Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 157

Search results for: NaOH

157 Studies of Carbohydrate, Antioxidant, Nutrient and Genomic DNA Characterization of Fresh Olive Treated with Alkaline and Acidic Solvent: An Innovation

Authors: A. B. M. S. Hossain, A. Abdelgadir, N. A. Ibrahim


Fresh ripen olive cannot be consumed immediately after harvest due to the excessive bitterness having polyphenol as antioxidant. Industrial processing needs to be edible the fruit. The laboratory processing technique has been used to make it edible by using acid (vinegar, 5% acetic acid) and alkaline solvent (NaOH). Based on the treatment and consequence, innovative data have been found in this regard. The experiment was conducted to investigate biochemical content, nutritional and DNA characterization of olive fruit treated with alkaline (Sodium chloride anhydrous) and acidic solvent (5% acetic acid, vinegar). The treatments were used as control (no water), water control, 10% sodium chloride anhydrous (NaOH), vinegar (5% acetic acid), vinegar + NaOH and vinegar + NaOH + hot water treatment. Our results showed that inverted sugar and glucose content were higher in the vinegar and NaOH treated olive than in other treatments. Fructose content was the highest in vinegar + NaOH treated fruit. Nutrient contents NO3 K, Ca and Na were found higher in the treated fruit than the control fruit. Moreover, maximum K content was observed in the case of all treatments compared to the other nutrient content. The highest acidic (lower pH) condition (sour) was found in treated fruit. DNA yield was found higher in water control than acid and alkaline treated olives. DNA band was wider in the olive treated water control compared to the NaOH, vinegar, vinegar + NaOH and vinegar + NaOH + Hot water treatment. Finally, results suggest that vinegar + NaOH treated olive fruit was the best for fresh olive homemade processing after harvesting for edible purpose.

Keywords: olive, vinegar, sugars, DNA band, bioprocess biotechnology

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
156 Regenerated Cellulose Prepared by Using NaOH/Urea

Authors: Lee Chiau Yeng, Norhayani Othman


Regenerated cellulose fiber is fabricated in the NaOH/urea aqueous solution. In this work, cellulose is dissolved in 7 .wt% NaOH/12 .wt% urea in the temperature of -12 °C to prepare regenerated cellulose. Thermal and structure properties of cellulose and regenerated cellulose was compared and investigated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FeSEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Results of FeSEM revealed that the regenerated cellulose fibers showed a more circular shape with irregular size due to fiber agglomeration. FTIR showed the difference in between the structure of cellulose and the regenerated cellulose fibers. In this case, regenerated cellulose fibers have a cellulose II crystalline structure with lower degree of crystallinity. Regenerated cellulose exhibited better thermal stability than the cellulose.

Keywords: regenerated cellulose, cellulose, NaOH, urea

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
155 Cellulose Extraction from Pomelo Peel: Synthesis of Carboxymethyl Cellulose

Authors: Jitlada Chumee, Drenpen Seeburin


The cellulose was extracted from pomelo peel and an etherification reaction used for converting cellulose to carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The pomelo peel was refluxed with 0.5 M HCl and 1 M NaOH solution at 90°C for 1 h and 2 h, respectively. The cellulose was bleached with calcium hypochlorite and used as precursor. The precursor was soaked in mixed solution between isopropyl alcohol and 40%w/v NaOH for 12 h. After that, chloroacetic acid was added and reacted at 55°C for 6 h. The optimum condition was 5 g of cellulose: 0.25 mole of NaOH : 0.07 mole of ClCH2COOH with 78.00% of yield. Moreover, the product had 0.54 of degree of substitution (DS).

Keywords: pomelo peel, carboxymethyl cellulose, bioplastic, extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
154 Optimal Consume of NaOH in Starches Gelatinization for Froth Flotation

Authors: André C. Silva, Débora N. Sousa, Elenice M. S. Silva, Thales P. Fontes, Raphael S. Tomaz


Starches are widely used as depressant in froth flotation operations in Brazil due to their efficiency, increasing the selectivity in the inverse flotation of quartz depressing iron ore. Starches market have been growing and improving in recent years, leading to better products attending the requirements of the mineral industry. The major source of starch used for iron ore is corn starch, which needs to be gelatinized with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) prior to use. This stage has a direct impact on industrials costs, once the lowest consumption of NaOH in gelatinization provides better control of the pH in the froth flotation and reduces the amount of electrolytes present in the pulp. In order to evaluate the gelatinization degree of different starches and flour were subjected to the addiction of NaOH and temperature variation experiments. Samples of starch (corn, cassava, HIPIX 100, HIPIX 101 and HIPIX 102 commercialized by Ingredion) and flour (cassava and potato) were tested. The starch samples were characterized through Scanning Electronic Microscopy and the amylose content were determined through spectrometry, swelling and solubility tests. The gelatinization was carried out through titration with NaOH, keeping the solution temperature constant at 40 oC. At the end of the tests, the optimal amount of NaOH consumed to gelatinize the starch or flour from different botanical sources was established and a correlation between the content of amylopectin in the starch and the starch/NaOH ratio needed for its gelatinization.

