Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1713

Search results for: axial loading

1713 Eccentric Loading of CFDST Columns

Authors: Trevor N. Haas, Alexander Koen


Columns have traditionally been constructed of reinforced concrete or structural steel. Much attention was allocated to estimate the axial capacity of the traditional column sections to the detriment of other forms of construction. Other forms of column construction such as Concrete Filled Double Skin Tubes received little research attention, and almost no attention when subjected to eccentric loading. This paper investigates the axial capacity of columns when subjected to eccentric loading. The experimental axial capacities are compared to other established theoretical formulae on concentric loading to determine a possible relationship. The study found a good correlation between the reduction in axial capacity for different column lengths and hollow section ratios.

Keywords: CSDST, CFST, axial capacity, hollow section ratios

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
1712 Study of Crashworthiness Behavior of Thin-Walled Tube under Axial Loading by Using Computational Mechanics

Authors: M. Kamal M. Shah, Noorhifiantylaily Ahmad, O. Irma Wani, J. Sahari


This paper presents the computationally mechanics analysis of energy absorption for cylindrical and square thin wall tubed structure by using ABAQUS/explicit. The crashworthiness behavior of AISI 1020 mild steel thin-walled tube under axial loading has been studied. The influence effects of different model’s cross-section, as well as model length on the crashworthiness behavior of thin-walled tube, are investigated. The model was placed on loading platform under axial loading with impact velocity of 5 m/s to obtain the deformation results of each model under quasi-static loading. The results showed that model undergoes different deformation mode exhibits different energy absorption performance.

Keywords: axial loading, computational mechanics, energy absorption performance, crashworthiness behavior, deformation mode

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1711 The Effects of Time and Cyclic Loading to the Axial Capacity for Offshore Pile in Shallow Gas

Authors: Christian H. Girsang, M. Razi B. Mansoor, Noorizal N. Huang


An offshore platform was installed in 1977 at about 260km offshore West Malaysia at the water depth of 73.6m. Twelve (12) piles were installed with four (4) are skirt piles. The piles have 1.219m outside diameter and wall thickness of 31mm and were driven to 109m below seabed. Deterministic analyses of the pile capacity under axial loading were conducted using the current API (American Petroleum Institute) method and the four (4) CPT-based methods: the ICP (Imperial College Pile)-method, the NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute)-Method, the UWA (University of Western Australia)-method and the Fugro-method. A statistical analysis of the model uncertainty associated with each pile capacity method was performed. There were two (2) piles analysed: Pile 1 and piles other than Pile 1, where Pile 1 is the pile that was most affected by shallow gas problems. Using the mean estimate of soil properties, the five (5) methods used for deterministic estimation of axial pile capacity in compression predict an axial capacity from 28 to 42MN for Pile 1 and 32 to 49MN for piles other than Pile 1. These values refer to the static capacity shortly after pile installation. They do not include the effects of cyclic loading during the design storm or time after installation on the axial pile capacity. On average, the axial pile capacity is expected to have increased by about 40% because of ageing since the installation of the platform in 1977. On the other hand, the cyclic loading effects during the design storm may reduce the axial capacity of the piles by around 25%. The study concluded that all piles have sufficient safety factor when the pile aging and cyclic loading effect are considered, as all safety factors are above 2.0 for maximum operating and storm loads.

Keywords: axial capacity, cyclic loading, pile ageing, shallow gas

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1710 Evaluating the Fire Resistance of Offshore Tubular K-Joints Subjected to Balanced Axial Loads

Authors: Neda Azari Dodaran, Hamid Ahmadi


Results of 405 finite element (FE) analyses were used in the present research to study the effect of the joint geometry on the ultimate strength and initial stiffness of tubular K-joints subjected to axial loading at fire-induced elevated temperatures. The FE models were validated against the data available from experimental tests. Structural behavior under different temperatures (200ºC, 400ºC, 500ºC, and 700ºC) was investigated and compared to the behavior at ambient temperature (20ºC). A parametric study was conducted to investigate the effect of dimensionless geometrical parameters (β, γ, θ, and τ) on the ultimate strength and initial stiffness. Afterwards, ultimate strength data extracted from the FE analyses were compared with the values calculated from the equations proposed by available design codes in which the ultimate strength of the joint at elevated temperatures is obtained by replacing the yield stress of the steel at ambient temperature with the corresponding value at elevated temperature. It was indicated that this method may not have acceptable accuracy for K-joints under axial loading. Hence, a design formula was developed, through nonlinear regression analyses, to determine the ultimate strength of K-joints subjected to balanced axial loads at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: axial loading, elevated temperature, parametric equation, static strength, tubular K-joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
1709 Features of Rail Strength Analysis in Conditions of Increased Force Loading

