Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11910

Search results for: growth parameters

11910 Influence of Magnetic Bio-Stimulation Effects on Pre-Sown Hybrid Sunflower Seeds Germination, Growth, and on the Percentage of Antioxidant Activities

Authors: Nighat Zia-ud-Den, Shazia Anwer Bukhari

Abstract:

In the present study, sunflower seeds were exposed to magnetic bio-stimulation at different milli Tesla, and their effects were studied. The present study addressed to establish the effectiveness of magnetic bio-stimulation on seed germination, growth, and other dynamics of crop growth. The changes in physiological characters, i.e. the growth parameters of seedlings (biomass, root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of root shoot leaf and fruit, leaf area, the height of plants, number of leaves, and number of fruits per plant) and antioxidant activities were measured. The parameters related to germination and growth were measured under controlled conditions while they changed significantly compared with that of the control. These changes suggested that magnetic seed stimulator enhanced the inner energy of seeds, which contributed to the acceleration of the growth and development of seedlings. Moreover, pretreatment with a magnetic field was found to be a positive impact on sunflower seeds germination, growth, and other biochemical parameters.

Keywords: sunflower seeds, physical priming method, biochemical parameters, antioxidant activities

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
11909 Effect of Pre-treatment with Salicylic Acid on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Wheat under Salinity

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Mike Dennett

Abstract:

At first harvest, results showed that salinity (tap water, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) induced a significant decrease in all growth parameters in both Yecora Rojo and Paragon cultivars. The greatest effect of salinity was a decrease in leaf area. The same tendency was observed with specific leaf area, and total fresh and dry weights and their components. Green leaf and tiller numbers were reduced by the same extent in both cultivars. The corresponding final harvest, all growth parameters also reduced with increased salinity. Yield and yield components were also reduced by salinity with similar effects in both cultivars. Chlorophyll fluorescence, expressed as Fv/Fm, and gas exchange parameters were decreased significantly with increase in salinity in both cultivars. In contrast, seed protein content was increased significantly with increase in salinity. Salicylic acid (SA) application induced no significant improvements in growth parameters and yield components.

Keywords: salinity, salicylic acid, growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
11908 Effect of Pre-Treatment with Salicylic Acid on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Saudi’s Wheat under Salinity

Authors: Saad Howladar, Mike Dennett

Abstract:

At first harvest, results showed that salinity (tap water, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) induced a significant decrease in all growth parameters in both Yecora Rojo and Paragon cultivars. The greatest effect of salinity was a decrease in leaf area. The same tendency was observed with specific leaf area, and total fresh and dry weights and their components. Green leaf and tiller numbers were reduced by the same extent in both cultivars. The corresponding final harvest, all growth parameters also reduced with increased salinity. Yield and yield components were also reduced by salinity with similar effects in both cultivars. Chlorophyll fluorescence, expressed as Fv/Fm, and gas exchange parameters were decreased significantly with increase in salinity in both cultivars. In contrast, seed protein content was increased significantly with increase in salinity. Salicylic acid (SA) application induced no significant improvements in growth parameters and yield components.

Keywords: salinity, salicylic acid, growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
11907 Effects of Vitamin E and Vitamin on Growth, Survival and Some Haematological and Immunological Parameters of Caspian Brown Trout, Salmo trutta caspius Juveniles

Authors: Hossein Khara, Mahmoud Sayyadborani, Mohammad Sayyadborani

Abstract:

In the present study, we examined the effects of different dietary levels of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and their combinations on growth, survival and some haematological and immunological parameters of Caspian brown trout, Salmo trutta caspius juveniles. 15 experimental treatments and one control group with three replicates were considered for experiment. The experimental treatments were fish fed by experimental diets containing different levels of Vit C and E as follow: T1: Vit E (20 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (100 mg.kg diet -1), T2: Vit E (30 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (100 mg.kg diet -1), T3: Vit E (40 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (100 mg.kg diet -1), T4: Vit E (20 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (200 mg.kg diet -1), T5: Vit E (30 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (200 mg.kg diet -1), T6: Vit E (40 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (200 mg.kg diet -1), T7: Vit E (20 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (300 mg.kg diet -1), T8: Vit E (30 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (300 mg.kg diet -1), T9: Vit E (40 mg.kg diet -1) + Vit C (300 mg.kg diet -1), T10: Vit C (100 mg.kg diet -1), T11: Vit C (200 mg.kg diet -1), T12: Vit C (300 mg.kg diet -1), T13: Vit E (20 mg.kg diet -1), T14: Vit E (30 mg.kg diet -1) T15: Vit E (40 mg.kg diet -1). Also a non-vitamin supplemented was considered as control group. Growth parameters were measured monthly and serum parameters assayed at the end of the experiment. According to our results, Vit C and E improved survival and growth parameters including specific growth rate (SGR), weight gain percent (WG%) and biomass. The highest values of these parameters obtained in T8, T9 and T8 respectively. The lowest FCR obtained in T8. The haematological parameters including red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), haematocrit (Hct) and haemoglobin (Hb) were higher in vitamin treated groups than control group with highest values in T8. In T13, WBC values were higher compared to other experimental groups. The immunological parameters including lysozyme activity, Immunoglobulin (IgM) and total immunoglobulin (TIg) were significantly higher in vitamin supplemented groups than in control group. In this regard the highest values of these parameters were found in T12. The lowest values of TIg and lysozyme activity were observed in control group and fish fed by only vitamin E i.e. T13, T14 and T15. In conclusion, our results show that Vit C and E in combination or only can improve growth, survival, haematological and immunological indices of Caspian brown trout.

