Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1816

Search results for: temporomandibular joint disorders

1816 Variational Evolutionary Splines for Solving a Model of Temporomandibular Disorders

Authors: Alberto Hananel

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to modelize the occlusion of a person with temporomandibular disorders as an evolutionary equation and approach its solution by the construction and characterizing of discrete variational splines. To formulate the problem, certain boundary conditions have been considered. After showing the existence and the uniqueness of the solution of such a problem, a convergence result of a discrete variational evolutionary spline is shown. A stress analysis of the occlusion of a human jaw with temporomandibular disorders by finite elements is carried out in FreeFem++ in order to prove the validity of the presented method.

Keywords: approximation, evolutionary PDE, Finite Element Method, temporomandibular disorders, variational spline

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1815 Effectiveness of Exercise and TENS in the Treatment of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders

Authors: Arben Murtezani, Shefqet Mrasori, Vančo Spirov, Bukurije Rama, Oliver Dimitrovski, Visar Bunjaku

Abstract:

Overview: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions. Clinical indicators of discomfort are related to the use of the joint stiffness during first motions after extended rest and restricted joint range of motion can cause substantial pain and disability. There is little evidence that physical therapy methods of management cause long-lasting reduction in signs and symptoms. Exercise programs premeditated to improve physical fitness have beneficial effects on chronic pain and disability of the musculoskeletal system. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of physical therapy interventions in the management of temporomandibular disorders. Materials and Methods: A prospective comparative study with a 2-month follow-up period was conducted between April 2016 and June 2016 at the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic in Prishtina. Forty six patients with TMDs, (more than three months duration of symptoms) were randomized into two groups: the TENS therapy group (n=24) and combination of active exercise and manual therapy group (n=22). The TENS therapy group patients were treated with twelve sessions of TENS. The treatment period of both groups was 3 weeks at an outpatient clinic. Following main outcome measures were evaluated: (1) pain at rest (2) pain at stress (3) impairment (4) mouth opening at base-line, before and after treatment and at 3 month follow-up. Results: Significant reduction in pain was observed in both treatment groups. In the TENS group 73% (16/22) achieved at least 80% improvement from baseline in TMJ pain at 2 months compared with 54% (13/24) in the exercise group (difference of 19%; 95% confidence interval 220 to 30%). Active and passive maximum mouth opening has been greater in the TENS group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Exercise therapy in combination with TENS seems to be useful in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders.

Keywords: temporomandibular joint disorders, TENS, manual therapy, exercise

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1814 The Change In The Temporomandibular Joint Bone In Osteoarthritis Induced Mice

Authors: Boonyalitpun P., Pruckpattranon P., Thonghom A., Rotpenpian N.

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Osteoarthritis is a musculoskeletal and neuromuscular abnormality, masticatory muscle, and other tissue that causes pain and breaks down the articular surface of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The aim of this study is to investigate the change in the mandibular condyle, in terms of thickness and porosity, and osteoclast marker in the mandibular condyle of TMJ induced osteoarthritis mice (TMJ-OA mice). We investigated the bony changes in the TMJ structure of a complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)-injected TMJ in a mice model over 28 days. On day 28, we observed any change in the TMJ by a micro computed tomography scan (micro-CT scan) in the parameters of trabecular microarchitecture. Then we studied the thickness of the condyles by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Moreover, we calculated the area around the TMJ’s condylar head containing the osteoclast expression by TRAP (Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase) immunohistochemistry staining. The result found that the parameter of a micro-CT scan was no different from microarchitecture in the TMJ compared with the control group; however, mandibular condyles of the TMJ-OA group was significantly thinner than the control groups, and the osteoclast expression significantly increased in the TMJ-OA group. Therefore, our findings suggest that CFA-induced TMJ-OA represents an expression of osteoclast mandibular condyle of the TMJ, which is the proposed mechanism for a TMJ-OA model.

Keywords: condyle, osteoarthritis, osteoclast, temporomandibular joint

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1813 Open Joint Surgery for Temporomandibular Joint Internal Derangement: Wilkes Stages III-V