Keywords: froth flotation, gelatinization, sodium hydroxide, starches and flours

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
153 Synthesis of Na-LSX Zeolite and Hydrosodalite from Polish Fly Ashes

Authors: Barbara Bialecka, Zdzislaw Adamczyk, Magdalena Cempa


In the work, the results of investigations into the hydrothermal zeolitization of fly ash from hard coal combustion in one of Polish Power Station have been presented. The chemical composition of the ash was determined by the method of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), whereas the phases of both fly ash and the products after synthesis were identified using microscopic observations, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) as well as electron scanning microscopy with measurements of the chemical compositions in micro areas (SEM/EDS). The synthesis was carried out with various concentrations of NaOH solution (3M, 4M and 6M) in the following conditions: synthesis temperature – 80ᵒC, synthesis time – 16 hours, volume of NaOH solution – 350ml, fly ash mass – 14g. The main chemical components of fly ash were SiO₂ and Al₂O₃, the contents of which reached 51.62 and 28.14%mas., respectively. The input ash contained mainly such phases as mullite, quarz, magnetite, and glass. The research results indicate that the phase composition of products after zeolitization was differentiated. The material after synthesis in 3M NaOH solution was found to contain mullite, quarz, magnetite, and Na-LSX zeolite. The products of synthesis in 4M NaOH solution were very similar to those in 3M solution (mullite, quarz, magnetite, Na-LSX zeolite), but they additionally contained hydrosodalite. The material after synthesis in 6M NaOH solution contains mullite, quarz, magnetite (similarly to synthesis in 3M and 4M NaOH solition) and additionally hydrosodalite. Therefore, the products of synthesis contain relic components from the fly ash input sample in the form of mullite, quarz, and magnetite, as well as new phases, which are Na-LSX zeolite and hydrosodalite. It should be noted that the products of synthesis in the case of 4M NaOH solution contained both new phases (Na-LSX zeolite and hydrosodalite), while the products from the extreme concentration of NaOH solutions (3M and 6M) contained only one of them. Observations in the scanning electron microscope revealed the new phases’ morphology. It was found that Na-LSX zeolite formed cubic crystals, whereas hydrosodalite formed characteristic aggregations. The results of investigations into the chemical composition in the micro area of phase grains in the products after synthesis reveal some dependencies, among others a characteristic increase in the content of sodium, related to the increased concentration of NaOH solution.

Keywords: Na-LSX, fly ash, hydrosodalite, zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
152 The Determination of the Zinc Sulfate, Sodium Hydroxide and Boric Acid Molar Ratio on the Production of Zinc Borates

Authors: N. Tugrul, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin


Zinc borate is an important boron compound that can be used as multi-functional flame retardant additive due to its high dehydration temperature property. In this study, the raw materials of ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH and H3BO3 were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The synthesis parameters were set to 100°C reaction temperature and 120 minutes of reaction time, with different molar ratio of starting materials (ZnSO4.7H2O:NaOH:H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the identifications of the products were conducted by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized at the molar ratios of 1:1:3, 1:1:4, 1:2:5 and 1:2:6. Among these ratios 1:2:6 had the best results.

Keywords: Zinc borate, ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH, H3BO3, XRD, FT-IR

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151 Effect of Concentration of Alkaline and Curing Temperature on Compressive Strength of Geopolymer Concert

Authors: Nursah Kutuk, Sevil Cetinkaya


Geopolymers are becoming new concrete materials to use alongside cement, which are formed due to reaction between alumino-silicates and oxides with alkaline media. Silicates obtained from natural minerals or industrial wastes are used for geopolymer synthesis. Geopolymers have recently received wide attention because of their advantages over other cementitious material like Portland cement. Some of the advantages are high compressive strength, low environmental impact, chemical and fire resistance and thermal stability. In this study, geopolymers were prepared by using inorganic materials such as kaolinite and calcite. The experiments were carried out by varying the concentration of NaOH as 5, 10, 15 and 20 M, and at cure temperature of 22, 45 and 65 °C. Compressive strengths for each mixes at each cure temperature were measured. Results of the analyses indicated that the compressive strength of geopolymers did not increase steadily with increasing concentration of NaOH, but did increase steadily with increasing cure temperature. We examined the effect Na2SiO3/NaOH weight ratio on the properties of the geopolymers, too. It was seen that Na2SiO3/NaOH weight ratio was also important to prepare geopolymers that can be applied to construction industry.

Keywords: geopolymers, compressive strength, kaolinite, calcite

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
150 Optimization of NaOH Thermo-Chemical Pretreatment to Enhance Solubilisation of Organic Food Waste by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Hafizan Junoh, Kumaran Palanisamy, Yip Chan Heng, Pua Fei Ling


This study investigates the influence of low temperature thermo-chemical pretreatment of organic food waste on the performance of COD solubilisation. Both temperature and alkaline agent were reported to have an effect on solubilizing any possible biomass including organic food waste. The three independent variables considered in this pretreatment were temperature (50-90oC), pretreatment time (30-120 minutes) and alkaline concentration, sodium hydroxide, NaOH (0.7-15 g/L). The optimal condition obtained were 90oC, 15 g/L NaOH for 2 hours. Solubilisation has potential in enhancing methane production by providing a high amount of soluble components at an early stage during anaerobic digestion.

