Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5567

Search results for: weight loss

5567 Factors Associated with Weight Loss Maintenance after an Intervention Program

Authors: Filipa Cortez, Vanessa Pereira

Abstract:

Introduction: The main challenge of obesity treatment is long-term weight loss maintenance. The 3 phases method is a weight loss program that combines a low carb and moderately high-protein diet, food supplements and a weekly one-to-one consultation with a certified nutritionist. Sustained weight control is the ultimate goal of phase 3. Success criterion was the minimum loss of 10% of initial weight and its maintenance after 12 months. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with successful weight loss maintenance after 12 months at the end of 3 phases method. Methods: The study included 199 subjects that achieved their weight loss goal (phase 3). Weight and body mass index (BMI) were obtained at the baseline and every week until the end of the program. Therapeutic adherence was measured weekly on a Likert scale from 1 to 5. Subjects were considered in compliance with nutritional recommendation and supplementation when their classification was ≥ 4. After 12 months of the method, the current weight and number of previous weight-loss attempts were collected by telephone interview. The statistical significance was assumed at p-values < 0.05. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS TM software v.21. Results: 65.3% of subjects met the success criterion. The factors which displayed a significant weight loss maintenance prediction were: greater initial percentage weight loss (OR=1.44) during the weight loss intervention and a higher number of consultations in phase 3 (OR=1.10). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the percentage weight loss during the weight loss intervention and the number of consultations in phase 3 may facilitate maintenance of weight loss after the 3 phases method.

Keywords: obesity, weight maintenance, low-carbohydrate diet, dietary supplements

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5566 A Comparison of Three Protocols Weight-Loss Interventions for Obese Females

Authors: Nayera E. Hassan, Sahar A. El-Masry, Rokia El-Banna, Mohamed S. El Hussieny

Abstract:

There are several different modalities for treatment of obesity. Common intervention methods for obesity include low-calorie diet, exercise. Also acupuncture has shown good therapeutic results in the treatment of obesity. A recent clinical observation showed that laser acupuncture could reduce body weight and body mass index in obese persons. So, the aim of this research is focused on body composition changes as related to type of intervention, before and after intentional weight loss in overweight and obesity. 76 subjects were included in the study analysis. The present study recommended that every obese female must do lipid profile and fasting blood sugar analysis before weight-loss intervention to take the decision of which method should be used.

Keywords: obesity, weight-loss, body composition, modalities

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5565 Analysis of CO₂ Capture Products from Carbon Capture and Utilization Plant

Authors: Bongjae Lee, Beom Goo Hwang, Hye Mi Park

Abstract:

CO₂ capture products manufactured through Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) Plant that collect CO₂ directly from power plants require accurate measurements of the amount of CO₂ captured. For this purpose, two tests were carried out on the weight loss test. And one was analyzed using a carbon dioxide quantification device. First, the ignition loss analysis was performed by measuring the weight of the sample at 550°C after the first conversation and then confirming the loss when ignited at 950°C. Second, in the thermogravimetric analysis, the sample was divided into two sections of 40 to 500°C and 500 to 800°C to confirm the reduction. The results of thermal weight loss analysis and thermogravimetric analysis were confirmed to be almost similar. However, the temperature of the ignition loss analysis method was 950°C, which was 150°C higher than that of the thermogravimetric method at a temperature of 800°C, so that the difference in the amount of weight loss was 3 to 4% higher by the heat loss analysis method. In addition, the tendency that the CO₂ content increases as the reaction time become longer is similarly confirmed. Third, the results of the wet titration method through the carbon dioxide quantification device were found to be significantly lower than the weight loss method. Therefore, based on the results obtained through the above three analysis methods, we will establish a method to analyze the accurate amount of CO₂. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and planning (No. 20152010201850).

