Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5232

Search results for: cell culture

5232 Laser Based Microfabrication of a Microheater Chip for Cell Culture

Authors: Daniel Nieto, Ramiro Couceiro

Abstract:

Microfluidic chips have demonstrated their significant application potentials in microbiological processing and chemical reactions, with the goal of developing monolithic and compact chip-sized multifunctional systems. Heat generation and thermal control are critical in some of the biochemical processes. The paper presents a laser direct-write technique for rapid prototyping and manufacturing of microheater chips and its applicability for perfusion cell culture outside a cell incubator. The aim of the microheater is to take the role of conventional incubators for cell culture for facilitating microscopic observation or other online monitoring activities during cell culture and provides portability of cell culture operation. Microheaters (5 mm × 5 mm) have been successfully fabricated on soda-lime glass substrates covered with aluminum layer of thickness 120 nm. Experimental results show that the microheaters exhibit good performance in temperature rise and decay characteristics, with localized heating at targeted spatial domains. These microheaters were suitable for a maximum long-term operation temperature of 120ºC and validated for long-time operation at 37ºC. for 24 hours. Results demonstrated that the physiology of the cultured SW480 adenocarcinoma of the colon cell line on the developed microheater chip was consistent with that of an incubator.

Keywords: laser microfabrication, microheater, bioengineering, cell culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
5231 Single Cell Sorter Driven by Resonance Vibration of Cell Culture Substrate

Authors: Misa Nakao, Yuta Kurashina, Chikahiro Imashiro, Kenjiro Takemura

Abstract:

The Research Goal: With the growing demand for regenerative medicine, an effective mass cell culture process is required. In a repetitive subculture process for proliferating cells, preparing single cell suspension which does not contain any cell aggregates is highly required because cell aggregates often raise various undesirable phenomena, e.g., apoptosis and decrease of cell proliferation. Since cell aggregates often occur in cell suspension during conventional subculture processes, this study proposes a single cell sorter driven by a resonance vibration of a cell culture substrate. The Method and the Result: The single cell sorter is simply composed of a cell culture substrate and a glass pipe vertically placed against the cell culture substrate with a certain gap corresponding to a cell diameter. The cell culture substrate is made of biocompatible stainless steel with a piezoelectric ceramic disk glued to the bottom side. Applying AC voltage to the piezoelectric ceramic disk, an out-of-plane resonance vibration with a single nodal circle of the cell culture substrate can be excited at 5.5 kHz. By doing so, acoustic radiation force is emitted, and then cell suspension containing only single cells is pumped into the pipe and collected. This single cell sorter is effective to collect single cells selectively in spite of its quite simple structure. We collected C2C12 myoblast cell suspension by the single cell sorter with the vibration amplitude of 12 µmp-p and evaluated the ratio of single cells in number against the entire cells in the suspension. Additionally, we cultured the collected cells for 72 hrs and measured the number of cells after the cultivation in order to evaluate their proliferation. As a control sample, we also collected cell suspension by conventional pipetting, and evaluated the ratio of single cells and the number of cells after the 72-hour cultivation. The ratio of single cells in the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter was 98.2%. This ratio was 9.6% higher than that collected by conventional pipetting (statistically significant). Moreover, the number of cells cultured for 72 hrs after the collection by the single cell sorter yielded statistically more cells than that collected by pipetting, resulting in a 13.6% increase in proliferated cells. These results suggest that the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter driven by the resonance vibration hardly contains cell aggregates whose diameter is larger than the gap between the cell culture substrate and the pipe. Consequently, the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter maintains high cell proliferation. Conclusions: In this study, we developed a single cell sorter capable of sorting and pumping single cells by a resonance vibration of a cell culture substrate. The experimental results show the single cell sorter collects single cell suspension which hardly contains cell aggregates. Furthermore, the collected cells show higher proliferation than that of cells collected by conventional pipetting. This means the resonance vibration of the cell culture substrate can benefit us with the increase in efficiency of mass cell culture process for clinical applications.

Keywords: acoustic radiation force, cell proliferation, regenerative medicine, resonance vibration, single cell sorter

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
5230 Up-Regulation of SCUBE2 Expression in Co-Cultures of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Hirowati Ali, Aisyah Ellyanti, Dewi Rusnita, Septelia Inawati Wanandi

Abstract:

Stem cell has been known for its potency to be differentiated in many cells. Recently stem cell has been used for many treatment of degenerative medicine. It is still controversy whether stem cell can be used for therapy or these cells can activate cancer stem cell. SCUBE2 is a novel secreted and membrane-anchored protein which has been reported to its role in better prognosis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our study aims to observe whether stem cell can up-regulate SCUBE2 gene in MCF7 breast cancer cell line. We used in vitro study using MCF-7 cell treated with stem cell derived from placenta Wharton's jelly which has been known for its stemness and widely used. Our results showed that MCF-7 cell line grows up rapidly in 6-well culture dish. Stem cell was cultured in 6-well dish. After 50%-60% MCF-7 confluence, we co-cultured these cells with stem cells for 24 hours and 48 hours. We hypothesize SCUBE2 gene which is previously known for its higher expression in better prognosis of breast cancer, is up-regulated after stem cells addition in MCF7 culture dishes.

Keywords: breast cancer cells, inhibition of cancer cells, mesenchymal stem cells, SCUBE2

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
5229 Comparison of Filamentous Fungus (Monascus purpureus)Growth in Submerged and Solid State Culture

Authors: Shafieeh Mansoori, Fatemeh Yazdian, Ashrafsadat Hatamian, Majid Azizi

Abstract:

Monascus purpureus, which has a special metabolite with many therapeutic and medicinal properties including antioxidant, antibiotic, anti-hypercholesterolemia, and immunosuppressive properties, is a traditional Chinese fermentation fungus and is used as a natural dietary supplement. Production of desired metabolites actually determined by optimized growth which is supported by some factors such as substrates and Monascus strains type, moisture content of the fermentation mixture, aeration, and control of contamination issues. In this experiment, M. purpureus PTCC5305 was cultured in both the liquid and solid culture medium. The former medium contain YMP (yeast extract, maltose and peptone), PGC (peptone, glucose complex), and GYP (glucose, yeast extract and peptone) medium. After 8 days, the best medium for the cell production was PGC agar medium on solid culture with 0.28 g dry weight of cell mass whereas the best liquid culture was GYP medium with 3.5 g/l dry weight of cell mass. The lowest cell production was on YMP agar with 0.1 g dry weight of cell mass and then YMP medium with 2.5 g/l dry cell weight.