Keywords: vitamins E, vitamins C, growth, survival, haematological parameters, immunological parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
11906 The Effect of Low Voltage Direct Current Applications on the Growth of Microalgae Chlorella Vulgaris

Authors: Osman Kök, İlhami̇ Tüzün, Yaşar Aluç

Abstract:

This study was conducted to explore the effect of direct current (DC) applications on the growth of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris KKU71, isolated from highly saline freshwater. Experiments were implemented based upon the cross-combinations of both the intensity and duration of electric applications, generating a full factorial design of 10V, 20V, 30V, and 5s, 30s, 60s, respectively. Growth parameters of cultures were monitored on Optical Density (OD), Cell Count (CC), Chlorophyll-a, b (Chl-a, b), and Total Carotenoids (TCar). All DC-assisted treatments stimulated the growth and thus led to higher values of growth parameters such as OD, CC, Chl-a, and TCar. Monotonically increasing with the intensity and duration of DC applications, wet and dry biomass yields of the harvested algae reached their highest level at 30V-60s in all sets of treatments. In addition, this increase between DC applications was listed as C(control)<10V<20V<30V and C<5s<30s<60s. As a result, direct current applications increased the biomass.

Keywords: Chlorella Vulgaris, direct current, growth, biomass

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
11905 Analysis of Fertilizer Effect in the Tilapia Growth of Mozambique (Oreochromis mossambicus)

Authors: Sérgio Afonso Mulema, Andrés Carrión García, Vicente Ernesto

Abstract:

This paper analyses the effect of fertilizer (organic and inorganic) in the growth of tilapia. An experiment was implemented in the Aquapesca Company of Mozambique; there were considered four different treatments. Each type of fertilizer was applied in two of these treatments; a feed was supplied to the third treatment, and the fourth was taken as control. The weight and length of the tilapia were used as the growth parameters, and to measure the water quality, the physical-chemical parameters were registered. The results show that the weight and length were different for tilapias cultivated in different treatments. These differences were evidenced mainly by organic and feed treatments, where there was the largest and smallest value of these parameters, respectively. In order to prove that these differences were caused only by applied treatment without interference for the aquatic environment, a Fisher discriminant analysis was applied, which confirmed that the treatments were exposed to the same environment condition.

Keywords: fertilizer, tilapia, growth, statistical methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
11904 Influence of Sulphur and Boron on Growth, Quality Parameters and Productivity of Soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Merrill)

Authors: Shital Bangar, G. B. Khandagale

Abstract:

The experimentation was carried out to study the influence of sulphur and boron on growth parameters and productivity of soybean in kharif season of 2009-2010 at Experimental Farm, Department of Agricultural Botany, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani (M.S.). The object was to evaluate the impact of sulphur and boron on growth, development, grain yield and physiological aspects of soybean variety MAUS-81. Nine treatments consisted of three levels of sulphur i.e. 20, 30 and 40 Kg/ha as well as three levels boron i.e.10, 15 and 20 kg boron/ha and the combinations of these two mineral elements i.e. Sulphur @30 kg/ha + Borax @15 kg/ha and Sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha with one control treatment in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. The effect of sulphur and boron on various growth parameters of soybean like relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) were remained statistically on par with each other. However, the application of higher dose of Sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha enhanced significantly all the growth parameters. Application of the nutrients increased the dry matter accumulation of the crop plant and hence, other growth indices like RGR and NAR also increased significantly. RGR and NAR values were recorded highest at the initial crop growth stages and decline thereafter. The application of sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha recorded significantly higher content of chlorophyll ‘a’ than rest of the treatments and chlorophyll ‘b’ observed higher in boron @15 kg/ha as well as [email protected] kg/ha, whereas total chlorophyll content was maximum in sulphur @40 kg/ha. Oil content was not influenced significantly due to above fertilization. The highest seed yield and total biological yield were obtained with combination of Sulphur @40 kg/ha + Borax @ 20 kg/ha, single sulphur and boron application also showed a significant effect on seed and biological yield.

Keywords: boron, growth, productivity, quality, soybean and sulphur

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
11903 Effect of Dietary Cellulose Levels on the Growth Parameters of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus Fingerlings

Authors: Keri Alhadi Ighwela, Aziz Bin Ahmad, A. B. Abol-Munafi

Abstract:

Three purified diets were formulated using fish meal, soya bean, wheat flour, palm oil, minerals and maltose. The carbohydrate in the diets was increased from 5 to 15% by changing the cellulose content to study the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on the growth parameters of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.The protein and the lipid contents were kept constant in all the diets. The results showed that, weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilisation and hepatosomatic index of fish fed the diet containing 15% cellulose were the lowest among all groups. Addition, the fish fed the diet containing 5% cellulose had the best specific growth rate, and food conversion ratio. While, there was no effect of the dietary cellulose levels on condition factor and survival rate. These results indicate that Nile tilapia fingerlings are able to utilize dietary cellulose does not exceed 10% in their feed for optimum growth.