Authors: T. N. Goh, M. Hashmi, O. Hussain

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Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction (TMD) is a condition that may affect patients via restricted mouth opening, significant pain during normal functioning, and/or reproducible joint noise. TMD includes myofascial pain, TMJ functional derangements (internal derangement, dislocation), and TMJ degenerative/inflammatory joint disease. Internal derangement (ID) is the most common cause of TMD-related clicking and locking. These patients are managed in a stepwise approach, from patient education (homecare advice and analgesia), splint therapy, physiotherapy, botulinum toxin treatment, to arthrocentesis. Arthrotomy is offered when the aforementioned treatment options fail to alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life. The aim of this prospective study was to review the outcomes of jaw joint open surgery in TMD patients. Patients who presented from 2015-2022 at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department in the Doncaster NHS Foundation Trust, UK, with a Wilkes classification of III -V were included. These patients underwent either i) discopexy with bone-anchoring suture (9); ii) intrapositional temporalis flap (ITF) with bone-anchoring suture (3); iii) eminoplasty and discopexy with suturing to the capsule (3); iii) discectomy + ITF with bone-anchoring suture (1); iv) discoplasty + bone-anchoring suture (1); v) ITF (1). Maximum incisal opening (MIO) was assessed pre-operatively and at each follow-up. Pain score, determined via the visual analogue scale (VAS, with 0 being no pain and 10 being the worst pain), was also recorded. A total of 18 eligible patients were identified with a mean age of 45 (range 22 - 79), of which 16 were female. The patients were scored by Wilkes Classification as III (14), IV (1), or V (4). Twelve patients had anterior disc displacement without reduction (66%) and six had degenerative/arthritic changes (33%) to the TMJ. The open joint procedure resulted in an increase in MIO and reduction in pain VAS and for the majority of patients, across all Wilkes Classifications. Pre-procedural MIO was 22.9 ± 7.4 mm and VAS was 7.8 ± 1.5. At three months post-procedure there was an increase in MIO to 34.4 ± 10.4 mm (p < 0.01) and a decrease in the VAS to 1.5 ± 2.9 (p < 0.01). Three patients were lost to follow-up prior to six months. Six were discharged at six month review and five patients were discharged at 12 months review as they were asymptomatic with good mouth opening. Four patients are still attending for annual botulinum toxin treatment. Two patients (Wilkes III and V) subsequently underwent TMJ replacement (11%). One of these patients (Wilkes III) had improvement initially to MIO of 40 mm, but subsequently relapsed to less than 20 mm due to lack of compliance with jaw rehabilitation device post-operatively. Clinical improvements in 89% of patients within the study group were found, with a return to near normal MIO range and reduced pain score. Intraoperatively, the operator found bone-anchoring suture used for discopexy/discoplasty more secure than the soft tissue anchoring suturing technique.

Keywords: bone anchoring suture, open temporomandibular joint surgery, temporomandibular joint, temporomandibular joint dysfunction

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1812 Management of Recurrent Temporomandibular Joint True Bony Ankylosis : A Case Report

Authors: Mahmoud A. Amin, Essam Taman, Ahmed Omran, Mahmoud Shawky, Ahmed Mekawy, Abdallah M. Kotkat, Saber Younes, Nehad N. Ghonemy, Amin Saad, Ezz-Aleslam, Abdullah M. Elosh

Abstract:

Introduction: TMJ is a one-of-a-kind, complicated synovial joint that helps with masticatory function by allowing the mandible to open and close the mouth. True ankylosis is a situation in which condylar movement is limited by a mechanical defect in the joint, whereas false ankylosis is a condition in which there is a restriction in mandibular movement due to muscular spasm myositis ossificans, and coronoid process hyperplasia. Ankylosis is characterized by the inability to open the mouth due to fusion of the TMJ condyle to the base of the skull as a result of trauma, infection, or systemic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (the most common) and psoraisis. Ankylosis causes facial asymmetry and affects the patient psychologically as well as speech, difficult mastication, poor oral hygiene, malocclusion, and other factors. TMJ is a technically challenging joint; hence TMJ ankylosis management is complicated. Case presentation: this case is a male patient 25 years old reported to our maxillofacial clinic in Damietta faculty of medicine, Al-Azhar University with the inability to open the mouth at all, with a history of difficulty of mouth breathing and eating foods, there was a history of falling from height at 2006, and the patient underwent corrective surgery before with no improvement because the ankylosis was relapsed short period after the previous operations with that done out of our hospital inter-incisor distant ZERO so, this condition need mandatory management. Clinical examination and radiological investigations were done after complete approval from the patient and his brother; tracheostomy was done for our patient before the operation. The patient entered the operation in our hospital and drastic improvement in mouth opening was noticed, helping to restore the physical psychological health of the patient.

Keywords: temporomandibular joint, TMJ, Ankylosis, mouth opening, physiotherapy, condylar plate

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1811 The Effectiveness of Exercise Therapy on Decreasing Pain in Women with Temporomandibular Disorders and How Their Brains Respond: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Zenah Gheblawi, Susan Armijo-Olivo, Elisa B. Pelai, Vaishali Sharma, Musa Tashfeen, Angela Fung, Francisca Claveria

Abstract:

Due to physiological differences between men and women, pain is experienced differently between the two sexes. Chronic pain disorders, notably temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), disproportionately affect women in diagnosis, and pain severity in opposition of their male counterparts. TMDs are a type of musculoskeletal disorder that target the masticatory muscles, temporalis muscle, and temporomandibular joints, causing considerable orofacial pain which can usually be referred to the neck and back. Therapeutic methods are scarce, and are not TMD-centered, with the latest research suggesting that subjects with chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders have abnormal alterations in the grey matter of their brains which can be remedied with exercise, and thus, decreasing the pain experienced. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of exercise therapy in TMD female patients experiencing chronic jaw pain and to assess the consequential effects on brain activity. In a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of an exercise program to improve brain alterations and clinical outcomes in women with TMD pain will be tested. Women with chronic TMD pain will be randomized to either an intervention arm or a placebo control group. Women in the intervention arm will receive 8 weeks of progressive exercise of motor control training using visual feedback (MCTF) of the cervical muscles, twice per week. Women in the placebo arm will receive innocuous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation during 8 weeks as well. The primary outcomes will be changes in 1) pain, measured with the Visual Analogue Scale, 2) brain structure and networks, measured by fractional anisotropy (brain structure) and the blood-oxygen level dependent signal (brain networks). Outcomes will be measured at baseline, after 8 weeks of treatment, and 4 months after treatment ends and will determine effectiveness of MCTF in managing TMD, through improved clinical outcomes. Results will directly inform and guide clinicians in prescribing more effective interventions for women with TMD. This study is underway, and no results are available at this point. The results of this study will have substantial implications on the advancement in understanding the scope of plasticity the brain has in regards with pain, and how it can be used to improve the treatment and pain of women with TMD, and more generally, other musculoskeletal disorders.

Keywords: exercise therapy, musculoskeletal disorders, physical therapy, rehabilitation, tempomandibular disorders

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1810 Identifying Psychosocial, Autonomic, and Pain Sensitivity Risk Factors of Chronic Temporomandibular Disorder by Using Ridge Logistic Regression and Bootstrapping

Authors: Haolin Li, Eric Bair, Jane Monaco, Quefeng Li

Abstract:

The temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a series of musculoskeletal disorders ranging from jaw pain to chronic debilitating pain, and the risk factors for the onset and maintenance of TMD are still unclear. Prior researches have shown that the potential risk factors for chronic TMD are related to psychosocial factors, autonomic functions, and pain sensitivity. Using data from the Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) study’s baseline case-control study, we examine whether the risk factors identified by prior researches are still statistically significant after taking all of the risk measures into account in one single model, and we also compare the relative influences of the risk factors in three different perspectives (psychosocial factors, autonomic functions, and pain sensitivity) on the chronic TMD. The statistical analysis is conducted by using ridge logistic regression and bootstrapping, in which the performance of the algorithms has been assessed using extensive simulation studies. The results support most of the findings of prior researches that there are many psychosocial and pain sensitivity measures that have significant associations with chronic TMD. However, it is surprising that most of the risk factors of autonomic functions have not presented significant associations with chronic TMD, as described by a prior research.

Keywords: autonomic function, OPPERA study, pain sensitivity, psychosocial measures, temporomandibular disorder

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1809 Impact of Kinesio Taping on Masseter Muscle: An Electromyographic Study

Authors: Joanna E. Owczarek, Izabela Zielinska

Abstract:

The incidence of temporomandibular disorders is 50% up to 80%. Kinesio taping (KT) is treatment method for musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of KT on masseter muscles’ tone evaluated by electromyography. 30 adults (aged 22±2.1) were examined. The tone of masseters before and after 4 days KT application on sternocleidomastoideus muscle was measured during resting mandibular position and clenching. Noraxon DTS device was used. Masseter muscles’ tone during clenching after KT application was relevently lower in comparison to its tone before the KT.

Keywords: electromyography, kinesio taping, masseter muscle, TMD

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1808 Computational Models for a More Accurate Estimation of Joint Force

Authors: Ibrahim Elnour Abdelrahman Eltayeb

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Computational modelling is a method used to investigate joint forces during a movement. It can get high accuracy in the joint forces via subject-specific models. However, the construction of subject-specific models remains time-consuming and expensive. The purpose of this paper was to identify what alterations we can make to generic computational models to get a better estimation of the joint forces. It appraised the impact of these alterations on the accuracy of the estimated joint forces. It found different strategies of alterations: joint model, muscle model, and an optimisation problem. All these alterations affected joint contact force accuracy, so showing the potential for improving the model predictions without involving costly and time-consuming medical images.

Keywords: Joint force, joint model, optimisation problem, validation

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1807 Design Modification of Lap Joint of Fiber Metal Laminates (CARALL)

Authors: Shaher Bano, Samia Fida, Asif Israr

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The synergistic effect of properties of metals and fibers reinforced laminates has diverted attention of the world towards use of robust composite materials known as fiber-metal laminates in many high performance applications. In this study, modification of an adhesively bonded joint as a single lap joint of carbon fibers based CARALL FML has done to increase interlaminar shear strength of the joint. The effect of different configurations of joint designs such as spews, stepped and modification in adhesive by addition of nano-fillers was studied. Both experimental and simulation results showed that modified joint design have superior properties as maximum force experienced stepped joint was 1.5 times more than the simple lap joint. Addition of carbon nano-tubes as nano-fillers in the adhesive joint increased the maximum force due to crack deflection mechanism.