Authors: G. Guramishvili, M. Moistsrapishvili, L. Andghuladze


In the article are considered the problems arising at increasing of transferring from rolling stock axles on rail loading from 210 KN up to 270 KN and is offered for rail strength analysis definition of rail force loading complex integral characteristic with taking into account all affecting force factors that is characterizing specific operation condition of rail structure and defines the working capability of structure. As result of analysis due mentioned method is obtained that in the conditions of 270 KN loading the rail meets the working assessment criteria of rail and rail structures: Strength, rail track stability, rail links stability and its transverse stability, traffic safety condition that is rather important for post-Soviet countries railways.

Keywords: axial loading, rail force loading, rail structure, rail strength analysis, rail track stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
1708 Behaviour of Rc Column under Biaxial Cyclic Loading-State of the Art

Authors: L. Pavithra, R. Sharmila, Shivani Sridhar


Columns severe structural damage needs proportioning a significant portion of earthquake energy can be dissipated yielding in the beams. Presence of axial load along with cyclic loading has a significant influence on column. The objective of this paper is to present the analytical results of columns subjected to biaxial cyclic loading.

Keywords: RC column, Seismic behaviour, cyclic behaviour, biaxial testing, ductile behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
1707 Numerical Study on the Ultimate Load of Offshore Two-Planar Tubular KK-Joints at Fire-Induced Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Neda Azari-Dodaran


A total of 270 nonlinear steady-state finite element (FE) analyses were performed on 54 FE models of two-planar circular hollow section (CHS) KK-joints subjected to axial loading at five different temperatures (20 ºC, 200 ºC, 400 ºC, 550 ºC, and 700 ºC). The primary goal was to investigate the effects of temperature and geometrical characteristics on the ultimate strength, modes of failure, and initial stiffness of the KK-joints. Results indicated that on an average basis, the ultimate load of a two-planar tubular KK-joint at 200 ºC, 400 ºC, 550 ºC, and 700 ºC is 90%, 75%, 45%, and 16% of the joint’s ultimate load at ambient temperature, respectively. Outcomes of the parametric study showed that replacing the yield stress at ambient temperature with the corresponding value at elevated temperature to apply the EN 1993-1-8 equations for the calculation of the joint’s ultimate load at elevated temperatures may lead to highly unconservative results that might endanger the safety of the structure. Results of the parametric study were then used to develop a set of design formulas, through nonlinear regression analyses, to calculate the ultimate load of two-planar tubular KK-joints subjected to axial loading at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: ultimate load, two-planar tubular KK-joint, axial loading, elevated temperature, parametric equation

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1706 Experimental and Analytical Studies for the Effect of Thickness and Axial Load on Load-Bearing Capacity of Fire-Damaged Concrete Walls

Authors: Yeo Kyeong Lee, Ji Yeon Kang, Eun Mi Ryu, Hee Sun Kim, Yeong Soo Shin


The objective of this paper is an investigation of the effects of the thickness and axial loading during a fire test on the load-bearing capacity of a fire-damaged normal-strength concrete wall. Two factors are attributed to the temperature distributions in the concrete members and are mainly obtained through numerous experiments. Toward this goal, three wall specimens of different thicknesses are heated for 2 h according to the ISO-standard heating curve, and the temperature distributions through the thicknesses are measured using thermocouples. In addition, two wall specimens are heated for 2 h while simultaneously being subjected to a constant axial loading at their top sections. The test results show that the temperature distribution during the fire test depends on wall thickness and axial load during the fire test. After the fire tests, the specimens are cured for one month, followed by the loading testing. The heated specimens are compared with three unheated specimens to investigate the residual load-bearing capacities. The fire-damaged walls show a minor difference of the load-bearing capacity regarding the axial loading, whereas a significant difference became evident regarding the wall thickness. To validate the experiment results, finite element models are generated for which the material properties that are obtained for the experiment are subject to elevated temperatures, and the analytical results show sound agreements with the experiment results. The analytical method based on validated thought experimental results is applied to generate the fire-damaged walls with 2,800 mm high considering the buckling effect: typical story height of residual buildings in Korea. The models for structural analyses generated to deformation shape after thermal analysis. The load-bearing capacity of the fire-damaged walls with pin supports at both ends does not significantly depend on the wall thickness, the reason for it is restraint of pinned ends. The difference of the load-bearing capacity of fire-damaged walls as axial load during the fire is within approximately 5 %.

