 Approximation of PE-MOCVD to ALD for TiN Concerning Resistivity and Chemical Composition

Authors: D. Geringswald, B. Hintze


The miniaturization of circuits is advancing. During chip manufacturing, structures are filled for example by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Since this process reaches its limits in case of very high aspect ratios, the use of alternatives such as the atomic layer deposition (ALD) is possible, requiring the extension of existing coating systems. However, it is an unsolved question to what extent MOCVD can achieve results similar as an ALD process. In this context, this work addresses the characterization of a metal organic vapor deposition of titanium nitride. Based on the current state of the art, the film properties coating thickness, sheet resistance, resistivity, stress and chemical composition are considered. The used setting parameters are temperature, plasma gas ratio, plasma power, plasma treatment time, deposition time, deposition pressure, number of cycles and TDMAT flow. The derived process instructions for unstructured wafers and inside a structure with high aspect ratio include lowering the process temperature and increasing the number of cycles, the deposition and the plasma treatment time as well as the plasma gas ratio of hydrogen to nitrogen (H2:N2). In contrast to the current process configuration, the deposited titanium nitride (TiN) layer is more uniform inside the entire test structure. Consequently, this paper provides approaches to employ the MOCVD for structures with increasing aspect ratios.

Keywords: ALD, high aspect ratio, PE-MOCVD, TiN

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4265 Antireflection Performance of Graphene Directly Deposited on Silicon Substrate by the Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

Authors: Samira Naghdi, Kyong Yop Rhee


Transfer-free synthesis of graphene on dielectric substrates is highly desirable but remains challenging. Here, by using a thin sacrificial platinum layer as a catalyst, graphene was deposited on a silicon substrate through a simple and transfer-free synthesis method. During graphene growth, the platinum layer evaporated, resulting in direct deposition of graphene on the silicon substrate. In this work, different growth conditions of graphene were optimized. Raman spectra of the produced graphene indicated that the obtained graphene was bilayer. The sheet resistance obtained from four-point probe measurements demonstrated that the deposited graphene had high conductivity. Reflectance spectroscopy of graphene-coated silicon showed a decrease in reflectance across the wavelength range of 200-800 nm, indicating that the graphene coating on the silicon surface had antireflection capabilities.

Keywords: antireflection coating, chemical vapor deposition, graphene, the sheet resistance

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4264 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of Molybdenum Disulphide (MoS2) Monolayers

Authors: Omar Omar, Yuan Jun, Hong Jinghua, Jin Chuanhong


In this work molybdenum dioxide (MoO2) and sulphur powders are used to grow MoS2 mono layers at elevated temperatures T≥800 °C. Centimetre scale continues thin films with grain size up to 410 µm have been grown using chemical vapour deposition. To our best knowledge, these domains are the largest that have been grown so far. Advantage of our approach is not only because of the high quality films with large domain size one can produce, but also the procedure is potentially less hazardous than other methods tried. The thin films have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy.

Keywords: molybdenum disulphide (MoS2), monolayers, chemical vapour deposition (CVD), growth and characterization

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4263 Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis by Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Platinum-Group Metal Catalysts

Authors: T. Maruyama, T. Saida, S. Naritsuka, S. Iijima


Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are generally synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Fe, Co, and Ni as catalysts. However, due to the Ostwald ripening of metal catalysts, the diameter distribution of the grown SWCNTs is considerably wide (>2 nm), which is not suitable for electronics applications. In addition, reduction in the growth temperature is desirable for fabricating SWCNT devices compatible with the LSI process. Herein, we performed SWCNT growth by alcohol catalytic CVD using platinum-group metal catalysts (Pt, Rh, and Pd) because these metals have high melting points, and the reduction in the Ostwald ripening of catalyst particles is expected. Our results revealed that web-like SWCNTs were obtained from Pt and Rh catalysts at growth temperature between 500 °C and 600 °C by optimizing the ethanol pressure. The SWCNT yield from Pd catalysts was considerably low. By decreasing the growth temperature, the diameter and chirality distribution of SWCNTs from Pt and Rh catalysts became small and narrow. In particular, the diameters of most SWCNTs grown using Pt catalysts were below 1 nm and their diameter distribution was considerably narrow. On the contrary, SWCNTs can grow from Rh catalysts even at 300 °C by optimizing the growth condition, which is the lowest temperature recorded for SWCNT growth. Our results demonstrated that platinum-group metals are useful for the growth of small-diameter SWCNTs and facilitate low-temperature growth.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, chemical vapor deposition, catalyst, platinum, rhodium, palladium

