Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

Search results for: psychiatry

57 A Review of Psychiatric Practices in Issues of Anomalous Experiences

Authors: Prosper Kudzanai Mushauri

Abstract:

In issues of anomalous experiences commonly referred to as madness or mental illness, attempts have been made to deal with it so that people manage to live their lives in a more functional way. It is in this stance that psychiatry has sort of portraying itself as seeking to ameliorate perturbations which individuals live with via nosological systems and use of medicine to anomalous experiences. It is from this hegemony that has led to the untold harm which people living with madness have endured from antique to contemporary life. The paper reflects via a literature review on the history of psychiatry and argues that it is akin to contemporary psychiatry to be involved in iatrogenic acts. As antique psychiatry meddled with gory issues of inhumanity, deceit and mass murders which some of those the contemporary psychiatry has not weaned itself from such diabolical acts. The objective of the paper is to suggest to psychiatry that it has not comported to the mores of psychological ethics. In doing this, the paper hopes that psychiatry will reflect and reform its curricular and praxis so that it comports to ethical standards in psychological science in ameliorating anomalous experiences.

Keywords: nosology, psychiatry, madness, diagnosis, eugenics

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56 Addressing Stigma on the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Consultation Service Through Use of Video

Authors: Rachel Talbot, Nasuh Malas

Abstract:

Stigma in child and adolescent psychiatry continues to be a significant barrier for youth to receive much needed psychiatric care. Parents misperceptions regarding mental health may interfere with their child’s care and negatively influence their child’s view of mental health. For some children, their first experience with psychiatry may occur during medical hospitalization when they are seen by the Psychiatry Consultation-Liaison (C/L) Service. Despite this unique role, there is limited data on how to address mental health stigma with patients and families within the context of Child and Adolescent C/L Psychiatry. This study explores the use of a brief introductory video with messages from the psychiatry C/L team, families who have accessed mental health consultation in the hospital, as well as clips of family and C/L team interactions to address parental stigma of psychiatry. Common stigmatized concerns shared by parents include concerns about confidentiality, later ramifications of mental healthcare, outsider status, and parental self-blame. There are also stigmatized concerns about psychiatric medication use including overmedication, sedation, long-term effects, medicating ‘real problems’ and personality blunting. Each of these are addressed during the video parents will see with the intent of reducing negative parental perceptions relating to mental healthcare. For this study, families are given a survey highlighting these concerns, prior to and after watching the video. Pre-and post-video responses are compared with the hypothesis that watching the video will effectively reduce parental stigma about psychiatric care. Data collection is currently underway and will be completed by the end of November 2017 with data analysis completed by January 2018. This study will also give vital information about the demographic differences in perceptions of stigma so future interventions can be targeted towards those with higher perceived stigma. This study posits that use of an introductory video is an effective strategy to combat stigma and help educate and empower families. In this way, we will be reducing further barriers for patients and families to seek out mental health resources and supports that are often desperately needed for these youths.

Keywords: child and adolescent psychiatry, consult-liaison psychiatry, media, stigma

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55 Liaison Psychiatry in Baixo Alentejo, Portugal: Reality and Perspectives

Authors: Mariana Mangas, Yaroslava Martins, M. Suárez, Célia Santos, Ana Matos Pires

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Baixo Alentejo is a region of Portugal characterized by an aging population, geographic isolation, social deprivation and a lack of medical staff. It is one of the most problematic regions in regards to mental health, particularly due to the factors mentioned. The aim of this study is a presentation of liaison psychiatry in Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes; a sample of the work done, the current situation and future perspectives. The aim is to present a retrospective study of internal psychiatric emergencies from January 1st, 2016 to August 31st, 2016. Liaison psychiatry of Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health (Psychiatry Service) of ULSBA includes the following activities: internal psychiatry emergencies, HIV consultation (comprised in the general consultation) and liaison psychology (oncology and pain), consisting of a total of 111 internal psychiatry emergencies during the identified period. Gender distribution was uniform. The most prevalent age group was 71-80 years, and 66,6% of patients were 60 years old and over. The majority of the emergency observations was requested by hospital services of medicine (56,8%) and surgery (24,3%). The most frequent reasons for admission were: respiratory disease (18,0%); tumors (15.3%); other surgical and orthopedic pathology (14,5%) and stroke (11,7%). The most frequent psychiatric diagnoses were: neurotic and organic depression (24,3%); delirium (26,1%) and adjustment reaction (14,5%). Major psychiatric pathology (schizophrenia and affective disorders) was found in 10,8%. Antidepressive medication was prescribed in 37,8% patients; antipsychotics in 34,2%. In 9.9% of the cases, no psychotropic drug was prescribed, and 5,4% of patients received psychologic support. Regarding hospital discharge, 42,4% of patients were referred to the general practitioner or to the medical specialist; 22,5% to outpatient gerontopsychiatry; 17,1% to psychiatric outpatient and 14,4% deceased. A future perspective is to start liaison in areas of HIV and psycho oncology in multidisciplinary approach and to improve collaboration with colleagues of other specialties for refining psychiatric referrals.

Keywords: psychiatry, liaison, internal emergency, psychiatric referral

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54 Consultation Liasion Psychiatry in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: K. Pankaj, R. K. Chaudhary, B. P. Mishra, S. Kochar

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Introduction: Consultation-Liaison psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry that includes clinical service, teaching and research. A consultation-liaison psychiatrist plays a role in having an expert opinion and linking the patients to other medical professionals and the patient’s bio-psycho-social aspects that may be leading to his/her symptoms. Consultation-Liaison psychiatry has been recognised as 'The guardian of the holistic approach to the patient', underlining its pre-eminent role in the management of patients who are admitted in a tertiary care hospital. Aims/ Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyse the utilization of psychiatric services and reasons for referrals in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was done in a tertiary care hospital. The study included all the cases referred from different Inpatient wards to the psychiatry department for consultation. The study was conducted on 300 patients over a 3 month period. International classification of diseases 10 was used to diagnose the referred cases. Results: The majority of the referral was from the Medical Intensive care unit (22%) followed by general medical wards (18.66%). Majority of the referral was taken for altered sensorium (24.66%), followed by low mood or unexplained medical symptoms (21%). Majority of the referrals had a diagnosis of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (21%) as per International classification of diseases criteria, followed by unipolar Depression and Anxiety disorder (~ 14%), followed by Schizophrenia (5%) and Polysubstance abuse (2.6%). Conclusions: Our study concludes the importance of utilization of consultation-liaison psychiatric services. Also, the study signifies the need for sensitization of our colleagues regarding psychiatric sign and symptoms from time to time and seek psychiatric consult timely to decrease morbidity.

