Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 470

Search results for: tubular cellulose

470 Cheese Production at Low Temperatures Using Probiotic L. casei ATCC 393 and Rennin Enzyme Entrapped in Tubular Cellulose

Authors: Eleftheria Barouni, Antonia Terpou, Maria Kanellaki, Argyro Bekatorou, Athanasios A.Koutinas


The aim of the present work was to evaluate the production of cheese using a composite filter of tubular cellulose (TC) with [a] entrapped rennin enzyme and [b] immobilized L.casei and entrapped enzyme. Tubular cellulose from sawdust was prepared after lignin removal with 1% NaOH. The biocatalysts were thermally dried at 38oC and used for milk coagulation. The effect of temperature (5,20,37 oC) of the first dried biocatalyst on the pH kinetics of milk coagulation was examined. The optimum temperature (37oC) of the first biocatalyst was used for milk coagulation with the second biocatalyst prepared by entrapment of both rennin enzyme and probiotic lactic acid bacteria in order to introduce a sour taste in cheeses. This co-biocatalyst was used for milk coagulation. Samples were studied as regards its effect on lactic acid formation and its correlation with taste test results in cheeses. For both biocatalysts samples were analyzed for total acidity and lactic acid formation by HPLC. The quality of the produced cheeses was examined through the determination of volatile compounds by SPME GC/MS analysis. Preliminary taste tests and microbiological analysis were performed and encourage us for further research regarding scale up.

Keywords: tubular cellulose, Lactobacillus casei, rennin enzyme, cheese production

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469 Regenerated Cellulose Prepared by Using NaOH/Urea

Authors: Lee Chiau Yeng, Norhayani Othman


Regenerated cellulose fiber is fabricated in the NaOH/urea aqueous solution. In this work, cellulose is dissolved in 7 .wt% NaOH/12 .wt% urea in the temperature of -12 °C to prepare regenerated cellulose. Thermal and structure properties of cellulose and regenerated cellulose was compared and investigated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FeSEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Results of FeSEM revealed that the regenerated cellulose fibers showed a more circular shape with irregular size due to fiber agglomeration. FTIR showed the difference in between the structure of cellulose and the regenerated cellulose fibers. In this case, regenerated cellulose fibers have a cellulose II crystalline structure with lower degree of crystallinity. Regenerated cellulose exhibited better thermal stability than the cellulose.

Keywords: regenerated cellulose, cellulose, NaOH, urea

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468 Encapsulated Rennin Enzyme in Nano and Micro Tubular Cellulose/Starch Gel Composite for Milk Coagulation

Authors: Eleftheria Barouni, Theano Petsi, Argyro Bekatorou, Dionysos Kolliopoulos, Dimitrios Vasileiou, Panayiotis Panas, Maria Kanellaki, Athanasios A. Koutinas


The aim of the present work was the production and use of a composite filter (TC/starch), containing rennin enzyme, in continuous system and in successive fermentation batches (SFB) for milk coagulation in order to compare the operational stability of both systems and cheese production cost. Tubular cellulose (TC) was produced after removal of lignin from lignocellulosic biomass using several procedures, e.g. alkaline treatment [1] and starch gel was added for the reduction of TC tubes dimensions to micro- and nano- range[2]. Four immobilized biocatalysts were prepared using different ways of the enzyme entrapment. 1) TC/ rennin (rennin entrapped in the tubes of TC), 2) TC/SG-rennin (rennin entrapped in the tubes of the composite), 3) TC-SG/rennin (rennin entrapped into the layer of starch gel) and 4) TC/rennin- SG/rennin (rennin is entrapped both in the tubes of the TC and into the layer of starch gel). Firstly these immobilized biocatalysts were examined in ten SFB regarding the coagulation time and their activity All the above immobilized biocatalysts remained active and the coagulation time was ranged from 90 to 480, 120-480, 330-510, and 270-540 min for (1), (2), (3), and (4) respectively. The quality of the cheese was examined through the determination of volatile compounds by SPME GC/MS analysis. These results encouraged us to study a continuous coagulation system of milk. Even though the (1) immobilized biocatalyst gave lower coagulation time, we used the (2) immobilized biocatalyst in the continuous system. The results were promising.