Keywords: Monascus purpureus, solid state fermentation, submerged culture, Chinese fermentation fungus

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
5228 Anti-Phosphorylcholine T Cell Dependent Antibody

Authors: M. M. Rahman, A. Liu, A. Frostegard, J. Frostegard

Abstract:

The human immune system plays an essential role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis. Our earlier studies showed that major immunocompetent cells including T cells are activated by phosphorylcholine epitope. Further, we have determined for the first time in a clinical cohort that antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) are negatively and independently associated with the development of atherosclerosis and thus a low risk of cardiovascular diseases. It is still unknown whether activated T cells play a role in anti-PC production. Here we aim to clarify the role of T cells in anti-PC production. B cell alone, or with CD3 T, CD4 T or with CD8 T cells were cultured in polystyrene plates to examine anti-PC IgM production. In addition to mixed B cell with CD3 T cell culture, B cells with CD3 T cells were also cultured in transwell co-culture plates. Further, B cells alone and mixed B cell with CD3 T cell cultures with or without anti-HLA 2 antibody were cultured for 6 days. Anti-PC IgM was detected by ELISA in independent experiments. More than 8 fold higher levels of anti-PC IgM were detected by ELISA in mixed B cell with CD3 T cell cultures in comparison to B cells alone. After the co-culture of B and CD3 T cells in transwell plates, there were no increased antibody levels indicating that B and T cells need to interact to augment anti-PC IgM production. Furthermore, anti-PC IgM was abolished by anti-HLA 2 blocking antibody in mixed B and CD3 T cells culture. In addition, the lack of increased anti-PC IgM in mixed B with CD8 T cells culture and the increased levels of anti-PC in mixed B with CD4 T cells culture support the role of helper T cell for the anti-PC IgM production. Atherosclerosis is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases, but anti-PC IgM is a protection marker for atherosclerosis development. Understanding the mechanism involved in the anti-PC IgM regulation could play an important role in strategies to raise anti-PC IgM. Studies suggest that anti-PC is T-cell independent antibody, but our study shows the major role of T cell in anti-PC IgM production. Activation of helper T cells by immunization could be a possible mechanism for raising anti-PC levels.

Keywords: anti-PC, atherosclerosis, aardiovascular diseases, phosphorylcholine

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
5227 Influence of AgNO3 Treatment on the Flavonolignan Production in Cell Suspension Culture of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn

Authors: Anna Vildová, H. Hendrychová, J. Kubeš, L. Tůmová

Abstract:

The abiotic elicitation is one of the methods for increasing the secondary metabolites production in plant tissue cultures and it seems to be more effective than traditional strategies. This study verified the use of silver nitrate as elicitor to enhance flavonolignans and flavonoid taxifolin production in suspension culture of Sylibum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Silver nitrate in various concentrations (5.887.10-3 mol/L, 5.887.10-4 mol/L, 5.887.10-5 mol/L) was used as elicitor. The content of secondary metabolites in cell suspension cultures was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The samples were taken after 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours of treatment. The highest content of taxifolin production (2.2 mg.g-1) in cell suspension culture of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. was detected after silver nitrate (5.887.10-4 mol/L) treatment and 72 h application. Flavonolignans such as silybinA, silybin B, silydianin, silychristin, isosilybin A, isosilybin B were not produced by cell suspension culture of S. marianum after elicitor treatment. Our results show that the secondarymetabolites could be released from S. marianum cells into the nutrient medium by changed permeability of cell wall.

Keywords: Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., elicitation, silver nitrate, taxifolin

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
5226 Establishment and Aging Process Analysis in Dermal Fibroblast Cell Culture of Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas)

Authors: Yemima Dani Riani, Anggraini Barlian

Abstract:

Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is one of well known long-lived turtle. Its age can reach 100 years old. Senescence in green turtle is an interesting process to study because until now no clear explanation has been established about senescence at cellular or molecular level in this species. Since 1999, green turtle announced as an endangered species. Hence, establishment of fibroblast skin cell culture of green turtle may be material for future study of senescence. One common marker used for detecting senescence is telomere shortening. Reduced telomerase activity, the reverse transcriptase enzyme which adds TTAGGG DNA sequence to telomere end, may also cause senescence. The purpose of this research are establish and identify green turtle fibroblast skin cell culture and also compare telomere length and telomerase activity from passage 5 and 14. Primary cell culture made with primary explant method then cultured in Leibovitz-15 (Sigma) supplemented by 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (Sigma) and 100 U/mL Penicillin/Streptomycin (Sigma) at 30 ± 1oC. Cells identified with Rabbit Anti-Vimentin Polyclonal Antibody (Abcam) and Goat Polyclonal Antibody (Abcam) using confocal microscope (Zeiss LSM 170). Telomere length obtained using TeloTAGGG Telomere Length Assay (Roche) while telomerase activity obtained using TeloTAGGG Telomerase PCR ElisaPlus (Roche). Primary cell culture from green turtle skin had fibroblastic morphology and immunocytochemistry test with vimentin antibody proved the culture was fibroblast cell. Measurement of telomere length and telomerase activity showed that telomere length and telomerase activity of passage 14 was greater than passage 5. However, based on morphology, green turtle fibroblast skin cell culture showed senescent morphology. Based on the analysis of telomere length and telomerase activity, suspected fibroblast skin cell culture of green turtles is not undergo aging through telomere shortening.

Keywords: cell culture, chelonia mydas, telomerase, telomere, senescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
5225 In vitro Study on Characterization and Viability of Vero Cell Lines after Supplementation with Porcine Follicular Fluid Proteins in Culture Medium

Authors: Mayuva Youngsabanant, Suphaphorn Rabiab, Hatairuk Tungkasen, Nongnuch Gumlungpat, Mayuree Pumipaiboon

Abstract:

The porcine follicular fluid proteins (pFF) of healthy small size ovarian follicles (1-3 mm in diameters) of Large White pig ovaries were collected by sterile technique. They were used for testing the effect on cell viability and characterization of Vero cell lines using MTT assay. Two hundred microliter of round shape Vero cell lines were culture in 96 well plates with DMEM for 24 h. After that, they were attachment to substrate and some changed into fibroblast shape and spread over the surface after culture for 48 h. Then, Vero cell lines were treated with pFF at concentration of 2, 4, 20, 40, 200, 400, 500, and 600 µg proteins/mL for 24 h. Yields of the best results were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. MTT assay reviewed an increasing in percentage of viability of Vero cell lines indicated that at concentration of 400-600 µg proteins/mL showed higher percentage of viability (115.64 ± 6.95, 106.91 ± 5.27 and 116.73 ± 20.15) than control group. They were significantly different from the control group (p < 0.05) but lower than the positive control group (DMEM with 10% heat treated fetal bovine serum). Cell lines showed normal character in fibroblast elongate shape after treated with pFF except in high concentration of pFF. This result implies that pFF of small size ovarian follicle at concentration of 400-600 µg proteins/mL could be optimized concentration for using as a supplement in Vero cell line culture medium to promote cell viability instead of growth hormone from fetal bovine serum. This merit could be applied in other cell biotechnology researches. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by a grant from Silpakorn University and Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Thailand.