Keywords: adhesive joint, Carbon Reinforced Aluminium Laminate (CARALL), fiber metal laminates, spews

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1806 Quantification of Soft Tissue Artefacts Using Motion Capture Data and Ultrasound Depth Measurements

Authors: Azadeh Rouhandeh, Chris Joslin, Zhen Qu, Yuu Ono

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The centre of rotation of the hip joint is needed for an accurate simulation of the joint performance in many applications such as pre-operative planning simulation, human gait analysis, and hip joint disorders. In human movement analysis, the hip joint center can be estimated using a functional method based on the relative motion of the femur to pelvis measured using reflective markers attached to the skin surface. The principal source of errors in estimation of hip joint centre location using functional methods is soft tissue artefacts due to the relative motion between the markers and bone. One of the main objectives in human movement analysis is the assessment of soft tissue artefact as the accuracy of functional methods depends upon it. Various studies have described the movement of soft tissue artefact invasively, such as intra-cortical pins, external fixators, percutaneous skeletal trackers, and Roentgen photogrammetry. The goal of this study is to present a non-invasive method to assess the displacements of the markers relative to the underlying bone using optical motion capture data and tissue thickness from ultrasound measurements during flexion, extension, and abduction (all with knee extended) of the hip joint. Results show that the artefact skin marker displacements are non-linear and larger in areas closer to the hip joint. Also marker displacements are dependent on the movement type and relatively larger in abduction movement. The quantification of soft tissue artefacts can be used as a basis for a correction procedure for hip joint kinematics.

Keywords: hip joint center, motion capture, soft tissue artefact, ultrasound depth measurement

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1805 Joint Physical Custody: Lessons from the European Union

Authors: Katarzyna Kamińska

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When thinking about custodial arrangements after divorce or separation, there has been a shift from sole custody, particularly maternal preference, to joint physical custody. In many Western countries, an increasing of children with separated parents have joint physical custody, which is believed to be in the best interests of the child, as children can maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis. The aim of the article is to examine joint physical custody, both from the perspective of the binding legal instruments that are relevant to joint physical custody, the Principles of European Family Law drafted by the CEFL, as well as the international research on this matter. The thesis underlying this paper is that joint physical custody is in itself neither good nor bad, and it depends on how the arrangements are managed by the parents. The paper includes a reflection on joint physical custody in the face of the COVID-19 crisis. The results indicate that in normal circumstances, joint physical custody demands broad communication, and now it times of crisis, we need over-communication about children and plans. Only a very tight and coordinated co-parenting plan make the whole family safer.

Keywords: joint physical custody, co-parenting, child welfare, COVID-19

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1804 Seismic Response Analysis of Frame Structures Based on Super Joint Element Model

Authors: Li Xu, Yang Hong, T. Zhao Wen

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Experimental results of many RC beam-column subassemblage indicate that slippage of longitudinal beam rebar within the joint and the shear deformation of joint core have significant influence on seismic behavior of the subassemblage. However, rigid joint assumption has been generally used in the seismic response analysis of RC frames, in which two kinds of inelastic deformation of joint have been ignored. Based on OpenSees platform, ‘Super Joint Element Model’ with more detailed inelastic mechanism is used to simulate the inelastic response of joints. Two finite element models of typical RC plane frame, namely considering or ignoring the inelastic deformation of joint respectively, were established and analyzed under seven strong earthquake waves. The simulated global and local inelastic deformations of the RC plane frame is shown and discussed. The analyses also confirm the security of the earthquake-resistant frame designed according to Chinese codes.

Keywords: frame structure, beam-column joint, longitudinal bar slippage, shear deformation, nonlinear analysis

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1803 The Effect of Impact on the Knee Joint Due to the Shocks during Double Impact Phase of Gait Cycle

Authors: Jobin Varghese, V. M. Akhil, P. K. Rajendrakumar, K. S. Sivanandan

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The major contributor to the human locomotion is the knee flexion and extension. During heel strike, a huge amount of energy is transmitted through the leg towards knee joint, which in fact is damped at heel and leg muscles. During high shocks, although it is damped to a certain extent, the balance force transmits towards knee joint which could damage the knee. Due to the vital function of the knee joint, it should be protected against damage due to additional load acting on it. This work concentrates on the development of spring mass damper system which exactly replicates the stiffness at the heel and muscles and the objective function is optimized to minimize the force acting at the knee joint. Further, the data collected using force plate are put into the model to verify its integrity and are found to be in good agreement.