Keywords: normal-strength concrete wall, wall thickness, axial-load ratio, slenderness ratio, fire test, residual strength, finite element analysis

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1705 Experimental and Analytical Investigation of Seismic Behavior of Concrete Beam-Column Joints Strengthened by Fiber-Reinforced Polymers Jacketing

Authors: Ebrahim Zamani Beydokhti, Hashem Shariatmadar


This paper presents an experimental and analytical investigation on the behavior of retrofitted beam-column joints subjected to reversed cyclic loading. The experimental program comprises 8 external beam–column joint connection subassemblages tested in 2 phases; one was the damaging phase and second was the repairing phase. The beam-column joints were no seismically designed, i.e. the joint, beam and column critical zones had no special transverse stirrups. The joins were tested under cyclic loading in previous research. The experiment had two phases named damage phase and retrofit phase. Then the experimental results compared with analytical results achieved from modeling in OpenSees software. The presence of lateral slab and the axial load amount were analytically investigated. The results showed that increasing the axial load and presence of lateral slab increased the joint capacity. The presence of lateral slab increased the dissipated energy, while the axial load had no significant effect on it.

Keywords: concrete beam-column joints, CFRP sheets, lateral slab, axial load

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1704 Analysis of Behaviors of Single and Group Helical Piles in Sands from Experiment Results

Authors: Jongho Park, Junwon Lee, Byeonghyun Choi, Kicheol Lee, Dongwook Kim


The typically-used oil sand plant foundations are driven pile or drilled shaft. With more strict environmental regulations world widely, it became more important to completely remove the foundation during the stage of plant demolition. However, it is difficult to remove driven piles or drilled shafts that are installed at a deeper and stronger depth to gain more bearing pile capacity. The helical pile can be easily removed after its use and recycled; therefore it is suitable for oil sand plant foundation. This study analyzes the behavior of helical piles in sands. Axial pile load tests were carried out the varying spacing of helix plates (helices), rotation speed and weight of axial loading during pile installation. From the experiments, optimal helix plate spacing, rotation speed, axial loading during installation were determined. In addition, the behavior of helical pile groups was examined varying pile spacing. Finally, the behavior of single helical piles and that of group helical piles were compared.

Keywords: oil sand plant, pile load test, helical pile, group helical pile, behavior

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1703 Numerical Investigation of Beam-Columns Subjected to Non-Proportional Loadings under Ambient Temperature Conditions

Authors: George Adomako Kumi


The response of structural members, when subjected to various forms of non-proportional loading, plays a major role in the overall stability and integrity of a structure. This research seeks to present the outcome of a finite element investigation conducted by the use of finite element programming software ABAQUS to validate the experimental results of elastic and inelastic behavior and strength of beam-columns subjected to axial loading, biaxial bending, and torsion under ambient temperature conditions. The application of the rigorous and highly complicated ABAQUS finite element software will seek to account for material, non-linear geometry, deformations, and, more specifically, the contact behavior between the beam-columns and support surfaces. Comparisons of the three-dimensional model with the results of actual tests conducted and results from a solution algorithm developed through the use of the finite difference method will be established in order to authenticate the veracity of the developed model. The results of this research will seek to provide structural engineers with much-needed knowledge about the behavior of steel beam columns and their response to various non-proportional loading conditions under ambient temperature conditions.