Keywords: dietary cellulose, growth parameters, oreochromis niloticus, purified diets

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
11902 Use of Predictive Food Microbiology to Determine the Shelf-Life of Foods

Authors: Fatih Tarlak

Abstract:

Predictive microbiology can be considered as an important field in food microbiology in which it uses predictive models to describe the microbial growth in different food products. Predictive models estimate the growth of microorganisms quickly, efficiently, and in a cost-effective way as compared to traditional methods of enumeration, which are long-lasting, expensive, and time-consuming. The mathematical models used in predictive microbiology are mainly categorised as primary and secondary models. The primary models are the mathematical equations that define the growth data as a function of time under a constant environmental condition. The secondary models describe the effects of environmental factors, such as temperature, pH, and water activity (aw) on the parameters of the primary models, including the maximum specific growth rate and lag phase duration, which are the most critical growth kinetic parameters. The combination of primary and secondary models provides valuable information to set limits for the quantitative detection of the microbial spoilage and assess product shelf-life.

Keywords: shelf-life, growth model, predictive microbiology, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
11901 Pre-Soaking Application of Salicylic Acid on Four Wheat Cultivars under Saline Concentrations

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Mike Dennett

Abstract:

The effect of salinity (0-200 mMNaCl) on wheat growth (leaf and tiller numbers, and fresh and dry weights) underseed soaking (6 and 24 hs) insalicylic acid (SA) was investigated. The impact of salinity was less pronounced in salt tolerant cultivars (Sakha 93 and S24) than Paragon and S24. Chlorophyll content was increased as a response to salinity stress. It was raised in 100 mMNaCl more than 200 mMNaCl. The same trend was found in 24 hs soaking, except chlorophyll content in Paragon and S24 under 200 mMNaCl was more than 100 mMNaCl. SA application induced a positive effect on growth parameters in some cultivars, particularly Paragon under saline and non-saline condition. Soaking for 6 hs was more effective than 24 hs soaking, especially in Paragon and Sakha 93. SA supply caused a slight effect on chlorophyll content but this was not significant and there was no significant difference between both soaking hs. The effect of SA on growth parameters and chlorophyll content depends on cultivar genotype and SA concentration.

Keywords: salinity, salicylic acid, growth parameters, chlorophyll content, wheat cultivars

Procedia PDF Downloads 482
11900 Effect of Dietary Spirulina Powder on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Hematological, Biological and Immunological Parameters of Oscar Fish, Astronotus ocellatus

Authors: Negar Ghotbeddin

Abstract:

In this study, the changes in survival, growth, body composition, hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus) have been investigated with dietary spirulina powder supplementation. Total of 300 fish with an initial weight of 8.37 ± 0.36 was distributed to three treatments and one control (0%). The fish were fed 8 weeks with diets containing different concentrations of S. powder: (control (0%), 2.5%, 5%, and 10%). Then sampling was done, and different parameters were measured by standard methods. Growth performance such as weight gain (%), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) significantly improved in fish fed with S. powder (p < 0.5). Crude protein significantly increased in the S. powder supplemented groups (p < 0.5). However, crude lipid decreased with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels. Total protein increased in fish fed with 10% S. powder. Triglycerides and cholesterol decreased with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels. Immunological parameters including C3 and C4 increased significantly with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels, and lysozyme was improved in 10% S. powder. Results of this study indicated that S. powder had positive effects on Oscar fish and the best values were observed at 10 % S. powder.

Keywords: spirulina powder, growth performance, body composition, hematology, immunity, Astronotus ocellatus

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
11899 Bayes Estimation of Parameters of Binomial Type Rayleigh Class Software Reliability Growth Model using Non-informative Priors

Authors: Rajesh Singh, Kailash Kale

Abstract:

In this paper, the Binomial process type occurrence of software failures is considered and failure intensity has been characterized by one parameter Rayleigh class Software Reliability Growth Model (SRGM). The proposed SRGM is mathematical function of parameters namely; total number of failures i.e. η-0 and scale parameter i.e. η-1. It is assumed that very little or no information is available about both these parameters and then considering non-informative priors for both these parameters, the Bayes estimators for the parameters η-0 and η-1 have been obtained under square error loss function. The proposed Bayes estimators are compared with their corresponding maximum likelihood estimators on the basis of risk efficiencies obtained by Monte Carlo simulation technique. It is concluded that both the proposed Bayes estimators of total number of failures and scale parameter perform well for proper choice of execution time.