Keywords: tubular cellulose, starch gel, composite biocatalyst, Rennin, milk coagulation

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467 Cellulose Extraction from Pomelo Peel: Synthesis of Carboxymethyl Cellulose

Authors: Jitlada Chumee, Drenpen Seeburin


The cellulose was extracted from pomelo peel and an etherification reaction used for converting cellulose to carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The pomelo peel was refluxed with 0.5 M HCl and 1 M NaOH solution at 90°C for 1 h and 2 h, respectively. The cellulose was bleached with calcium hypochlorite and used as precursor. The precursor was soaked in mixed solution between isopropyl alcohol and 40%w/v NaOH for 12 h. After that, chloroacetic acid was added and reacted at 55°C for 6 h. The optimum condition was 5 g of cellulose: 0.25 mole of NaOH : 0.07 mole of ClCH2COOH with 78.00% of yield. Moreover, the product had 0.54 of degree of substitution (DS).

Keywords: pomelo peel, carboxymethyl cellulose, bioplastic, extraction

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466 Rheological Properties of Cellulose/TBAF/DMSO Solutions and Their Application to Fabrication of Cellulose Hydrogel

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Jae Eun Nam, Young Hoon Roh, Chul Soo Shin


The development of hydrogels with a high mechanical strength is important for numerous applications of hydrogels. As a material for tough hydrogels, cellulose has attracted much interest. However, cellulose cannot be melted and is very difficult to be dissolved in most solvents. Therefore, its dissolution in tetrabutylammonium fluoride/dimethyl sulfoxide (TBAF/DMSO) solvents has attracted researchers for chemical processing of cellulose. For this reason, studies about rheological properties of cellulose/TBAF/DMSO solution will provide useful information. In this study, viscosities of cellulose solutions prepared using different amounts of cellulose and TBAF in DMSO were measured. As expected, the viscosity of cellulose solution decreased with respect to the increasing volume of DMSO. The most viscose cellulose solution was achieved at a 1:1 mass ratio of cellulose to TBAF regardless of their contents in DMSO. At a 1:1 mass ratio of cellulose to TBAF, the formation of cellulose nanoparticles (467 nm) resulted in a dramatic increase in the viscosity, which led to the fabrication of 3D cellulose hydrogels.

Keywords: cellulose, TBAF/DMSO, viscosity, hydrogel

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465 A Novel Marketable Dried Mixture for High-Quality Sweet Wine Production in Domestic Refrigerator Using Tubular Cellulose

Authors: Ganatsios Vassilios, Terpou Antonia, Maria Kanellaki, Bekatorou Argyro, Athanasios Koutinas


In this study, a new fermentation technology is proposed with potential application in home wine-making. Delignified cellulosic material was used to preserve Tubular Cellulose (TC), an effective fermentation support material in high osmotic pressure, low temperature, and alcohol concentration. The psychrotolerant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 was immobilized on TC to preserve a novel home wine making biocatalyst (HWB) and the entrapment was examined by SEM. Various concentrations of HWB was added in high-density grape must and the mixture was dried immediately. The dried mixture was stored for various time intervals and its fermentation examined after addition of potable water. The percentage of added water was also examined to succeed high alcohol and residual sugar concentration. The effect of low temperature (1-10 oC) on fermentation kinetics was studied revealing the ability of HBW on low-temperature sweet wine making. Sweet wines SPME GC-MS analysis revealed the promotion effect of TC on volatile by-products formation in comparison with free cells. Kinetics results and aromatic profile of final product encouraged the efforts of high-quality sweet wine making in domestic refrigerator and potential marketable opportunities are also assessed and discussed.

Keywords: tubular cellulose, sweet wine, Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1, residual sugar concentration

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464 Brewing in a Domestic Refrigerator Using Freeze-Dried Raw Materials

Authors: Angelika-Ioanna Gialleli, Gousi Mantha, Maria Kanellaki, Bekatorou Argyro, Athanasios Koutinas


In this study, a new brewing technology with dry raw materials is proposed with potential application in home brewing. Bio catalysts were prepared by immobilization of the psychrotolerant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 on tubular cellulose. Both the word and the biocatalysts were freeze-dried without any cryoprotectants and used for low temperature brewing. The combination of immobilization and freeze-drying techniques was applied successfully, giving a potential for supplying breweries with preserved and ready-to-use immobilized cells. The effect of wort sugar concentration (7°, 8.5°, 10°Be), temperature (2, 5, 7° C) and carrier concentration (5, 10, 20 g/L) on fermentation kinetics and final product quality (volatiles, colour, polyphenols, bitterness) was assessed. The same procedure was repeated with free cells for comparison of the results. The results for immobilized cells were better compared to free cells regarding fermentation kinetics and organoleptic characteristics.