Keywords: consultation-liaison, psychiatry, referral, tertiary care hospital

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53 The Importance of Mental Health Literacy: Interventions in a Psychiatry Service of Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes, Portugal

Authors: Mariana Mangas, Yaroslava Martins, Ana Charraz, Ana Matos Pires

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Introduction: Health literacy empowers people of knowledge, motivation and skills to access, understand, evaluate and mobilize information relating to health. Although the benefits of public knowledge of physical disease are widely accepted, knowledge about mental disorder has been compatibly neglected. Nowadays there is considerably evidence that literacy is of great importance for the promotion of health and prevention of mental illness. Objective: Disclosure the concept and importance of mental health literacy and introduce the literacy program of Psychiatry Service of Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes. Methodology: A search was conducted on PubMed, using keywords “literacy” and “mental health”. A description of mental health literacy interventions implemented on Psychiatry Service of Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes was performed, namely, psychoeducation programs for depression and bipolar disorder. Results and discussion: Health literacy enables patient to be able to actively participate in his treatment. The improving of mental health literacy can promote early identification of mental disorders, improve treatment results, increase the use of health services and allow the community to take action to achieve better mental health. Psychoeducation is very useful in improving the course of disease and in reducing the number of episodes and hospitalizations. Bipolar patients who received psychoeducation and pharmacotherapy have no relapses during the program and last year. Conclusion: Mental health literacy is not simply a matter of having knowledge, rather, it is knowledge linked to action which can benefit mental health.

Keywords: mental health, literacy, psychoeducation, knowledge, empowerment

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52 Pattern and Clinical Profile of Children and Adolescent Visiting Psychiatry Out Patient Department of Tertiary Health Center Amidst COVID Pandemic- a Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Poornima Khadanga, Gaurav Pawar, Madhavi Rairikar

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Background: The COVID 19 pandemic, with its unparalleled mental health repercussions, has impacted people globally and has catalyzed a Mental Health pandemic among the youth. The detrimental effects on mental health needs to be pondered at the earliest. Aims: To study the behavioral problems among children and adolescents visiting Psychiatry Outpatient Department Tertiary Health Care during COVID pandemic and its correlation with socio-demographic profiles. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted by interviewing 120 participants between 4 to 17 years of age and their parents, visiting Psychiatry OPD. Behavioral problems were assessed using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and diagnosed by DSM-5. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS-21. Results: Male participants showed significant association with conduct (t=2.36, p=0.02) and hyperactive problems (t=5.07, p<0.05). Increase in screen time showed a positive correlation with conduct problems (r=0.22. p=0.02). Attention Deficit Hyperkinetic Disorder (18.3%) was the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric illness. Total difficulty score was significantly associated with difficult temperament (F=68.69, p<0.05). Conclusion: The study brings to light the pattern of behavioral problems that emerged during recent times of uncertainties among the young ones, including those with special needs. The increase in disruptive behaviors with increase screen time needs to be addressed at the earliest.

Keywords: behavioral problems, pandemic, screen time, temperament

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51 Managing Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizure Disorder: The Benefits of Collaboration between Psychiatry and Neurology

Authors: Donald Kushon, Jyoti Pillai

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Psychogenic Non-epileptic Seizure Disorder (PNES) is a challenging clinical problem for the neurologist. This study explores the benefits of on-site collaboration between psychiatry and neurology in the management of PNES. A 3 month period at a university hospital seizure clinic is described detailing specific management approaches taken as a result of this collaboration. This study describes four areas of interest: (1. After the video EEG results confirm the diagnosis of PNES, the presentation of the diagnosis of PNES to the patient. (2. The identification of co-morbid psychiatric illness (3. Treatment with specific psychotherapeutic interventions (including Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) and psychopharmacologic interventions (primarily SSRIs) and (4. Preliminary treatment outcomes.

Keywords: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), psychogenic non-epileptic seizure disorder (PNES), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), video electroencephalogram (VEEG)

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50 The Use and Safety of Leave from an Acute Inpatient Psychiatry Unit: A Retrospective Review of Pass Outcomes Over Four Years Abstract

Authors: Vasilis C. Hristidis, Ricardo Caceda, Ji Soo Kim, Brian Bronson, Emily A. Hill

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Objective: Leave passes to provide authorized leave for hospitalized patients from a psychiatric inpatient unit. Though providing day passes was once a relatively common practice, there is relatively little data describing their safety and efficacy. Methods: This descriptive study examines the use of leave passes in an adult inpatient unit at a university hospital between 2017 and 2021, with attention to reasons for granting the day pass, duration, and outcome of the pass. Results: During the study period, ten patients with primary psychotic or mood disorders received 12 passes for either housing coordination, COVID-19 vaccination, or major family events. There were no fatalities or elopements. One patient experienced severe agitation and engaged in non-suicidal self-injurious behavior. A second patient showed mild, redirectable psychomotor agitation upon return to the unit. The remaining 10 passes were uneventful. Conclusions: Our findings support the view that patients with diverse diagnoses can safely be provided leave from an inpatient setting with adequate planning and support, yielding a low incidence of adverse events.