Keywords: cell viability, porcine follicular fluid, MTT assay, Vero cell line

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
5224 2D and 3D Breast Cancer Cells Behave Differently to the Applied Free Palbociclib or the Palbociclib-Loaded Nanoparticles

Authors: Maryam Parsian, Pelin Mutlu, Ufuk Gunduz

Abstract:

Two-dimensional cell culture affords simplicity and low cost, but it has serious limitations; lacking cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions that are present in tissues. Cancer cells grown in 3D culture systems have distinct phenotypes of adhesion, growth, migration, invasion as well as profiles of gene and protein expression. These interactions cause the 3D-cultured cells to acquire morphological and cellular characteristics relevant to in vivo tumors. Palbociclib is a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of ER-positive and HER-negative metastatic breast cancer. Poly-amidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer is a well-defined, special three-dimensional structure and has a multivalent surface and internal cavities that can play an essential role in drug delivery systems. In this study, palbociclib is loaded onto the magnetic PAMAM dendrimer. Hanging droplet method was used in order to form 3D spheroids. The possible toxic effects of both free drug and drug loaded nanoparticles were evaluated in 2D and 3D MCF-7, MD-MB-231 and SKBR-3 breast cancer cell culture models by performing MTT cell viability and Alamar Blue assays. MTT analysis was performed with six different doses from 1000 µg/ml to 25 µg/ml. Drug unloaded PAMAM dendrimer did not demonstrate significant toxicity on all breast cancer cell lines. The results showed that 3D spheroids are clearly less sensitive than 2D cell cultures to free palbociclib. Also, palbociclib loaded PAMAM dendrimers showed more toxic effect than free palbociclib in all cell lines at 2D and 3D cultures. The results suggest that the traditional cell culture method (2D) is insufficient for mimicking the actual tumor tissue. The response of the cancer cells to anticancer drugs is different in the 2D and 3D culture conditions. This study showed that breast cancer cells are more resistant to free palbociclib in 3D cultures than in 2D cultures. However, nanoparticle loaded drugs can be more cytotoxic when compared to free drug.

Keywords: 2D and 3D cell culture, breast cancer, palbociclibe, PAMAM magnetic nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
5223 Cytogenetic Characterization of the VERO Cell Line Based on Comparisons with the Subline; Implication for Authorization and Quality Control of Animal Cell Lines

Authors: Fumio Kasai, Noriko Hirayama, Jorge Pereira, Azusa Ohtani, Masashi Iemura, Malcolm A. Ferguson Smith, Arihiro Kohara

Abstract:

The VERO cell line was established in 1962 from normal tissue of an African green monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops (2n=60), and has been commonly used worldwide for screening for toxins or as a cell substrate for the production of viral vaccines. The VERO genome was sequenced in 2014; however, its cytogenetic features have not been fully characterized as it contains several chromosome abnormalities and different karyotypes coexist in the cell line. In this study, the VERO cell line (JCRB0111) was compared with one of the sublines. In contrast to 59 chromosomes as the modal chromosome number in the VERO cell line, the subline had two peaks of 56 and 58 chromosomes. M-FISH analysis using human probes revealed that the VERO cell line was characterized by a translocation t(2;25) found in all metaphases, which was absent in the subline. Different abnormalities detected only in the subline show that the cell line is heterogeneous, indicating that the subline has the potential to change its genomic characteristics during cell culture. The various alterations in the two independent lineages suggest that genomic changes in both VERO cells can be accounted for by progressive rearrangements during their evolution in culture. Both t(5;X) and t(8;14) observed in all metaphases of the two cell lines might have a key role in VERO cells and could be used as genetic markers to identify VERO cells. The flow karyotype shows distinct differences from normal. Further analysis of sorted abnormal chromosomes may uncover other characteristics of VERO cells. Because of the absence of STR data, cytogenetic data are important in characterizing animal cell lines and can be an indicator of their quality control.

Keywords: VERO, cell culture passage, chromosome rearrangement, heterogeneous cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
5222 Towards a Biologically Relevant Tumor-on-a-Chip: Multiplex Microfluidic Platform to Study Breast Cancer Drug Response

Authors: Soroosh Torabi, Brad Berron, Ren Xu, Christine Trinkle

Abstract:

Microfluidics integrated with 3D cell culture is a powerful technology to mimic cellular environment, and can be used to study cell activities such as proliferation, migration and response to drugs. This technology has gained more attention in cancer studies over the past years, and many organ-on-a-chip systems have been developed to study cancer cell behaviors in an ex-vivo tumor microenvironment. However, there are still some barriers to adoption which include low throughput, complexity in 3D cell culture integration and limitations on non-optical analysis of cells. In this study, a user-friendly microfluidic multi-well plate was developed to mimic the in vivo tumor microenvironment. The microfluidic platform feeds multiple 3D cell culture sites at the same time which enhances the throughput of the system. The platform uses hydrophobic Cassie-Baxter surfaces created by microchannels to enable convenient loading of hydrogel/cell suspensions into the device, while providing barrier free placement of the hydrogel and cells adjacent to the fluidic path. The microchannels support convective flow and diffusion of nutrients to the cells and a removable lid is used to enable further chemical and physiological analysis on the cells. Different breast cancer cell lines were cultured in the device and then monitored to characterize nutrient delivery to the cells as well as cell invasion and proliferation. In addition, the drug response of breast cancer cell lines cultured in the device was compared to the response in xenograft models to the same drugs to analyze relevance of this platform for use in future drug-response studies.

Keywords: microfluidics, multi-well 3d cell culture, tumor microenvironment, tumor-on-a-chip

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
5221 Evaluation of the Influence of Graphene Oxide on Spheroid and Monolayer Culture under Flow Conditions

Authors: A. Zuchowska, A. Buta, M. Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, A. Malolepszy, L. Stobinski, Z. Brzozka

Abstract:

In recent years, graphene-based materials are finding more and more applications in biological science. As a thin, tough, transparent and chemically resistant materials, they appear to be a very good material for the production of implants and biosensors. Interest in graphene derivatives also resulted at the beginning of research about the possibility of their application in cancer therapy. Currently, the analysis of their potential use in photothermal therapy and as a drug carrier is mostly performed. Moreover, the direct anticancer properties of graphene-based materials are also tested. Nowadays, cytotoxic studies are conducted on in vitro cell culture in standard culture vessels (macroscale). However, in this type of cell culture, the cells grow on the synthetic surface in static conditions. For this reason, cell culture in macroscale does not reflect in vivo environment. The microfluidic systems, called Lab-on-a-chip, are proposed as a solution for improvement of cytotoxicity analysis of new compounds. Here, we present the evaluation of cytotoxic properties of graphene oxide (GO) on breast, liver and colon cancer cell line in a microfluidic system in two spatial models (2D and 3D). Before cell introduction, the microchambers surface was modified by the fibronectin (2D, monolayer) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (3D, spheroids) covering. After spheroid creation (3D) and cell attachment (2D, monolayer) the selected concentration of GO was introduced into microsystems. Then monolayer and spheroids viability/proliferation using alamarBlue® assay and standard microplate reader was checked for three days. Moreover, in every day of the culture, the morphological changes of cells were determined using microscopic analysis. Additionally, on the last day of the culture differential staining using Calcein AM and Propidium iodide were performed. We were able to note that the GO has an influence on all tested cell line viability in both monolayer and spheroid arrangement. We showed that GO caused higher viability/proliferation decrease for spheroids than a monolayer (this was observed for all tested cell lines). Higher cytotoxicity of GO on spheroid culture can be caused by different geometry of the microchambers for 2D and 3D cell cultures. Probably, GO was removed from the flat microchambers for 2D culture. Those results were also confirmed by differential staining. Comparing our results with the studies conducted in the macroscale, we also proved that the cytotoxic properties of GO are changed depending on the cell culture conditions (static/ flow).