Keywords: food waste, pretreatments, respond surface methodology, ANOVA, anaerobic digestion

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
149 The Effect of Alkaline Treatment on Tensile Strength and Morphological Properties of Kenaf Fibres for Yarn Production

Authors: A. Khalina, K. Shaharuddin, M. S. Wahab, M. P. Saiman, H. A. Aisyah


This paper investigates the effect of alkali treatment and mechanical properties of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) fibre for the development of yarn. Two different fibre sources are used for the yarn production. Kenaf fibres were treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in the concentration of 3, 6, 9, and 12% prior to fibre opening process and tested for their tensile strength and Young’s modulus. Then, the selected fibres were introduced to fibre opener at three different opening processing parameters; namely, speed of roller feeder, small drum, and big drum. The diameter size, surface morphology, and fibre durability towards machine of the fibres were characterized. The results show that concentrations of NaOH used have greater effects on fibre mechanical properties. From this study, the tensile and modulus properties of the treated fibres for both types have improved significantly as compared to untreated fibres, especially at the optimum level of 6% NaOH. It is also interesting to highlight that 6% NaOH is the optimum concentration for the alkaline treatment. The untreated and treated fibres at 6% NaOH were then introduced to fibre opener, and it was found that the treated fibre produced higher fibre diameter with better surface morphology compared to the untreated fibre. Higher speed parameter during opening was found to produce higher yield of opened-kenaf fibres.

Keywords: alkaline treatment, kenaf fibre, tensile strength, yarn production

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148 Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Crushed and Uncrushed Luffa cylindrica Fibre Reinforced rLDPE Composites

Authors: Paschal A. Ubi, Salawu Abdul Rahman Asipita


The use of suitable engineering materials which poses less harm to ,an and the environment is sort for in recent times, thus giving rise to polymer composites filled with natural organic reinforcement which are biodegradable. Treatment of natural fibres is essential in improving matrix to filler adhesion, hence improving its mechanical properties. In this study, investigations were carried out to determine the effect of sodium hydroxide treatment on the tensile, flexural, impact and hardness properties of crushed and uncrushed luffa cylindrica fibre reinforced recycled low density polyethylene composites. The LC (Luffa Cylindrica) fibres were treated with 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% wt. NaOH concentrations for a period of 24 hours under room temperature conditions. The compounding of the waste LDPE was done using a two roll mill at a temperature of 150 oC and cured in a hydraulic press at a temperature of 150oC for 3 minutes at 3 metric tonnes. A formulation of 20/80g (reinforcement to matrix ratio in grams) was maintained for all fabricated samples. Analysis of the results showed that the uncrushed luffa fibre samples gave better mechanical properties compared with the crushed luffa fibre samples. The uncrushed luffa fibre composites had optimum tensile and flexural strengths of 7.65MPa and 17.08Mpa respectively corresponding to a young modulus and flexural modulus of 21.08MPa and 232.22MPa for the 8% and 4%wt. NaOH concentration respectively. Results obtained in the research showed that NaOH treatment with the 8% NaOH concentration improves the mechanical properties of the LC fibre reinforced composites when compared with other NaOH treatment concentration values.

Keywords: LC fibres, NaOH concentration, LC/rLDPE composite, tensile strength, flexural strength

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147 Fracture Toughness Properties and FTIR Analysis of Corn Fiber Green Composites

Authors: Ahmed Hashim, Aseel Abdullah


In this work, the fracture toughness of new green composite based on bio-PMMA resin reinforced with randomly short corn natural fiber of constant weight fraction by 10% wt was investigated. The corn fiber surface was modified by mercerization treatment with two different concentrations of sodium hydroxide (3, and 5% NaOH) for 1.5 and 3 hours respectively. The effect of mercerization treatment on the fracture behavior of the green composites was analyzed by FTIR spectra. NaOH concentration of 3% for 1.5 hrs. That was used for corn fiber green composite should the highest improvement in terms of plane strain fracture toughness KIC which increased by 62 % compared to untreated fiber composite material. On the other hand, increased both concentrations of alkali solution to 5% NaOH and time of soaking to 3 hrs. reduced the values of KIC lower than the value of the unfilled material.

Keywords: green composites, fracture toughness, corn natural fiber, bio-PMMA

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146 Effects of Alkaline Pretreatment Parameters on the Corrosion Resistance and ‎Wettability of Magnesium Implant

Authors: Mahtab Assadian, Mohd Hasbullah Idris, Mostafa Rezazadeh Shirdar, Mohammad Mahdi Taheri, ‎S. Izman


Corrosion behaviour and surface roughness of magnesium substrate were investigated after NaOH pretreatment in different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 molar) and duration of (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h and 24 h). Creation of Mg(OH)2 barrier layer after pretreatment enhanced corrostion resistance as well as wettability of substrate surface. Characterization including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was conducted to detect the existence of this barrier layer. Surface roughness and wettability of substrate was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurement respectively. It is found that magnesium treated by 1M NaOH for 30 min reveals higher corrosion resistance and lower water contact angle of substrate surface. In addition, this investigation indicates that pH value of SBF solution is strongly influenced by different time and concentration of alkaline pretreatment.