Keywords: brewing, tubular cellulose, low temperature, biocatalyst

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463 Physicochemical Characterization of Mercerized Cellulose-Supported Nickel-Oxide

Authors: Sherif M. A. S. Keshk, Hisham S. M. Abd-Rabboh, Mohamed S. Hamdy, Ibrahim H. A. Badr


Microwave radiation was applied to synthesize nanoparticles of nickel oxide supported on pretreated cellulose with metal acetate in the presence of NaOH. Optimization, in terms of irradiation time and metal concentration, was investigated. FT-IR spectrum of cellulose/NiO spectrum shows a band at 445 cm^-1 that is related to the Ni–O stretching vibration of NiO6 octahedral in the cubic NiO structure. cellulose/NiO showed similar XRD pattern of cellulose I and exhibited sharpened reflection peak at 2q = 29.8°, corresponding to (111) plane of NiO, with two weak broad peaks at 48.5°, and 49.2°, representing (222) planes of NiO. XPS spectrum of mercerized cellulose/NiO composite showed did not show any peaks corresponding to Na ion.

Keywords: cellulose, mercerized cellulose, cellulose/zinc and nickeloxides composite, FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM, Raman spectrum

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462 Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fiber via Simultaneous Ultrasonic and Alkali Treatment

Authors: Ridzuan Ramli, Norhafzan Junadi, Mohammad D.H. Beg, Rosli M. Yunus


In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) cellulose which was earlier isolated from oil palm EFB fibre. In order to isolate the cellulose, the chlorination method was carried out. Then, the MCC was prepared by simultaneous ultrasonic and alkali treatment from the isolated α-cellulose. Based on mass balance calculation, the yields for MCC obtained from EFB was 44%. For fiber characterization, it is observed that the chemical composition of the hemicellulose and lignin for all samples decreased while composition for cellulose increased. The structural property of the MCC was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and the result shows that the MCC produced is a cellulose-I polymorph, with 73% crystallinity.

Keywords: oil palm empty fruit bunch, microcrystalline cellulose, ultrasonic, alkali treatment, x-ray diffraction

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461 Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxymethyl Cellulose from Rice Stubble Cellulose

Authors: Rungsinee Sothornvit, Pattrathip Rodsamran


Rice stubble consists of a high content of cellulose and can be synthesized as a cellulose derivative such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to value added products from agricultural waste. Therefore, the synthesis conditions and characterization the properties of CMC from rice stubble (CMCr) were investigated. Hemicellulose and lignin were first removed from the rice stubble using 10% NaOH at 55 C for 3 h and 5% NaOCl at 75 C for 15 min, respectively. Rice stubble cellulose was swollen in 30% NaOH and isopropanol as a solvent. The content of chloroacetic acid (5–7 g in 5 g of alkali cellulose), reaction temperature (50 and 70 C) and time (180, 270 and 360 min) were explored to obtain CMC. It was found that synthesis conditions did not affect significantly on moisture content and pH of CMCr. The best quality of CMCr was synthesized by using 7 g of chloroacetic acid and reacted at 50 C for 180 min based on 5 g of rice stubble cellulose. Degree of substitution (DS), viscosity and purity of CMCr were 0.64, 36.03 cP and 90.18 %, respectively. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FT–IR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of carboxymethyl substituents. CMCr was categorized in commercial scale as a low viscosity material and it can be used as film forming packaging materials for food and pharmaceutical product applications.

Keywords: rice stubble, cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, degree of substitution, purity

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460 Bioethanol Synthesis Using Cellulose Recovered from Biowaste

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Noridah Abdullah, Mimi Sakinah


Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates, Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as castor shell waste, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production Cellulose extracted from biomass sources is considered the future feedstock for many products due to the availability and eco-friendly nature of cellulose. In this study, castor shell (CS) biowaste resulted from the extraction of Castor oil from castor seeds was evaluated as a potential source of cellulose. The cellulose was extracted after pretreatment process was done on the CS. The pretreatment process began with the removal of other extractives from CS, then an alkaline treatment, bleaching process with hydrogen peroxide, and followed by a mixture of acetic and nitric acids. CS cellulose was analysed by infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The result showed that the overall process was adequate to produce cellulose with high purity and crystallinity from CS waste. The cellulose was then hydrolyzed to produce glucose and then fermented to bioethanol.