Keywords: cytotoxicity, graphene oxide, monolayer, spheroid

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
5220 Acoustic Radiation Pressure Detaches Myoblast from Culture Substrate by Assistance of Serum-Free Medium

Authors: Yuta Kurashina, Chikahiro Imashiro, Kiyoshi Ohnuma, Kenjiro Takemura

Abstract:

Research objectives and goals: To realize clinical applications of regenerative medicine, a mass cell culture is highly required. In a conventional cell culture, trypsinization was employed for cell detachment. However, trypsinization causes proliferation decrease due to injury of cell membrane. In order to detach cells using an enzyme-free method, therefore, this study proposes a novel cell detachment method capable of detaching adherent cells using acoustic radiation pressure exposed to the dish by the assistance of serum-free medium with ITS liquid medium supplement. Methods used In order to generate acoustic radiation pressure, a piezoelectric ceramic plate was glued on a glass plate to configure an ultrasonic transducer. The glass plate and a chamber wall compose a chamber in which a culture dish is placed in glycerol. Glycerol transmits acoustic radiation pressure to adhered cells on the culture dish. To excite a resonance vibration of transducer, AC signal with 29-31 kHz (swept) and 150, 300, and 450 V was input to the transducer for 5 min. As a pretreatment to reduce cell adhesivity, serum-free medium with ITS liquid medium supplement was spread to the culture dish before exposed to acoustic radiation pressure. To evaluate the proposed cell detachment method, C2C12 myoblast cells (8.0 × 104 cells) were cultured on a ø35 culture dish for 48 hr, and then the medium was replaced with the serum-free medium with ITS liquid medium supplement for 24 hr. We replaced the medium with phosphate buffered saline and incubated cells for 10 min. After that, cells were exposed to the acoustic radiation pressure for 5 min. We also collected cells by using trypsinization as control. Cells collected by the proposed method and trypsinization were respectively reseeded in ø60 culture dishes and cultured for 24 hr. Then, the number of proliferated cells was counted. Results achieved: By a phase contrast microscope imaging, shrink of lamellipodia was observed before exposed to acoustic radiation pressure, and no cells remained on the culture dish after the exposed of acoustic radiation pressure. This result suggests that serum-free medium with ITS liquid inhibits adhesivity of cells and acoustic radiation pressure detaches cells from the dish. Moreover, the number of proliferated cells 24 hr after collected by the proposed method with 150 and 300 V is the same or more than that by trypsinization, i.e., cells were proliferated 15% higher with the proposed method using acoustic radiation pressure than with the traditional cell collecting method of trypsinization. These results proved that cells were able to be collected by using the appropriate exposure of acoustic radiation pressure. Conclusions: This study proposed a cell detachment method using acoustic radiation pressure by the assistance of serum-free medium. The proposed method provides an enzyme-free cell detachment method so that it may be used in future clinical applications instead of trypsinization.

Keywords: acoustic radiation pressure, cell detachment, enzyme free, ultrasonic transducer

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
5219 Platform Development for Vero Cell Culture on Microcarriers Using Dissociation-Reassociation Method

Authors: Thanunthon Bowornsakulwong, Charukorn Charukarn, Franck Courtes, Panit Kitsubun, Lalintip Horcharoen

Abstract:

Vero cell is a continuous cell line that is widely used for the production of viral vaccines. However, due to its adherent characteristic, scaling up strategy in large-scale production remains complicated and thus limited. Consequently, suspension-like Vero cell culture processes based on microcarriers have been introduced and employed while also providing increased surface area per volume unit. However, harvesting Vero cells from microcarriers is a huge challenge due to difficulties in cells detaching, lower recovery yield, time-consuming and dissociation agent carry-over. To overcome these problems, we developed a dissociation-association platform technology for detaching and re-attaching cells during subculturing from microcarriers to microcarriers, which will be conveniently applied to seed trains strategies in large scale bioreactors. Herein, Hillex-2 was used to culture Vero cells in serum-containing media using spinner flasks as a scale-down model. The overall confluency of cells on microcarriers was observed using inverted microscope, and the sample cells were daily detached in order to obtain the kinetics data. The metabolites consumption and by-products formation were determined by Nova Biomedical BioprofileFlex.

Keywords: dissociation-reassociation, microcarrier, scale up, Vero cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
5218 Cell Response on the Ti-15Mo Alloy Surface after Nanotubes Growth

Authors: Ana Paula Rosifini Alves Claro, André Luiz Reis Rangel, Nathan Trujillo, Ketul C. Popat

Abstract:

In the present work, in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated after nanotubes growth on Ti15Mo alloy surface. TiO2 nanotubes were obtained by anodizing technique at room temperature in an electrolyte with 0.25 %NH4F and glycerol at a constant anodic potential of 20 V for 24 hours. The morphology of nanotubes was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM; XL 30 FEG, Philips). Crystal structure was analyzed by wide-angle X-ray diffraction. A cell culture model using human fibroblast-like cells was used to study the effect of TiO2 nanotubes growth on the cytotoxicity of the Ti15Mo alloy for 1, 4 and 7 days culture period. The MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability and cell adhesion was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Results show that Ti15Mo alloy with TiO2 nanotubes on surface is nontoxic and exhibit good interaction with surface.

Keywords: titanium alloys, TiO2 nanotubes, cell growth, Ti-15Mo alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
5217 Development and Characterisation of a Microbioreactor 'Cassette' for Cell Culture Applications

Authors: Nelson Barrientos, Matthew J. Davies, Marco C. Marques, Darren N. Nesbeth, Gary J. Lye, Nicolas Szita

Abstract:

Microbioreactor technology is making important advances towards its application in cell culture and bioprocess development. In particular, the technology promises flexible and controllable devices capable to perform parallelised experimentation at low cost. Currently, state of the art methods (e.g. optical sensors) allow the accurate monitoring of the microbioreactor operation. In addition, the laminar flow regime encountered in these devices allows more predictive fluid dynamics modelling, improving the control over the soluble, physical and mechanical environment of the cells. This work describes the development and characterisation of a novel microbioreactor cassette system (microbioreactor volume is 150 μL. The volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa) and mixing time have been characterised to be between 25 to 113 h-1 and 0.5 and 0.1 s, respectively. In addition, the Residence time distribution (RTD) analysis confirms that the reactor operates at well mixed conditions. Finally, Staphylococcus carnosus TM300 growth is demonstrated via batch culture experiments. Future work consists in expanding the optics of the microbioreactor design to include the monitoring of variables such as fluorescent protein expression, among others.