Keywords: magnesium, NaOH pretreatment, corrosion resistance, wettability

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
145 Effect of Mercerization on Coconut Fiber Surface Condition

Authors: Sphiwe Simelane, Daniel Madyira


The use of natural fibers requires that they should be treated in preparation for their use in Natural Fiber-reinforced polymer composites. This paper reports on the effects of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment on the surface of coconut fibers. The fibers were subjected to 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% NaOH concentrations and soaked for 4 hours and thoroughly rinsed and allowed to dry in the open air for seven days, after which time they were dried in an oven for 30 minutes. Untreated and treated coconut fibers were observed under the Scanning Electron Microscope and it was noted that the surface structure of the fibers was modified differently by the different NaOH concentrations, and the resultant colour of the treated fibers got darker as the solution concentration increased, and the texture felt rougher to the touch as a result of the erosion of the fiber surface. Further, the increase in alkali concentration striped the surface of more constituents, thus exposing “pits” and other surface components rendering the surface rough.

Keywords: coconut fiber, scanning electron microscope, sodium hydroxide, surface treatment

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144 Using of TFC Polysulfone Electrospun Nanofiber Mats in Oil-Water Separation

Authors: Nasser A. M. Barakat


Membrane technology is the most promising process for oil-water separation operation if the hydrophilicity, fouling and reusability properties could be improved. In this study, novel effective and reusable membrane for oil-water separation process is introduced based on modification of polysulfone (PSF) electrospun nanofiber mats. The modification process was achieved by incorporation of NaOH nanoparticles inside the PSF nanofibers, and formation of a thin layer from a polyamide polymer on the surface of the electrospun mat. Typically, solutions composed of PSF and NaOH (twelve solutions were prepared based on different PSF concentrations; 15, 18 and 20 wt%, and various NaOH content; 1.5, 1.7 and 2.5 wt%) have been electrospun, then the dried nanofiber mats were treated by m-phenylenediamine and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl chloride to form polyamide thin layer on the surface of the mats. The results indicated that incorporation of NaOH and the formed polyamide could decrease the water contact angle from ~ 130˚ to 13˚ for the nanofiber mats obtained from 20 wt% PSF solutions containing 1.7 wt% sodium hydroxide powders. Interestingly, the membrane having the lowest contact angle could separate oil-water mixture for three successive cycles and 100% removal of the oil with relatively high water flux; 5.5 m3/ Overall, simplicity of the manufacturing technique, and effectiveness and reusability of the produced nanofiber mats open new avenue for the introduced as promising membranes for the oil-water separation process.

Keywords: electrospinning, oil-water separation, hydrophilic membrane, nanofibers

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143 Effect of Rubber Treatment on Compressive Strength and Modulus of Elasticity of Self-Compacting Rubberized Concrete

Authors: I. Miličević, M. Hadzima Nyarko, R. Bušić, J. Simonović Radosavljević, M. Prokopijević, K. Vojisavljević


This paper investigates the effects of different treatment methods of rubber aggregates for self-compacting concrete (SCC) on compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. SCC mixtures with 10% replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber by total aggregate volume and with different aggregate treatment methods were investigated. The rubber aggregate was treated in three different methods: dry process, water-soaking, and NaOH treatment plus water soaking. Properties of SCC in a fresh and hardened state were tested and evaluated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of three different SCC patches were made and discussed. It was observed that applying the proposed NaOH plus water soaking method resulted in the improvement of fresh and hardened concrete properties. It resulted in a more uniform distribution of rubber particles in the cement matrix, a better bond between rubber particles and the cement matrix, and higher compressive strength of SCC rubberized concrete.

Keywords: compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, NaOH treatment, rubber aggregate, self-compacting rubberized concrete, scanning electron microscope analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
142 Mechanical and Durability Characteristics of Roller Compacted Geopolymer Concrete Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate

Authors: Syfur Rahman, Mohammad J. Khattak


Every year a huge quantity of recycling concrete aggregate (RCA) is generated in the United States of America. Utilization of RCA can solve the storage problem, prevent environmental pollution, and reduce the construction cost. However, due to the overall low strength and durability characteristics of RCA, its usages are limited to a certain area like a landfill, low strength base material, replacement of a few percentages of virgin aggregates in Portland cement concrete, etc. This study focuses on the improvement of the strength and durability characteristics of RCA by introducing the concept of roller-compacted geopolymer concrete. In this research, developed roller-compacted geopolymer concrete (RCGPC) and roller-compacted cement concrete (RCC) mixtures containing 100% recycled concrete aggregate were evaluated and compared. Several selected RCGPC mixtures were investigated to find out the effect of mixture variables, including sodium hydroxide (NaOH) molar concentration, sodium silicate (Na₂SiO₃), to sodium hydroxide (NaOH) ratio on the strength, stiffness and durability characteristics of the developed RCGPC. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na₂SiO₃) were mixed in different ratios to synthesize the alkali activator. American Concrete Pavement Association (ACPA) recommended RCC gradation was used with a maximum nominal aggregate size of 19 mm with a 4% fine particle passing 0.075 mm sieve. The mixtures were made using NaOH molar concentration of 8M and 10M along with, Na₂SiO₃ to NaOH ratio of 0 and 1 by mass and 15% class F fly ash. Optimum alkali content and moisture content were determined for each RCGPC and RCC mixtures, respectively, using modified proctor test. Compressive strength, semi-circular bending beam strength, and dynamic modulus test were conducted to evaluate the mechanistic characteristics of both mixtures. To determine the optimum curing conditions for RCGPC, effects of different curing temperature and curing duration on compressive strength were also studied. Sulphate attack and freeze-thaw tests were also carried out to assess the durability properties of the developed mixtures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used for morphology and microstructure analysis. From the optimum moisture content results, it was found that RCGPC has high alkali content, which was mainly due to the high absorption capacity of RCA. It was found that the mixtures with Na₂SiO₃ to NaOH ratio of 1 yielded about 60% higher compressive strength than the ratio of 0. Further, the mixtures using 10M NaOH concentrations and alkali ratio of 1 produced about 28 MPa of compressive strength, which was around 33% higher than 8M NaOH mixtures. Similar results were obtained for elastic and dynamic modulus of the mixtures. On the other hand, the semi-circular bending beam strength remained the same for both 8 and 10 molar NaOH geopolymer mixtures. Formation of new geopolymeric compounds and chemical bonds in the newly formed novel RCGPC mixtures were also discovered using XRD analysis. The results of mechanical and durability testing further revealed that RCGPC performed similarly to that of RCC mixtures. Based on the results of mechanical and durability testing, the developed RCGPC mixtures using 100% recycled concrete could be used as a cost-effective solution for the construction of pavement structures.

Keywords: roller compacted concrete, geopolymer concrete, recycled concrete aggregate, concrete pavement, fly ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
141 Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Three Different Orthodontic Latex Elastic Bands Leached with NaOH Solution

Authors: Thipsupar Pureprasert, Niwat Anuwongnukroh, Surachai Dechkunakorn, Surapich Loykulanant, Chaveewan Kongkaew, Wassana Wichai


Objective: Orthodontic elastic bands made from natural rubber continue to be commonly used due to their favorable characteristics. However, there are concerns associated cytotoxicity due to harmful components released during conventional vulcanization (sulfur-based method). With the co-operation of The National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC) and Faculty of Dentistry Mahidol University, a method was introduced to reduce toxic components by leaching the orthodontic elastic bands with NaOH solution. Objectives: To evaluate the mechanical properties of Thai and commercial orthodontic elastic brands (Ormco and W&H) leached with NaOH solution. Material and methods: Three elastic brands (N =30, size ¼ inch, 4.5 oz.) were tested for mechanical properties in terms of initial extension force, residual force, force loss, breaking strength and maximum displacement using a Universal Testing Machine. Results : Force loss significantly decreased in Thai-LEACH and W&H-LEACH, whereas the values increased in Ormco-LEACH (P < 0.05). The data exhibited a significantly decrease in breaking strength with Thai-LEACH and Ormco-LEACH, whereas all 3 brands revealed a significantly decrease in maximum displacement with the leaching process (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Leaching with NaOH solution is a new method, which can remove toxic components from orthodontic latex elastic bands. However, this process can affect their mechanical properties. Leached elastic bands from Thai had comparable properties with Ormco and have potential to be developed as a promising product.

Keywords: leaching, orthodontic elastics, natural rubber latex, orthodontic

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
140 Comparison of Different Activators Impact on the Alkali-Activated Aluminium-Silicate Composites

Authors: Laura Dembovska, Ina Pundiene, Diana Bajare


Alkali-activated aluminium-silicate composites (AASC) can be used in the production of innovative materials with a wide range of properties and applications. AASC are associated with low CO₂ emissions; in the production process, it is possible to use industrial by-products and waste, thereby minimizing the use of a non-renewable natural resource. This study deals with the preparation of heat-resistant porous AASC based on chamotte for high-temperature applications up to 1200°C. Different fillers, aluminium scrap recycling waste as pores forming agent and alkali activation with 6M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution were used. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is widely used for the synthesis of AASC compared to potassium hydroxide (KOH), but comparison of using different activator for geopolymer synthesis is not well established. Changes in chemical composition of AASC during heating were identified and quantitatively analyzed by using DTA, dimension changes during the heating process were determined by using HTOM, pore microstructure was examined by SEM, and mineralogical composition of AASC was determined by XRD. Lightweight porous AASC activated with NaOH have been obtained with density in range from 600 to 880 kg/m³ and compressive strength from 0.8 to 2.7 MPa, but for AAM activated with KOH density was in range from 750 to 850 kg/m³ and compressive strength from 0.7 to 2.1 MPa.