Keywords: carbon capture and utilization, CCU, CO2, CO2 capture products, analysis method

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
5564 Rapid Weight Loss in Athletes: A Look at Suppressive Effects on Immune System

Authors: Nazari Maryam, Gorji Saman

Abstract:

For most competitions, athletes usually engage in a process called rapid weight loss (RWL) and subsequent rapid weight gain (RWG) in the days preceding the event. Besides the perfection of performance, weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete” which is mentally important as a part of the pre-competition preparation. This feeling enhances the focus and commitment of the athlete. There is a large body of evidence that weight loss, particularly in combat sports, results in several health benefits. However, intentional weight loss beyond normal levels might have unknown negative special effects on the immune system. As the results show, a high prevalence (50%) of RWL is happening among combat athletes. It seems that energy deprivation and intense exercise to reach RWL results in altered blood cell distribution through modification of body composition that, in turn, changes B and T-Lymphocyte and/or CD4 T-Helper response. Moreover, it may diminish IgG antibody levels and modulate IgG glycosylation after this course. On the other hand, some studies show suppression of signaling and regulation of IgE antibody and chemokine production are responsible for immunodeficiency following a period of low-energy availability. Some researchers hypothesize that severe glutamine depletion, which occurs during exercise and calorie restriction, is responsible for this immune system weakness. However, supplementation by this amino acid is not prescribed yet. Therefore, weight loss is achieved not only through chronic strategies (body fat losses) but also through acute manipulations prior to competition should be supervised by a sports nutritionist to minimize side effects on the immune system and other body systems.

Keywords: athletes, immune system, rapid weight loss, weight loss strategies

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5563 The Effects of Spirulina (Spiruvit Supplement) on Healthy Weight Control

Authors: F. Berahmandpour, K. Bagheri

Abstract:

Introduction: Spirulina is nutritious blue - green algae which are used as supplement or a preservative in many foods. The studies about the algae argue that the Spirulina can improve immune system, increase fat utilization, reduce oxidative stress and promote endurance at high-intensity exercise. The purpose of study is to assess the effects of Spirulina supplement on healthy weight control. Method: the study is a cross-sectional study which had 30 participants. The participants were men and women who referred to the nutrition and diet therapy clinic (in west of Tehran / Iran) for control weight. The sampling was a purposeful sampling. The participants were divided into three groups, and they were surveyed for 4 weeks. In the first group, 10 participants were used Spirulia supplement (dose: 500mg of Spiruvit Supplement as tablet / 3 times per day) without any special diet. The second group was 10 participants who received Spirulia supplement (dose 500mg of Spiruvit Supplement as tablet / 3 times per day) with a weight loss exercise program and without any special diet. The third group was 10 participants who used Spirulia supplement (dose 500mg of Spiruvit Supplement as tablet / 3 times per day) with an optimum weight loss diet. Results and Discussion: The results show that there were not any significant loss weights in first group. In while, the participants of second group argued that the Spirulina supplement had positive effects on their mud and physical body; however the clinical results showed that the loss weight had fixed tilt in this group. The significant results of study were related to the third group, because the participations could continuous loss weight during 4 weeks. However, the optimum weight loss diets were effective effects on weight loss in this group, but the researchers found that Spirulina supplement could improve loss weight with set of hormonal system (especially in women with menopause). Conclusion: The study is concluded that the Spirulina as a supplement (Spiruvit Supplement) can be an effective effect on healthy weight control, if it is used with a nutritious healthy weight loss diet. In fact, the effect of Spirulina can be related to powerful antioxidant effects and improvable hormonal system in the body.

Keywords: diet, healthy weight control, spirulina, spiruvit supplement

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5562 Effect on Body Weight of Naltrexone/Bupropion in Overweight and Obese Participants with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Large Randomized Double-Blind Study

Authors: Amy Halseth, Kevin Shan, Kye Gilder, John Buse

Abstract:

The study assessed the effect of prolonged-release naltrexone 32 mg/bupropion 360 mg (NB) on cardiovascular (CV) events in overweight/obese participants at elevated CV risk. Participants must lose ≥ 2% body weight at 16 wks, without a sustained increase in blood pressure, to continue drug. The study was terminated early after second interim analysis with 50% of all CV events. Data on CV endpoints has been published. Current analyses focus on weight change. Intent-to-treat (ITT) population (placebo [PBO] N=4450, NB N=4455) was 54.5% female, 83.5% white, mean age 61 yrs, mean BMI 37.3 kg/m2; 85.2% had type 2 diabetes, 32.1% had CV disease, 17.4% had both. At 52 wks, ITT-LOCF analysis showed greater least squares mean percent change in weight (LSM%ΔBW) with NB (-3.1%; 95% CI -4.8, -1.4) vs PBO (-0.3%; 95% CI -1.9, 1.4). Both groups demonstrated greater weight loss while on-treatment (NB [-7.3%], PBO [-3.9%]). Odds ratios of 5% and 10% weight loss were 3.3 and 4.1 (ITT-LOCF), respectively, in NB over PBO. At 104 wks, on-treatment LSM%ΔBW was -6.3% with NB (n=1137) vs -3.5% with PBO (n=741). Major reasons for NB withdrawal were adverse events (AE, 29%) and patient decision (21%), with GI disorders being the most common. Weight loss with NB in this study, in an older population predominantly with diabetes and elevated CV risk, was somewhat lower than that observed in overweight/obese participants without diabetes and similar to participants with diabetes in Phase 3 studies.

Keywords: contrave, mysimba, obesity, pharmacotherapy, weight loss

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5561 The Effects of 6-Weeks Aerobic Dance among Women

Authors: Mohd Faridz Ahmad, Muhammad Amir Asyraf Rosli

Abstract:

Aerobic dance has becoming a popular mode of exercise especially among women due to its fun nature. With a catchy music background and joyful dance steps, aerobic dancers would be able to have fun while sweating out. Depending on its level of aggressiveness, aerobic may also improve and maintain cardiorespiratory fitness other than being a great tool for weight loss. This study intends to prove that aerobic dance activity can bring the same, if not better impacts on health than other types of cardiovascular exercise such as jogging and cycling. The objective of this study was to evaluate and identify the effect of six weeks aerobic dance on cardiovascular fitness and weight loss among women. This study, which was held in Seremban Fit Challenge, used a quasi-experimental design. The subjects selected include a total of 14 women (n = 14) with age (32.4 years old ± 9.1), weight (65.93 kg ± 11.24) and height (165.36 ± 3.46) who joined the Seremban Fit Challenge Season 13. The subjects were asked to join an aerobic dance class with duration of one hour for six weeks in a row. As for the outcome, cardiovascular fitness was measured with a 1-mile run test while any changes on weight was measured using the weighing scale. The result showed that there was a significant difference between pre and post-test for cardiovascular fitness when p = 0.02 < 0.05 and weight loss when p = 0.00 < 0.05. In conclusion, a six-week long aerobic dance program would have a positive effect on cardiovascular fitness and weight. Therefore, aerobic dance may be used as an alternative tool for people who wish to lead a healthy lifestyle in a fun way.

Keywords: aerobic dance, cardiovascular fitness, weight loss, 1-mile run test

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5560 A Review on Using Executive Function to Understand the Limited Efficacy of Weight-Loss Interventions

Authors: H. Soltani, Kevin Laugero

Abstract:

Obesity is becoming an increasingly critical issue in the United States due to the steady and substantial increase in prevalence over the last 30 years. Existing interventions have been able to help participants achieve short-term weight loss, but have failed to show long-term results. The complex nature of behavioral change remains one of the most difficult barriers in promoting sustainable weight-loss in overweight individuals. Research suggests that the 'intention-behavior gap' can be explained by a person’s ability to regulate higher-order thinking, or Executive Function (EF). A review of 63 research articles was completed in fall of 2017 to identify the role of EF in regulating eating behavior and to identify whether there is a potential for improving dietary quality by enhancing EF. Results showed that poor EF is positively associated with obesogenic behavior, namely increased consumption of highly palatable foods, eating in the absence of hunger, high saturated fat intake and low fruit and vegetable consumption. Recent research has indicated that interventions targeting an improvement in EF can be successful in helping promote healthy behaviors. Furthermore, interventions of longer duration have a more lasting and versatile effect on weight loss and maintenance. This may present an opportunity for the increasingly ubiquitous use of mobile application technology.