Keywords: beam-columns, axial loading, biaxial bending, torsion, ABAQUS, finite difference method

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1702 Behavior of Square Reinforced-Concrete Columns Strenghtened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) under Concentric Loading

Authors: Dana Abed, Mu`Tasim Abdel-Jaber, Nasim Shatarat


This study aims at investigating the influence of cross-sectional size on axial compressive capacity of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) wrapped square reinforced concrete short columns. Three sets of columns were built for this purpose: 200x200x1200 mm; 250x250x1500 mm and 300x300x1800 mm. Each set includes a control column and a strengthened column with one layer of CFRP sheets. All columns were tested under the effect of pure axial compression load. The results of the study show that using CFRP sheets resulted in capacity enhancement of 37%, 32% and 27% for the 200×200, 250×250, and 300×300 mm, respectively. The results of the experimental program demonstrated that the percentage of improvement in strength decreased by increasing the cross-sectional size of the column.

Keywords: CFRP, columns, concentric loading, cross-sectional

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
1701 Effects of Geometrical Parameters on Static Strength of Tubular KT-Joints at Fire Condition

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Neda Azari Dodaran


This paper aims to study the structural behavior of tubular KT-joints subjected to axial loading at fire induced elevated temperatures. At first, a finite element (FE) model was developed and validated against the data available from experimental tests. Then, a set of 810 FE analyses were performed to study the influence of temperature and dimensionless geometrical parameters (β, γ, θ, and τ) on the ultimate strength and initial stiffness. The joints were analyzed under two types of axial loading and five different temperatures (20 ºC, 200 ºC, 400 ºC, 550 ºC, and 700 ºC). Results show that the ultimate strength and initial stiffness of KT-joints decrease considerably by increasing the temperature. In the joints having bigger values of the β, the temperature elevation leads to less reduction in ultimate strength; while in the joints with bigger values of the γ, the temperature elevation results in more reduction in ultimate strength. The influence of the θ on the ultimate strength is independent from the temperature. To our knowledge, there is no design formula available for determining the ultimate strength of KT-joints at elevated temperatures. Hence, after parametric study, two equations were developed through nonlinear regression, for calculating the ultimate strength of KT-joints at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: axial loads, fire condition, parametric formula, static strength, tubular KT-joint

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1700 Degree of Bending in Axially Loaded Tubular KT-Joints of Offshore Structures: Parametric Study and Formulation

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Shadi Asoodeh


The fatigue life of tubular joints commonly found in offshore industry is not only dependent on the value of hot-spot stress (HSS), but is also significantly influenced by the through-the-thickness stress distribution characterized by the degree of bending (DoB). The determination of DoB values in a tubular joint is essential for improving the accuracy of fatigue life estimation using the stress-life (S–N) method and particularly for predicting the fatigue crack growth based on the fracture mechanics (FM) approach. In the present paper, data extracted from finite element (FE) analyses of tubular KT-joints, verified against experimental data and parametric equations, was used to investigate the effects of geometrical parameters on DoB values at the crown 0˚, saddle, and crown 180˚ positions along the weld toe of central brace in tubular KT-joints subjected to axial loading. Parametric study was followed by a set of nonlinear regression analyses to derive DoB parametric formulas for the fatigue analysis of KT-joints under axial loads. The tubular KT-joint is a quite common joint type found in steel offshore structures. However, despite the crucial role of the DoB in evaluating the fatigue performance of tubular joints, this paper is the first attempt to study and formulate the DoB values in KT-joints.

Keywords: tubular KT-joint, fatigue, degree of bending (DoB), axial loading, parametric formula

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1699 Ocular Biometry: Common Etiologies of Difference More Than 0.33mm between Axial Lengths of the 2 Eyes

Authors: Ghandehari Motlagh, Mohammad


Purpose: We tried to find the most common etiologies for anisometropia in pre-op cataract cases: axial or refractive. Methods: In this cross-sectional study ,41 pre-op cataract eyes with more than 0.33 difference between axial lengths of 2 eyes were enrolled.Considered for each 1mm difference between axial lengths in long eyes( AXL more than 25):1.75-2.00 D of anisometropia, for normal eyes(AXL: 22- 25):2.50D and for short eyes (AXL less than 22):3.50-3.75 D as axial anisometropia. If there are more or lesser anisometropia, we recorded as refractive anisometropia. Results: Average of anisometropia :4.24 D, prevalence of PK or LK :1 (2.38%), kc:1(2.38%), glaucoma surgery: 1(2.38%), and pseudophakic status of the opposite eye 8(19.04%). Prevalence of axial anisometropia:21 (52.4%) and refractive anisometropia 20(47.6%).Then on basis of this study we can rely on the patient’s refraction exactly before phaco for evaluation of axial length differences between the 2 eyes, because most of the anisometropias are axial. Conclusion: In most cases, cataract does not induce significant change in refractive error (secondary myopia) and AXL difference between the 2 eyes are correlated with it can be used for cataract patient’s ocular biometry evaluation. Pre-cataract refraction is a valuable variable should be measured and recorded in routin eye examination.