Keywords: alkali activation, alkali activated materials, elevated temperature application, heat resistance

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139 Pretreatment of Cattail (Typha domingensis) Fibers to Obtain Cellulose Nanocrystals

Authors: Marivane Turim Koschevic, Maycon dos Santos, Marcello Lima Bertuci, Farayde Matta Fakhouri, Silvia Maria Martelli


Natural fibers are rich raw materials in cellulose and abundant in the world, its use for the cellulose nanocrystals extraction is promising as an example cited is the cattail, macrophyte native weed in South America. This study deals with the pre-treatment cattail of crushed fibers, at six different methods of mercerization, followed by the use of bleaching. As a result, have found The positive effects of treating fibers by means of optical microscopy and spectroscopy, Fourier transform (FTIR). The sample selected for future testing of cellulose nanocrystals extraction was treated in 2.5% NaOH for 2 h, 60 °C in the first stage and 30vol H2O2, NaOH 5% in the proportion 30/70% (v/v) for 1 hour 60 °C, followed by treatment at 50/50% (v/v) 15 minutes, 50°C, with the same constituents of the solution.

Keywords: cellulose nanocrystal, chemical treatment, mercerization, natural fibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
138 Volarization of Sugarcane Bagasse: The Effect of Alkali Concentration, Soaking Time and Temperature on Fibre Yield

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Tilahun Seyoum, K. Shabaridharan


The objective of this paper was to determine the effect of NaOH concentration, soaking time, soaking temperature and their interaction on percentage yield of fibre extract using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the extraction process of cellulosic fibre from sugar cane by-product bagasse using low alkaline extraction technique. The quadratic model with the optimal technological conditions resulted in a maximum fibre yield of 56.80% at 0.55N NaOH concentration, 4 h steeping time and 60ᵒC soaking temperature. Among the independent variables concentration was found to be the most significant (P < 0.005) variable and the interaction effect of concentration and soaking time leads to securing the optimized processes.

Keywords: sugarcane bagasse, low alkaline, Box-Behnken, fibre

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137 Development of a Steam or Microwave-Assisted Sequential Salt-Alkali Pretreatment for Sugarcane Leaf Waste

Authors: Preshanthan Moodley


This study compares two different pretreatments for sugarcane leaf waste (SLW): steam salt-alkali (SSA) and microwave salt-alkali (MSA). The two pretreatment types were modelled, optimized, and validated with R² > 0.97. Reducing sugar yields of 1.21g/g were obtained with optimized SSA pretreatment using 1.73M ZnCl₂, 1.36M NaOH and 9.69% solid loading, and 1.17g/g with optimized MSA pretreatment using 1.67M ZnCl₂, 1.52M NaOH at 400W for 10min. A lower pretreatment time (10min) was required for the MSA model (83% lower). The structure of pretreated SLW was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared analysis (FTIR). The optimized SSA and MSA models showed lignin removal of 80.5 and 73% respectively. The MSA pretreatment was further examined on sorghum leaves and Napier grass and showed yield improvements of 1.9- and 2.8-fold compared to recent reports. The developed pretreatment methods demonstrated high efficiency at enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis on various lignocellulosic substrates.

Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass, pretreatment, salt, sugarcane leaves

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
136 Preparation of Geopolymer Cements from Tunisian Illito-Kaolinitic Clay Mineral

Authors: N. Hamdi, E. Srasra


In this work geopolymer cement are synthesized from Tunisian (illito-kaolinitic) clay. This product can be used as binding material in place of cement Portland. The clay fractions used were characterized with physico-chemical and thermal analyses. The clays materials react with alkaline solution (10, 14 and 18 mol(NaOH)/L) in order to produce geopolymer cements whose pastes were characterized by determining their water adsorption and compressive strength. The compressive strength of the hardened geopolymer cement paste samples aged 28 days attained its highest value (32.3MPa) around 950°C for NaOH concentration of 14M. The water adsorption value of the prepared samples decreased with increasing the calcination temperature of clay fractions. It can be concluded that the most suitable temperature for the calcination of illitio-kaolinitic clays in view of producing geopolymer cements is around 950°C.