Keywords: spring, mass, damper, knee joint

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1802 Joint Physical Custody after Divorce and Child Well-Being

Authors: Katarzyna Kamińska

Abstract:

Joint physical custody means that both parents after divorce or separation have the right and responsibility to take care of the child on the daily basis. In a joint physical custody arrangement, the child spends substantial, but not necessarily equal, time with both parents. Joint physical custody can be symmetric care arrangement or not. However, it is accepted in the jurisprudence that the best interests of the child is served when the child spends at least 35% of the time during a two-week period with each parent. Joint physical custody, also known as joint, dual, or shared residence, is a challenge in contemporary family law. It has its supporters and opponents. On the one hand, joint physical custody is beneficial because it provides children with frequent and continuous contact with a mother and father after their divorce or separation. On the other hand, it isn’t good for children to be shuttled back and forth between two residences. Children need a home base. The conclusion is therefore that joint physical custody can’t be seen as a panacea for all post-divorce or post-separation parenting cases and the court shouldn’t automatically make such a determination. The possibility to award this arrangement requires the court to carefully weigh the pros and cons of each individual case. It is difficult to say that joint physical custody is better than single physical custody in any case. It depends on the circumstances and needs of each family. It appears that an individual approach is going to be much better as opposed to a one-size-fits-all idea.

Keywords: joint physical custody, shared residence, dual residence, the best interests of the child

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1801 The Prevalence of Intubation Induced Dental Complications among Hospitalized Patients

Authors: Dorsa Rahi, Arghavan Tonkanbonbi, Soheila Manifar, Behzad Jafvarnejad

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Background and Aim: Intraoral manipulation is performed during endotracheal intubation for general anesthesia, which can traumatize the soft and hard tissue in the oral cavity and cause postoperative pain and discomfort. Dental trauma is the most common complication of intubation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dental complications due to intubation in patients hospitalized in Imam Khomeini Hospital during 2018-2019. Materials and Methods: A total of 805 patients presenting to the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital for preoperative anesthesia consultation were randomly enrolled. A dentist interviewed the patients and performed a comprehensive clinical oral examination preoperatively. The patients underwent clinical oral examination by another dentist postoperatively. Results: No significant correlation was found between dental trauma (tooth fracture, tooth mobility, or soft tissue injury) after intubation with the age or gender of patients. According to the Wilcoxon test and McNemar-Bowker Test, the rate of mobility before the intubation was significantly different from that after the intubation (P=0.000). Maxillary central incisors, maxillary left canine and mandibular right and left central incisors had the highest rate of fracture. Conclusion: Mobile teeth before the intubation are at higher risk of avulsion and aspiration during the procedure. Patients with primary temporomandibular joint disorders are more susceptible to post-intubation trismus.

Keywords: oral trauma, dental trauma, intubation, anesthesia

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1800 The Nonlinear Research on Rotational Stiffness of Cuplock Joint

Authors: Liuyu Zhang, Di Mo, Qiang Yan, Min Liu

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As the important equipment in the construction field, cuplock scaffold plays an important role in the construction process. As a scaffold connecting member, cuplock joint is of great importance. In order to explore the rotational stiffness nonlinear characteristics changing features of different structural forms of cuplock joint in different tightening torque condition under different conditions of load, ANSYS is used to establish four kinds of cuplock joint models with different forces to simulate the real force situation. By setting the different load conditions which means the cuplock is loaded at a certain distance from the cuplock joint in a certain direction until the cuplock is damaged and considering the gap between the cross bar joint and the vertical bar, the differences in the influence of the structural form and tightening torque on the rotation stiffness of the cuplock under different load conditions are compared. It is significantly important to improve the accuracy of calculating bearing capacity and stability of the cuplock steel pipe scaffold.

Keywords: cuplock joint, highway tunnel, non-linear characteristics, rotational stiffness, scaffold stability, theoretical analysis

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1799 Maxillofacial Trauma: A Case of Diacapitular Condylar Fracture

Authors: Krishna Prasad Regmi, Jun-Bo Tu, Cheng-Qun Hou, Li-Feng Li

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Maxillofacial trauma in a pediatric group of patients is particularly challenging, as these patients have significant differences from adults as far as the facial skeleton is concerned. Mandibular condylar fractures are common presentations to hospitals across the globe and remain the most important cause of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis. The etiology and epidemiology of pediatric trauma involving the diacapitular condylar fractures (DFs) have been reported in a large series of patients. Nevertheless, little is known about treatment protocols for DFs in children. Accordingly, the treatment modalities for the management of pediatric fractures also differ. We suggest following the PDA and intracapsular ABC classification of condylar fracture to increase the overall postoperative satisfaction level that bypasses the change of subjective feelings of patients’ from preoperative to the postoperative condition. At the same time, use of 3-D technology and surgical navigation may also increase treatment accuracy.