Keywords: passes, inpatient, psychiatry, inpatient leave, outcome

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49 Telepsychiatry for Asian Americans

Authors: Jami Wang, Brian Kao, Davin Agustines

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COVID-19 highlighted the active discrimination against the Asian American population easily seen through media, social tension, and increased crimes against the specific population. It is well known that long-term racism can also have a large impact on both emotional and psychological well-being. However, the healthcare disparity during this time also revealed how the Asian American community lacked the research data, political support, and medical infrastructure for this particular population. During a time when Asian American fear for safety with decreasing mental health, telepsychiatry is particularly promising. COVID-19 demonstrated how well psychiatry could integrate with telemedicine, with psychiatry being the second most utilized telemedicine visits. However, the Asian American community did not utilize the telepsychiatry resources as much as other groups. Because of this, we wanted to understand why the patient population who was affected the most by COVID-19 mentally did not seek out care. To do this, we decided to study the top top telepsychiatry platforms. The current top telepsychiatry companies in the United States include Teladoc and BetterHelp. In the Teladoc mental health sector, they only had 4 available languages (English, Spanish, French, and Danis,) with none of them being an Asian language. In a similar manner, Teladoc’s top competitor in the telepsychiatry space, BetterHelp, only listed a total of 3 Asian languages, including Mandarin, Japanese, and Malaysian. However, this is still a short list considering they have over 20 languages available. The shortage of available physicians that speak multiple languages is concerning, as it could be difficult for the Asian American community to relate with. There are limited mental health resources that cater to their likely cultural needs, further exacerbating the structural racism and institutional barriers to appropriate care. It is important to note that these companies do provide interpreters to comply with the nondiscrimination and language assistance federal law. However, interactions with an interpreter are not only more time-consuming but also less personal than talking directly with a physician. Psychiatry is the field that emphasizes interpersonal relationships. The trust between a physician and the patient is critical in developing patient rapport to guide in better understanding the clinical picture and treating the patient appropriately. The language barrier creates an additional barrier between the physician and patient. Because Asian Americans are one of the largest growing patient population bases, these telehealth companies have much to gain by catering to the Asian American market. Without providing adequate access to bilingual and bicultural physicians, the current system will only further exacerbate the growing disparity. The healthcare community and telehealth companies need to recognize that the Asian American population is a severely underserved population in mental health and has much to gain from telepsychiatry. The lack of language is one of many reasons why there is a disparity for Asian Americans in the mental health space.

Keywords: telemedicine, psychiatry, Asian American, disparity

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48 The Occurrence of Depression with Chronic Liver Disease

Authors: Roop Kiran, Muhammad Shoaib Zafar, Nazish Idrees Chaudhary

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Depression is known to be the second most frequently occurring comorbid mental illness among patients suffering from chronic physical conditions. Around the world, depression is associated with chronic liver diseases as one of the dominant symptoms. This evidence brings attention to the research about various predictors for short life expectancy and poor quality of life in patients suffering from comorbid depression and CLD. Following are the objectives of this study i) measure the occurrence rate of comorbid depression among patients with CLD and ii) find the frequency of risk factors between patients with and without depression comorbid with CLD. This is a quantitative study with a cross-sectional design. The research data was collected through a measure called Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) with a demographic Performa from 100 patients who visited the Department of Psychiatry for consultation at Mayo Hospital Lahore with a diagnosed CLD from the last four years. There were (42%) patients with CLD who had comorbid depression. Among depressed and non-depressed patients, significant differences were found (p<0.05) for unemployment in 25 (59.5%) males and 20 (34.5%) female patients, for co-morbidity in 25 (59.5%) males and 18 (31.0%) female patients, for illiteracy in 18 (42.9%) males and 13 (22.4%) female patients, for the history of CLD for more than the last 2years in 41 (97.6%) males and 47 (81.0%) female patients, for severity of CLD in 26 (61.9%) males and 20 (34.5%) female patients. This concludes that depression frequently occurs among patients with CLD. This study recommends considerable attention to plan preventative measures in the future and develop such intervention protocols that consider the management of risk factors that significantly influence comorbid depression with CLD.

Keywords: psychiatry, comorbid, health, quality of life

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47 Clothing as Cure: Dress as Moral Treatment in Psychiatry

Authors: Dorothy Chyung

Abstract:

In the psychiatric interview, the mental status exam begins with an assessment of the patient's appearance, noting aspects such as grooming and hygiene. However, it is not well established whether further examination of a patient's attire can provide further useful information. The popular assumption is that those who are mentally unwell will manifest this in unusual clothing. In the moral treatment of the 19th century, proper clothing was also seen as a pivotal therapeutic concern. This project examines assumptions about clothing, both as a reflection of and treatment for psychopathology. The methodology considers the opinions expressed in 19th century art and journals, as well as asylum rules, in comparison to contemporary psychiatric practice and research evidence. Per moral treatment in the 19th century, self-discipline and a proper environment would cure insanity. Madness was evident in the opposite of these ideals—such as ragged or ‘improper’ clothing—and rules about attire delineated the most correct (i.e. sane) ways to dress. These rules applied not only for the patients but also for staff. Despite these ideals, accusations were made that asylums, in fact, dressed patients to look more mentally unwell and further removed patients’ agency. Current practice in psychiatric hospitals retains remnants of moral treatment. Patients are expected to dress ‘appropriately’ while retaining some choice to build self-esteem, with arguments about safety being used to justify the removal of choice. Meanwhile, staff is expected to dress professionally and as role models, based on the assumption that conservative dress is least pathological. Research on this subject is limited, and there is little evidence that discrete psychiatric diagnoses manifest in the particular dress, nor that conservative dress would result in a reduction in pathology. Dressing unusually has become a privilege granted only to those without association with mental illness.

Keywords: fashion, history of psychiatry, medical humanities, mental health treatment

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46 Digital Self-Identity and the Role of Interactivity in Psychiatric Assessment and Treatment

Authors: Kevin William Taylor

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This work draws upon research in the fields of games development and mental health treatments to assess the influence that interactive entertainment has on the populous, and the potential of technology to affect areas of psychiatric assessment and treatment. It will use studies to establish the evolving direction of interactive media in the development of ‘digital self-identity,’ and how this can be incorporated into treatment to the benefit of psychiatry. It will determine that this approach will require collaborative production between developers and psychiatrists in order to ensure precise goals are met, improving the success of serious gaming for psychiatric assessment and treatment. Analysis documents the reach of video games across a growing global community of gamers, highlighting cases of the positives and negatives of video game usage. The games industry is largely oblivious to the psychological negatives, with psychiatrists encountering new conditions such as gaming addiction, which is now recognized by the World Health Organization. With an increasing amount of gamers worldwide, and an additional time per day invested in online gaming and character development, the concept of virtual identity as a means of expressing the id needs further study to ensure successful treatment. In conclusion, the assessment and treatment of game-related conditions are currently reactionary, and while some mental health professionals have begun utilizing interactive technologies to assist with the assessment and treatment of conditions, this study will determine how the success of these products can be enhanced. This will include collaboration between software developers and psychiatrists, allowing new avenues of skill-sharing in interactive design and development. Outlining how to innovate approaches to engagement will reap greater rewards in future interactive products developed for psychiatric assessment and treatment.