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4262 Cu Nanoparticle Embedded-Zno Nanoplate Thin Films for Highly Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production

Authors: Premrudee Promdet, Fan Cui, Gi Byoung Hwang, Ka Chuen To, Sanjayan Sathasivam, Claire J. Carmalt, Ivan P. Parkin


A novel single-step fabrication of Cu nanoparticle embedded ZnO (Cu.ZnO) thin films was developed by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition for stable and efficient hydrogen production in Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell. In this approach, the Cu.ZnO nanoplate thin films were grown by using acetic acid to promote preferential growth and enhance surface active sites, where Cu nanoparticles can be formed under chemical deposition by reduction of Cu salt. Studies using photoluminescence spectroscopy indicate the enhanced photocatalytic performance is attributed to hot electron generated from SPR. The Cu metal in the composite material is functioning as a sensitizer to supply electrons to the semiconductor resulting in enhanced electron density for redox reaction. This work not only describes a way to obtain photoanodes with high photocatalytic activity but also suggests a low-cost route towards production of photocatalysts for hydrogen production. This work also supports a vital need to understand electron transfer between photoexcited semiconductor materials and metals, a requirement for tailoring the properties of semiconductor/metal composites.

Keywords: photocatalysis, photoelectrochemical cell (PEC), aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD), surface plasmon resonance (SPR)

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4261 Fabrication of Wearable Antennas through Thermal Deposition

Authors: Jeff Letcher, Dennis Tierney, Haider Raad


Antennas are devices for transmitting and/or receiving signals which make them a necessary component of any wireless system. In this paper, a thermal deposition technique is utilized as a method to fabricate antenna structures on substrates. Thin-film deposition is achieved by evaporating a source material (metals in our case) in a vacuum which allows vapor particles to travel directly to the target substrate which is encased with a mask that outlines the desired structure. The material then condenses back to solid state. This method is used in comparison to screen printing, chemical etching, and ink jet printing to indicate advantages and disadvantages to the method. The antenna created undergoes various testing of frequency ranges, conductivity, and a series of flexing to indicate the effectiveness of the thermal deposition technique. A single band antenna that is operated at 2.45 GHz intended for wearable and flexible applications was successfully fabricated through this method and tested. It is concluded that thermal deposition presents a feasible technique of producing such antennas.

Keywords: thermal deposition, wearable antennas, bluetooth technology, flexible electronics

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4260 Next Generation Membrane for Water Desalination: Facile Fabrication of Patterned Graphene Membrane

Authors: Jae-Kyung Choi, Soon-Yong Kwon, Hyung Duk Yun, Hyun-Sang Chung, Seongho Seo, Kukjin Bae


Recently, there were several attempts to utilize a graphene layer as a water desalination membrane. In order to use a graphene layer as a water desalination membrane, fabrication of crack-free suspension of graphene on a porous membrane, having hydrophobic surface, and generation of a uniform holes on a graphene are very important. In here, we showed a simple chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to create a patterned graphene membrane on a patterned platinum film. After CVD growth process of patterned graphene layer/patterned Pt on SiO2 substrates, the patterned graphene layer can be successfully transferred onto arbitrary substrates via thermal-assisted transfer method. In this result, the transferred patterned graphene membrane has so hydrophobic surface which will certainly impact on the naturally and speed pass way for fresh water. In addition to this, we observed that overlapping of patterned graphene membranes reported previously by our group may generate different size of holes.