Keywords: bioethanol, castor shell, cellulose, biowaste

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459 Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Ag/ZnO Sub-Microparticles Deposited on Various Cellulose Surfaces

Authors: Lukas Munster, Pavel Bazant, Ivo Kuritka


Zinc oxide sub-micro particles and metallic silver nano particles (Ag/ZnO) were deposited on micro crystalline cellulose surface by a fast, simple and environmentally friendly one-pot microwave assisted solvo thermal synthesis in an open vessel system equipped with an external reflux cooler. In order to increase the interaction between the surface of cellulose and the precipitated Ag/ZnO particles, oxidized form of cellulose (cellulose dialdehyde, DAC) prepared by periodate oxidation of micro crystalline cellulose was added to the reaction mixture of Ag/ZnO particle precursors and untreated micro crystalline cellulose. The structure and morphology of prepared hybrid powder materials were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen absorption method (BET). Microscopic analysis of the prepared materials treated by ultra-sonication showed that Ag/ZnO particles deposited on the cellulose/DAC sample exhibit increased adhesion to the surface of the cellulose substrate which can be explained by the DAC adhesive effect in comparison with the material prepared without DAC addition.

Keywords: microcrystalline cellulose, microwave synthesis, silver nanoparticles, zinc oxide sub-microparticles, cellulose dialdehyde

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458 Application of Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 for Cellulase Production from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Surasak Siripornadulsil, Nutt Poomai, Wilailak Siripornadulsil


Due to a high ethanol demand, the approach for effective ethanol production is important and has been developed rapidly worldwide. Several agricultural wastes are highly abundant in celluloses and the effective cellulose enzymes do exist widely among microorganisms. Accordingly, the cellulose degradation using microbial cellulose to produce a low-cost substrate for ethanol production has attracted more attention. In this study, the cellulose producing bacterial strain has been isolated from rich straw and identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Acinetobacter sp. KKU44. This strain is able to grow and exhibit the cellulose activity. The optimal temperature for its growth and cellulose production is 37 °C. The optimal temperature of bacterial cellulose activity is 60 °C. The cellulose enzyme from Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 is heat-tolerant enzyme. The bacterial culture of 36 h. showed highest cellulose activity at 120 U/mL when grown in LB medium containing 2% (w/v). The capability of Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 to grow in cellulosic agricultural wastes as a sole carbon source and exhibiting the high cellulose activity at high temperature suggested that this strain could be potentially developed further as a cellulose degrading strain for a production of low-cost substrate used in ethanol production.

Keywords: cellulose enzyme, bagasse, rice straw, rice husk, acinetobacter sp. KKU44

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457 Degree of Bending in Axially Loaded Tubular KT-Joints of Offshore Structures: Parametric Study and Formulation

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Shadi Asoodeh


The fatigue life of tubular joints commonly found in offshore industry is not only dependent on the value of hot-spot stress (HSS), but is also significantly influenced by the through-the-thickness stress distribution characterized by the degree of bending (DoB). The determination of DoB values in a tubular joint is essential for improving the accuracy of fatigue life estimation using the stress-life (S–N) method and particularly for predicting the fatigue crack growth based on the fracture mechanics (FM) approach. In the present paper, data extracted from finite element (FE) analyses of tubular KT-joints, verified against experimental data and parametric equations, was used to investigate the effects of geometrical parameters on DoB values at the crown 0˚, saddle, and crown 180˚ positions along the weld toe of central brace in tubular KT-joints subjected to axial loading. Parametric study was followed by a set of nonlinear regression analyses to derive DoB parametric formulas for the fatigue analysis of KT-joints under axial loads. The tubular KT-joint is a quite common joint type found in steel offshore structures. However, despite the crucial role of the DoB in evaluating the fatigue performance of tubular joints, this paper is the first attempt to study and formulate the DoB values in KT-joints.