Keywords: virtual reality, virtual identity, interactivity, psychiatry

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45 Preliminary Results of Psychiatric Morbidity for Oncology Outpatients

Authors: Camille Plant, Katherine McGill, Pek Ang

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Oncology patients face a host of unique challenges, which are physical, psychological and philosophical in nature. This preliminary study aimed to explore the psychiatric morbidity of oncology patients in an outpatient setting at a major public hospital in Australia. The study found that 33 patients were referred to a Psychiatrist by a Clinical Psychologist or treating Oncologist. These patients attended an outpatient Psychiatry appointment at the Calvary Mater Hospital, Newcastle, over a 7 month period (June 2017-January 2018). Of these, 45% went on to have a follow-up appointment. The Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI) was used to gather symptom severity scores at baseline and at follow-up. The CGI is a clinician determined instrument that provides an assessment of global functioning. It is comprised of two companion one-item measures: the CGI-Severity (CGI-S) rates mental illness severity, and the CGI-Improvement (CGI-I) rates change in condition or improvement from initiation of treatment. Patients referred to a Psychiatrist were observed to be on average in the Markedly ill approaching Severely ill range (CGI-S average of 5.5). However, those patients who attended a follow-up appointment were on average only Moderately Ill at baseline (CGI-S average of 3.9). Despite these follow patients not being severely mentally ill initially, the contact was helpful, as their CGI-S scores improved on average to the Mildly Ill range (CGI-S average of 2.8). A Mixed ANOVA revealed that there was a significant improvement in mental illness severity post-follow-up appointment (Greenhouse-Geisser .000). There was a near even proportion of males and females attending appointments (58% female), and slightly more females attended a follow-up (60% female). Males were on average more mentally ill at baseline compared to females at baseline (male average M=3.86, female average M=3.56), and males had a greater reduction in mental illness severity on average compared to females (male average M=2.71, female average 3.00). This was approaching significance (.073) and would be important to explore with a larger sample size. Change in clinical condition for follow-up patients was also recorded. It was found that more than half of patients (53%) were observed to experience Minimal improvement in attending at least one follow-up appointment. There was no change for 27% of patients, and there were no patients who were worse at follow up. As this was a preliminary study with small sample size, future research conducted could explore whether there are any significant gender differences, such as whether males experience the significantly greater reduction in symptoms of mental illness compared to females, as well as any effects of cancer stage or type on psychiatric outcomes. Future research could also investigate outcomes for those patients who concurrently access a Clinical Psychologist alongside the Psychiatrist. A limitation of the study is that the outcome measure is a brief item rating completed by the clinician.

Keywords: clinical global impressions scale, psychiatry, morbidity, oncology, outcomes, psychiatry

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44 Preliminary Efficacy of a Pilot Paediatric Day Hospital Program Project to Address Severe Mental Illness, Obesity, and Binge Eating

Authors: Alene Toulany, Elizabeth Dettmer, Seena Grewal, Kaley Roosen, Andrea Regina, Cathleen Steinegger, Kate Stadelman, Melissa Chambers, Lindsay Lochhead, Kelsey Gallagher, Alissa Steinberg, Andrea Leyser, Allison Lougheed, Jill Hamilton

Abstract:

Obesity and psychiatric disorders occur together so frequently that the combination has been coined an epidemic within an epidemic. Youth living with obesity are at increased risk for trauma, depression, anxiety and disordered eating. Although symptoms of binge eating disorder are common in paediatric obesity management programs, they are often not identified or addressed within treatment. At The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids), a tertiary care paediatric hospital in Toronto, Canada, adolescents with obesity are treated in an interdisciplinary outpatient clinic (1-2 hours/week). This intensity of care is simply not enough to help these extremely complex patients. Existing day treatment programs for eating, and psychiatric disorders are not well suited for patients with obesity. In order to address this identified care gap, a unique collaboration was formed between the obesity, psychiatry, and eating disorder programs at SickKids in 2015. The aim of this collaboration was to provide an enhanced treatment arm to our general psychiatry day hospital program that addresses both the mental health issues and the lifestyle challenges common to youth with obesity and binge eating. The program is currently in year-one of a two-year pilot project and is designed for a length of stay of approximately 6 months. All youth participate in daily group therapy, academics, and structured mealtimes. The groups are primarily skills-based and are informed by cognitive/dialectical behavioural therapies. Weekly family therapy and individual therapy, as well as weekly medical appointments with a psychiatrist and a nurse, are provided. Youth in the enhanced treatment arm also receive regular sessions with a dietitian to establish normalized eating behaviours and monthly multifamily meal sessions to address challenges related to behaviour change and mealtimes in the home. Outcomes that will be evaluated include measures of mental health, anthropometrics, metabolic status, and healthcare satisfaction. At the end of the two years, it is expected that we will have had about 16 youth participants. This model of care delivery will be the first of its kind in Canada and is expected to inform future paediatric treatment practices.

