Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: solidity

8 Effect of Thickness and Solidity on the Performance of Straight Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Jianyang Zhu, Lin Jiang, Tixian Tian

Abstract:

Inspired by the increasing interesting on the wind power associated with production of clear electric power, a numerical experiment is applied to investigate the aerodynamic performance of straight type vertical axis wind turbine with different thickness and solidity, where the incompressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations coupled with dynamic mesh technique is solved. By analyzing the flow field, as well as energy coefficient of different thickness and solidity turbine, it is found that the thickness and solidity can significantly influence the performance of vertical axis wind turbine. For the turbine under low tip speed, the mean energy coefficient increase with the increasing of thickness and solidity, which may improve the self starting performance of the turbine. However for the turbine under high tip speed, the appropriate thickness and smaller solidity turbine possesses better performance. In addition, delay stall and no interaction of the blade and previous separated vortex are observed around appropriate thickness and solidity turbine, therefore lead better performance characteristics.

Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine, N-S equations, dynamic mesh technique, thickness, solidity

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7 Optimal Trailing Edge Flap Positions of Helicopter Rotor for Various Thrust Coefficient to Solidity (Ct/σ) Ratios

Authors: K. K. Saijaand, K. Prabhakaran Nair

Abstract:

This study aims to determine change in optimal lo-cations of dual trailing-edge flaps for various thrust coefficient to solidity (Ct /σ) ratios of helicopter to achieve minimum hub vibration levels, with low penalty in terms of required trailing-edge flap control power. Polynomial response functions are used to approximate hub vibration and flap power objective functions. Single objective and multi-objective optimization is carried with the objective of minimizing hub vibration and flap power. The optimization results shows that the inboard flap location at low Ct/σ ratio move farther from the baseline value and at high Ct/σ ratio move towards the root of the blade for minimizing hub vibration.

Keywords: helicopter rotor, trailing-edge flap, thrust coefficient to solidity (Ct /σ) ratio, optimization

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6 Design a Small-Scale Irrigation Wind-Powered Water Pump Using a Savonius Type VAWT

Authors: Getnet Ayele Kebede, Tasew Tadiwose Zewdie

Abstract:

In this study, a novel design of a wind-powered water pump for small-scale irrigation application by using the Savonius wind turbine of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine(VAWT) with 2 blades has been used. Calculations have been made on the energy available in the wind and an energy analysis was then performed to see what wind speed is required for the system to work. The rotor has a radius of 0.53 m giving a swept area of 1.27 m2 and this gives a solidity of 0.5, which is the minimum theoretical optimum value for wind turbine. The average extracted torque of the wind turbine is 0.922 Nm and Tip speed ratio is one this shows, the tips are moving at equal the speed of the wind and by 2 rotating of blades. This is sufficient to sustain the desired flow rate of (0.3125X 10-3) m3 per second with a maximum head of 10m and the expected working is 4hr/day, and also overcome other barriers to motion such as friction. Based on this novel design, we are able to achieve a cost-effective solution and simultaneously effective in self-starting under low wind speeds and it can catch the wind from all directions.

Keywords: Savonius wind turbine, Small-scale irrigation, Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, Water pump

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5 Employing a Knime-based and Open-source Tools to Identify AMI and VER Metabolites from UPLC-MS Data

Authors: Nouf Alourfi

Abstract:

This study examines the metabolism of amitriptyline (AMI) and verapamil (VER) using a KNIME-based method. KNIME improved workflow is an open-source data-analytics platform that integrates a number of open-source metabolomics tools such as CFMID and MetFrag to provide standard data visualisations, predict candidate metabolites, assess them against experimental data, and produce reports on identified metabolites. The use of this workflow is demonstrated by employing three types of liver microsomes (human, rat, and Guinea pig) to study the in vitro metabolism of the two drugs (AMI and VER). This workflow is used to create and treat UPLC-MS (Orbitrap) data. The formulas and structures of these drugs' metabolites can be assigned automatically. The key metabolic routes for amitriptyline are hydroxylation, N-dealkylation, N-oxidation, and conjugation, while N-demethylation, O-demethylation and N-dealkylation, and conjugation are the primary metabolic routes for verapamil. The identified metabolites are compatible to the published, clarifying the solidity of the workflow technique and the usage of computational tools like KNIME in supporting the integration and interoperability of emerging novel software packages in the metabolomics area.

Keywords: KNIME, CFMID, MetFrag, Data Analysis, Metabolomics

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4 A Cross-Sectional Examination of Children’s Developing Understanding of the Rainbow

Authors: Michael Hast

Abstract:

Surprisingly little is known from a research perspective about children’s understanding of rainbows and rainbow formation, and how this understanding changes with increasing age. Yet this kind of research is useful when conceptualizing pedagogy, lesson plans, or more general curricula. The present study aims to rectify this shortcoming. In a cross-sectional approach, children of three different age groups (4-5, 7-8 and 10-11 years) were asked to draw pictures that included rainbows. The pictures will be evaluated according to their scientific representation of rainbows, such as the order of colors, as well as according to any non-scientific conceptions, such as solidity. In addition to the drawings, the children took part in small focus groups where they had to discuss various questions about rainbows and rainbow formation. Similar to the drawings, these conversations will be evaluated around the degree of scientific accuracy of the children’s explanations. Gaining a complete developmental picture of children’s understanding of the rainbow may have important implications for pedagogy in early science education. Many other concepts in science, while not explicitly linked to rainbows and rainbow formation, can benefit from the use of rainbows as illustrations – such as understanding light and color, or the use of prisms. Even in non-science domains, such as art and even storytelling, recognizing the differentiation between fact and myth in relation to rainbows could be of value. In addition, research has pointed out that teachers tend to overestimate the proportion of students’ correct answers, so clarifying the actual level of conceptual understanding is crucial in this respect.