Keywords: chemical vapor deposition (CVD), hydrophobic surface, membrane desalination, porous graphene

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4259 Growth Nanostructured CdO Thin Film via Solid-Vapor Deposition

Authors: A. S. Obaid, K. H. T. Hassan, A. M. Asij, B. M. Salih, M. Bououdina


Cadmium Oxide (CdO) thin films have been prepared by vacuum evaporation method on Si (111) substrate at room temperature using CdCl2 as a source of Cd. Detailed structural properties of the films are presented using XRD and SEM. The films was pure polycrystalline CdO phase with high crystallinity. The lattice constant average crystallite size of the nanocrystalline CdO thin films were calculated. SEM image confirms the formation nanostructure. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectra of CdO thin films shows the presence of Cd and O peaks only, no additional peaks attributed to impurities or contamination are observed.

Keywords: nanostructured CdO, solid-vapor deposition, quantum size effect, cadmium oxide

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4258 Fiber-Optic Sensors for Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor Measurement

Authors: H. Akbari Khorami, P. Wild, N. Djilali


This paper reports on the response of a fiber-optic sensing probe to small concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) vapor at room temperature. H2O2 has extensive applications in industrial and medical environments. Conversely, H2O2 can be a health hazard by itself. For example, H2O2 induces cellular damage in human cells and its presence can be used to diagnose illnesses such as asthma and human breast cancer. Hence, development of reliable H2O2 sensor is of vital importance to detect and measure this species. Ferric ferrocyanide, referred to as Prussian blue (PB), was deposited on the tip of a multimode optical fiber through the single source precursor technique and served as an indicator of H2O2 in a spectroscopic manner. Sensing tests were performed in H2O2-H2O vapor mixtures with different concentrations of H2O2. The results of sensing tests show the sensor is able to detect H2O2 concentrations in the range of 50.6 ppm to 229.5 ppm. Furthermore, the sensor response to H2O2 concentrations is linear in a log-log scale with the adjacent R-square of 0.93. This sensing behavior allows us to detect and quantify the concentration of H2O2 in the vapor phase.

Keywords: chemical deposition, fiber-optic sensor, hydrogen peroxide vapor, prussian blue

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4257 Elaboration and Characterization of CdxZn1-XS Thin Films Deposed by Chemical Bath Deposition

Authors: Zellagui Rahima, Chaumont Denis, Boughelout Abderrahman, Adnane Mohamed


Thin films of CdxZn1-xS were deposed by chemical bath deposition on glass substrates for photovoltaic applications. The thin films CdZnS were synthesized by chemical bath (CBD) with different deposition protocols for optimized the parameter of deposition as the temperature, time of deposition, concentrations of ion and pH. Surface morphology, optical and chemical composition properties of thin film CdZnS were investigated by SEM, EDAX, spectrophotometer. The transmittance is 80% in visible region 300 nm – 1000 nm; it has been observed in that films the grain size is between 50nm and 100nm measured by SEM image and we also note that the shape of particle is changing with the change in concentration. This result favors of application these films in solar cells; the chemical analysis with EDAX gives information about the presence of Cd, Zn and S elements and investigates the stoichiometry.

Keywords: thin film, solar cells, transmition, cdzns

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
4256 Characterization of Single-Walled Carbon Nano Tubes Forest Decorated with Chromium

Authors: Ana Paula Mousinho, Ronaldo D. Mansano, Nelson Ordonez


Carbon nanotubes are one of the main elements in nanotechnologies; their applications are in microelectronics, nano-electronics devices (photonics, spintronic), chemical sensors, structural material and currently in clean energy devices (supercapacitors and fuel cells). The use of magnetic particle decorated carbon nanotubes increases the applications in magnetic devices, magnetic memory, and magnetic oriented drug delivery. In this work, single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) forest decorated with chromium were deposited at room temperature by high-density plasma chemical vapor deposition (HDPCVD) system. The CNTs forest was obtained using pure methane plasmas and chromium, as precursor material (seed) and for decorating the CNTs. Magnetron sputtering deposited the chromium on silicon wafers before the CNTs' growth. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction characterized the single-walled CNTs forest decorated with chromium. In general, the CNTs' spectra show a unique emission band, but due to the presence of the chromium, the spectra obtained in this work showed many bands that are related to the CNTs with different diameters. The CNTs obtained by the HDPCVD system are highly aligned and showed metallic features, and they can be used as photonic material, due to the unique structural and electrical properties. The results of this work proved the possibility of obtaining the controlled deposition of aligned single-walled CNTs forest films decorated with chromium by high-density plasma chemical vapor deposition system.