Keywords: binomial process, non-informative prior, maximum likelihood estimator (MLE), rayleigh class, software reliability growth model (SRGM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
11898 Comparison of the Logistic and the Gompertz Growth Functions Considering a Periodic Perturbation in the Model Parameters

Authors: Avan Al-Saffar, Eun-Jin Kim

Abstract:

Both the logistic growth model and the gompertz growth model are used to describe growth processes. Both models driven by perturbations in different cases are investigated using information theory as a useful measure of sustainability and the variability. Specifically, we study the effect of different oscillatory modulations in the system's parameters on the evolution of the system and Probability Density Function (PDF). We show the maintenance of the initial conditions for a long time. We offer Fisher information analysis in positive and/or negative feedback and explain its implications for the sustainability of population dynamics. We also display a finite amplitude solution due to the purely fluctuating growth rate whereas the periodic fluctuations in negative feedback can lead to break down the system's self-regulation with an exponentially growing solution. In the cases tested, the gompertz and logistic systems show similar behaviour in terms of information and sustainability although they develop differently in time.

Keywords: dynamical systems, fisher information, probability density function (pdf), sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
11897 Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Lauric Acid Methyl Ester from DSC Measurements

Authors: Charine Faith H. Lagrimas, Rommel N. Galvan, Rizalinda L. de Leon

Abstract:

An ongoing study, methyl laurate to be used as a refrigerant in an HVAC system, requires the crystallization kinetics of the said substance. Step-wise and normal forms of Avrami model parameters were used to describe the isothermal crystallization kinetics of methyl laurate at different temperatures from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements. At 3 °C, parameters showed that methyl laurate exhibits a secondary crystallization. The primary crystallization occurred with instantaneous nuclei and spherulitic growth; followed by a secondary instantaneous nucleation with a lower growth of dimensionality, rod-like. At 4 °C to 6 °C, the exotherms from DSC implied that the system was under the isokinetic range. The kinetics behavior is the same which is instantaneous nucleation with one-dimensional growth. The differences for the isokinetic range temperatures are the activation energies (directly proportional to T) and nucleation rates (inversely proportional to T). From the images obtained during the crystallization of methyl laurate using an optical microscope, it is confirmed that the nucleation and crystal growth modes obtained from the optical microscope are consistent with the parameters from Avrami model.

Keywords: Avrami model, isothermal crystallization, lipids kinetics, methyl laurate

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
11896 A Crop Growth Subroutine for Watershed Resources Management (WRM) Model

Authors: Kingsley Nnaemeka Ogbu, Constantine Mbajiorgu

Abstract:

Vegetation has a marked effect on runoff and has become an important component in hydrologic model. The watershed Resources Management (WRM) model, a process-based, continuous, distributed parameter simulation model developed for hydrologic and soil erosion studies at the watershed scale lack a crop growth component. As such, this model assumes a constant parameter values for vegetation and hydraulic parameters throughout the duration of hydrologic simulation. Our approach is to develop a crop growth algorithm based on the original plant growth model used in the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate Model (EPIC) model. This paper describes the development of a single crop growth model which has the capability of simulating all crops using unique parameter values for each crop. Simulated crop growth processes will reflect the vegetative seasonality of the natural watershed system. An existing model was employed for evaluating vegetative resistance by hydraulic and vegetative parameters incorporated into the WRM model. The improved WRM model will have the ability to evaluate the seasonal variation of the vegetative roughness coefficient with depth of flow and further enhance the hydrologic model’s capability for accurate hydrologic studies

Keywords: crop yield, roughness coefficient, PAR, WRM model

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
11895 A Crop Growth Subroutine for Watershed Resources Management (WRM) Model 1: Description

Authors: Kingsley Nnaemeka Ogbu, Constantine Mbajiorgu

Abstract:

Vegetation has a marked effect on runoff and has become an important component in hydrologic model. The watershed Resources Management (WRM) model, a process-based, continuous, distributed parameter simulation model developed for hydrologic and soil erosion studies at the watershed scale lack a crop growth component. As such, this model assumes a constant parameter values for vegetation and hydraulic parameters throughout the duration of hydrologic simulation. Our approach is to develop a crop growth algorithm based on the original plant growth model used in the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate Model (EPIC) model. This paper describes the development of a single crop growth model which has the capability of simulating all crops using unique parameter values for each crop. Simulated crop growth processes will reflect the vegetative seasonality of the natural watershed system. An existing model was employed for evaluating vegetative resistance by hydraulic and vegetative parameters incorporated into the WRM model. The improved WRM model will have the ability to evaluate the seasonal variation of the vegetative roughness coefficient with depth of flow and further enhance the hydrologic model’s capability for accurate hydrologic studies.