Keywords: microbioreactor, cell-culture, fermentation, microfluidics

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
5216 Isolation and Expansion of Human Periosteum-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Defined Serum-Free Culture Medium

Authors: Ainur Mukhambetova, Miras Karzhauov, Vyacheslav Ogay

Abstract:

Introduction: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capacity to be differentiated into several cell lineages and are a promising source for cell therapy and tissue engineering. However, currently most MSCs culturing protocols use media supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS), which limits their application in clinic due to the possibility of zoonotic infections, contamination and immunological reactions. Consequently, formulating effective serum free culture medium becomes one of the important problems in contemporary cell biotechnology. Objectives: The aim of this study was to define an optimal serum-free medium for culturing of periosteum derived MSCs. Materials and methods: The MSCs were extracted from human periosteum and transferred to the culture flasks pretreated with CELLstart™. Immunophenotypic characterization, proliferation and in vitro differentiation of cells grown on STEM PRO® MSC SFM were compared to the cells cultured in the standard FBS containing media. Chromosome analysis and flow cytometry were also performed. Results: We have shown that cells were grown on STEM PRO® MSC SFM retained all the morphological, immunophenotypic (CD73, CD90, CD105, vimentin and Stro-1) and cell differentiation characteristics specific to MSCs. Chromosome analysis indicated no anomalies in the chromosome structure. Flow cytometry showed a high expression of cell adhesion molecules CD44 (98,8%), CD90 (97,4%), CD105 (99,1%). In addition, we have shown that cell is grown on STEM PRO® MSC SFM have higher proliferation capacity compared to cell expanded on standard FBS containing the medium. Conclusion: We have shown that STEM PRO® MSC SFM is optimal for culturing periosteum derived human MSCs which subsequently can be safely used in cell therapy.

Keywords: cell technologies, periosteum-derived MSCs, regenerative medicine, serum-free medium

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
5215 Shear Stress and Oxygen Concentration Manipulation in a Micropillars Microfluidic Bioreactor

Authors: Deybith Venegas-Rojas, Jens Budde, Dominik Nörz, Manfred Jücker, Hoc Khiem Trieu

Abstract:

Microfluidics is a promising approach for biomedicine cell culture experiments with microfluidic bioreactors (MBR), which can provide high precision in volume and time control over mass transport and microenvironments in small-scale studies. Nevertheless, shear stress and oxygen concentration are important factors that affect the microenvironment and then the cell culture. It is presented a novel MBR design in which differences in geometry, shear stress, and oxygen concentration were studied and optimized for cell culture. The aim is to mimic the in vivo condition with biocompatible materials and continuous perfusion of nutrients, a healthy shear stress, and oxygen concentration. The design consists of a capture system of PDMS micropillars which keep cells in place, so it is not necessary any hydrogel or complicated scaffolds for cells immobilization. Besides, the design allows continuous supply with nutrients or even any other chemical for cell experimentation. Finite element method simulations were used to study and optimize the effect of parameters such as flow rate, shear stress, oxygen concentration, micropillars shape, and dimensions. The micropillars device was fabricated with microsystem technology such as soft-lithography, deep reactive ion etching, self-assembled monolayer, replica molding, and oxygen plasma bonding. Eight different geometries were fabricated and tested, with different flow rates according to the simulations. During the experiments, it was observed the effect of micropillars size, shape, and configuration for stability and shear stress control when increasing flow rate. The device was tested with several successful HepG2 3D cell cultures. With this MBR, the aforementioned parameters can be controlled in order to keep a healthy microenvironment according to specific necessities of different cell types, with no need of hydrogels and can be used for a wide range of experiments with cells.

Keywords: cell culture, micro-bioreactor, microfluidics, micropillars, oxygen concentration, shear stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
5214 Beneficial Effect of Autologous Endometrial Stromal Cell Co-Culture on Day 3 Embryo Quality

Authors: I. Bochev, A. Shterev, S. Kyurkchiev

Abstract:

One of the factors associated with poor success rates in human in vitro fertilization (IVF) is the suboptimal culture conditions in which fertilization and early embryonic growth occur. Co-culture systems with helper cell lines appear to enhance the in vitro conditions and allow embryos to demonstrate improved in vitro development. The co-culture of human embryos with monolayers of autologous endometrial stromal cell (EnSCs) results in increased blastocyst development with a larger number of blastomeres, lower incidence of fragmentation and higher pregnancy rates in patients with recurrent implantation failure (RIF). The aim of the study was to examine the influence of autologous endometrial stromal cell (EnSC) co-culture on day 3 embryo quality by comparing the morphological status of the embryos from the same patients undergoing consecutive IVF/Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles without and with EnSC co-culture. This retrospective randomized study (2015-2017) includes 20 couples and a total of 46 IVF/ICSI cycles. Each patient couple included had at least two IVF/ICSI procedures – one with and one without autologous EnSC co-culture. Embryo quality was assessed at 68±1 hours in culture, according to Istanbul consensus criteria (2010). Day 3 embryos were classified into three groups: good – grade 1; fair – grade 2; poor – grade 3. Embryos from all cycles were divided into two groups (A – co-cultivated; B – not co-cultivated) and analyzed. Second, for each patient couple, embryos from matched IVF/ICSI cycles (with and without co-culture) were analyzed separately. When an analysis of co-cultivated day 3 embryos from all cycles was performed (n=137; group A), 43.1% of the embryos were graded as “good”, which was not significantly different from the respective embryo quality rate of 42.2% (p = NS) in group B (n=147) with non-co-cultivated embryos. The proportions of fair and poor quality embryos in group A and group B were similar as well – 11.7% vs 10.2% and 45.2% vs 47.6% (p=NS), respectively. Nevertheless, the separate embryo analysis by matched cycles for each couple revealed that in 65% of the cases the proportion of morphologically better embryos was increased in cycles with co-culture in comparison with those without co-culture. A decrease in this proportion after endometrial stromal cell co-cultivation was found in 30% of the cases, whereas no difference was observed in only one couple. The results demonstrated that there is no marked difference in the overall morphological quality between co-cultured and non-co-cultured embryos on day 3. However, in significantly greater percentage of couples the process of autologous EnSC co-culture could increase the proportion of morphologically improved day 3 embryos. By mimicking the in vivo relationship between embryo and maternal environment, co-culture in autologous EnSC system represents a perspective approach to improve the quality of embryos in cases with elevated risk for development of embryos with impaired morphology.