Keywords: tubular KT-joint, fatigue, degree of bending (DoB), axial loading, parametric formula

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456 Production and Characterization of Nanofibrillated Cellulose from Kenaf Core (Hibiscus cannabinus) via Ultrasonic

Authors: R. Rosazley, M. A. Izzati, A. W. Fareezal, M. Z. Shazana, I. Rushdan, M. A. Ainun Zuriyati


This study focuses on production and characterizations of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) from kenaf core. NFC was produced by employing ultrasonic treatments in aqueous solution. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used to study the size and morphology structure. The chemical and characteristics of the cellulose and NFC were studied using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and viscometer. Degrees of polymerization (DP) of cellulose and NFC were obtained via viscosity value. Results showed that 5 to 47 nm diameters of fibrils were measured. Moreover, the thermal stability of the NFC was increased as compared to the cellulose that confirmed by TGA analysis. It was also found that NFC had higher crystallinity and lower viscosity than the cellulose which were measured by XRD and viscometer, respectively. The NFC characteristics have enormous prospect related to bio-nanocomposite.

Keywords: crystallinity, kenaf core, nanofibrillated cellulose, ultrasonic

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455 Prevention of Cellulose and Hemicellulose Degradation on Fungal Pretreatment of Water Hyacinth Using Phanerochaete Chrysosporium

Authors: Eka Sari


Potential degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the fungal pretreatment of lignocellulose has led to fermentable sugar yield will be low. This potential is even greater if the pretreatment of lignocellulosic that have low lignin such as water hyacinth. In order to prepare lignocellulose that have low lignin content, especially water hyacinth efforts are needed to prevent the degradation of cellulose and cellulose. One attempt to prevent the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose is to replace the substrate needed by the addition of a simple carbon compounds such as glucose. Glucose sources used in this study is molasses. The purpose of this research to get the right of concentration of molasses to reduce the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the pretreatment process and obtain fermentable sugar yields on high. The results showed that the addition of molasses with a concentration of 2% is able to reduce the degradation of cellulose from 25.53% to 10% and hemicellulose degradation of 20.12% to 10.89%. Fermentable sugar yields produced only reached 43.91%. To improve the yield of glucose is then performed additional combonation of molasses of 2% molasses and co-factor Mn2+ 0.5%. Fermentable sugar yield increased to 67.66% and the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose decreased to 2.44% and 2.71%, respectively.

Keywords: water hyacinth, cellulose, hemicelulose, degradation, pretreatment, fungus

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
454 Development of Kenaf Cellulose CNT Paper for Electrical Conductive Paper

Authors: A. W. Fareezal, R. Rosazley, M. A. Izzati, M. Z. Shazana, I. Rushdan


Kenaf cellulose CNT paper production was for lightweight, high strength and excellent flexibility electrical purposes. Aqueous dispersions of kenaf cellulose and varied weight percentage of CNT were combined with the assistance of PEI solution by using ultrasonic probe. The solution was dried using vacuum filter continued with air drying in condition room for 2 days. Circle shape conductive paper was characterized with Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and therma gravimetric analysis (TGA).

Keywords: cellulose, CNT paper, PEI solution, electrical conductive paper

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453 Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on Nanocomposite from Nanofibrillated Cellulose

Authors: M. Z. Shazana, R. Rosazley, M. A. Izzati, A. W. Fareezal, I. Rushdan, A. B. Suriani, S. Zakaria


There is an increasing interest in the development of flexible energy storage for application of Carbon Nanotubes and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). In this study, nanocomposite is consisting of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) mixed with suspension of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB). The use of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) as additive nanocomposite was improved the conductivity and mechanical properties of nanocomposite from nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). The nanocomposite were characterized for electrical conductivity and mechanical properties in uniaxial tension, which were tensile to measure the bond of fibers in nanocomposite. The processing route is environmental friendly which leads to well-mixed structures and good results as well.

Keywords: carbon nanotube (CNT), nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), mechanical properties, electrical conductivity

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452 Effect of Ethyl Cellulose and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose Polymer on the Release Profile of Diltiazem Hydrochloride Sustained Release Pellets