Keywords: ocular axial length, anisometropia, cataract, ophthalmology and optometry

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1698 Effect of Concrete Strength and Aspect Ratio on Strength and Ductility of Concrete Columns

Authors: Mohamed A. Shanan, Ashraf H. El-Zanaty, Kamal G. Metwally


This paper presents the effect of concrete compressive strength and rectangularity ratio on strength and ductility of normal and high strength reinforced concrete columns confined with transverse steel under axial compressive loading. Nineteen normal strength concrete rectangular columns with different variables tested in this research were used to study the effect of concrete compressive strength and rectangularity ratio on strength and ductility of columns. The paper also presents a nonlinear finite element analysis for these specimens and another twenty high strength concrete square columns tested by other researchers using ANSYS 15 finite element software. The results indicate that the axial force – axial strain relationship obtained from the analytical model using ANSYS are in good agreement with the experimental data. The comparison shows that the ANSYS is capable of modeling and predicting the actual nonlinear behavior of confined normal and high-strength concrete columns under concentric loading. The maximum applied load and the maximum strain have also been confirmed to be satisfactory. Depending on this agreement between the experimental and analytical results, a parametric numerical study was conducted by ANSYS 15 to clarify and evaluate the effect of each variable on strength and ductility of the columns.

Keywords: ANSYS, concrete compressive strength effect, ductility, rectangularity ratio, strength

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1697 Effect of Reinforcement Steel Ratio on the Behavior of R. C. Columns Exposed to Fire

Authors: Hatem Ghith


This research paper experimentally investigates the effect of burning by fire flame from one face on the behavior and load carrying capacity for reinforced columns. Residual ultimate load carrying capacity, axial deformation, crack pattern and maximum crack width for column specimens with and without burning were recorded and discussed. Tested six reinforced concrete columns were divided into control specimen and two groups. The first group was exposed to a fire with a different temperature (300, 500, 700 °C) for an hour with reinforcement ratio 0.89% and the second group was exposed to a fire with a temperature 500 °C for an hour with different reinforcement ratio (0.89%, 2.18%, and 3.57%), then all columns were tested under short-term axial loading. From the obtained results, it could be concluded that the fire parameters significantly influence the fire resistance of R.C columns. The fire parameters cause axial deformation and moment on the column due to the eccentricity that generated from the difference in temperature and consequently the compressive stresses of both faces of the columns but the increased reinforcement ratio enhanced the resistance of columns for axial deformation and moment on the column due to the eccentricity.

Keywords: columns, reinforcement ratio, strength, time exposure

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
1696 Structural Behavior of Composite Hollow RC Column under Combined Loads

Authors: Abdul Qader Melhm, Hussein Elrafidi


This paper is dealing with studying the structural behavior of a steel-composite hollow reinforced concrete (RC) column model under combined eccentric loading. The composite model consists of an inner steel tube surrounded via a concrete core with longitudinal and circular transverse reinforcement. The radius of gyration according to American and Euro specifications be calculated, in order to calculate the thinnest ratio for this type of composite column model, in addition to the flexural rigidity. Formulas for interaction diagram is given for this type of model, which is a general loading conditions in which an element is exposed to an axial load with bending at the same time. The structural capacity of this model, elastic, plastic loads and strains will be computed and compared with experimental results. The total eccentric axial load of the column model is calculated based on the effective length KL available from several relationships provided in the paper. Furthermore, the inner tube experiences buckling failure after reaching its maximum strength will be investigated.