Keywords: eating behavior, executive function, nutrition, obesity, weight-loss

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5559 Application of UV-C Irradiation on Quality and Textural Properties of Button Mushrooms

Authors: M. Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, S. H. Yoosefian. A. Mohammad- Razdari

Abstract:

The effect of 1.0 kJ/m2 Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light on pH, weight loss, color, and firmness of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tissues during 21-days storage at 4 ºC was studied. UV-C irradiation enhanced pH, weight, color parameters, and firmness of mushroom during storage compared to control treatment. However, application of 1.0 kJ/m2 UV-C treatment could effectively induce the increase of weight loss, firmness, and pH to 14.53%, 49.82%, and 10.39%, respectively. These results suggest that the application of UV-C irradiation could be an effective method to maintain the postharvest quality of mushrooms.

Keywords: mushroom, polyethylene film, quality, UV-c irradiation

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5558 Weight Comparison of Oil and Dry Type Distribution Transformers

Authors: Murat Toren, Mehmet Çelebi

Abstract:

Reducing the weight of transformers while providing good performance, cost reduction and increased efficiency is important. Weight is one of the most significant factors in all electrical machines, and as such, many transformer design parameters are related to weight calculations. This study presents a comparison of the weight of oil type transformers and dry type transformer weight. Oil type transformers are mainly used in industry; however, dry type transformers are becoming more widespread in recent years. MATLAB is typically used for designing transformers and design parameters (rated voltages, core loss, etc.) along with design in ANSYS Maxwell. Similar to other studies, this study presented that the dry type transformer option is limited. Moreover, the commonly-used 50 kVA distribution transformers in the industry are oil type and dry type transformers are designed and considered in terms of weight. Currently, the preference for low-cost oil-type transformers would change if costs for dry-type transformer were more competitive. The aim of this study was to compare the weight of transformers, which is a substantial cost factor, and to provide an evaluation about increasing the use of dry type transformers.

Keywords: weight, optimization, oil-type transformers, dry-type transformers

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5557 Factors Relating to Motivation to Change Behaviors in Individuals Who Are Overweight

Authors: Teresa Wills, Geraldine Mccarthy, Nicola Cornally

Abstract:

Background: Obesity is an emerging healthcare epidemic affecting virtually all age and socio-economic groups and is one of the most serious and prevalent diseases of the 21st century. It is a public health challenge because of its prevalence, associated costs and health effects. The increasing prevalence of obesity has created a social perception that overweight body sizes are healthy and normal. This normalization of obesity within our society and the acceptance of higher body weights have led to individuals being unaware of the reality of their weight status and gravity of this situation thus impeding recognition of obesity. Given the escalating global health problem of obesity and its co-morbidities, the need to re-appraise its management is more compelling than ever. It is widely accepted that the causes of obesity are complex and multi-factorial. Engagement of individuals in weight management programmes is difficult if they do not perceive they have a problem with their weight. Recognition of the problem is a key component of obesity management and identifying the main predictors of behaviour is key to designing health behaviour interventions. Aim: The aim of the research was to determine factors relating to motivation to change behaviours in individuals who perceive themselves to be overweight. Method: The research design was quantitative, correlational and cross-sectional. The design was guided by the Health Belief Model. Data were collected online using a multi-section and multi-item questionnaire, developed from a review of the theoretical and empirical research. A sample of 202 men and women who perceived themselves to be overweight participated in the research. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were employed to describe relationships between variables. Findings: Following multivariate regression analysis, perceived barriers to weight loss and perceived benefits of weight loss were significant predictors of motivation to change behaviour. The perceived barriers to weight loss which were significant were psychological barriers to weight loss (p = < 0.019) and environmental barriers to physical activity (p= < 0.032).The greatest predictor of motivation to change behaviour was the perceived benefits of weight loss (p < 0.001). Perceived susceptibility to obesity and perceived severity of obesity did not emerge as significant predictors in this model. Total variance explained by the model was 33.5%. Conclusion: Perceived barriers to weight loss and perceived benefits of weight loss are important determinants of motivation to change behaviour. These findings have important implications for health professionals to help inform their practice and for the development of intervention programmes to prevent and control obesity.