Authors: Shahana Sharmin


In the present study, the effect of cellulose polymers Ethyl Cellulose and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose was evaluated on the release profile of drug from sustained release pellet. Diltiazem Hydrochloride, an antihypertensive, cardio-protective agent and slow channel blocker were used as a model drug to evaluate its release characteristics from different pellets formulations. Diltiazem Hydrochloride sustained release pellets were prepared by drug loading (drug binder suspension) on neutral pellets followed by different percentages of spraying, i.e. 2%,4%, 6%, 8% and 10% coating suspension using ethyl cellulose and hydroxy-propyl methyl cellulose polymer in a fixed 85:15 ratios respectively. The in vitro dissolution studies of Diltiazem Hydrochloride from these sustained release pellets were carried out in pH 7.2 phosphate buffer for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 hrs using USP-I method. Statistically, significant differences were found among the drug release profile from different formulations. Polymer content with the highest concentration of Ethyl cellulose on the pellets shows the highest release retarding rate of the drug. The retarding capacity decreases with the decreased concentration of ethyl cellulose. The release mechanism was explored and explained with zero order, first order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer’s equations. Finally, the study showed that the profile and kinetics of drug release were functions of polymer type, polymer concentration & the physico-chemical properties of the drug.

Keywords: diltiazem hydrochloride, ethyl cellulose, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, release kinetics, sustained release pellets

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451 Development of Probability Distribution Models for Degree of Bending (DoB) in Chord Member of Tubular X-Joints under Bending Loads

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Amirreza Ghaffari


Fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore structures is not only dependent on the value of hot-spot stress, but is also significantly influenced by the through-the-thickness stress distribution characterized by the degree of bending (DoB). The DoB exhibits considerable scatter calling for greater emphasis in accurate determination of its governing probability distribution which is a key input for the fatigue reliability analysis of a tubular joint. Although the tubular X-joints are commonly found in offshore jacket structures, as far as the authors are aware, no comprehensive research has been carried out on the probability distribution of the DoB in tubular X-joints. What has been used so far as the probability distribution of the DoB in reliability analyses is mainly based on assumptions and limited observations, especially in terms of distribution parameters. In the present paper, results of parametric equations available for the calculation of the DoB have been used to develop probability distribution models for the DoB in the chord member of tubular X-joints subjected to four types of bending loads. Based on a parametric study, a set of samples was prepared and density histograms were generated for these samples using Freedman-Diaconis method. Twelve different probability density functions (PDFs) were fitted to these histograms. The maximum likelihood method was utilized to determine the parameters of fitted distributions. In each case, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate the goodness of fit. Finally, after substituting the values of estimated parameters for each distribution, a set of fully defined PDFs have been proposed for the DoB in tubular X-joints subjected to bending loads.

Keywords: tubular X-joint, degree of bending (DoB), probability density function (PDF), Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test

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450 Effect of Dietary Cellulose Levels on the Growth Parameters of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus Fingerlings

Authors: Keri Alhadi Ighwela, Aziz Bin Ahmad, A. B. Abol-Munafi


Three purified diets were formulated using fish meal, soya bean, wheat flour, palm oil, minerals and maltose. The carbohydrate in the diets was increased from 5 to 15% by changing the cellulose content to study the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on the growth parameters of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.The protein and the lipid contents were kept constant in all the diets. The results showed that, weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilisation and hepatosomatic index of fish fed the diet containing 15% cellulose were the lowest among all groups. Addition, the fish fed the diet containing 5% cellulose had the best specific growth rate, and food conversion ratio. While, there was no effect of the dietary cellulose levels on condition factor and survival rate. These results indicate that Nile tilapia fingerlings are able to utilize dietary cellulose does not exceed 10% in their feed for optimum growth.

Keywords: dietary cellulose, growth parameters, oreochromis niloticus, purified diets

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449 Khaya Cellulose Supported Copper Nanoparticles for Chemo Selective Aza-Michael Reactions

Authors: M. Shaheen Sarkar, M. Lutfor Rahman, Mashitah Mohd Yusoff


We prepared a highly active Khaya cellulose supported poly(hydroxamic acid) copper nanoparticles by the surface modification of Khaya cellulose through graft co-polymerization and subsequently amidoximation. The Cu-nanoparticle (0.05 mol% to 50 mol ppm) was selectively promoted Aza-Michael reaction of aliphatic amines to give the corresponding alkylated products at room temperature in methanol. The supported nanoparticle was easy to recover and reused seven times without significance loss of its activity.