Keywords: maxillofacial trauma, diacapitular fracture, condylar fracture, PDA classification

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1798 The Effect of Tool Type on Surface Morphology of FSJ Joint

Authors: Yongfang Deng, Dunwen Zuo

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An attempt is made here to join 2024 aluminum alloy plate by friction stir joining (FSJ) using different types of tools. Joint surface morphology was observed, and both arc line spacing and flash were measured. Study is carried out on the effect of pin, shoulder and eccentricity of the tool on the surface topography of the joint and the formation of the joint surface topography is analyzed. It is found that, eccentric squeezing action of the tool is the mainly motive power to form arc lines contour and flash structure. Little flash appears in the advancing side but with severe deformation, while the flash in the retreating side is heavy but with soft deformation. The pin of tool has a deep impact on the flash on the advancing side of the joints. Shoulder can widen the arc lines, refine arcs structure, reduce flash in the retreat side, but will increase the flash in the advancing side. Increasing the amount of eccentricity, it has litter effect on the arc line spacing but will destroy the arc lines morphology in the joint surface and promote the formation of filamentous flash structure in the joint.

Keywords: FSJ, surface morphology, tool, joint

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1797 Development of a New Method for T-Joint Specimens Testing under Shear Loading

Authors: Radek Doubrava, Roman Ruzek

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Nonstandard tests are necessary for analyses and verification of new developed structural and technological solutions with application of composite materials. One of the most critical primary structural parts of a typical aerospace structure is T-joint. This structural element is loaded mainly in shear, bending, peel and tension. The paper is focused on the shear loading simulations. The aim of the work is to obtain a representative uniform distribution of shear loads along T-joint during the mechanical testing is. A new design of T-joint test procedure, numerical simulation and optimization of representative boundary conditions are presented. The different conditions and inaccuracies both in simulations and experiments are discussed. The influence of different parameters on stress and strain distributions is demonstrated on T-joint made of CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic). A special test rig designed by VZLU (Aerospace Research and Test Establishment) for T-shear test procedure is presented.

Keywords: T-joint, shear, composite, mechanical testing, finite element analysis, methodology

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1796 Numerical Prediction of Bearing Strength on Composite Bolted Joint Using Three Dimensional Puck Failure Criteria

Authors: M. S. Meon, M. N. Rao, K-U. Schröder

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Mechanical fasteners especially bolting is commonly used in joining carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite structures due to their good joinability and easy for maintenance characteristics. Since this approach involves with notching, a proper progressive damage model (PDM) need to be implemented and verified to capture existence of damages in the structure. A three dimensional (3D) failure criteria of Puck is established to predict the ultimate bearing failure of such joint. The failure criteria incorporated with degradation scheme are coded based on user subroutine executed in Abaqus. Single lap joint (SLJ) of composite bolted joint is used as target configuration. The results revealed that the PDM adopted here could sufficiently predict the behaviour of composite bolted joint up to ultimate bearing failure. In addition, mesh refinement near holes increased the accuracy of predicted strength as well as computational effort.

Keywords: bearing strength, bolted joint, degradation scheme, progressive damage model

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1795 Mental Disorders and Physical Illness in Geriatric Population

Authors: Vinay Kumar, M. Kishor, Sathyanarayana Rao Ts

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Background: Growth of elderly people in the general population in recent years is termed as ‘greying of the world’ where there is a shift from high mortality & fertility to low mortality and fertility, resulting in an increased proportion of older people as seen in India. Improved health care promises longevity but socio-economic factors like poverty, joint families and poor services pose a psychological threat. Epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of mental disorders in geriatric population with physical illness is required for proper health planning. Methods: Sixty consecutive elderly patients aged 60 years or above of both sexes, reporting with physical illness to general outpatient registration counter of JSS Medical College and Hospital, Mysore, India, were considered for the Study. With informed consent, they were screened with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and were further evaluated for diagnosing mental disorders according to WHO International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) criteria. Results: Mental disorders were detected in 48.3%, predominantly depressive disorders, nicotine dependence, generalized anxiety disorder, alcohol dependence and least was dementia. Most common physical illness was cardiovascular disease followed by metabolic, respiratory and other diseases. Depressive disorders, substance dependence and dementia were more associated with cardiovascular disease compared to metabolic disease and respiratory diseases were more associated with nicotine dependence. Conclusions: Depression and Substance use disorders among elderly population is of concern, which needs to be further studied with larger population. Psychiatric morbidity will adversely have an impact on physical illness which needs proper assessment and management. This will enhance our understanding and prioritize our planning for future.

Keywords: Geriatric, mental disorders, physical illness, psychiatry

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1794 Evaluation of Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Forces in the Subjects with Non-Specific Low Back Pain