Keywords: motivation to change behaviours, obesity, predictors of behavior, interventions, overweight

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5556 Economic Loss due to Ganoderma Disease in Oil Palm

Authors: K. Assis, K. P. Chong, A. S. Idris, C. M. Ho

Abstract:

Oil palm or Elaeis guineensis is considered as the golden crop in Malaysia. But oil palm industry in this country is now facing with the most devastating disease called as Ganoderma Basal Stem Rot disease. The objective of this paper is to analyze the economic loss due to this disease. There were three commercial oil palm sites selected for collecting the required data for economic analysis. Yield parameter used to measure the loss was the total weight of fresh fruit bunch in six months. The predictors include disease severity, change in disease severity, number of infected neighbor palms, age of palm, planting generation, topography, and first order interaction variables. The estimation model of yield loss was identified by using backward elimination based regression method. Diagnostic checking was conducted on the residual of the best yield loss model. The value of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was used to measure the forecast performance of the model. The best yield loss model was then used to estimate the economic loss by using the current monthly price of fresh fruit bunch at mill gate.

Keywords: ganoderma, oil palm, regression model, yield loss, economic loss

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5555 Weight Loss Degradation of Hybrid Blends LLDPE/Starch/PVA Upon Exposure to UV Light and Soil Burial

Authors: Rahmah M., Noor Zuhaira Abd Aziz, Farhan M., Mohd Muizz Fahimi M.

Abstract:

Polybag and mulch film for agricultural field pose environmental wastage upon disposal. Thus a degradable polybag was designed with hybrid sago starch (SS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Two Different blended composition of SS and PVA Hybrid have been compounded. Then, the hybrids blended are mixed with linear line density polyethylene (LLDPE) resin to fabricate polybag film through conventional film blowing process. Hybrid blends was compounded at different ratios. Samples of LLDPE, SS and PVA hybrid film were exposed to UV light and soil burial. The weight loss were determined during degradation process. Hybrid film by degradation of starch was found to decrease on esterification. However the hybrid film showed greater degradation in soil and uv radiation up to 60% of SS. Weight loss were also determined in control humidity oven with 70% humidity and temperature set up at 30 °C and left in humidity chamber for a month.

Keywords: LLDPE, PVA, sago starch, degradation, soil burial, uv radiation

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5554 A Literature Review on Nutritional Supplements for the Treatment of Obesity

Authors: Monika Nuffer, Wesley Nuffer

Abstract:

The problem of obesity is one that continues to be faced in the United States health care system and across the developing world. Prescription medications are available, but are often very expensive with minimal insurance coverage. The over-the-counter diet aid industry is a robust one, selling billions of dollars in products every year. It is important for clinicians to understand the myriad of different nutritional supplements marketed for obesity, and to weigh the evidence behind these products. This manuscript outlines the most commonly used nutritional supplements currently marketed for weight loss, reviewing the evidence with a focus on the efficacy and safety of these products.

Keywords: obesity, weight loss, herbal products, nutritional supplements

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5553 Aqueous Extract of Argemone Mexicana Roots for Effective Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in HCl Environment

Authors: Gopal Ji, Priyanka Dwivedi, Shanthi Sundaram, Rajiv Prakash

Abstract:

Inhibition effect of aqueous Argemone Mexicana root extract (AMRE) on mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl has been studied by weight loss, Tafel polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Results indicate that inhibition ability of AMRE increases with the increasing amount of the extract. A maximum corrosion inhibition of 94% is acknowledged at the extract concentration of 400 mg L-1. Polarization curves and impedance spectra reveal that both cathodic and anodic reactions are suppressed due to passive layer formation at metal-acid interface. It is also confirmed by SEM micro graphs and FTIR studies. Furthermore, the effects of acid concentration (1-5 M), immersion time (120 hours) and temperature (30-60˚C) on inhibition potential of AMRE have been investigated by weight loss method and electrochemical techniques. Adsorption mechanism is also proposed on the basis of weight loss results, which shows good agreement with Langmuir isotherm.