Keywords: Aza-Michael, copper, cellulose, nanoparticles, poly(hydroxamic acid)

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448 Synthesis of NiNW/ Cellulose Nano Hybrid via Liquid-Phase Reduction

Authors: Siti Rahmah Shamsuri, Eiichiro Matsubara, Shohei Shiomi


The 1D nanomaterial is far surpassed the 0D nanomaterial. It does not just offer most of the benefit of the 0D nanomaterial such as the large surface area, a great number of active site and an efficient interfacial charge transfer but also can assemble into free-standing and flexible electrode due to their high aspect ratio. Thus, it is essential to develop a simple and ease synthesis of this 1D nanomaterial for the practical application. Here, nickel nanowire/cellulose hybrid has been successfully fabricated via a simple liquid-phase method with the assist of the magnetic field. A finer nickel nanowire was heterogeneously nucleated on the surface of the cellulose fiber, which demonstrated the effect of the hydroxyl group on the cellulose structure. The result of the nickel nanowire size was found to vary from 66-114 nm. A detailed discussion on the mechanism of the nickel nanowire/ cellulose hybrid formation is also shown in this paper.

Keywords: cellulose nanofiber, liquid-phase reduction, metal nanowire, nano hybrid material

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447 Reliability-Simulation of Composite Tubular Structure under Pressure by Finite Elements Methods

Authors: Abdelkader Hocine, Abdelhakim Maizia


The exponential growth of reinforced fibers composite materials use has prompted researchers to step up their work on the prediction of their reliability. Owing to differences between the properties of the materials used for the composite, the manufacturing processes, the load combinations and types of environment, the prediction of the reliability of composite materials has become a primary task. Through failure criteria, TSAI-WU and the maximum stress, the reliability of multilayer tubular structures under pressure is the subject of this paper, where the failure probability of is estimated by the method of Monte Carlo.

Keywords: composite, design, monte carlo, tubular structure, reliability

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446 Pretreatment of Cattail (Typha domingensis) Fibers to Obtain Cellulose Nanocrystals

Authors: Marivane Turim Koschevic, Maycon dos Santos, Marcello Lima Bertuci, Farayde Matta Fakhouri, Silvia Maria Martelli


Natural fibers are rich raw materials in cellulose and abundant in the world, its use for the cellulose nanocrystals extraction is promising as an example cited is the cattail, macrophyte native weed in South America. This study deals with the pre-treatment cattail of crushed fibers, at six different methods of mercerization, followed by the use of bleaching. As a result, have found The positive effects of treating fibers by means of optical microscopy and spectroscopy, Fourier transform (FTIR). The sample selected for future testing of cellulose nanocrystals extraction was treated in 2.5% NaOH for 2 h, 60 °C in the first stage and 30vol H2O2, NaOH 5% in the proportion 30/70% (v/v) for 1 hour 60 °C, followed by treatment at 50/50% (v/v) 15 minutes, 50°C, with the same constituents of the solution.

Keywords: cellulose nanocrystal, chemical treatment, mercerization, natural fibers

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445 Microstructure Study of NanoCrystalline Cellulose Obtained from Cotton Linter

Authors: Farid Amidi-Fazli


Problems and disadvantages of using conventional plastics are more apparent in recent years and have attracted researchers' attention. Polymers from natural resources or bio polymers represent a suitable replacement to overcome to the disadvantages of plastics. But due to the some flaws of bio polymers, using suitable filler almost seems necessary. Nanocrystalline cellulose with low cost and availability can be applied as appropriate filler. In this study nanocrystalline cellulose was produced from cotton Linter and was characterized. The cotton Linter was hydrolyzed in sulfuric acid then neutralized by the two different concentrations of NaOH. The resulted suspension was treated by ultrasound waves. Process efficiency was determined as 90%. The final product was studied using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction technique. The obtained diagram of XRD experiment confirmed that the produced material was nanocrystalline cellulose. Also percentage of crystallinity was calculated as 84% in the obtained material as well as the size of crystals. It can be said that the applied method is a rapid and easy method for the production of nanocrystalline cellulose.

Keywords: nanocrystalline cellulose, crystallinity, XRD, cotton linter

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444 Preparation of Bacterial Cellulose Membranes from Nata de Coco for CO2/CH4 Separation

Authors: Yanin Hosakun, Sujitra Wongkasemjit, Thanyalak Chaisuwan


Carbon dioxide removal from natural gas is an important process because the existence of carbon dioxide in natural gas contributes to pipeline corrosion, reduces the heating value, and takes up volume in the pipeline. In this study, bacterial cellulose was chosen for the CO2/CH4 gas separation membrane due to its unique structure and prominent properties. Additionally, it can simply be obtained by culturing the bacteria so called “Acetobacter xylinum” through fermentation of coconut juice. Bacterial cellulose membranes with and without silver ions were prepared and studied for the separation performance of CO2 and CH4.