Keywords: adolescent, binge eating, mental illness, obesity

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43 Improved K-Means Clustering Algorithm Using RHadoop with Combiner

Authors: Ji Eun Shin, Dong Hoon Lim

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Data clustering is a common technique used in data analysis and is used in many applications, such as artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, economics, ecology, psychiatry and marketing. K-means clustering is a well-known clustering algorithm aiming to cluster a set of data points to a predefined number of clusters. In this paper, we implement K-means algorithm based on MapReduce framework with RHadoop to make the clustering method applicable to large scale data. RHadoop is a collection of R packages that allow users to manage and analyze data with Hadoop. The main idea is to introduce a combiner as a function of our map output to decrease the amount of data needed to be processed by reducers. The experimental results demonstrated that K-means algorithm using RHadoop can scale well and efficiently process large data sets on commodity hardware. We also showed that our K-means algorithm using RHadoop with combiner was faster than regular algorithm without combiner as the size of data set increases.

Keywords: big data, combiner, K-means clustering, RHadoop

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42 The Concept of Community Participation and Identified Tertiary Education Problems, Strategies and Methods

Authors: Ada Adoga James

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This paper discussed the concept of community participation and identified tertiary education problems; strategies and methods communities could be involved to reduce conflict witnessed in our tertiary institutions of learning due to government inability to fund education. The paper pointed out that community participation through the use of Parent Teachers Association (PTA), age grade, traditional leaders, village based associations, religious and political organs could be sensitized to raise financial resources. The paper identified different sources of conflicts, the outcome of which causes prolonged academic activities, destruction of lives and properties and in some cased render school environment completely insecure for serious academic activities. It recommends involvement of community participation in assisting government, proper handling of tertiary institutions in management, and more democratic procedure in conflict resolution like cordial relationship between staff, students and trade unions in decision making process.

Keywords: community, conflict resolution, tertiary education, psychology, psychiatry

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41 Clinical Characteristics of Children Presenting with History of Child Sexual Abuse to a Tertiary Care Centre in India

Authors: T. S. Sowmya Bhaskaran, Shekhar Seshadri

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This study aims to study the clinical features of with a history of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA). A chart review of 40 children (<16 years) with history of CSA evaluated at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of NIMHANS during a two year period was performed. Results:The most common form of abuse was contact penetrative abuse (65%) followed by non-contact penetrative abuse (32.5%). 75% (N=30) had a psychiatric diagnosis at baseline. 50% of these children had one or more psychiatric comorbidities. Anxiety disorder was the most common diagnosis (27.5%) which included PTSD (11%) followed by Depressive disorder (25.2%). Children abused by multiple perpetrators were found to be more likely to have depression, to having a comorbid psychiatric disorder and more prone to exhibit sexualized behaviour. Children who also experienced physical violence at home were more likely to develop psychiatric illness following child sexual abuse. Psychiatric morbidity is high in clinic population of children with history of CSA. It is important to increase the awareness regarding the consequences of CSA in order to increase help seeking.

Keywords: child sexual abuse, India, tertiary care centre, clinical characteristics

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40 Headache Masquerading as Common Psychiatric Disorders in Patients of Low Economic Class in a Tertiary Care Setting

Authors: Seema Singh Parmar, Shweta Chauhan

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Aims & Objectives: To evaluate the presence of various psychiatric disorders in patients reporting with a headache as the only symptom. Methodology: 200 patients with the chief complain of a headache who visited the psychiatric OPD of a tertiary care were investigated. Out of them 50 who had pure psychiatric illness without any other neurological disease were investigated, and their diagnosis was made. Independent sample t-tests were applied to generate results. Results: The most common psychiatric diagnosis seen in the sample was Depression (64%) out of which 47% showed features of Depression with anxious distress. Other psychiatric disorders seen were Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Attacks, Somatic Symptom Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. For pure psychiatry, headache related illnesses female to male ratio was 1.64. Conclusion: The increasing frequency of psychiatric disorders among patients who only visit the doctor seeking treat a headache shows the need for better identification of psychiatric disorders because proper diagnosis and target of psychiatric treatment shall give complete relief to the patient’s symptomatology.

Keywords: anxiety disorders, depression, headache, panic attacks

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39 Restraint and Seclusion: Individual and Environmental Characteristics of the Educators Super Users

Authors: Caroline A. Mathieu, Steve Geoffrion, Alexandre Dumais, Denis Lafortune

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In Quebec, troubled youths stay in a rehabilitation Center (RC), and educators in RC’S are particularly at risk of exposure to workplace violence. In order to manage youth violence and protect youth safety or their own, educators can resort to restraint and seclusion (R&S) strategies. To our best knowledge, in the literature, no study was found on the topic of R&S super users either in psychiatry or in a rehabilitation center. The objective of this study is to explore the differences between R&S super users and normal users among educators in terms of individual and environmental characteristics, over an eight weeks period. The 278 participants were volunteers recruited from 36 units that foster around 8 to 12 youths per unit, in a suburb of Montreal; Quebec, Canada. The results indicate that among the variables that were studied, only fear of violence and past exposure to violence at work characterized the R&S super users. These results suggest that exposure to violence in the workplace might increase the anticipation and fear of violence from a youth; this is concordant with the results indicating that these variables are the ones separating normal users from super users.

Keywords: seclusion and restraint, violence, youth, educators

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38 Case Report: A Case of Confusion with Review of Sedative-Hypnotic Alprazolam Use

Authors: Agnes Simone

Abstract:

A 52-year-old male with unknown psychiatric and medical history was brought to the Psychiatric Emergency Room by ambulance directly from jail. He had been detained for three weeks for possession of a firearm while intoxicated. On initial evaluation, the patient was unable to provide a reliable history. He presented with odd jerking movements of his extremities and catatonic features, including mutism and stupor. His vital signs were stable. Patient was transferred to the medical emergency department for work-up of altered mental status. Due to suspicion for opioid overdose, the patient was given naloxone (Narcan) with no improvement. Laboratory work-up included complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, thyroid stimulating hormone, vitamin B12, folate, magnesium, rapid plasma reagin, HIV, blood alcohol level, aspirin, and Tylenol blood levels, urine drug screen, and urinalysis, which were all negative. CT head and chest X-Ray were also negative. With this negative work-up, the medical team concluded there was no organic etiology and requested inpatient psychiatric admission. Upon re-evaluation by psychiatry, it was evident that the patient continued to have an altered mental status. Of note, the medical team did not include substance withdrawal in the differential diagnosis due to stable vital signs and a negative urine drug screen. The psychiatry team decided to check California's prescription drug monitoring program (CURES) and discovered that the patient was prescribed benzodiazepine alprazolam (Xanax) 2mg BID, a sedative-hypnotic, and hydrocodone/acetaminophen 10mg/325mg (Norco) QID, an opioid. After a thorough chart review, his daughter's contact information was found, and she confirmed his benzodiazepine and opioid use, with recent escalation and misuse. It was determined that the patient was experiencing alprazolam withdrawal, given this collateral information, his current symptoms, negative urine drug screen, and recent abrupt discontinuation of medications while incarcerated. After admission to the medical unit and two doses of alprazolam 2mg, the patient's mental status, alertness, and orientation improved, but he had no memory of the events that led to his hospitalization. He was discharged with a limited supply of alprazolam and a close follow-up to arrange a taper. Accompanying this case report, a qualitative review of presentations with alprazolam withdrawal was completed. This case and the review highlights: (1) Alprazolam withdrawal can occur at low doses and within just one week of use. (2) Alprazolam withdrawal can present without any vital sign instability. (3) Alprazolam withdrawal does not respond to short-acting benzodiazepines but does respond to certain long-acting benzodiazepines due to its unique chemical structure. (4) Alprazolam withdrawal is distinct from and more severe than other benzodiazepine withdrawals. This case highlights (1) the importance of physician utilization of drug-monitoring programs. This case, in particular, relied on California's drug monitoring program. (2) The importance of obtaining collateral information, especially in cases in which the patient is unable to provide a reliable history. (3) The importance of including substance intoxication and withdrawal in the differential diagnosis even when there is a negative urine drug screen. Toxidrome of withdrawal can be delayed. (4) The importance of discussing addiction and withdrawal risks of medications with patients.

Keywords: addiction risk of benzodiazepines, alprazolam withdrawal, altered mental status, benzodiazepines, drug monitoring programs, sedative-hypnotics, substance use disorder

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37 Perception of Nursing Care of Patients in a University Hospital

Authors: Merve Aydin, Mağfiret Kara Kaşikçi

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Aim: To determine the perceptions of inpatients about care at Farabi Hospital in KTU. Material and Method: This research was conducted by using the universe known examples of formulas and probability selected by sampling method with 277 chosen patients in the hospital at least 14 days in other internal and surgical clinics except for pediatric, psychiatry, and intensive care unit services between January-March 2014 in KTU Farabi Hospital. The data was collected through the forms of nursing care perception scale of patients and defining characteristics of patients. In the evaluation of data, percentage, mean, Mann Whitney U, Student t and Kurskall Wallis tests were applied. Results: The average point the patients got in nursing care perception scale is 62.64±10.08’dir. 48.7 % of patients regard nursing care well and 36.8 % of them regard it very well. 19 % of the patients regard nursing care badly. When the age, sex, occupation, marital status, educational background, residential place, income level, hospitalization period, hospitalization clinic and having a hospital attendant were compared with nursing care perception average point, the difference among point averages was not found meaningful statistically (p > 0.05). The average point of nursing care perception was found greater in those having chronic disease (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The perception point of patients about nursing care is above the average according to the average of the lowest and highest points. The great majority of patients regard nursing care well or very well.

Keywords: hospital, patient, perception of nursing care, nursing care

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36 In-situ Mental Health Simulation with Airline Pilot Observation of Human Factors

Authors: Mumtaz Mooncey, Alexander Jolly, Megan Fisher, Kerry Robinson, Robert Lloyd, Dave Fielding

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Introduction: The integration of the WingFactors in-situ simulation programme has transformed the education landscape at the Whittington Health NHS Trust. To date, there have been a total of 90 simulations - 19 aimed at Paediatric trainees, including 2 Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMHS) scenarios. The opportunity for joint debriefs provided by clinical faculty and airline pilots, has created a new exciting avenue to explore human factors within psychiatry. Through the use of real clinical environments and primed actors; the benefits of high fidelity simulation, interdisciplinary and interprofessional learning has been highlighted. The use of in-situ simulation within Psychiatry is a newly emerging concept and its success here has been recognised by unanimously positive feedback from participants and acknowledgement through nomination for the Health Service Journal (HSJ) Award (Best Education Programme 2021). Methodology: The first CAMHS simulation featured a collapsed patient in the toilet with a ligature tied around her neck, accompanied by a distressed parent. This required participants to consider:; emergency physical management of the case, alongside helping to contain the mother and maintaining situational awareness when transferring the patient to an appropriate clinical area. The second simulation was based on a 17- year- old girl attempting to leave the ward after presenting with an overdose, posing potential risk to herself. The safe learning environment enabled participants to explore techniques to engage the young person and understand their concerns, and consider the involvement of other members of the multidisciplinary team. The scenarios were followed by an immediate ‘hot’ debrief, combining technical feedback with Human Factors feedback from uniformed airline pilots and clinicians. The importance of psychological safety was paramount, encouraging open and honest contributions from all participants. Key learning points were summarized into written documents and circulated. Findings: The in-situ simulations demonstrated the need for practical changes both in the Emergency Department and on the Paediatric ward. The presence of airline pilots provided a novel way to debrief on Human Factors. The following key themes were identified: -Team-briefing (‘Golden 5 minutes’) - Taking a few moments to establish experience, initial roles and strategies amongst the team can reduce the need for conversations in front of a distressed patient or anxious relative. -Use of checklists / guidelines - Principles associated with checklist usage (control of pace, rigor, team situational awareness), instead of reliance on accurate memory recall when under pressure. -Read-back - Immediate repetition of safety critical instructions (e.g. drug / dosage) to mitigate the risks associated with miscommunication. -Distraction management - Balancing the risk of losing a team member to manage a distressed relative, versus it impacting on the care of the young person. -Task allocation - The value of the implementation of ‘The 5A’s’ (Availability, Address, Allocate, Ask, Advise), for effective task allocation. Conclusion: 100% of participants have requested more simulation training. Involvement of airline pilots has led to a shift in hospital culture, bringing to the forefront the value of Human Factors focused training and multidisciplinary simulation. This has been of significant value in not only physical health, but also mental health simulation.