Keywords: compressive strength, geopolymer cement, illitio-kaolinitic clay, mineral

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135 Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxymethyl Cellulose from Rice Stubble Cellulose

Authors: Rungsinee Sothornvit, Pattrathip Rodsamran


Rice stubble consists of a high content of cellulose and can be synthesized as a cellulose derivative such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to value added products from agricultural waste. Therefore, the synthesis conditions and characterization the properties of CMC from rice stubble (CMCr) were investigated. Hemicellulose and lignin were first removed from the rice stubble using 10% NaOH at 55 C for 3 h and 5% NaOCl at 75 C for 15 min, respectively. Rice stubble cellulose was swollen in 30% NaOH and isopropanol as a solvent. The content of chloroacetic acid (5–7 g in 5 g of alkali cellulose), reaction temperature (50 and 70 C) and time (180, 270 and 360 min) were explored to obtain CMC. It was found that synthesis conditions did not affect significantly on moisture content and pH of CMCr. The best quality of CMCr was synthesized by using 7 g of chloroacetic acid and reacted at 50 C for 180 min based on 5 g of rice stubble cellulose. Degree of substitution (DS), viscosity and purity of CMCr were 0.64, 36.03 cP and 90.18 %, respectively. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FT–IR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of carboxymethyl substituents. CMCr was categorized in commercial scale as a low viscosity material and it can be used as film forming packaging materials for food and pharmaceutical product applications.

Keywords: rice stubble, cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, degree of substitution, purity

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134 Investigating Geopolymerization Process of Aluminosilicates and its Impact on the Compressive Strength of the Produced Geopolymers

Authors: Heba Fouad, Tarek M. Madkour, Safwan A. Khedr


This paper investigates multiple factors that impact the formation of geopolymers and their compressive strength to be utilized in construction as an environmentally-friendly material. Bentonite and Kaolinite were thermally calcinated at 750 °C to obtain Metabentonite and Metakaolinite with higher reactivity. Both source materials were activated using a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Thereafter, samples were cured at different temperatures. The samples were analyzed chemically using a host of spectroscopic techniques. The bulk density and compressive strength of the produced Geopolymer pastes were studied. Findings indicate that the ratio of NaOH solution to source material affects the compressive strength, being optimal at 0.54. Moreover, controlled heat curing was proven effective to improve compressive strength. The existence of characteristic Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) peaks at approximately 1020 cm-1 and 460 cm-1 which corresponds to the asymmetric stretching vibration of Si-O-T and bending vibration of Si-O-Si, hence, confirming the formation of the target geopolymer.

Keywords: calcination of metakaolinite, compressive strength, FTIR analysis, geopolymer, green cement

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133 The Determination of the Potassium Nitrate, Sodium Hydroxide and Boric Acid Molar Ratio in the Synthesis of Potassium Borates via Hydrothermal Method

Authors: M. Yildirim, A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, M. O. Asensio, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin


Potassium borates, which are widely used in welding and metal refining industry, as a lubricating oil additive, cement additive, fiberglass additive and insulation compound, are one of the important groups of borate minerals. In this study the production of a potassium borate mineral via hydrothermal method is aimed. The potassium source of potassium nitrate (KNO3) was used along with a sodium source of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and boron source of boric acid (H3BO3). The constant parameters of reaction temperature and reaction time were determined as 80°C and 1 h, respectively. The molar ratios of 1:1:3 (as KNO3:NaOH:H3BO3), 1:1:4, 1:1:5, 1:1:6 and 1:1:7 were used. Following the synthesis the identifications of the produced products were conducted by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results of the experiments and analysis showed in the ratio of 1:1:6, the Santite mineral with powder diffraction file number (pdf no.) of 01-072-1688, which is known as potassium pentaborate (KB5O8•4H2O) was synthesized as best.

Keywords: hydrothermal synthesis, potassium borate, potassium nitrate, santite

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132 Achievement of High L-Cysteine Yield from Enzymatic Conversion Using Eutectic Mixtures of the Substrate ATC

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Sung Hun Youn, Younggon Kim, Chul Soo Shin


L-Cysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, has been often used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food, and feed additive industries. This amino acid has been usually produced by acid-hydrolysis of human hair and poultry feathers. There are many problems, such as avoidance for use of animal hair, low yields, and formation of harmful waste material. As an alternative, the enzymatic conversion of D, L-2-amino-Δ2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATC) to L-cysteine has been developed as an environmental-friendly method. However, the substrate solubility was too low to be used in industry. In this study, high concentrations of eutectic substrate solutions were prepared to solve the problem. Eutectic melting occurred at 39°C after mixing ATC and malonic acid at a molar ratio of 1:1. The characteristics of eutectic mixtures were analyzed by FE-SEM, EDS mapping, and XPS. However, since sorbitol, MnSO4, and NaOH should be added as supplements to the substrate mixture for the activation and stabilization of the enzyme, strategies for sequential addition of total five compounds, ATC, malonic acid, sorbitol, MnSO4, and NaOH were established. As a result, eutectic substrate mixtures of 670 mM ATC were successfully formulated. After 6 h of enzymatic reaction, 550 mM L-cysteine was made.

