Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Vančo Spirov

3 Effectiveness of Exercise and TENS in the Treatment of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders

Authors: Arben Murtezani, Shefqet Mrasori, Vančo Spirov, Bukurije Rama, Oliver Dimitrovski, Visar Bunjaku

Abstract:

Overview: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions. Clinical indicators of discomfort are related to the use of the joint stiffness during first motions after extended rest and restricted joint range of motion can cause substantial pain and disability. There is little evidence that physical therapy methods of management cause long-lasting reduction in signs and symptoms. Exercise programs premeditated to improve physical fitness have beneficial effects on chronic pain and disability of the musculoskeletal system. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of physical therapy interventions in the management of temporomandibular disorders. Materials and Methods: A prospective comparative study with a 2-month follow-up period was conducted between April 2016 and June 2016 at the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic in Prishtina. Forty six patients with TMDs, (more than three months duration of symptoms) were randomized into two groups: the TENS therapy group (n=24) and combination of active exercise and manual therapy group (n=22). The TENS therapy group patients were treated with twelve sessions of TENS. The treatment period of both groups was 3 weeks at an outpatient clinic. Following main outcome measures were evaluated: (1) pain at rest (2) pain at stress (3) impairment (4) mouth opening at base-line, before and after treatment and at 3 month follow-up. Results: Significant reduction in pain was observed in both treatment groups. In the TENS group 73% (16/22) achieved at least 80% improvement from baseline in TMJ pain at 2 months compared with 54% (13/24) in the exercise group (difference of 19%; 95% confidence interval 220 to 30%). Active and passive maximum mouth opening has been greater in the TENS group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Exercise therapy in combination with TENS seems to be useful in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders.

Keywords: temporomandibular joint disorders, TENS, manual therapy, exercise

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2 The Bicoid Gradient in the Drosophila Embryo: 3D Modelling with Realistic Egg Geometries

Authors: Alexander V. Spirov, David M. Holloway, Ekaterina M. Myasnikova

Abstract:

Segmentation of the early Drosophila embryo results from the dynamic establishment of spatial gene expression patterns. Patterning occurs on an embryo geometry which is a 'deformed' prolate ellipsoid, with anteroposterior and dorsal-ventral major and minor axes, respectively. Patterning is largely independent along each axis, but some interaction can be seen in the 'bending' of the segmental expression stripes. This interaction is not well understood. In this report, we investigate how 3D geometrical features of the early embryo affect the segmental expression patterning. Specifically, we study the effect of geometry on formation of the Bicoid primary morphogenetic gradient. Our computational results demonstrate that embryos with a much longer ventral than dorsal surface ('bellied') can produce curved Bicoid concentration contours which could activate curved stripes in the downstream pair-rule segmentation genes. In addition, we show that having an extended source for Bicoid in the anterior of the embryo may be necessary for producing the observed exponential form of the Bicoid gradient along the anteroposterior axis.

Keywords: Drosophila embryo, bicoid morphogenetic gradient, exponential expression profile, expression surface form, segmentation genes, 3D modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
1 Robustness Conditions for the Establishment of Stationary Patterns of Drosophila Segmentation Gene Expression

Authors: Ekaterina M. Myasnikova, Andrey A. Makashov, Alexander V. Spirov

Abstract:

First manifestation of a segmentation pattern in the early Drosophila development is the formation of expression domains (along with the main embryo axis) of genes belonging to the trunk gene class. Highly variable expression of genes from gap family in early Drosophila embryo is strongly reduced by the start of gastrulation due to the gene cross-regulation. The dynamics of gene expression is described by a gene circuit model for a system of four gap genes. It is shown that for the formation of a steep and stationary border by the model it is necessary that there existed a nucleus (modeling point) in which the gene expression level is constant in time and hence is described by a stationary equation. All the rest genes expressed in this nucleus are in a dynamic equilibrium. The mechanism of border formation associated with the existence of a stationary nucleus is also confirmed by the experiment. An important advantage of this approach is that properties of the system in a stationary nucleus are described by algebraic equations and can be easily handled analytically. Thus we explicitly characterize the cross-regulation properties necessary for the robustness and formulate the conditions providing this effect through the properties of the initial input data. It is shown that our formally derived conditions are satisfied for the previously published model solutions.

Keywords: drosophila, gap genes, reaction-diffusion model, robustness

Procedia PDF Downloads 290