Keywords: human factors, in-situ simulation, inter-professional, multidisciplinary

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35 Psycho-Social Issues: Drug Use and Abuse as a Social Problem among Secondary School Youths in Urban Centres of Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: Ode Kenneth Ogbu

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This study was designed as a survey to investigate the incidence of use and abuse of drug as a social problem among the Nigeria youths in the secondary schools in urban centres of Benue state. 500 SS 3 and fresh secondary school graduates in remedial science class of Benue State University Makurdi with mean age of 16.8 were randomly sampled for the study. An instrument called drug use and abuse perception questionnaire (DAPQ) with a reliability coefficient of 74 were administered to the students. Only 337 copies of the questionnaire were properly completed and returned which reduced the sample size of 337. The data were subjected to factor analysis. X2 statistic and frequency distribution using split half method. The result of the analysis showed that: the DAPQ yield seven baseline factors responsible for drug use and abuse; there was appreciable evidence that the study subjects used drugs (42.1%); alcohol topped the list of the drugs consumed; most students use their pocket money to buy drugs; drugs were purchased from unconventional, hidden places and 13 out of the 20 items of DAPQ were perceived as significant factors in drug use and abuse. The paper recommends proper intervention of government, parents and NGO’S among students to reduce cases of drug abuse.

Keywords: drug abuse, psychology, psychiatry, students

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34 Schizophrenia in Childhood and Adolescence: Research Topics and Applied Methodology

Authors: Jhonas Geraldo Peixoto Flauzino, Pedro Pompeo Boechat Araujo, Alexia Allis Rocha Lima, Giovanna Biângulo Lacerda Chaves, Victor Ryan Ferrão Chaves

Abstract:

Schizophrenia is characterized as a set of psychiatric signs and symptoms (syndrome) that commonly erupt in the stages of adolescence or early adulthood, being recognized as one of the most serious diseases, as it causes important problems during the life of the patient. carrier - both in mental health and in physical health and in social life. Objectives: This is an integrative literature review that aimed to verify what has been produced of scientific knowledge in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry regarding schizophrenia in these stages of life, correlated to the most discussed themes and methodologies of choice for the preparation of studies. Methods: Articles were selected from the following databases: Virtual Health Library and CAPES Journal Portal, published in the last five years; and on Google Scholar, published in 2021, totaling 62 works, searched in September 2021. Results: The studies focus mainly on diagnosis through the DSM-V (25.8%), on drug treatment (25.8%) and in psychotherapy (24.2%), most of them in the literature review format: integrative (27.4%) and systematic (24.2%). Conclusion: The themes and study methods are redundant, and do not cover in depth the immense aspects that encompass Schizophrenia in Childhood and Adolescence, giving attention to the disease in a general way or focusing on the adult patient.

Keywords: schizophrenia, mental health, childhood, adolescence

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33 'Freud and Jung: Dissenting Friends'; An Analysis of the Foundations of the Psychoanalytical Theory in Theirs Letters

Authors: Laurence Doremus

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Freud as the builder of psychoanalysis as a discipline had created the science with Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), a psychiatry specialist from Zurich who was very important in the Freudian theory. The knowledge about the foundation of psychoanalysis is often focused on the influence of the works from Breuer or Charcot in the Freudian praxis, at least at the beginning of his career, and Jung's influence is often under-estimated. The paper focuses on the importance of the Jungian contributions in Freud's theories at the beginning of the creation of the discipline in the 1910s. We often meet Jungian schools on the first hand and Freudian schools, on the other hand in the academic field, but the Freudian field has to admit the importance of the Jungian theories in Freudian science. And also, the dialectical energy which appears in the letters exchanged between both of the fathers of psychoanalysis is important to understand the foundations of Freud Theory. That's why the paper will analyze in detail the correspondence between them in an epistemological and historical approach. Effectively the letters were translated and published (in French but also in English and other languages) lately in history and are still not well knew by the researchers in the psychoanalytical field. We well explain how Freud was helped by Jung despite his desire to build the theory. We analyze how the second topic named 'unconscious, preconscious, and conscious', is the result of the first topic that Jung built with Freud. The paper is a contribution to the knowledge we should have about the intense friendship between the two protagonists.

Keywords: Carl Gustav Jung, correspondence, Freud's letters, psychoanalytic theory

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32 Nurse's Professional Space: Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic of Ottawa's Montfort Hospital 1976-2002

Authors: Silvia Maria Moya

Abstract:

After the Great Depression, the number of admissions to psychiatric facilities saw a significant increase. This increase, coupled with the arrival of new antipsychotic drugs, prepared the ground to the psychiatric deinstitutionalization movement in North America. Community services became an essential part of care where the role of the nurse also became crucial in the management of patients. Looking through the archives of the Department of Psychiatry at the Ottawa Montfort Hospital, this project aims to assess the role of the nurse in a multidisciplinary team in a period of psychiatric deinstitutionalization. This research focuses on the different roles of the mental health nurse during the second half of the twentieth century. The case study, used as a methodological approach allows in-depth analysis of the journey of a female patient with long hospital course. The analysis of the document ‘psychiatric evaluation’ on the medical records of outpatient Montfort Hospital – where, on a regular basis, different health professionals of the multidisciplinary team write their notes – allow us to better understand the difficulties of the patient, their problems, their family and work relationships and the evolution of their self-esteem, but most importantly, it allows us to identify the importance of the different nurse`s roles in the team and in the mental health setting. This project therefore reveals that the nurse occupies a larger professional space than the other professionals in the multidisciplinary team and highlights the role of mental health nurses with patients and their families and their leadership role within a multidisciplinary team.