Keywords: column, composite, eccentric, inner tube, interaction, reinforcement

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1695 Crushing Behaviour of Thin Tubes with Various Corrugated Sections Using Finite Element Modelling

Authors: Shagil Akhtar, Syed Muneeb Iqbal, Mohammed R. Rahim


Common steel tubes with similar confines were used in simulation of tubes with distinctive type of corrugated sections. These corrugated cross-sections were arc-tangent, triangular, trapezoidal and square corrugated sections. The outcome of fluctuating structures of tube cross-section shape on the deformation feedback, collapse form and energy absorption characteristics of tubes under quasi-static axial compression have been prepared numerically. The finite element package of ANSYS Workbench was applied in the current analysis. The axial load-displacement products accompanied by the fold formation of disparate tubes were inspected and compared. Deviation of the initial peak load and the mean crushing force of the tubes with distinctive cross-sections were conscientiously examined.

Keywords: absorbed energy, axial loading, corrugated tubes, finite element, initial peak load, mean crushing force

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1694 A Comprehensive Review of Axial Flux Machines and Its Applications

Authors: Shahbaz Amin, Sabir Hussain Shah, Sahib Khan


This paper presents a thorough review concerning the design types of axial flux permanent magnet machines (AFPM) in terms of different features such as construction, design, materials, and manufacturing. Particular emphasis is given on the design and performance analysis of AFPM machines. A comparison among different permanent magnet machines is also provided. First of all, early and modern axial flux machines are mentioned. Secondly, rotor construction of different axial flux machines is described, then different stator constructions are mentioned depending upon the presence of slots and stator back iron. Then according to the arrangement of the rotor stator structure the machines are classified into single, double and multi-stack arrangements. Advantages, disadvantages and applications of each type of rotor and stator are pointed out. Finally on the basis of the reviewed literature merits, demerits, features and application of different axial flux machines structures are explained and clarified. Thus, this paper provides connection between the machines that are currently being used in industry and the developments of AFPM throughout the years.

Keywords: axial flux machines, axial flux applications, coreless machines, PM machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
1693 Behavior of Square Reinforced-Concrete Columns Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers under Eccentric Loading

Authors: Dana J. Abed, Mu'tasim S. Abdel-Jaber, Nasim K. Shatarat


In this paper, an experimental study on twelve square columns was conducted to investigate the influence of cross-sectional size on axial compressive capacity of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) wrapped square reinforced concrete (RC) short columns subjected to eccentric loadings. The columns were divided into three groups with three cross sections (200×200×1200, 250×250×1500 and 300×300×1800 mm). Each group was tested under two different eccentricities: 10% and 20% of the width of samples measured from the center of the column cross section. Four columns were developed in each arrangement. Two columns in each category were left unwrapped as control samples, and two were wrapped with one layer CFRP perpendicular to the specimen surface. In general; CFRP sheets has enhanced the performance of the strengthened columns compared to the control columns. It was noticed that the percentage of compressive capacity enhancement was decreased by increasing the cross-sectional size, and increasing loading eccentricity generally leads to reduced load bearing capacity in columns. In the same group specimens, when the eccentricity increased the percentage of enhancement in load carrying capacity was increased. The study concludes that the optimum use of the CFRP sheets for axial strength enhancement is for smaller cross-section columns under higher eccentricities.

Keywords: CFRP, columns, eccentric loading, cross-sectional

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1692 Behavior Study of Concrete-Filled Thin-Walled Square Hollow Steel Stub Columns

Authors: Mostefa Mimoune


Test results on concrete-filled steel tubular stub columns under axial compression are presented. The study was mainly focused on square hollow section SHS columns; 27 columns were tested. The main experimental parameters considered were the thickness of the tube, columns length and cross section sizes. Existing design codes and theoretical model were used to predict load-carrying capacities of composite section to compare the accuracy of the predictions by using the recommendations of DTR-BC (Algerian code), CSA (Canadian standard), AIJ, EC4, DBJ, AISC, BS and EC4. Experimental results indicate that the studied parameters have significant influence on both the compressive load capacity and the column failure mode. All codes used in the comparison, provide higher resistance compared to those of tests. Equation method has been suggested to evaluate the axial capacity of the composite section seem to be in agreement with tests.