Keywords: autologous endometrial stromal cells, co-culture, day 3 embryo, morphological quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
5213 Stimulation of Nerve Tissue Differentiation and Development Using Scaffold-Based Cell Culture in Bioreactors

Authors: Simon Grossemy, Peggy P. Y. Chan, Pauline M. Doran

Abstract:

Nerve tissue engineering is the main field of research aimed at finding an alternative to autografts as a treatment for nerve injuries. Scaffolds are used as a support to enhance nerve regeneration. In order to successfully design novel scaffolds and in vitro cell culture systems, a deep understanding of the factors affecting nerve regeneration processes is needed. Physical and biological parameters associated with the culture environment have been identified as potentially influential in nerve cell differentiation, including electrical stimulation, exposure to extracellular-matrix (ECM) proteins, dynamic medium conditions and co-culture with glial cells. The mechanisms involved in driving the cell to differentiation in the presence of these factors are poorly understood; the complexity of each of them raises the possibility that they may strongly influence each other. Some questions that arise in investigating nerve regeneration include: What are the best protein coatings to promote neural cell attachment? Is the scaffold design suitable for providing all the required factors combined? What is the influence of dynamic stimulation on cell viability and differentiation? In order to study these effects, scaffolds adaptable to bioreactor culture conditions were designed to allow electrical stimulation of cells exposed to ECM proteins, all within a dynamic medium environment. Gold coatings were used to make the surface of viscose rayon microfiber scaffolds (VRMS) conductive, and poly-L-lysine (PLL) and laminin (LN) surface coatings were used to mimic the ECM environment and allow the attachment of rat PC12 neural cells. The robustness of the coatings was analyzed by surface resistivity measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation and immunocytochemistry. Cell attachment to protein coatings of PLL, LN and PLL+LN was studied using DNA quantification with Hoechst. The double coating of PLL+LN was selected based on high levels of PC12 cell attachment and the reported advantages of laminin for neural differentiation. The underlying gold coatings were shown to be biocompatible using cell proliferation and live/dead staining assays. Coatings exhibiting stable properties over time under dynamic fluid conditions were developed; indeed, cell attachment and the conductive power of the scaffolds were maintained over 2 weeks of bioreactor operation. These scaffolds are promising research tools for understanding complex neural cell behavior. They have been used to investigate major factors in the physical culture environment that affect nerve cell viability and differentiation, including electrical stimulation, bioreactor hydrodynamic conditions, and combinations of these parameters. The cell and tissue differentiation response was evaluated using DNA quantification, immunocytochemistry, RT-qPCR and functional analyses.

Keywords: bioreactor, electrical stimulation, nerve differentiation, PC12 cells, scaffold

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
5212 Biocompatibility and Electrochemical Assessment of Biomedical Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Jerman Madonsela, Wallace Matizamhuka, Akiko Yamamoto, Ronald Machaka, Brendon Shongwe

Abstract:

In this study, biocompatibility evaluation of nanostructured near beta Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (Ti2448) alloy with non-toxic elements produced utilizing Spark plasma sintering (SPS) of very fine microsized powders attained through mechanical alloying was performed. The results were compared with pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloy. Cell proliferation test was performed using murine osteoblastic cells, MC3T3-E1 at two cell densities; 400 and 4000 cells/mL for 7 days incubation. Pure titanium took a lead under both conditions suggesting that the presence of other oxide layers influence cell proliferation. No significant difference in cell proliferation was observed between Ti64 and Ti2448. Potentiodynamic measurement in Hanks, 0.9% NaCl and cell culture medium showed no distinct difference on the anodic polarization curves of the three alloys, indicating that the same anodic reaction occurred on their surface but with different rates. However, Ti2448 showed better corrosion resistance in cell culture medium with a slightly lower corrosion rate of 2.96 nA/cm2 compared to 4.86 nA/cm2 and 5.62 nA/cm2 of Ti and Ti64 respectively. Ti2448 adsorbed less protein as compared to Ti and Ti64 though no notable difference in surface wettability was observed.

Keywords: biocompatibility, osteoblast, corrosion, surface wettability, protein adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
5211 UV-Reactive Electrospinning: Preparation, Characterization and Cell Culture Applications of Nanofiber Scaffolds Containing Keratin

Authors: Duygu Yüksel Deniz, Memet Vezir Kahraman, Serap Erdem Kuruca, Mediha Süleymanoğlu

Abstract:

Our first aim was to synthesize Hydroxy Apatite (HAP) and then modify its surface by adding 4-Vinylbenzene boronic acid (4-VBBA). The characterization was done by FT-IR. By adding Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to 4- VBBA-HAP, we obtained a suitable electrospinning solution. PVA solution which was also modified by using alkoxy silanes, in order to prevent the scaffolds from being damaged by aqueous cell medium, was added. Keratin was dissolved and then added into the electrospinning solution. Keratin containing 4-VBBA- HAP/PVA composite was used to fabricate nanofiber scaffolds with the simultaneous UV-reactive electrospinning technique. The structural characterization was done by FT-IR. Thermal gravimetric analysis was also performed by using TGA. The morphological characterization was determined by SEM analyses. Our second aim was to create a scaffold where cells could grow. With this purpose, suitable nanofibers were choosen according to their SEM analysis. Keratin containing nanofibers were seeded with 3T3, ECV and SAOS cells and their cytotoxicity and cell proliferation were investigated by using MTT assay. After cell culturing process morphological characterization was determined by SEM analyses. These scaffolds were designed to be nontoxic biomaterials. Here, a comparision was made between keratin containing 3T3, ECV and SAOS seeded nanofiber scaffolds and the results were presented and discussed.

Keywords: cell culture, keratin, nanofibers, UV-reactive electrospinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
5210 Human 3D Metastatic Melanoma Models for in vitro Evaluation of Targeted Therapy Efficiency

Authors: Delphine Morales, Florian Lombart, Agathe Truchot, Pauline Maire, Pascale Vigneron, Antoine Galmiche, Catherine Lok, Muriel Vayssade

Abstract:

Targeted therapy molecules are used as a first-line treatment for metastatic melanoma with B-Raf mutation. Nevertheless, these molecules can cause side effects to patients and are efficient on 50 to 60 % of them. Indeed, melanoma cell sensitivity to targeted therapy molecules is dependent on tumor microenvironment (cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions). To better unravel factors modulating cell sensitivity to B-Raf inhibitor, we have developed and compared several melanoma models: from metastatic melanoma cells cultured as monolayer (2D) to a co-culture in a 3D dermal equivalent. Cell response was studied in different melanoma cell lines such as SK-MEL-28 (mutant B-Raf (V600E), sensitive to Vemurafenib), SK-MEL-3 (mutant B-Raf (V600E), resistant to Vemurafenib) and a primary culture of dermal human fibroblasts (HDFn). Assays have initially been performed in a monolayer cell culture (2D), then a second time on a 3D dermal equivalent (dermal human fibroblasts embedded in a collagen gel). All cell lines were treated with Vemurafenib (a B-Raf inhibitor) for 48 hours at various concentrations. Cell sensitivity to treatment was assessed under various aspects: Cell proliferation (cell counting, EdU incorporation, MTS assay), MAPK signaling pathway analysis (Western-Blotting), Apoptosis (TUNEL), Cytokine release (IL-6, IL-1α, HGF, TGF-β, TNF-α) upon Vemurafenib treatment (ELISA) and histology for 3D models. In 2D configuration, the inhibitory effect of Vemurafenib on cell proliferation was confirmed on SK-MEL-28 cells (IC50=0.5 µM), and not on the SK-MEL-3 cell line. No apoptotic signal was detected in SK-MEL-28-treated cells, suggesting a cytostatic effect of the Vemurafenib rather than a cytotoxic one. The inhibition of SK-MEL-28 cell proliferation upon treatment was correlated with a strong expression decrease of phosphorylated proteins involved in the MAPK pathway (ERK, MEK, and AKT/PKB). Vemurafenib (from 5 µM to 10 µM) also slowed down HDFn proliferation, whatever cell culture configuration (monolayer or 3D dermal equivalent). SK-MEL-28 cells cultured in the dermal equivalent were still sensitive to high Vemurafenib concentrations. To better characterize all cell population impacts (melanoma cells, dermal fibroblasts) on Vemurafenib efficacy, cytokine release is being studied in 2D and 3D models. We have successfully developed and validated a relevant 3D model, mimicking cutaneous metastatic melanoma and tumor microenvironment. This 3D melanoma model will become more complex by adding a third cell population, keratinocytes, allowing us to characterize the epidermis influence on the melanoma cell sensitivity to Vemurafenib. In the long run, the establishment of more relevant 3D melanoma models with patients’ cells might be useful for personalized therapy development. The authors would like to thank the Picardie region and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) 2014/2020 for the funding of this work and Oise committee of "La ligue contre le cancer".