Keywords: mental health, nursing, deinstitutionalization, professional space

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31 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Combined Psychiatric and Psychotherapeutic Care versus Psychotherapy Alone in the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Cancer Patients

Authors: Nathen A. Spitz, Dennis Martin Kivlighan III, Arwa Aburizik

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Background and Purpose: Presently, there is a paucity of naturalistic studies that directly compare the effectiveness of psychotherapy versus concurrent psychotherapy and psychiatric care for the treatment of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. Informed by previous clinical trials examining the efficacy of concurrent approaches, this study sought to test the hypothesis that a combined approach would result in the greatest reduction of depression and anxiety symptoms. Methods: Data for this study consisted of 433 adult cancer patients, with 252 receiving only psychotherapy and 181 receiving concurrent psychotherapy and psychiatric care at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. Longitudinal PHQ9 and GAD7 data were analyzed between both groups using latent growth curve analyses. Results: After controlling for treatment length and provider effects, results indicated that concurrent care was more effective than psychotherapy alone for depressive symptoms (γ₁₂ = -0.12, p = .037). Specifically, the simple slope for concurrent care was -0.25 (p = .022), and the simple slope for psychotherapy alone was -0.13 (p = .006), suggesting that patients receiving concurrent care experienced a greater reduction in depressive symptoms compared to patients receiving psychotherapy alone. In contrast, there were no significant differences between psychotherapy alone and concurrent psychotherapy and psychiatric care in the reduction of anxious symptoms. Conclusions: Overall, as both psychotherapy and psychiatric care may address unique aspects of mental health conditions, in addition to potentially providing synergetic support to each other, a combinatorial approach to mental healthcare for cancer patients may improve outcomes.

Keywords: psychiatry, psychology, psycho-oncology, combined care, psychotherapy, behavioral psychology

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30 Nutrition Role in the Management of Psychiatric Disorders

Authors: Abeer Mohammed, Nevein Mustafa Elashery, Mona Hassan Abdel Aal, Ereny Wilson Nagib

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The Aim of the current study is to investigate nutrition role in the management of psychiatric disorders. Research Design: A quasi- experimental research design was utilized for this study. Setting The study was conducted at outpatient clinic at Institute of Psychiatry affiliated to Ain Shams University hospitals, using a convenient sample of 50 psychiatric patients with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders. Tools: data were collected through; first, an interview questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, second, nutrition assessment tools Third, nutrition risk assessment. Fourth, nutrition management program Results showed that there were highly statistically significant improvements in modified nutritional supplements for patients with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders' patients after conducting the nutrition management program. Regarding psychiatric patients’ knowledge about healthy food, healthy nutritional habits, and patients’ awareness & readiness for change, there were highly statistically significant improvements. Concerning signs and symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there were highly statistically significant improvements for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive-compulsive patients after conducting the management program. In conclusion, the nutrition management program was effective in improving symptoms associated with, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders. The study recommended that nurses should have more contribution in counseling psychiatric patients, and their families about healthy diet and healthy habits. Further research should recommend studying the effectiveness of herbs on enhancing mental health for psychiatric patients.

Keywords: nutrition, role, management, psychiatric disorders

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29 Mental Disorders and Physical Illness in Geriatric Population

Authors: Vinay Kumar, M. Kishor, Sathyanarayana Rao Ts

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Background: Growth of elderly people in the general population in recent years is termed as ‘greying of the world’ where there is a shift from high mortality & fertility to low mortality and fertility, resulting in an increased proportion of older people as seen in India. Improved health care promises longevity but socio-economic factors like poverty, joint families and poor services pose a psychological threat. Epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of mental disorders in geriatric population with physical illness is required for proper health planning. Methods: Sixty consecutive elderly patients aged 60 years or above of both sexes, reporting with physical illness to general outpatient registration counter of JSS Medical College and Hospital, Mysore, India, were considered for the Study. With informed consent, they were screened with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and were further evaluated for diagnosing mental disorders according to WHO International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) criteria. Results: Mental disorders were detected in 48.3%, predominantly depressive disorders, nicotine dependence, generalized anxiety disorder, alcohol dependence and least was dementia. Most common physical illness was cardiovascular disease followed by metabolic, respiratory and other diseases. Depressive disorders, substance dependence and dementia were more associated with cardiovascular disease compared to metabolic disease and respiratory diseases were more associated with nicotine dependence. Conclusions: Depression and Substance use disorders among elderly population is of concern, which needs to be further studied with larger population. Psychiatric morbidity will adversely have an impact on physical illness which needs proper assessment and management. This will enhance our understanding and prioritize our planning for future.

Keywords: Geriatric, mental disorders, physical illness, psychiatry

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28 The Minimum Age of Criminal Responsibility in the Philippines: Balancing International Standards and Domestic Concerns

Authors: Harold P. Pareja

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This paper answers the question whether the minimum age of criminal responsibility under the Republic Act No. 9344 (Juvenile Justice Act) as amended by Republic Act No. 10630 should be lowered to 15 years of age or not in the light of international standards and domestic concerns both of which will definitely elicit strong views. It also explores the specific provision on the minimum age of criminal responsibility under the Republic Act No. 9344 (Juvenile Justice Act) and traces the bases of such law by discussing its presented evidences and justifications as reflected in the records of proceedings in the law-making phase. On one hand, the paper discusses the impact of lowering the minimum age to the state of juvenile delinquencies and to the rate of rehabilitation for those CICL who have undergone the DSWD-supervised recovery programs. On the other hand, it presents its impact to the international community specifically to the Committee of the Rights of the Child and the UNICEF considering that the even the current minimum age set in RA 9344 is lower than the international standards. Document review and content analysis are the major research tools. Primary and secondary sources were used as references such as Philippine laws on juvenile justice and from the different states international think-tanks. The absence of reliable evidences on criminal capacity made the arguments in increasing the MACR in the harder position. Studies on criminal capacity vary from different countries and from practitioners in in the fields of psychology, psychiatry and forensics. Juvenile delinquency is mainly contributed by poverty and dysfunctional families. On the other hand, the science of the criminal mind specifically among children has not been established yet. Philippines have the legal obligations to be faithful to the CRC and other related international instruments for the juvenile justice and welfare system. Decreasing MACR does not only send wrong message to the international community but the Philippines is violating its own laws.

Keywords: juvenile justice, minimum age of responsibility (MAR), juvenile justice act of the Philippines, children in conflict with the law, international standards on juvenile justice

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