Keywords: runoff, roughness coefficient, PAR, WRM model

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
11894 Growth Curves Genetic Analysis of Native South Caspian Sea Poultry Using Bayesian Statistics

Authors: Jamal Fayazi, Farhad Anoosheh, Mohammad R. Ghorbani, Ali R. Paydar

Abstract:

In this study, to determine the best non-linear regression model describing the growth curve of native poultry, 9657 chicks of generations 18, 19, and 20 raised in Mazandaran breeding center were used. Fowls and roosters of this center distributed in south of Caspian Sea region. To estimate the genetic variability of none linear regression parameter of growth traits, a Gibbs sampling of Bayesian analysis was used. The average body weight traits in the first day (BW1), eighth week (BW8) and twelfth week (BW12) were respectively estimated as 36.05, 763.03, and 1194.98 grams. Based on the coefficient of determination, mean squares of error and Akaike information criteria, Gompertz model was selected as the best growth descriptive function. In Gompertz model, the estimated values for the parameters of maturity weight (A), integration constant (B) and maturity rate (K) were estimated to be 1734.4, 3.986, and 0.282, respectively. The direct heritability of BW1, BW8 and BW12 were respectively reported to be as 0.378, 0.3709, 0.316, 0.389, 0.43, 0.09 and 0.07. With regard to estimated parameters, the results of this study indicated that there is a possibility to improve some property of growth curve using appropriate selection programs.

Keywords: direct heritability, Gompertz, growth traits, maturity weight, native poultry

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
11893 Effects of Intercropping Maize (Zea mays L.) with Jack Beans (Canavalia ensiformis L.) at Different Spacing and Weeding Regimes on Crops Productivity

Authors: Oluseun S. Oyelakin, Olalekan W. Olaniyi

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Ido town in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo state, Nigeria to determine the effects of intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) with Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.) at different spacing and weeding regimes on crops productivity. The treatments were 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement involving two spatial crop arrangements. Spacing of 75 cm x 50 cm and 90 cm x 42 cm (41.667 cm) with two plants per stand resulted in plant population of approximately 53,000 plants/hectare. Also, Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two cropping patterns (sole and intercrop), three weeding regimes (weedy check, weeds once, and weed twice) with three replicates was used. Data were analyzed with SAS (Statistical Analysis System) and statistical means separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) (P ≤ 0.05). Intercropping and crop spacing did not have significant influence on the growth parameters and yield parameters. The maize grain yield of 1.11 t/ha obtained under sole maize was comparable to 1.05 t/ha from maize/jack beans. Weeding regime significantly influenced growth and yields of maize in intercropping with Jack beans. Weeding twice resulted in significantly higher growth than that of the other weeding regimes. Plant height at 6 Weeks After Sowing (WAS) under weeding twice regime (3 and 6 WAS) was 83.9 cm which was significantly different from 67.75 cm and 53.47 cm for weeding once (3 WAS) and no weeding regimes respectively. Moreover, maize grain yield of 1.3 t/ha obtained from plots weeded twice was comparable to that of 1.23 t/ha from single weeding and both were significantly higher than 0.71 t/ha maize grain yield obtained from the no weeding control. The dry matter production of Jack beans reduced at some growth stages due to intercropping of maize with Jack beans though with no significance effect on the other growth parameters of the crop. There was no effect on the growth parameters of Jack beans in maize/jack beans intercrop based on cropping spacing while comparable growth and dry matter production in Jack beans were produced in maize/Jack beans mixture with single weeding.

Keywords: crop spacing, intercropping, growth parameter, weeding regime, sole cropping, WAS, week after sowing

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
11892 The Relationship between Fatigue Crack Growth and Residual Stress in Rails

Authors: F. Husem, M. E. Turan, Y. Sun, H. Ahlatci, I. Tozlu

Abstract:

Residual stress and fatigue crack growth rates are important to determine mechanical behavior of rails. This study aims to make relationship between residual stress and fatigue crack growth values in rails. For this purpose, three R260 quality rails (0.6-0.8% C, 0.6-1.25 Mn) were chosen. Residual stress of samples was measured by cutting method that is related in railway standard. Then samples were machined for fatigue crack growth test and analyze was completed according to the ASTM E647 standard which gives information about parameters of rails for this test. Microstructure characterizations were examined by Light Optic Microscope (LOM). The results showed that residual stress change with fatigue crack growth rate. The sample has highest residual stress exhibits highest crack growth rate and pearlitic structure can be seen clearly for all samples by microstructure analyze.

Keywords: residual stress, fatigue crack growth, R260, SEM, ASTM E647

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
11891 Effects of Raw Bee Propolis and Water or Ethanol Extract of Propolis on Performance, Immune System and Some Blood Parameters on Broiler Bredeers

Authors: Hasan Alp Sahin, Ergin Ozturk

Abstract:

The effects of raw bee propolis (RP) and water (WEP) or ethanol (EEP) extract of propolis on growth performance, selected immune parameters (IgA, IgY and IgM) and some blood parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, trygliceride, total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, total antioxidant status and total oxidant status were determined. The study was conducted between 15th and 20th weeks (6 weeks) and used a total of 48 broiler breeder pullets (Ross-308). The broiler breeder in control group was fed diet without propolis whereas the birds in RP, WEP and EEP groups were fed diets with RP, WEP and EEP at the level of 1200, 400 and 400 ppm, respectively. All pullets were fed mash form diet with 15% crude protein and 2800 ME kcal/kg. All propolis forms had not a beneficial effect on any studied parameters compared to control group (P > 0.05). The results of the study indicated that both the level of the active matters supplied from the bee propolis has no enough beneficial effect on performance, some immune and blood parameters on broiler breeders or they did not have such a level that would cause a beneficial effect on these variables.