Keywords: mild steel, polarization, SEM, acid corrosion, EIS, green inhibition

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5552 Evaluation of the Inhibitive Effect of Novel Quinoline Schiff Base on Corrosion of Mild Steel in HCl Solution

Authors: Smita Jauhari, Bhupendra Mistry

Abstract:

Schiff base (E)-2-methyl-N-(tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinolin-4-ylmethylene)aniline (QMA) was synthesized, and its inhibitive effect for mild steel in 1M HCl solution was investigated by weight loss measurement and electrochemical tests.From the weight loss measurements and electrochemical tests, it was observed that the inhibition efficiency increases with the increase in the Schiff base concentration and reaches a maximum at the optimum concentration. This is further confirmed by the decrease in corrosion rate. It is found that the system follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

Keywords: Schiff base, acid corrosion, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, polarization

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5551 Weight Status, Body Appreciation Correlated with Husbands' Satisfaction in Saudi Women

Authors: Hala Hzam Al Otaibi

Abstract:

Background: Obesity is more common among Saudi women compared to men, with 75–88% of adult women suffering from overweight or obesity and most of them married. Weight status and body appreciation are an important factor in maintaining or loss weight behaviors and for husbands satisfaction. Aims: To assess weight status, body appreciation and related factors, including age, level of education, occupation status husbands satisfaction in adult women. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 326 married women, aged 18 to 60 years old in Eastern of Saudi Arabia. Data were collected by face to face interview, height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and husbands satisfied were evaluated through questioning. Results: The majority of women has a university education, not employed and less than 40 years old (66.5%, 69.9%, 67.5%; respectively). Fifty-four percent of women overweight/obese and the rest were normal weight, BAS mean score was lower in younger women (>40 years) 7.39+2.20 and obese women (6.83+2.16) which is reflected lower body appreciation. Husbands' satisfaction regarding the weight status shows 47.6% of normal weight believed their husbands were dissatisfied with their weight and consider them as overweight/obese, 28.3% of overweight/obese thought their husbands satisfied with their weight and consider them as normal weight. Body appreciation correlated with age (r.139,p<0.05) and no correlation found for level of education and employed status. Husbands satisfaction strongly correlated with body appreciation (r.189,p<0.01) and weight status (r .570,p <0.01). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that women had a low body appreciation related to age, weight status and husbands' dissatisfaction. Future interventions aimed to weight reduction, it is important to consider husband satisfaction, as well as we need more assessment of weight satisfaction in younger women.

Keywords: body appreciation, husbands satisfaction, weight status, women

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5550 Impact of Massive Weight Loss Body Contouring Surgery in the Patient’s Quality of Life

Authors: Maria Albuquerque, Miguel Matias, Ângelo Sá, Juliana Sousa, Maria Manuel Mouzinho

Abstract:

Obesity is a frequent disease in Portugal. The surgical treatment is very effective and has an indication when there is a failure of the medical treatment. Although massive weight loss is associated with considerable health gains, these patients are characterized by a variable degree of dermolipodistrophy. In some cases, there is even the development of physical symptoms such as intertriginous, and some degree of psychological distress is present. In almost all cases, a desire for a better body contour, which inhibits some aspects of social life, is a fact. A prospective study was made to access the impact of body contouring surgery in the quality of life of patients who underwent a massive weight lost correction surgical procedure at Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central between January 2020 and December 2021. The patients were submitted to the Body Q subjective questionnaire adapted for the Portuguese language and accessed for the following categories: Anguish with Appearance, Contempt with Body Image, Satisfaction with the Abdomen, and Overall Satisfaction with the Body. The questionnaire was repeated at the 6 months mark. A total of 80 patients were sampled. The sex distribution was 79 female and 1 male. The median BMI index before surgery was inferior to 28%. The pre operatory questionnaire showed high scores for Anguish with Appearance and low scores for the body image self-evaluation. Overall, there was an improvement of at least 50% in all the evaluated scores. Additionally, a correlation was found between abdominoplasty and the contempt with body image and satisfaction with the abdomen (p-value <0.05). Massive weight loss is associated with important body deformities that have a significant impact on the patient’s personal and social life. Body contouring surgery is then vital for these patients as it implicates major aesthetic and functional benefits.

