Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: osteoclast

4 Osteoprotective Effect of Lawsonia inermis

Authors: Suraj Muke, Vikas Mankumare, Sadhana Sathaye

Abstract:

Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease which affects an estimated 25 million people worldwide, leading to 1 million fractures, 40,000 annual deaths and health costs of billions of dollars. It is estimated that about 80% of total osteoporosis patients are women, amongst which majority are above the age of 45 years. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is associated with lack of intestinal calcium absorption, increasing pro-oxidant and inflammatory mediators. Lawsonia inermis is a biennial dicotyledonous herbaceous shrub is reported to possess a high flavonoid, high phenolic and Inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis like Daphneside and Daphnorin. The present study aimed to screen osteoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis (LIM) in rat model along with its antioxidant activity. LIM shows phenolic content 146.3Milligrams of Gallic acid equivalent present per gram of extract and 19.8 Milligrams of rutin per gram of extract of Total flavonoid content with IC50 value 42.99μg/ml. bilateral ovariectomized rat model in which Healthy female wistar rats were used for screening. Treatment with LIM was carried out using graded doses of 25mg/kg, 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg for period of 28 days. The negative control group comprised of ovariectomized rats along with saline treatment for four weeks whereas sham operated rats were used as positive control.LIM showed a decrease in bone turnover by preventing loss of urinary calcium and phosphorous moreover it decreased the alkaline phosphatase levels and loss of bone density is prevented by LIM suggesting decrease in osteoclast activity.

Keywords: antioxidant, osteoclast, osteoporosis, ovariectomized

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3 Local Activities of the Membranes Associated with Glycosaminoglycan-Chitosan Complexes in Bone Cells

Authors: Chih-Chang Yeh, Min-Fang Yang, Hsin-I Chang

Abstract:

Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide derived from the partial deacetylation of chitin. Hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparin (HP) are anionic glycosaminoglycans (GCGs) which can regulate osteogenic activity. In this study, chitosan membranes were prepared by glutaraldehyde crosslinking reaction and then complexed with three different types of GCGs. 7F2 osteoblasts-like cells and macrophages Raw264.7 were used as models to study the influence of chitosan membranes on osteometabolism. Although chitosan membranes are highly hydrophilic, the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes showed about 60-70% cell attachment. Furthermore, the membranes associated with HP-chitosan complexes could increase ALP activity in comparison with chitosan films only. Three types of the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes could significantly inhibit LPS induced-nitric oxide expression. In addition, chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA can down-regulate tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity but not CS-chitosan complexes. Based on these results, we conclude that chitosan membranes associated with HP can increase ALP activity in osteoblasts and chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA reduce TRAP activity in osteoclasts.

Keywords: osteoblast, osteoclast, chitosan, glycosaminoglycan

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2 Stem Cell Fate Decision Depending on TiO2 Nanotubular Geometry

Authors: Jung Park, Anca Mazare, Klaus Von Der Mark, Patrik Schmuki

Abstract:

In clinical application of TiO2 implants on tooth and hip replacement, migration, adhesion and differentiation of neighboring mesenchymal stem cells onto implant surfaces are critical steps for successful bone regeneration. In a recent decade, accumulated attention has been paid on nanoscale electrochemical surface modifications on TiO2 layer for improving bone-TiO2 surface integration. We generated, on titanium surfaces, self-assembled layers of vertically oriented TiO2 nanotubes with defined diameters between 15 and 100 nm and here we show that mesenchymal stem cells finely sense TiO2 nanotubular geometry and quickly decide their cell fate either to differentiation into osteoblasts or to programmed cell death (apoptosis) on TiO2 nanotube layers. These cell fate decisions are critically dependent on nanotube size differences (15-100nm in diameters) of TiO2 nanotubes sensing by integrin clustering. We further demonstrate that nanoscale topography-sensing is feasible not only in mesenchymal stem cells but rather seems as generalized nanoscale microenvironment-cell interaction mechanism in several cell types composing bone tissue network including osteoblasts, osteoclast, endothelial cells and hematopoietic stem cells. Additionally we discuss the synergistic effect of simultaneous stimulation by nanotube-bound growth factor and nanoscale topographic cues on enhanced bone regeneration.

Keywords: TiO2 nanotube, stem cell fate decision, nano-scale microenvironment, bone regeneration

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1 The Effects of Bisphosphonates on Osteonecrosis of Jaw Bone: A Stem Cell Perspective

Authors: Huseyin Apdik, Aysegul Dogan, Selami Demirci, Ezgi Avsar Apdik, Fikrettin Sahin

Abstract:

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are crucial cell types for bone maintenance and growth along with resident bone progenitor cells providing bone tissue integrity during osteogenesis and skeletal growth. Any deficiency in this regulation would result in vital bone diseases. Of those, osteoporosis, characterized by a reduction in bone mass and mineral density, is a critical skeletal disease for especially elderly people. The commonly used drugs for the osteoporosis treatment are bisphosphonates (BPs). The most prominent role of BPs is to prevent bone resorption arisen from high osteoclast activity. However, administrations of bisphosphonates may also cause bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (BIONJ). Up to the present, the researchers have proposed several circumstances for BIONJ. However, effects of long-term and/or high dose usage of BPs on stem cell’s proliferation, survival, differentiation or maintenance capacity have not been evaluated yet. The present study will be held to; figure out BPs’ effects on MSCs in vitro in the aspect of cell proliferation and toxicity, migration, angiogenic activity, lineage specific gene and protein expression levels, mesenchymal stem cell properties and potential signaling pathways affected by BP treatment. Firstly, mesenchymal stem cell characteristics of Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) and Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs) were proved using flow cytometry analysis. Cell viability analysis was completed to determine the cytotoxic effects of BPs (Zoledronate (Zol), Alendronate (Ale) and Risedronate (Ris)) on DPSCs and PDLSCs by the 3-(4,5-di-methyl-thiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. Non-toxic concentrations of BPs were determined at 24 h under growth condition, and at 21 days under osteogenic differentiation condition for both cells. The scratch assay was performed to evaluate their migration capacity under the usage of determined of BPs concentrations at 24 h. The results revealed that while the scratch closure is 70% in the control group for DPSCs, it was 57%, 66% and 66% in Zol, Ale and Ris groups, respectively. For PDLSs, while wound closure is 71% in control group, it was 65%, 66% and 66% in Zol, Ale and Ris groups, respectively. As future experiments, tube formation assay and aortic ring assay will be done to determinate angiogenesis abilities of DPSCs and PDLSCs treated with BPs. Expression levels of osteogenic differentiation marker genes involved in bone development will be determined using real time-polymerase change reaction (RT-PCR) assay and expression profiles of important proteins involved in osteogenesis will be evaluated using western blotting assay for osteogenically differentiated MSCs treated with or without BPs. In addition to these, von Kossa staining will be performed to measure calcium mineralization status of MSCs.

Keywords: bisphosphonates, bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw, mesenchymal stem cells, osteogenesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 188