Keywords: antioxidant, bee product , poultry breeders, growth performance, immune parameters, blood chemistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
11890 Salinity Stress: Effects on Growth Biochemical Parameters and Ion Homeostasis in Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea L.)

Authors: Umar Jaafar, Mungadi

Abstract:

Plant growth, biochemical parameters, cytotoxic ion sequestration and ionic in balance were determined for spinach in response to varied concentrations of NaCl. The plant show decline in all vegetative parameters measured. Free proline content increase with increasing salt concentration and differ significantly (p<0.05) while the glycine betaine insignificantly (p>0.05) affected by concentration of NaCl. Salinity increases the cytotoxic ions, sodium chlorine ion and calcium with corresponding decrease in potassium ion concentrations. The ionic balance (Na+/K+) is low due to high content of potassium ion in plant accumulation ranging from 7700 to 6500 mg/kg. It can be concluded that the osmolyte accumulations, high number of leaves are possible indicators of salt tolerance in the spinach.

Keywords: spinach, salinity, osmolyte, cytotoxic

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11889 Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Enhancing Protein Digestive Enzymes and Growth Performance in Marble Goby (Oxyleotris marmorata) Juvenile

Authors: Jaturong Matidtor, Krisna R. Torrissen, Saengtong Pongjareankit, Sudaporn Tongsiri, Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn

Abstract:

Low survival rate has being particular problem in nursery of marble goby juvenile. The aim of this study was to investigate effect of garlic extract on protein digestive pancreatic enzymes, trypsin (T) and chymotrypsin (C). The marble goby were reared with commercial feed mixed garlic extract at concentration of 0 (control), 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0% (w/w) for 6 weeks. Analysis of the digestive enzymes at 2 and 6 weeks was performed. Growth parameters; weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency (FE), were identified. For T, C and T/C at 2 weeks, values of T and T/C ratio of 0.3% (w/w) group showed significant difference (p < 0.05) with the highest values of 17685.64± 11981.77 U/mg protein and of 51.64 ± 27.46 U/mg protein, respectively. For C at 2 weeks, 0% (w/w) group showed the highest values of 16191.76± 2225.56 U/mg protein. Whereas value of T, C and T/C ratio at 6 weeks, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05). For growth performance, it significantly increased in all garlic extract fed groups (0.3-5.0%, w/w), both at 2 and 6 weeks. At 2 weeks, values of WG and SGR of 0.5% (w/w) group showed the highest values of 71.51 ± 1.60%, and 3.85 ± 0.07%, respectively. For FE, 0.3% (w/w) group showed the highest value of 60.21 ± 6.51%. At 6 weeks, it illustrated that all growth parameters of 5.0% (w/w) group were the highest values; WG = 35.06 ± 5.66%, SGR = 2.14 ± 0.30%, and FE = 5.86 ± 0.68%. We suggested that garlic extract could be available for protein digestive enzyme and growth enhancement in marble goby nursery with artificial feed. This result will be high benefit for commercial aquaculture of marble goby.

Keywords: marble goby, nursery, garlic extract, digestive enzyme, growth

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11888 Efficacy of Three Different Herbicides to the Control of Wild Barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch) in Relation to Plant Growth Stage and Nitrogen Fertilizer Additive

Authors: Sh. Edrisi, M. Moeeni, A. Farahbakhsh

Abstract:

To study the effect of nitrogenous additive spray solution on the efficacy of three herbicides i.e. pinoxaden (Trade name: Axial), sulfosulfuron+metsulfuron-methyl (Trade name: Total) and sulfosulfuron (Trade name: Apirus) in controlling wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch), in different growth stages, a greenhouse experiment as a split plot in a completely randomized design in three replications was conducted. One month after treatments, all plants were harvested and growth parameters were determined. The data were analyzed with computer. The results showed that the herbicide applications with and without nitrogen additive caused significant reductions in growth parameters of wild barley at 2-4 leaf stage. However, the plants were not killed by this herbicide. Plants were killed completely due to applications of the two other herbicides i.e. Apirus and Total at 2-4 leaf. There was no significant difference between the effect of these two herbicides. There was no significant difference between the highest rate of each herbicide used alone and that of the lowest rate with nitrogenous additive.