Keywords: axial loading, composite section, concrete-filled steel tubes, square hollow section

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1691 Experimental Investigation of Folding of Rubber-Filled Circular Tubes on Energy Absorption Capacity

Authors: MohammadSadegh SaeediFakher, Jafar Rouzegar, Hassan Assaee


In this research, mechanical behavior and energy absorption capacity of empty and rubber-filled brazen circular tubes under quasi-static axial loading are investigated, experimentally. The brazen tubes were cut out of commercially available brazen circular tubes with the same length and diameter. Some of the specimens were filled with rubbers with three different shores and also, an empty tube was prepared. The specimens were axially compressed between two rigid plates in a quasi-static process using a Zwick testing machine. Load-displacement diagrams and energy absorption of the tested tubes were extracted from experimental data. The results show that filling the brazen tubes with rubber causes those to absorb more energy and the energy absorption of specimens are increased by increasing the shore of rubbers. In comparison to the empty tube, the first fold for the rubber-filled tubes occurs at lower load and it can be concluded that the rubber-filled tubes are better energy absorbers than the empty tubes. Also, in contrast with the empty tubes, the tubes that were filled with lower rubber shore deform asymmetrically.

Keywords: axial compression, quasi-static loading, folding, energy absorbers, rubber-filled tubes

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1690 Research on Axial End Flux Leakage and Detent Force of Transverse Flux PM Linear Machine

Authors: W. R. Li, J. K. Xia, R. Q. Peng, Z. Y. Guo, L. Jiang


According to 3D magnetic circuit of the transverse flux PM linear machine, distribution law is presented, and analytical expression of axial end flux leakage is derived using numerical method. Maxwell stress tensor is used to solve detent force of mover. A 3D finite element model of the transverse flux PM machine is built to analyze the flux distribution and detent force. Experimental results of the prototype verified the validity of axial end flux leakage and detent force theoretical derivation, the research on axial end flux leakage and detent force provides a valuable reference to other types of linear machine.

Keywords: axial end flux leakage, detent force, flux distribution, transverse flux PM linear machine

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1689 Fatigue Life Prediction under Variable Loading Based a Non-Linear Energy Model

Authors: Aid Abdelkrim


A method of fatigue damage accumulation based upon application of energy parameters of the fatigue process is proposed in the paper. Using this model is simple, it has no parameter to be determined, it requires only the knowledge of the curve W–N (W: strain energy density N: number of cycles at failure) determined from the experimental Wöhler curve. To examine the performance of nonlinear models proposed in the estimation of fatigue damage and fatigue life of components under random loading, a batch of specimens made of 6082 T 6 aluminium alloy has been studied and some of the results are reported in the present paper. The paper describes an algorithm and suggests a fatigue cumulative damage model, especially when random loading is considered. This work contains the results of uni-axial random load fatigue tests with different mean and amplitude values performed on 6082T6 aluminium alloy specimens. The proposed model has been formulated to take into account the damage evolution at different load levels and it allows the effect of the loading sequence to be included by means of a recurrence formula derived for multilevel loading, considering complex load sequences. It is concluded that a ‘damaged stress interaction damage rule’ proposed here allows a better fatigue damage prediction than the widely used Palmgren–Miner rule, and a formula derived in random fatigue could be used to predict the fatigue damage and fatigue lifetime very easily. The results obtained by the model are compared with the experimental results and those calculated by the most fatigue damage model used in fatigue (Miner’s model). The comparison shows that the proposed model, presents a good estimation of the experimental results. Moreover, the error is minimized in comparison to the Miner’s model.

Keywords: damage accumulation, energy model, damage indicator, variable loading, random loading

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1688 Strengthening RC Columns Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites Modified with Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Mohammad R. Irshidat, Mohammed H. Al-Saleh, Mahmoud Al-Shoubaki


This paper investigates the viability of using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites modified with carbon nano tubes to strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Six RC columns was designed and constructed according to ASCE standards. The columns were wrapped using carbon fiber sheets impregnated with either neat epoxy or CNTs modified epoxy. These columns were then tested under concentric axial loading. Test results show that; compared to the unwrapped specimens; wrapping concrete columns with carbon fiber sheet embedded in CNTs modified epoxy resulted in an increase in its axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 24%, 109% and 232%, respectively. These results reveal that adding CNTs into epoxy resin enhanced the confinement effect, specifically, increased the axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 11%, 6%, and 19%, respectively compared with columns strengthening with carbon fiber sheet embedded in neat epoxy.