Keywords: 3D human skin model, melanoma, tissue engineering, vemurafenib efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
5209 Derivation of Human NK Cells from T Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Xenogeneic Serum-Free and Feeder Cell-Free Culture System

Authors: Aliya Sekenova, Vyacheslav Ogay

Abstract:

The derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells by direct reprogramming opens wide perspectives in the regenerative medicine. It means the possibility to develop the personal and, consequently, any immunologically compatible cells for applications in cell-based therapy. The purpose of our study was to develop the technology for the production of NK cells from T cell-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (TiPSCs) for subsequent application in adoptive cancer immunotherapy. Methods: In this study iPSCs were derived from peripheral blood T cells using Sendai virus vectors expressing Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc. Pluripotent characteristics of TiPSCs were examined and confirmed with alkaline phosphatase staining, immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR analysis. For NK cell differentiation, embryoid bodies (EB) formed from (TiPSCs) were cultured in xenogeneic serum-free medium containing human serum, IL-3, IL-7, IL-15, SCF, FLT3L without using M210-B4 and AFT-024 stromal feeder cells. After differentiation, NK cells were characterized with immunofluorescence analysis, flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assay. Results: Here, we for the first time demonstrate that TiPSCs can effectively differentiate into functionally active NK cells without M210-B4 and AFT-024 xenogeneic stroma cells. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analysis showed that EB-derived cells can differentiate into a homogeneous population of NK cell expressing high levels of CD56, CD45 and CD16 specific markers. Moreover, these cells significantly express killing activation receptors such as NKp44 and NKp46. In the comparative analysis, we observed that NK cells derived using feeder-free culture system have more high killing activity against K-562 tumor cells, than NK cells derived by feeder-dependent method. Thus, we think that our obtained data will be useful for the development of large-scale production of NK cells for translation into cancer immunotherapy.

Keywords: induced pluripotent stem cells, NK cells, T cells, cell diffentiation, feeder cell-free culture system

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
5208 Analysis of Cell Cycle Status in Radiation Non-Targeted Hepatoma Cells Using Flow Cytometry: Evidence of Dose Dependent Response

Authors: Sharmi Mukherjee, Anindita Chakraborty

Abstract:

Cellular irradiation incites complex responses including arrest of cell cycle progression. This article accentuates the effects of radiation on cell cycle status of radiation non-targeted cells. Human Hepatoma HepG2 cells were exposed to increasing doses of γ radiations (1, 2, 4, 6 Gy) and their cell culture media was transferred to non-targeted HepG2 cells cultured in other Petri plates. These radiation non-targeted cells cultured in the ICCM (Irradiated cell conditioned media) were the bystander cells on which cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. An apparent decrease in the distribution of bystander cells at G0/G1 phase was observed with increased radiation doses upto 4 Gy representing a linear relationship. This was accompanied by a gradual increase in cellular distribution at G2/M phase. Interestingly the number of cells in G2/M phase at 1 and 2 Gy irradiation was not significantly different from each other. However, the percentage of G2 phase cells at 4 and 6 Gy doses were significantly higher than 2 Gy dose indicating the IC50 dose to be between 2 and 4 Gy. Cell cycle arrest is an indirect indicator of genotoxic damage in cells. In this study, bystander stress signals through the cell culture media of irradiated cells disseminated the radiation induced DNA damages in the non-targeted cells which resulted in arrest of the cell cycle progression at G2/M phase checkpoint. This implies that actual radiation biological effects represent a penumbra with effects encompassing a larger area than the actual beam. This article highlights the existence of genotoxic damages as bystander effects of γ rays in human Hepatoma cells by cell cycle analysis and opens up avenues for appraisal of bystander stress communications between tumor cells. Contemplation of underlying signaling mechanisms can be manipulated to maximize damaging effects of radiation with minimum dose and thus has therapeutic applications.

Keywords: bystander effect, cell cycle, genotoxic damage, hepatoma

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
5207 In vitro Regeneration of Neural Cells Using Human Umbilical Cord Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Urvi Panwar, Kanchan Mishra, Kanjaksha Ghosh, ShankerLal Kothari

Abstract:

Background: Day-by-day the increasing prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases have become a global issue to manage them by medical sciences. The adult neural stem cells are rare and require an invasive and painful procedure to obtain it from central nervous system. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) therapies have shown remarkable application in treatment of various cell injuries and cell loss. MSCs can be derived from various sources like adult tissues, human bone marrow, umbilical cord blood and cord tissue. MSCs have similar proliferation and differentiation capability, but the human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) are proved to be more beneficial with respect to cell procurement, differentiation to other cells, preservation, and transplantation. Material and method: Human umbilical cord is easily obtainable and non-controversial comparative to bone marrow and other adult tissues. The umbilical cord can be collected after delivery of baby, and its tissue can be cultured using explant culture method. Cell culture medium such as DMEMF12+10% FBS and DMEMF12+Neural growth factors (bFGF, human noggin, B27) with antibiotics (Streptomycin/Gentamycin) were used to culture and differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into neural cells, respectively. The characterisations of MSCs were done with Flow Cytometer for surface markers CD90, CD73 and CD105 and colony forming unit assay. The differentiated various neural cells will be characterised by fluorescence markers for neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes; quantitative PCR for genes Nestin and NeuroD1 and Western blotting technique for gap43 protein. Result and discussion: The high quality and number of MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord via explant culture method. The obtained MSCs were differentiated into neural cells like neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The differentiated neural cells can be used to treat neural injuries and neural cell loss by delivering cells by non-invasive administration via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood. Moreover, the MSCs can also be directly delivered to different injured sites where they differentiate into neural cells. Therefore, human umbilical cord is demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easily available source for MSCs. Moreover, the hUCMSCs can be a potential source for neural cell therapies and neural cell regeneration for neural cell injuries and neural cell loss. This new way of research will be helpful to treat and manage neural cell damages and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson. Still the study has a long way to go but it is a promising approach for many neural disorders for which at present no satisfactory management is available.