Keywords: conceptual development, cross-sectional research, primary science education, rainbows

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
3 Hybrid Intelligent Optimization Methods for Optimal Design of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine Blades

Authors: E. Tandis, E. Assareh

Abstract:

Designing the optimal shape of MW wind turbine blades is provided in a number of cases through evolutionary algorithms associated with mathematical modeling (Blade Element Momentum Theory). Evolutionary algorithms, among the optimization methods, enjoy many advantages, particularly in stability. However, they usually need a large number of function evaluations. Since there are a large number of local extremes, the optimization method has to find the global extreme accurately. The present paper introduces a new population-based hybrid algorithm called Genetic-Based Bees Algorithm (GBBA). This algorithm is meant to design the optimal shape for MW wind turbine blades. The current method employs crossover and neighborhood searching operators taken from the respective Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Bees Algorithm (BA) to provide a method with good performance in accuracy and speed convergence. Different blade designs, twenty-one to be exact, were considered based on the chord length, twist angle and tip speed ratio using GA results. They were compared with BA and GBBA optimum design results targeting the power coefficient and solidity. The results suggest that the final shape, obtained by the proposed hybrid algorithm, performs better compared to either BA or GA. Furthermore, the accuracy and speed convergence increases when the GBBA is employed

Keywords: Blade Design, Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, Bees Algorithm, Genetic-Based Bees Algorithm, Large Wind Turbine

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2 Governance and Financial Constraints the Impact on Corporate Social Responsibility Implementation in Cooperatives

Authors: Wanlapha Phraibueng, Patrick Sentis, Geraldine Riviere-Giordano

Abstract:

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives have been widely discussed especially in investor-oriented firms. In contrast, cooperatives pay less attention to CSR because their activities have integrated the responsibility and the solidity of social, economic and environment. On the other hand, by adopting ownership theory and agency theory – cooperatives ignore CSR investment due to unclarified decision control in the governance and the limitation to acquire the capital financed. The unique governance and financial structures in cooperatives lead to the conflict among the stakeholders and long-term investment which have an impact on firm financial performance. As an illustration of cooperatives dilemmas, we address the question of Whether or not cooperatives in term of governance and financial structures are the constraints on implementing CSR policies. We find that the governance and financial structures in large cooperatives are the influence factors which predispose cooperatives to invest on CSR. In contrast, in the startup or small cooperatives, its governance and financial structures are the constraints on implementing CSR policies. We propose the alternative financial structure based on the trade-off between debt and equity which aims to relax the restrictions in cooperatives’ governance and allow cooperatives to acquire the capital financed either from its members or non-members. We suggest that engaging equity as a financial structure induces cooperatives to invest on CSR policies. Alternative financial structure eliminates not only cooperative ownership control problem but also the constraints in capital acquisition. By implementing CSR activities consistent with the alternative financial choice, cooperatives can increase firm’s value and reduce the conflict among their stakeholders.

Keywords: cooperatives, corporate social responsibility, financial, governance

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
1 Interactive IoT-Blockchain System for Big Data Processing

Authors: Abdallah Al-ZoubI, Mamoun Dmour

Abstract:

The spectrum of IoT devices is becoming widely diversified, entering almost all possible fields and finding applications in industry, health, finance, logistics, education, to name a few. The IoT active endpoint sensors and devices exceeded the 12 billion mark in 2021 and are expected to reach 27 billion in 2025, with over $34 billion in total market value. This sheer rise in numbers and use of IoT devices bring with it considerable concerns regarding data storage, analysis, manipulation and protection. IoT Blockchain-based systems have recently been proposed as a decentralized solution for large-scale data storage and protection. COVID-19 has actually accelerated the desire to utilize IoT devices as it impacted both demand and supply and significantly affected several regions due to logistic reasons such as supply chain interruptions, shortage of shipping containers and port congestion. An IoT-blockchain system is proposed to handle big data generated by a distributed network of sensors and controllers in an interactive manner. The system is designed using the Ethereum platform, which utilizes smart contracts, programmed in solidity to execute and manage data generated by IoT sensors and devices. such as Raspberry Pi 4, Rasbpian, and add-on hardware security modules. The proposed system will run a number of applications hosted by a local machine used to validate transactions. It then sends data to the rest of the network through InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) and Ethereum Swarm, forming a closed IoT ecosystem run by blockchain where a number of distributed IoT devices can communicate and interact, thus forming a closed, controlled environment. A prototype has been deployed with three IoT handling units distributed over a wide geographical space in order to examine its feasibility, performance and costs. Initial results indicated that big IoT data retrieval and storage is feasible and interactivity is possible, provided that certain conditions of cost, speed and thorough put are met.

Keywords: IoT devices, blockchain, Ethereum, big data

Procedia PDF Downloads 42