Keywords: growth stage, herbicide, nitrogen, wild barley

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11887 Mercury Removal Using Pseudomonas putida (ATTC 49128): Effect of Acclimatization Time, Speed, and Temperature of Incubator Shaker

Authors: A. A. M. Azoddein, R. M. Yunus, N. M. Sulaiman, A. B. Bustary, K. Sabar

Abstract:

Microbes have been used to solve environmental problems for many years. The use microorganism to sequester, precipitate or alter the oxidation state of various heavy metals has been extensively studied. Processes by which microorganism interacts with toxic metal are very diverse. The purpose of this research is to remove the mercury using Pseudomonas putida, pure culture ATTC 49128 at optimum growth parameters such as techniques of culture, acclimatization time and speed of incubator shaker. Thus, in this study, the optimum growth parameters of P.putida were obtained to achieve the maximum of mercury removal. Based on the optimum parameters of Pseudomonas putida for specific growth rate, the removal of two different mercury concentration, 1 ppm and 4 ppm were studied. A mercury-resistant bacterial strain which is able to reduce ionic mercury to metallic mercury was used to reduce ionic mercury from mercury nitrate solution. The overall levels of mercury removal in this study were between 80% and 90%. The information obtained in this study is of fundamental for understanding of the survival of P.putida ATTC 49128 in mercury solution. Thus, microbial mercury environmental pollutants removal is a potential biological treatment for waste water treatment especially in petrochemical industries in Malaysia.

Keywords: Pseudomonas putida, growth kinetic, biosorption, mercury, petrochemical waste water

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11886 2D Monte Carlo Simulation of Grain Growth under Transient Conditions

Authors: K. R. Phaneesh, Anirudh Bhat, G. Mukherjee, K. T. Kashyap

Abstract:

Extensive Monte Carlo Potts model simulations were performed on 2D square lattice to investigate the effects of simulated higher temperatures effects on grain growth kinetics. A range of simulation temperatures (KTs) were applied on a matrix of size 10002 with Q-state 64, dispersed with a wide range of second phase particles, ranging from 0.001 to 0.1, and then run to 100,000 Monte Carlo steps. The average grain size, the largest grain size and the grain growth exponent were evaluated for all particle fractions and simulated temperatures. After evaluating several growth parameters, the critical temperature for a square lattice, with eight nearest neighbors, was found to be KTs = 0.4.

Keywords: average grain size, critical temperature, grain growth exponent, Monte Carlo steps

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11885 Standardization of Propagation Techniques for Celastrus paniculata: An Endangered Medicinal Plant of Western Ghats

Authors: Raviraja Shetty G., K. G. Poojitha

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted at College of Horticulture, Mudigere to study the effect of different growth regulators on seed germination and vegetative propagation by cuttings of Celastrus paniculata an endangered medicinal plant. The extracted seeds are subjected to 11 different pre-soaking treatments which include control, GA3 at 300, 350, 400ppm, KNO3 at 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, H2SO4 at 0.5%, 1.0% and HCl 0.5%,1.0% for 100 seeds per treatment. Among the different germination inducing treatments, seeds treated with gibberellins responded well with high seed germination and vigorous seedling growth. The seeds treated with GA3 400 ppm recorded maximum germination and growth parameters like rate of germination, shoot length, root length, plant vigour, fresh and dry weight of which was followed GA3 350 ppm. The commencement of germination and 50 per cent germination was also earlier in the same treatment. The cuttings of C. paniculata took more time for root initiation up to four months and sprouting percent was moderate as compared to other easy to root species. Among different treatments, IBA 2000 ppm was found to be the best, which recorded the maximum shoot and also root parameters. The results of present investigation will be helpful for conservation of this endangered medicinal plant through propagation

Keywords: conservation, germination, growth, germination, propagation

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11884 Estimates of (Co)Variance Components and Genetic Parameters for Body Weights and Growth Efficiency Traits in the New Zealand White Rabbits

Authors: M. Sakthivel, A. Devaki, D. Balasubramanyam, P. Kumarasamy, A. Raja, R. Anilkumar, H. Gopi

Abstract:

The genetic parameters of growth traits in the New Zealand White rabbits maintained at Sheep Breeding and Research Station, Sandynallah, The Nilgiris, India were estimated by partitioning the variance and covariance components. The (co)variance components of body weights at weaning (W42), post-weaning (W70) and marketing (W135) age and growth efficiency traits viz., average daily gain (ADG), relative growth rate (RGR) and Kleiber ratio (KR) estimated on a daily basis at different age intervals (1=42 to 70 days; 2=70 to 135 days and 3=42 to 135 days) from weaning to marketing were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, fitting six animal models with various combinations of direct and maternal effects. Data were collected over a period of 15 years (1998 to 2012). A log-likelihood ratio test was used to select the most appropriate univariate model for each trait, which was subsequently used in bivariate analysis. Heritability estimates for W42, W70 and W135 were 0.42 ± 0.07, 0.40 ± 0.08 and 0.27 ± 0.07, respectively. Heritability estimates of growth efficiency traits were moderate to high (0.18 to 0.42). Of the total phenotypic variation, maternal genetic effect contributed 14 to 32% for early body weight traits (W42 and W70) and ADG1. The contribution of maternal permanent environmental effect varied from 6 to 18% for W42 and for all the growth efficiency traits except for KR2. Maternal permanent environmental effect on most of the growth efficiency traits was a carryover effect of maternal care during weaning. Direct maternal genetic correlations, for the traits in which maternal genetic effect was significant, were moderate to high in magnitude and negative in direction. Maternal effect declined as the age of the animal increased. The estimates of total heritability and maternal across year repeatability for growth traits were moderate and an optimum rate of genetic progress seems possible in the herd by mass selection. The estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlations among body weight traits were moderate to high and positive; among growth efficiency traits were low to high with varying directions; between body weights and growth efficiency traits were very low to high in magnitude and mostly negative in direction. Moderate to high heritability and higher genetic correlation in body weight traits promise good scope for genetic improvement provided measures are taken to keep the inbreeding at the lowest level.