Keywords: CNTs forest, high density plasma deposition, high-aligned CNTs, nanomaterials

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4255 N Doped Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Growth over a Ni Catalyst Substrate

Authors: Angie Quevedo, Juan Bussi, Nestor Tancredi, Juan Fajardo-Díaz, Florentino López-Urías, Emilio Muñóz-Sandoval


In this work, we study the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) formation by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) over a catalyst with 20 % of Ni supported over La₂Zr₂O₇ (Ni20LZO). The high C solubility of Ni made it one of the most used in CNTs synthesis. Nevertheless, Ni presents also sintering and coalescence at high temperature. These troubles can be reduced by choosing a suitable support. We propose La₂Zr₂O₇ as for this matter since the incorporation of Ni by co-precipitation and calcination at 900 °C allows a good dispersion and interaction of the active metal (in the oxidized form, NiO) with this support. The CCVD was performed using 1 g of Ni20LZO at 950 °C during 30 min in Ar:H₂ atmosphere (2.5 L/min). The precursor, benzylamine, was added by a nebulizer-sprayer. X ray diffraction study shows the phase separation of NiO and La₂Zr₂O₇ after the calcination and the reduction to Ni after the synthesis. Raman spectra show D and G bands with a ID/IG ratio of 0.75. Elemental study verifies the incorporation of 1% of N. Thermogravimetric analysis shows the oxidation process start at around 450 °C. Future studies will determine the application potential of the samples.

Keywords: N doped carbon nanotubes, catalytic chemical vapor deposition, nickel catalyst, bimetallic oxide

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4254 Computational Study and Wear Prediction of Steam Turbine Blade with Titanium-Nitride Coating Deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition Method

Authors: Karuna Tuchinda, Sasithon Bland


This work investigates the wear of a steam turbine blade coated with titanium nitride (TiN), and compares to the wear of uncoated blades. The coating is deposited on by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. The working conditions of the blade were simulated and surface temperature and pressure values as well as flow velocity and flow direction were obtained. This data was used in the finite element wear model developed here in order to predict the wear of the blade. The wear mechanisms considered are erosive wear due to particle impingement and fluid jet, and fatigue wear due to repeated impingement of particles and fluid jet. Results show that the life of the TiN-coated blade is approximately 1.76 times longer than the life of the uncoated one.

Keywords: physical vapour deposition, steam turbine blade, titanium-based coating, wear prediction

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4253 The Effect of Nanofiber Web on Thermal Conductivity, Air and Water Vapor Permeability

Authors: Ilkay Ozsev Yuksek, Nuray Ucar, Zeynep Esma Soygur, Yasemin Kucuk


In this study, composite fabrics with polyacrylonitrile electrospun nanofiber deposited onto quilted polyester fabric have been produced in order to control the isolation properties such as water vapor permeability, air permeability and thermal conductivity. Different nanofiber webs were manufactured by changing polymer concentration from 10% to 16% and by changing the deposition time from 1 to 3 hours. Presence of nanofiber layer on the quilted fabric results to an increase of an isolation, i.e., a decrease of the moisture vapor transport rates at 20%, decrease of thermal conductivity at 15% and a decrease of air permeability values at 50%.

Keywords: nanofiber/fabric composites, electrospinning, isolation, thermal conductivity, moisture vapor transport, air permeability

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4252 Studies on Physico-Chemical Properties of Indium Sulfide Films Deposited under Different Deposition Conditions by Chemical Bath Deposition

Authors: S. B. Bansode, V. G. Wagh, R. S. Kapadnis, S. S. Kale, M. Pathan Habib


Indium sulfide films have been deposited using chemical bath deposition onto glass and indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. The influences of different deposition parameters viz. substrate and pH have been studied. The films were characterized by different techniques with respect to their crystal structure, surface morphology and compositional property by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Energy dispersive spectroscopy and optical absorption. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that amorphous nature of the films. The scanning electron microscopy of as deposited indium sulfide film on ITO coated glass substrate shows random orientation of grains where as those on glass substrates show dumbbell shape. Optical absorption study revealed that band gap varies from 2.29 to 2.79 eV for the deposited film.