Keywords: D, L-2-amino-Δ2-thiazoline-4-carboxylicacid, enzymatic conversion, eutectic solution, l-cysteine

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131 Utilization of Aluminium Dross as a Main Raw Material for Synthesize the Geopolymers via Mechanochemistry Method

Authors: Pimchanok Puksisuwan, Pitak Laorattanakul, Benya Cherdhirunkorn


The use of aluminium dross as a raw material for geopolymer synthesis via mechanochemistry method was studied. The geopolymers were prepared using aluminium dross from secondary aluminium industry, fly ash from a biomass power plant and liquid alkaline activators, which is a mixture of sodium silicate solution (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) (Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio 4:1, 3:1 and 2:1). Aluminium dross consists mostly of alumina (Al2O3), silicon oxide (SiO2) and aluminium nitride (AlN). The raw materials were mixed and milled using the high energy ball milling method for 5, 10 and 15 minutes in order to reduce the particle size. The milled powders were uniaxially pressed into a cylinder die with the pressure of 2200 psi. The cylinder samples were cured in the sealed plastic bags for 3, 7 and 14 days at the room temperature and 60°C for 24 hour. The mechanical property of geopolymers was investigated. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were carried out in order to study the microstructure and phase structures of the geopolymers, respectively. The results showed that aluminium dross could enhance the mechanical property of geopolymers product by mechanochemistry method and meet the TISI requirements.

Keywords: aluminium dross, fly ash, geopolymer, mechanochemistry

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130 Obtaining High Purity Hydroxyapatite from Bovine Bone: Effect of Chemical and Thermal Treatments

Authors: Hernandez Pardo Diego F., Guiza Arguello Viviana R., Coy Echeverria Ana, Viejo Abrante Fernando


The biological hydroxyapatite obtained from bovine bone arouses great interest in its application as a material for bone regeneration due to its better bioactive behavior in comparison with synthetic hydroxyapatite. For this reason, the objective of the present investigation was to determine the effect of chemical and thermal treatments in obtaining biological bovine hydroxyapatite of high purity and crystallinity. Two different chemical reagents were evaluated (NaOH and HCl) with the aim to remove the organic matrix of the bovine cortical bone. On the other hand, for analyzing the effect of thermal treatment temperature was ranged between 500 and 1000°C for a holding time of 4 hours. To accomplish the above, the materials before and after the chemical and thermal treatments were characterized by elemental compositional analysis (CHN), infrared spectroscopy by Fourier transform (FTIR), RAMAN spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results allowed to establish that NaOH is more effective in the removal of the organic matrix of the bone when compared to HCl, whereas a thermal treatment at 700ºC for 4 hours was enough to obtain biological hydroxyapatite of high purity and crystallinity.

Keywords: bovine bone, hydroxyapatite, biomaterials, thermal treatment

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129 Sorption of Crystal Violet from Aqueous Solution Using Chitosan−Charcoal Composite

Authors: Kingsley Izuagbe Ikeke, Abayomi O. Adetuyi


The study investigated the removal efficiency of crystal violet from aqueous solution using chitosan-charcoal composite as adsorbent. Deproteination was carried out by placing 200g of powdered snail shell in 4% w/v NaOH for 2hours. The sample was then placed in 1% HCl for 24 hours to remove CaCO3. Deacetylation was done by boiling in 50% NaOH for 2hours. 10% Oxalic acid was used to dissolve the chitosan before mixing with charcoal at 55°C to form the composite. The composite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-Red and Scanning Electron Microscopy measurements. The efficiency of adsorption was evaluated by varying pH of the solution, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dose. Maximum removal of crystal violet by composite and activated charcoal was attained at pH10 while maximum removal of crystal violet by chitosan was achieved at pH 8. The results showed that adsorption of both dyes followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation and fit the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The data showed that composite was best suited for crystal violet removal and also did relatively well in the removal of alizarin red. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change (ΔHº), free energy change (ΔGº) and entropy change (ΔSº) indicate that adsorption process of Crystal Violet was endothermic, spontaneous and feasible respectively.

Keywords: crystal violet, chitosan−charcoal composite, extraction process, sorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
128 Preparation of Biodiesel by Three Step Method Followed Purification by Various Silica Sources

Authors: Chanchal Mewar, Shikha Gangil, Yashwant Parihar, Virendra Dhakar, Bharat Modhera


Biodiesel was prepared from Karanja oil by three step methods: saponification, acidification and esterification. In first step, saponification was done in presence of methanol and KOH or NaOH with Karanja oil. During second step acidification, various acids such as H3PO4, HCl, H2SO4 were used as acid catalyst. In third step, esterification followed by purification was done with various silica sources as Ludox (colloidal silicate) and fumed silica gel. It was found that there was no significant change in density, kinematic viscosity, iodine number, acid value, saponification number, flash point, cloud point, pour point and cetane number after purification by these adsorbents. The objective of this research is the comparison among different adsorbents which were used for the purification of biodiesel. Ludox (colloidal silicate) and fumed silica gel were used as adsorbents for the removal of glycerin from biodiesel and evaluate the effectiveness of biodiesel purity. Furthermore, this study compared the results of distilled water washing also. It was observed that Ludox, fumed silica gel and distilled water produced yield about 93%, 91% and 83% respectively. Highest yield was obtained with Ludox at 100 oC temperature using H3PO4 as acid catalyst and NaOH as base catalyst with methanol, (3:1) alcohol to oil molar ratio in 90 min.

Keywords: biodiesel, three step method, purification, silica sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 432