Keywords: genetic parameters, growth traits, maternal effects, rabbit genetics

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11883 Finite Volume Method Simulations of GaN Growth Process in MOVPE Reactor

Authors: J. Skibinski, P. Caban, T. Wejrzanowski, K. J. Kurzydlowski

Abstract:

In the present study, numerical simulations of heat and mass transfer during gallium nitride growth process in Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy reactor AIX-200/4RF-S is addressed. Existing knowledge about phenomena occurring in the MOVPE process allows to produce high quality nitride based semiconductors. However, process parameters of MOVPE reactors can vary in certain ranges. Main goal of this study is optimization of the process and improvement of the quality of obtained crystal. In order to investigate this subject a series of computer simulations have been performed. Numerical simulations of heat and mass transfer in GaN epitaxial growth process have been performed to determine growth rate for various mass flow rates and pressures of reagents. According to the fact that it’s impossible to determine experimentally the exact distribution of heat and mass transfer inside the reactor during the process, modeling is the only solution to understand the process precisely. Main heat transfer mechanisms during MOVPE process are convection and radiation. Correlation of modeling results with the experiment allows to determine optimal process parameters for obtaining crystals of highest quality.

Keywords: Finite Volume Method, semiconductors, epitaxial growth, metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, gallium nitride

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11882 Grain Yield, Morpho-Physiological Parameters and Growth Indices of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Varieties Exposed to High Temperature under Late Sown Condition

Authors: Shital Bangar, Chetana Mandavia

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out in Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with three replications at Instructional Farm Krushigadh, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, India to assess the biochemical parameters of wheat in order to assess the thermotolerance. Nine different wheat varieties GW 433, GW 431, HI 1571, GW 432, RAJ 3765, HD 2864, HI 1563, HD 3091 and PBW 670 sown in timely and late sown conditions (i.e., 22 Nov and 6 Dec 2012) were analysed. All the varieties differed significantly with respect to grain yield morpho-physiological parameters and growth indices for time of sowing, varieties and varieties x time of sowing interactions. The observations on morpho-physiological parameters viz., germination percentage, canopy temperature depression and growth indices viz., leaf area index (LAI), leaf area ratio (LAR) were recorded. Almost all the morpho-physiological parameters, growth indices and grain yield studied were affected adversely by late sowing, registering reduction in their magnitude. Germination percentage was reduced under late sown condition but variety PBW 670 was the best. Varieties GW 432 performed better with respect to canopy temperature depression while sown late. Under late sown condition, variety GW 431 recorded higher LAI while HI 1563 had maximum LAR. Considering yield performance, HD 2864 was best under timely sown condition, while GW 433 was best under late sown condition. Varieties HI 1571, GW 433 and GW 431 could be labelled as thermo-tolerant because there was least reduction in grain yield under late sown condition (1.75 %, 7.90 % and13.8 % respectively). Considering correlation coefficient, grain yield showed very strong significant positive association with germination percentage. Leaf area ratio was strongly and significantly correlated with grain yield but in negative direction. Canopy temperature depression and leaf area index also had positive correlation with grain yield but were non-significant.

Keywords: growth indices, morpho-physiological parametrs, thermo-tolerance, wheat

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11881 Population and Age Structure of the Goby Stigmatogobius pleurostigma in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

Authors: Quang M. Dinh

Abstract:

Stigmatogobius pleurostigma is a commercial fish being caught increasingly in the Mekong Delta. Although it plays an important role for food supply, little is known about this species including morphology, distribution and growth pattern. Meanwhile, its population and age structure is unknown. The present study was conducted in the Mekong Delta to provide new data on population parameters of this goby species. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were L∞= 8.6 cm, K = 0.83 yr⁻¹, and t0 = -0.07 yr⁻¹ basing on length frequency data analysis of 601 individuals. The fish total length at first capture was 3.8 cm; and fishing, natural and total mortalities of the fish population were 2.31 yr⁻¹, 1.17 yr⁻¹, and 3.48 yr⁻¹ respectively. The maximum fish yield (Eₘₐₓ), economic yield (E₀.₁) and yield of 50% reduction of exploitation (E₅₀) rates were 0.704, 0.555 and 0.335 based on the relative yield-per-recruit and biomass-per-recruit analyses. The fish longevity was 3.61 yr, and growth performance was 1.79. Three fish age groups were recorded in this study (0+, 1+ and 2+). The species is a potential aquaculture candidate because of its high growth parameter. This goby stock was overexploited in the Mekong Delta as its exploitation rate (E=0.34) was higher than E₅₀ (0.335). The mesh size of gillnets should be increased and avoid catching fish in June, recruitment time, for future sustainable fishery management.

Keywords: Stigmatogobius pleurostigma, age, population structure, Vietnam

Procedia PDF Downloads 113