Keywords: chemical bath deposition, optical properties, structural property, Indium sulfide

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4251 Study of Fork Marks on Sapphire Wafers in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Tool

Authors: Qiao Pei Wen, Ng Seng Lee, Sae Tae Veera, Chiu Ah Fong, Loke Weng Onn


Thin film thickness uniformity is crucial to get consistent film etch rate and device yield across the wafer. In the capacitive-coupled parallel plate PECVD system; the film thickness uniformity can be affected by many factors such as the heater temperature uniformity, the spacing between top and bottom electrode, RF power, pressure, gas flows and etc. In this paper, we studied how the PECVD SiN film thickness uniformity is affected by the substrate electrical conductivity and the RF power coupling efficiency. PECVD SiN film was deposited on 150-mm sapphire wafers in 200-mm Lam Sequel tool, fork marks were observed on the wafers. On the fork marks area SiN film thickness is thinner than that on the non-fork area. The forks are the wafer handler inside the process chamber to move the wafers from one station to another. The sapphire wafers and the ceramic forks both are insulator. The high resistivity of the sapphire wafers and the forks inhibits the RF power coupling efficiency during PECVD deposition, thereby reducing the deposition rate. Comparing between the high frequency and low frequency RF power (HFRF and LFRF respectively), the LFRF power coupling effect on the sapphire wafers is more dominant than the HFRF power on the film thickness. This paper demonstrated that the SiN thickness uniformity on sapphire wafers can be improved by depositing a thin TiW layer on the wafer before the SiN deposition. The TiW layer can be on the wafer surface, bottom or any layer before SiN deposition.

Keywords: PECVD SiN deposition, sapphire wafer, substrate electrical conductivity, RF power coupling, high frequency RF power, low frequency RF power, film deposition rate, thickness uniformity

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4250 High Frequency Nanomechanical Oscillators Based on Synthetic Nanowires

Authors: Minjin Kim, Jihwan Kim, Bongsoo Kim, Junho Suh


We demonstrate nanomechanical resonators constructed with synthetic nanowires (NWs) and study their electro-mechanical properties at millikelvin temperatures. Nanomechanical resonators are fabricated using single-crystalline Au NWs and InAs NWs. The mechanical resonance signals are acquired by either magnetomotive or capacitive detection methods. The Au NWs are synthesized by chemical vapor transport method at 1100 °C, and they exhibit clean surface and single-crystallinity with little defects. Due to pristine surface quality, these Au NW mechanical resonators could provide an ideal model system for studying surface-related effects on the mechanical systems. The InAs NWs are synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy or metal organic chemical vapor deposition method. The InAs NWs show electronic conductance modulation resembling Coulomb blockade, which also manifests in the mechanical resonance signals in the form of damping and resonance frequency shift. Our result provides an evidence of strong electro-mechanical coupling in synthetic NW nanomechanical resonators.

Keywords: Au nanowire, InAs nanowire, nanomechanical resonator, synthetic nanowires

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4249 Growth of Multi-Layered Graphene Using Organic Solvent-PMMA Film as the Carbon Source under Low Temperature Conditions

Authors: Alaa Y. Ali, Natalie P. Holmes, John Holdsworth, Warwick Belcher, Paul Dastoor, Xiaojing Zhou


Multi-layered graphene has been produced under low temperature chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth conditions by utilizing an organic solvent and polymer film source. Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) was dissolved in chlorobenzene solvent and used as a drop-cast film carbon source on a quartz slide. A source temperature (Tsource) of 180 °C provided sufficient carbon to grow graphene, as identified by Raman spectroscopy, on clean copper foil catalytic surfaces.  Systematic variation of hydrogen gas (H2) flow rate from 25 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) to 100 sccm and CVD temperature (Tgrowth) from 400 to 800 °C, yielded graphene films of varying quality as characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The optimal graphene growth parameters were found to occur with a hydrogen flow rate of 75 sccm sweeping the 180 °C source carbon past the Cu foil at 600 °C for 1 min. The deposition at 600 °C with a H2 flow rate of 75 sccm yielded a 2D band peak with ~53.4 cm-1 FWHM and a relative intensity ratio of the G to 2D bands (IG/I2D) of 0.21. This recipe fabricated a few layers of good quality graphene.