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Maryam Hasan Zahraee

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Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common health and socioeconomic problem, especially the chronic one. The joint contact force is an important parameter during walking which increases the incidence of injury and degenerative joint disease. To our best knowledge, there are not enough evidences in literature on the muscular forces and joint contact forces in subjects with low back pain. Purpose: The main hypothesis associated with this research was that joint contact force of L4/L5 of non-specific chronic low back pain subjects was the same as that of normal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the joint contact force difference between non-specific chronic low back pain and normal subjects. Method: This was an experimental-comparative study. 20 normal subjects and 20 non-specific chronic low back pain patients were recruited in this study. Qualysis motion analysis system and a Kistler force plate were used to collect the motions and the force applied on the leg, respectively. OpenSimm software used to determine joint contact force and muscle forces in this study. Some parameters such as force applied on the legs (pelvis), kinematic of hip and pelvic, peaks of muscles, force of trunk musculature and joint contact force of L5/S1 were used for further analysis. Differences between mean values of all data were measured using two-sample t-test among the subjects. Results: The force produced by Semitendinosus, Biceps Femoris, and Adductor muscles were significantly different between low back pain and normal subjects. Moreover, the mean value of breaking component of the force of the knee joint increased significantly in low back pain subjects, besides a significant decrease in mean value of the vertical component of joint reaction force compared to the normal ones. Conclusions: The forces produced by the trunk and pelvic muscles, and joint contact forces differ significantly between low back pain and normal subjects. It seems that those with non-specific chronic low back pain use trunk muscles more than normal subjects to stabilize the pelvic during walking.

Keywords: low back pain, joint contact force, kinetic, muscle force

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1793 Analysis of Artificial Hip Joint Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Syed Zameer, Mohamed Haneef

Abstract:

Hip joint plays very important role in human beings as it takes up the whole body forces generated due to various activities. These loads are repetitive and fluctuating depending on the activities such as standing, sitting, jogging, stair casing, climbing, etc. which may lead to failure of Hip joint. Hip joint modification and replacement are common in old aged persons as well as younger persons. In this research study static and Fatigue analysis of Hip joint model was carried out using finite element software ANSYS. Stress distribution obtained from result of static analysis, material properties and S-N curve data of fabricated Ultra High molecular weight polyethylene / 50 wt% short E glass fibres + 40 wt% TiO2 Polymer matrix composites specimens were used to estimate fatigue life of Hip joint using stiffness Degradation model for polymer matrix composites. The stress distribution obtained from static analysis was found to be within the acceptable range.The factor of safety calculated from linear Palmgren linear damage rule is less than one, which indicates the component is safe under the design.

Keywords: hip joint, polymer matrix composite, static analysis, fatigue analysis, stress life approach

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1792 The Comparison of Forward Head Posture Measurements between Dominant and Non-Dominant Sides in Male Football Players and Non-Athletes

Authors: Mohamed Gomaa Mohamed

Abstract:

Background and purpose: Ideal posture involves a minimal amount of stress or strain on various body segments which are aligned and worked in harmony to protect the body from injury or progressive deformity. One of most common faulty posture encountered in clinical setting is forward head posture (FHP) that was considered one of the main predictors for neck pain. Furthermore, FHP may predispose to thoracic outlet syndrome, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, shoulder pain and headache. The large financial burden related to neck disorders management raises the need to improve the quality of assessment and rehabilitation of FHP. So, the purpose of the study is to compare between measurements of FHP as indicated with craniovertebral (CVA) and gaze angles assessed from dominant and non-dominant sides in football players who extensively use their dominant side and non-athletic subjects. Participants: Twenty-four subjects were divided into 12 football players and 12 non-athletic subjects. Methods: CVA and gaze angles were assessed through photogrammetric method. Photos were taken from dominant and non-dominant sides of the subjects while assuming standing position. Paired t-test was used to assess angles differences between dominant and non-dominant sides of the subjects. Since there were no statistical differences between CVA and gaze angles measured from dominant and non-dominant sides in each group, we pooled data together to become 24 measurements for each group (12 from dominant and 12 from non-dominant). Independent t-test was used to assess angles differences between football players and non-athletic subjects. Results: No significant differences were found between CVA and gaze angles measured from dominant and non-dominant sides of both groups (P>0.05). Also, there were no significant differences between CVA and gaze angles measured from football players and non-athletic subjects (P>0.05). Conclusion: FHP can be assessed from dominant or non-dominant sides interchangeably either in football players or non-athletic subjects. Furthermore, playing football has no impact on measurements of FHP when compared to non-athletic subjects.

Keywords: dominant side, forward head posture, football players, non-dominant side

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1791 Biomechanical Study of a Type II Superior Labral Anterior to Posterior Lesion in the Glenohumeral Joint Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Javier A. Maldonado E., Duvert A. Puentes T., Diego F. Villegas B.

Abstract:

The SLAP lesion (Superior Labral Anterior to Posterior) involves the labrum, causing pain and mobility problems in the glenohumeral joint. This injury is common in athletes practicing sports that requires throwing or those who receive traumatic impacts on the shoulder area. This paper determines the biomechanical behavior of soft tissues of the glenohumeral joint when type II SLAP lesion is present. This pathology is characterized for a tear in the superior labrum which is simulated in a 3D model of the shoulder joint. A 3D model of the glenohumeral joint was obtained using the free software Slice. Then, a Finite Element analysis was done using a general purpose software which simulates a compression test with external rotation. First, a validation was done assuming a healthy joint shoulder with a previous study. Once the initial model was validated, a lesion of the labrum built using a CAD software and the same test was done again. The results obtained were stress and strain distribution of the synovial capsule and the injured labrum. ANOVA was done for the healthy and injured glenohumeral joint finding significant differences between them. This study will help orthopedic surgeons to know the biomechanics involving this type of lesion and also the other surrounding structures affected by loading the injured joint.