Keywords: bone marrow, cell therapy, explant culture method, flow cytometer, human umbilical cord, mesenchymal stem cells, neurodegenerative diseases, neuroprotective, regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
5206 Inflammatory Changes Caused by Lipopolysaccharide in Odontoblasts

Authors: Virve Pääkkönen, Heidi M. Cuffaro, Leo Tjäderhane

Abstract:

Objectives: Odontoblasts are the outermost cell layer of dental pulp and form the dentin. Importance of bacterial products, e.g. lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, have been indicated in the pathogenesis of pulpitis. Gram-positive bacteria are more prevalent in superficial carious lesion while the amount gram-negative is higher in the deep lesions. Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of these bacterial products on inflammatory response of pulp tissue. Interleukins (IL) were of special interest. Various ILs have been observed in the dentin-pulp complex of carious tooth in vivo. Methods: Tissue culture method was used for testing the effect of LTA and LPS on human odontoblasts. Enzymatic isolation technique was used to extract living odontoblasts for cell cultures. DNA microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to characterize the changes in the expression profile of the tissue cultured odontoblasts. Laser microdissection was used to cut healthy and affected dentin and odontoblast layer directly under carious lesion for experiments. Cytokine array detecting 80 inflammatory cytokines was used to analyze the protein content of conditioned culture media as well as dentin and odontoblasts from the carious teeth. Results: LPS caused increased gene expression IL-1α, and -8 and decrease of IL-1β, 12 , -15 and -16 after 1h treatment, while after 24h treatment decrease of IL-8, -11 and 23 mRNAs was observed. LTA treatment caused cell death in the tissue cultured odontoblasts but in in the cell culture but not in cell culture. Cytokine array revealed at least 2-fold down-regulation of IL-1β, -10 and -12 in response to LPS treatment. Cytokine array of odontoblasts of carious teeth, as well as LPS-treated tissue-cultured odontoblasts, revealed increased protein amounts of IL-16, epidermal growth factor (EGF), angiogenin and IGFBP-1 as well as decreased amount of fractalkine. In carious dentin, increased amount of IL-1β, EGF and fractalkine was observed, as well as decreased level of GRO-1 and HGF. Conclusion: LPS caused marked changes in the expression of inflammatory cytokines in odontoblasts. Similar changes were observed in the odontoblasts cut directly under the carious lesion. These results help to shed light on the inflammatory processes happening during caries.

Keywords: inflammation, interleukin, lipoteichoic acid, odontoblasts

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
5205 Hydrogel Based on Cellulose Acetate Used as Scaffold for Cell Growth

Authors: A. Maria G. Melero, A. M. Senna, J. A. Domingues, M. A. Hausen, E. Aparecida R. Duek, V. R. Botaro

Abstract:

A hydrogel from cellulose acetate cross linked with ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (HAC-EDTA) was synthesized by our research group, and submitted to characterization and biological tests. Cytocompatibility analysis was performed by confocal microscopy using human adipocyte derived stem cells (ASCs). The FTIR analysis showed characteristic bands of cellulose acetate and hydroxyl groups and the tensile tests evidence that HAC-EDTA present a Young’s modulus of 643.7 MPa. The confocal analysis revealed that there was cell growth at the surface of HAC-EDTA. After one day of culture the cells presented spherical morphology, which may be caused by stress of the sequestration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions at the cell medium by HAC-EDTA, as demonstrated by ICP-MS. However, after seven days and 14 days of culture, the cells present fibroblastoid morphology, phenotype expected by this cellular type. The results give efforts to indicate this new material as a potential biomaterial for tissue engineering, in the future in vivo approach.

Keywords: cellulose acetate, hydrogel, biomaterial, cellular growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
5204 Preparation and Application of Biocompatible Nanobioactive Glass as Therapeutic Agents for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: P. Shrivastava, S. Vijayalakshmi, A. K. Singh, S. Dalai, R. Teotia, P. Sharma, J. Bellare

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the synthesis and application of nanobioactive glass for bone regeneration studies. Nanobioactive glass has been synthesized by sol gel method having a combination of silicon, calcium and phosphorous in the molar ratio of 75:21:4. The prepared particles were analyzed for surface morphology by FEG SEM and FEG TEM. Physiochemical properties were investigated using ICP AES, FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. To ascertain their use for therapeutic use, biocompatibility evaluation of the particles was done by performing soaking studies in SBF and in vitro cell culture studies on MG63 cell lines. Cell morphology was observed by FE SEM and phase contrast microscopy. Nanobioactive glasses (NBG) thus prepared were of 30-200 nm in size, which makes them suitable for nano-biomedical applications. The spherical shape of the particles imparts high surface to volume ratio, promoting fast growth of hydroxyapatite (HA), which is the mineral component of bone. As evaluated by in vitro cell culture studies the NBG was found to enhance the surface activation which enhances osteoblast adhesion. This is an essential parameter to improve bone tissue integration, thereby making nanobioactive glass therapeutically suitable for correcting bone defects.

Keywords: biocompatibility, bone tissue engineering, hydroxyapatite, nanobioactive glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
5203 In vitro Effects of Porcine Follicular Fluid Proteins on Cell Culture Growth in Luteal Phase Porcine Oviductal Epithelial Cells

Authors: Mayuva Youngsabanant, Chanikarn Srinark, Supanyika Sengsai, Soratorn Kerdkriangkrai, Nongnuch Gumlungpat, Mayuree Pumipaiboon

Abstract:

The follicular fluid proteins of healthy medium size follicles (4-6 mm in diameters) and large size follicles (7-8 mm in diameter) of large white pig ovaries were collected by using sterile technique. They were used for testing the effect on primary in vitro cell culture growth of porcine oviductal epithelial cells (pOEC). Porcine oviductal epithelial cells of luteal phase was culture in M199 and added with 10% fetal calf serum 2.2 mg/mL, NaHCO₃, 0.25 mM pyruvate, 15 µg/mL and 50 µg/mL, gentamycin sulfate at high humidified atmosphere with 5% CO₂ in 95% air atmosphere at 37°C for 96 h before testing. The optimized concentration of pFF of two follicle sizes (at concentration of 2, 4, 20, 40, 200, 400, 500, and 600 µg proteins) in culture medium was observed for 24 h using MTT assay. Results were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA in SPSS statistic. Moreover, pOEC was also studied in morphological characteristic on long-term culture. The results of long-term study revealed that pOEC showed 70-80 percentage of healthy morphology on epithelial-like character and contained 30 percentage of an elongated shape (fibroblast-like morphology) at 4 weeks of culture time. MTT assay reviewed an increase in the percentage of viability of pOEC in 2 treated of follicular fluid groups. Two treatment concentration groups were higher than control group (p < 0.05) but not in positive control group. Interestingly, at 200 µg protein of 2 treated follicular fluid groups were reached the highest cell viability which is higher than a positive control and it is significantly different form control group (P < 0.05). These cells are developed and had fibroblast elongate shape which is longer than the cells in control group and positive control group. This report implies that pFF of medium follicle size at 200 µg proteins and large follicle size at 200 and 500 µg proteins could be optimized concentration for using as a supplement in culture medium to promote cell growth and development instead of growth hormone from fetal calf serum. It could be applied in cell biotechnology researches. Acknowledgements: The project was funded by a grant from Silpakorn University Research and Development Institute (SURDI) and Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Thailand.

Keywords: in vitro, porcine follicular fluid protein (pFF), porcine oviductal epithelial cells (pOEC), MTT

Procedia PDF Downloads 54