Keywords: graphene, chemical vapor deposition, carbon source, low temperature growth

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4248 Role of Chloride Ions on The Properties of Electrodeposited ZnO Nanostructures

Authors: L. Mentar, O. Baka, M. R. Khelladi, A. Azizi


Zinc oxide (ZnO), as a transparent semiconductor with a wide band gap of 3.4 eV and a large exciton binding energy of 60 meV at room temperature, is one of the most promising materials for a wide range of modern applications. With the development of film growth technologies and intense recent interest in nanotechnology, several varieties of ZnO nanostructured materials have been synthesized almost exclusively by thermal evaporation methods, particularly chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which generally require a high growth temperature above 550 °C. In contrast, wet chemistry techniques such as hydrothermal synthesis and electro-deposition are promising alternatives to synthesize ZnO nanostructures, especially at a significantly lower temperature (below 200°C). In this study, the electro-deposition method was used to produce zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated conducting glass substrate from chloride bath. We present the influence of KCl concentrations on the electro-deposition process, morphological, structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures. The potentials of electro-deposition of ZnO were determined using the cyclic voltammetry. From the Mott-Schottky measurements, the flat-band potential and the donor density for the ZnO nanostructure are determined. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed different sizes and morphologies of the nanostructures which depends on the concentrations of Cl-. Very netted hexagonal grains are observed for the nanostructures deposited at 0.1M of KCl. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirms the Wurtzite phase of the ZnO nanostructures with a preferred oriented along (002) plane normal to the substrate surface. UV-Visible spectra showed a significant optical transmission (~80%), which decreased with low Cl-1 concentrations. The energy band gap values have been estimated to be between 3.52 and 3.80 eV.

Keywords: Cl-, electro-deposition, FESEM, Mott-Schottky, XRD, ZnO

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4247 Design of a Controlled BHJ Solar Cell Using Modified Organic Vapor Spray Deposition Technique

Authors: F. Stephen Joe, V. Sathya Narayanan, V. R. Sanal Kumar


A comprehensive review of the literature on photovoltaic cells has been carried out for exploring the better options for cost efficient technologies for future solar cell applications. Literature review reveals that the Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) Polymer Solar cells offer special opportunities as renewable energy resources. It is evident from the previous studies that the device fabricated with TiOx layer shows better power conversion efficiency than that of the device without TiOx layer. In this paper, authors designed a controlled BHJ solar cell using a modified organic vapor spray deposition technique facilitated with a vertical-moving gun named as 'Stephen Joe Technique' for getting a desirable surface pattern over the substrate to improving its efficiency over the years for industrial applications. We comprehended that the efficient processing and the interface engineering of these solar cells could increase the efficiency up to 5-10 %.

Keywords: BHJ polymer solar cell, photovoltaic cell, solar cell, Stephen Joe technique

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4246 Fabrication of Highly Conductive Graphene/ITO Transparent Bi-Film through Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Organic Additives-Free Sol-Gel Techniques