Keywords: bacterial cellulose, CO2, CH4 separation, membrane, nata de coco

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
443 Synthesis of Ni/Mesopore Silica-Alumina Catalyst for Hydrocracking of Pyrolyzed α-Cellulose

Authors: Wega Trisunaryanti, Hesty Kusumastuti, Iip Izul Falah, Muhammad Fajar Marsuki, Rahmad Nuryanto


Synthesis of Ni supported on mesopore silica-alumina (MSA) for hydrocracking of pyrolyzed α-cellulose had been carried out. The silica and alumina were extracted from Sidoarjo mud. Gelatin from catfish bone was used as a template for the mesopore design. The MSA was synthesized by using hydrothermal method at 100 °C for 24 h and calcined at 550 °C for 4 h then characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD) and Nitrogen Gas Sorption Analyzer (GAS). The Ni metal was loaded to the MSA by wet impregnation method. The catalytic activity in the hydrocracking reaction of pyrolyzed α-cellulose was carried out at 450 °C for 2 h. The MSA synthesized in this work is an amorphous material with specific surface area, total pore volume, and average pore diameter of 212.29 m²/g, 1.29 cm³/g, and 20.05 nm, respectively. The Ni/MSA catalyst produced 73.02 wt.% of liquid product in hydrocracking of pyrolyzed α-cellulose.

Keywords: catalyst, gelatin, hydrocracking, mesopore silica-alumina, α-cellulose

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442 Fatigue Life Estimation of Tubular Joints - A Comparative Study

Authors: Jeron Maheswaran, Sudath C. Siriwardane


In fatigue analysis, the structural detail of tubular joint has taken great attention among engineers. The DNV-RP-C203 is covering this topic quite well for simple and clear joint cases. For complex joint and geometry, where joint classification isn’t available and limitation on validity range of non-dimensional geometric parameters, the challenges become a fact among engineers. The classification of joint is important to carry out through the fatigue analysis. These joint configurations are identified by the connectivity and the load distribution of tubular joints. To overcome these problems to some extent, this paper compare the fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore jacket according to the stress concentration factors (SCF) in DNV-RP-C203 and finite element method employed Abaqus/CAE. The paper presents the geometric details, material properties and considered load history of the jacket structure. Describe the global structural analysis and identification of critical tubular joints for fatigue life estimation. Hence fatigue life is determined based on the guidelines provided by design codes. Fatigue analysis of tubular joints is conducted using finite element employed Abaqus/CAE [4] as next major step. Finally, obtained SCFs and fatigue lives are compared and their significances are discussed.

Keywords: fatigue life, stress-concentration factor, finite element analysis, offshore jacket structure

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441 Effect of Enzymatic Modification on the Crystallinity of Cellulose Pulps

Authors: J. Janicki, M. Rom, C. Slusarczyk, J. Fabia, M. Siika-aho, K. Marjamaa, K. Kruus, K. Langfelder, C. Steel, M. Paloheimo, T. Puranen, S. Mäkinen, D. Wawro


The cellulose is one of the most abundant polymers in the world, however, its application in the high-end value products such as films or fibres, it triggered by the cellulose properties. The noticeable presence of hydrogen bonding reflected with partially crystalline structure makes the cellulose insoluble in common solvents and not meltable. The existing technologies, such as viscose process, suffer from environmental and economical problems, because of the risk of harmful chemicals liberation during the spinning process. The enzymatic modification of cellulose with endoglucanase makes it directly alkali soluble in NaOH solution, giving the opportunities for film and fibers formation. As the effect of enzymatic treatment, there are observed changes in crystalline structure and accompanying changes of the affinity of cellulose to water, demonstrated by water retention value. The objective of the project ELMO - Novel carbohydrate modifying enzymes for fibre modification is is to develop new enzyme products for modification of dissolving grade pulps. The aim is to increase the reactivity of dissolving grade pulps and remove residual hemicellulose. The scientific aim of this paper is to present the effect of enzymatic treatment on the crystallinity and affinity to water of cellulose pulps modified with enzymes.

Keywords: cellulose, crystallinity, WAXS, enzyme

Procedia PDF Downloads 160