Keywords: biomechanics, computational model, finite elements, glenohumeral joint, superior labral anterior to posterior lesion

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1790 A Study on the Establishment of a 4-Joint Based Motion Capture System and Data Acquisition

Authors: Kyeong-Ri Ko, Seong Bong Bae, Jang Sik Choi, Sung Bum Pan

Abstract:

A simple method for testing the posture imbalance of the human body is to check for differences in the bilateral shoulder and pelvic height of the target. In this paper, to check for spinal disorders the authors have studied ways to establish a motion capture system to obtain and express motions of 4-joints, and to acquire data based on this system. The 4 sensors are attached to the both shoulders and pelvis. To verify the established system, the normal and abnormal postures of the targets listening to a lecture were obtained using the established 4-joint based motion capture system. From the results, it was confirmed that the motions taken by the target was identical to the 3-dimensional simulation.

Keywords: inertial sensor, motion capture, motion data acquisition, posture imbalance

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1789 A Remedy for the Confusing Occlusal Principles - An Approach to a Passionate, In-Depth Understanding of Tooth Surfaces Dynamics

Authors: Kariem Elhelow

Abstract:

The task of optimizing teeth surface relations remains perplexing for many dental practitioners. The well-being of teeth, periodontium, and the musculoskeletal system is closely associated with occlusal stability. Dental occlusion is rather far beyond the simple contact of the occlusal surfaces of the opposite jaws, a fact that turned the word “Occlusion” into one of the most complicated puzzles in dentistry. The literature describing the pathological approaches made the practice of occlusion even more intimidating. Understanding the biomechanics of teeth and jaw movements makes the goals of occlusal rehabilitation very lively and simple to practice. The purpose of this article is to establish a path for understanding and practicing the fundamental occlusal principles in a simple yet in depth way. Relying of the evidence based core would deliver a context for showing that occlusion is not as complicated as literatures might reflect. Conclusion: Maintaining a well-defined picture of what a healthy occlusion should be like is very gratifying to both the operator and the patient, with added worth of predictability, esthetics, and function to the whole treatment.

Keywords: occlusal, temporomandibular joint, prosthetic, dentition

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1788 Neural Networks for Distinguishing the Performance of Two Hip Joint Implants on the Basis of Hip Implant Side and Ground Reaction Force

Authors: L. Parisi

Abstract:

In this research work, neural networks were applied to classify two types of hip joint implants based on the relative hip joint implant side speed and three components of each ground reaction force. The condition of walking gait at normal velocity was used and carried out with each of the two hip joint implants assessed. Ground reaction forces’ kinetic temporal changes were considered in the first approach followed but discarded in the second one. Ground reaction force components were obtained from eighteen patients under such gait condition, half of which had a hip implant type I-II, whilst the other half had the hip implant, defined as type III by Orthoload®. After pre-processing raw gait kinetic data and selecting the time frames needed for the analysis, the ground reaction force components were used to train a MLP neural network, which learnt to distinguish the two hip joint implants in the abovementioned condition. Further to training, unknown hip implant side and ground reaction force components were presented to the neural networks, which assigned those features into the right class with a reasonably high accuracy for the hip implant type I-II and the type III. The results suggest that neural networks could be successfully applied in the performance assessment of hip joint implants.

Keywords: kinemic gait data, neural networks, hip joint implant, hip arthroplasty, rehabilitation engineering

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1787 Measuring Audit Quality Using Text Analysis: An Empirical Study of Indian Companies

Authors: Leesa Mohanty, Ashok Banerjee

Abstract:

Better audit quality signifies the financial statements of the auditee firm reflect true and fair view of their actual state of affairs, which reduces information asymmetry between management and shareholders, as a result, helps protect interests of shareholders. This study examines the impact of joint audit on audit quality. It is motivated by the ongoing debate where The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI), the regulatory body governing auditors, has advocated the finance ministry and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for the mandatory use of joint audit in private banks to enhance the quality of audit. Earlier, the Government of India had rejected the plea by ICAI for mandatory joint audits in large companies stating it is not a viable option for promoting domestic firms. We introduce a new measure of audit quality. Drawing from the domain of text analytics, we use relevant phrases in audit reports to gauge audit quality and demonstrate that joint audit improves audit quality. We also, for robustness, use prevalent proxy for audit quality (Big N Auditor, ratio of audit fees to total fees) and find negative effect of joint audit on audit quality. We, therefore highlight that different proxy for audit quality show opposite effect of joint audit.

Keywords: audit fees, audit quality, Big N. Auditor, joint audit

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