Authors: Bastian Waduge Naveen Harindu Hemasiri, Jae-Kwan Kim, Ji-Myon Lee


Indium tin oxide (ITO) remains the industrial standard transparent conducting oxides with better performances. Recently, graphene becomes as a strong material with unique properties to replace the ITO. However, graphene/ITO hybrid composite material is a newly born field in the electronic world. In this study, the graphene/ITO composite bi-film was synthesized by a two steps process. 10 wt.% tin-doped, ITO thin films were produced by an environmentally friendly aqueous sol-gel spin coating technique with economical salts of In(NO3)3.H2O and SnCl4 without using organic additives. The wettability and surface free energy (97.6986 mJ/m2) enhanced oxygen plasma treated glass substrates were used to form voids free continuous ITO film. The spin-coated samples were annealed at 600 0C for 1 hour under low vacuum conditions to obtained crystallized, ITO film. The crystal structure and crystalline phases of ITO thin films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The Scherrer equation was used to determine the crystallite size. Detailed information about chemical composition and elemental composition of the ITO film were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) coupled with FE-SEM respectively. Graphene synthesis was done under chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method by using Cu foil at 1000 0C for 1 min. The quality of the synthesized graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy (532nm excitation laser beam) and data was collected at room temperature and normal atmosphere. The surface and cross-sectional observation were done by using FE-SEM. The optical transmission and sheet resistance were measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy and four point probe head at room temperature respectively. Electrical properties were also measured by using V-I characteristics. XRD patterns reveal that the films contain the In2O3 phase only and exhibit the polycrystalline nature of the cubic structure with the main peak of (222) plane. The peak positions of In3d5/2 (444.28 eV) and Sn3d5/2 (486.7 eV) in XPS results indicated that indium and tin are in the oxide form only. The UV-visible transmittance shows 91.35 % at 550 nm with 5.88 x 10-3 Ωcm specific resistance. The G and 2D band in Raman spectroscopy of graphene appear at 1582.52 cm-1 and 2690.54 cm-1 respectively when the synthesized CVD graphene on SiO2/Si. The determined intensity ratios of 2D to G (I2D/IG) and D to G (ID/IG) were 1.531 and 0.108 respectively. However, the above-mentioned G and 2D peaks appear at 1573.57 cm-1 and 2668.14 cm-1 respectively when the CVD graphene on the ITO coated glass, the positions of G and 2D peaks were red shifted by 8.948 cm-1 and 22.396 cm-1 respectively. This graphene/ITO bi-film shows modified electrical properties when compares with sol-gel derived ITO film. The reduction of sheet resistance in the bi-film was 12.03 % from the ITO film. Further, the fabricated graphene/ITO bi-film shows 88.66 % transmittance at 550 nm wavelength.

Keywords: chemical vapor deposition, graphene, ITO, Raman Spectroscopy, sol-gel

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4245 RBS Characteristic of Cd1−xZnxS Thin Film Fabricated by Vacuum Deposition Method

Authors: N. Dahbi, D. E. Arafah


Cd1−xZnxS thins films have been fabricated from ZnS/CdS/ZnS multilayer thin film systems, by using the vacuum deposition method; the Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) technique have been applied in order to determine the: structure, composition, depth profile, and stoichiometric of these films. The influence of the chemical and heat treatments on the produced films also have been investigated; the RBS spectra of the films showed that homogenous Cd1−xZnxS can be synthesized with x=0.45.

Keywords: Cd1−xZnxS, chemical treatment, depth profile, heat treatment, RBS, RUMP simulation, thin film, vacuum deposition, ZnS/CdS/ZnS

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4244 Tin and Tin-Copper Composite Nanorod Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium Applications

Authors: B. D. Polat, Ö. Keleş


Physical vapor deposition under conditions of an obliquely incident flux results in a film formation with an inclined columnar structure. These columns will be oriented toward the vapor source because of the self-shadowing effect, and they are homogenously distributed on the substrate surface because of the limited surface diffusion ability of ad-atoms when there is no additional substrate heating. In this work, the oblique angle electron beam evaporation technique is used to fabricate thin films containing inclined nanorods. The results demonstrate that depending on the thin film composition, the morphology of the nanorods changed as well. The galvanostatic analysis of these thin film anodes reveals that a composite CuSn nanorods having approximately 900mAhg-1 of initial discharge capacity, performs higher electrochemical performance compared to pure Sn nanorods containing anode material. The long cycle life and the advanced electrochemical properties of the nano-structured composite electrode might be attributed to its improved mechanical tolerance and enhanced electrical conductivity depending on the Cu presence in the nanorods.

Keywords: Cu-Sn thin film, oblique angle deposition, lithium ion batteries, anode

Procedia PDF Downloads 255