Keywords: CNT, epoxy, carbon fiber, RC columns

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
1687 Investigation of Fire Damaged Reinforced Concrete Walls with Axial Force

Authors: Hyun Ah Yoon, Ji Yeon Kang, Hee Sun Kim, Yeong Soo Shin


Reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall system of residential buildings is popular in South Korea. RC walls are subjected to axial forces in common and the effect of axial forces on the strength loss of the fire damaged walls has not been investigated. This paper aims at investigating temperature distribution on fire damaged concrete walls having different axial loads. In the experiments, a variable of specimens is axial force ratio. RC walls are fabricated with 150mm of wall thicknesses, 750mm of lengths and 1,300mm of heights having concrete strength of 24MPa. After curing, specimens are heated on one surface with ISO-834 standard time-temperature curve for 2 hours and temperature distributions during the test are measured using thermocouples inside the walls. The experimental results show that the temperature of the RC walls exposed to fire increases as axial force ratio increases. To verify the experiments, finite element (FE) models are generated for coupled temperature-structure analyses. The analytical results of thermal behaviors are in good agreement with the experimental results. The predicted displacement of the walls decreases when the axial force increases. 

Keywords: axial force ratio, fire, reinforced concrete wall, residual strength

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1686 Determination of the Axial-Vector from an Extended Linear Sigma Model

Authors: Tarek Sayed Taha Ali


The dependence of the axial-vector coupling constant gA on the quark masses has been investigated in the frame work of the extended linear sigma model. The field equations have been solved in the mean-field approximation. Our study shows a better fitting to the experimental data compared with the existing models.

Keywords: extended linear sigma model, nucleon properties, axial coupling constant, physic

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1685 Investigating Jacket-Type Offshore Structures Failure Probability by Applying the Reliability Analyses Methods

Authors: Majid Samiee Zonoozian


For such important constructions as jacket type platforms, scrupulous attention in analysis, design and calculation processes is needed. The reliability assessment method has been established into an extensively used method to behavior safety calculation of jacket platforms. In the present study, a methodology for the reliability calculation of an offshore jacket platform in contradiction of the extreme wave loading state is available. Therefore, sensitivity analyses are applied to acquire the nonlinear response of jacket-type platforms against extreme waves. The jacket structure is modeled by applying a nonlinear finite-element model with regards to the tubular members' behave. The probability of a member’s failure under extreme wave loading is figured by a finite-element reliability code. The FORM and SORM approaches are applied for the calculation of safety directories and reliability indexes have been detected. A case study for a fixed jacket-type structure positioned in the Persian Gulf is studied by means of the planned method. Furthermore, to define the failure standards, equations suggested by the 21st version of the API RP 2A-WSD for The jacket-type structures’ tubular members designing by applying the mixed axial bending and axial pressure. Consequently, the effect of wave Loades in the reliability index was considered.

Keywords: Jacket-Type structure, reliability, failure probability, tubular members

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1684 Biaxial Fatigue Specimen Design and Testing Rig Development

Authors: Ahmed H. Elkholy


An elastic analysis is developed to obtain the distribution of stresses, strains, bending moment and deformation for a thin hollow, variable thickness cylindrical specimen when subjected to different biaxial loadings. The specimen was subjected to a combination of internal pressure, axial tensile loading and external pressure. Several axial to circumferential stress ratios were investigated in detail. The analytical model was then validated using experimental results obtained from a test rig using several biaxial loadings. Based on the preliminary results obtained, the specimen was then modified geometrically to ensure uniform strain distribution through its wall thickness and along its gauge length. The new design of the specimen has a higher buckling strength and a maximum value of equivalent stress according to the maximum distortion energy theory. A cyclic function generator of the standard servo-controlled, electro-hydraulic testing machine is used to generate a specific signal shape (sine, square,…) at a certain frequency. The two independent controllers of the electronic circuit cause an independent movement to each servo-valve piston. The movement of each piston pressurizes the upper and lower sides of the actuators alternately. So, the specimen will be subjected to axial and diametral loads independent of each other. The hydraulic system has two different pressures: one pressure will be responsible for axial stress produced in the specimen and the other will be responsible for the tangential stress. Changing the two pressure ratios will change the stress ratios accordingly. The only restriction on the maximum stress obtained is the capacity of the testing system and specimen instability due to buckling.

Keywords: biaxial, fatigue, stress, testing

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