Keywords: abdominoplasty, cruroplasty, obesity, massive weight loss

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5549 A Service Evaluation Exploring the Effectiveness of a Tier 3 Weight Management Programme Offering Face-To-Face and Remote Dietetic Support

Authors: Rosemary E. Huntriss, Lucy Jones

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Obesity and excess weight continue to be significant health problems in England. Traditional weight management programmes offer face-to-face support or group education. Remote care is recognised as a viable means of support; however, its effectiveness has not previously been evaluated in a tier 3 weight management setting. This service evaluation explored the effectiveness of online coaching, telephone support, and face-to-face support as optional management strategies within a tier 3 weight management programme. Outcome data were collected for adults with a BMI ≥ 45 or ≥ 40 with complex comorbidity who were referred to a Tier 3 weight management programme from January 2018 and had been discharged before October 2018. Following an initial 45-minute consultation with a specialist weight management dietitian, patients were offered a choice of follow-up support in the form of online coaching supported by an app (8 x 15 minutes coaching), face-to-face or telephone appointments (4 x 30 minutes). All patients were invited to a final 30-minute face-to-face assessment. The planned intervention time was between 12 and 24 weeks. Patients were offered access to adjunct face-to-face or telephone psychological support. One hundred and thirty-nine patients were referred into the programme from January 2018 and discharged before October 2018. One hundred and twenty-four patients (89%) attended their initial assessment. Out of those who attended their initial assessment, 110 patients (88.0%) completed more than half of the programme and 77 patients (61.6%) completed all sessions. The average length of the completed programme (all sessions) was 17.2 (SD 4.2) weeks. Eighty-five (68.5%) patients were coached online, 28 (22.6%) patients were supported face-to-face support, and 11 (8.9%) chose telephone support. Two patients changed from online coaching to face-to-face support due to personal preference and were included in the face-to-face group for analysis. For those with data available (n=106), average weight loss across the programme was 4.85 (SD 3.49)%; average weight loss was 4.70 (SD 3.19)% for online coaching, 4.83 (SD 4.13)% for face-to-face support, and 6.28 (SD 4.15)% for telephone support. There was no significant difference between weight loss achieved with face-to-face vs. online coaching (4.83 (SD 4.13)% vs 4.70 (SD 3.19) (p=0.87) or face-to-face vs. remote support (online coaching and telephone support combined) (4.83 (SD 4.13)% vs 4.85 (SD 3.30)%) (p=0.98). Remote support has been shown to be as effective as face-to-face support provided by a dietitian in the short-term within a tier 3 weight management setting. The completion rates were high compared with another tier 3 weight management services suggesting that offering remote support as an option may improve completion rates within a weight management service.

Keywords: dietitian, digital health, obesity, weight management

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5548 Effects of Transtheoretical Model in Obese and Overweight Women Nutritional Behavior Change and Lose Weight

Authors: Abdmohammad Mousavi, Mohsen Shams, Mehdi Akbartabar Toori, Ali Mousavizadeh, Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad

Abstract:

The effectiveness of Transtheoretical Model (TTM) on nutritional behavior change and lose weight has been subject to questions by some studies. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of nutritional behavior change and lose weight interventions based on TTM in obese and overweight women. This experimental study that was a 8 months trial nutritional behavior change and weight loss program based on TTM with two conditions and pre–post intervention measurements weight mean. 299 obese and overweight 20-44 years old women were selected from two health centers include training (142) and control (157) groups in Yasuj, a city in south west of Iran. Data were analyzed using paired T-test and One–Way ANOVA tests. In baseline, adherence with nutritional healthy behavior in training group(9.4%) compare with control(38.8%) were different significantly(p=.003), weight mean of training(Mean=78.02 kg, SD=11.67) compared with control group(Mean=77.23 kg, SD=10.25) were not (P=.66). In post test, adherence with nutritional healthy behavior in training group(70.1%) compare with control (37.4%) were different significantly (p=.000), weight mean of training (Mean=74.65 kg, SD=10.93, p=.000) compare with pre test were different significantly and control (Mean=77.43 kg, SD=10.43, p=.411) were not. The training group has lost 3.37 kg weight, whereas the control group has increased .2 kg weight. These results supported the applicability of the TTM for women weight lose intervention.

Keywords: nutritional behavior, Transtheoretical Model, weight lose, women

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5547 Osmotic Dehydration of Fruit Slices in Concentrated Sugar Solution

Authors: Neda Amidi Fazli, Farid Amidi Fazli

Abstract:

Enriched fruits by minerals provide minerals which are needed to human body the minerals are used by body cells for daily activities. This paper indicates the result of mass transfer in fruit slices in 55% sucrose syrup in presence of calcium and phosphorus ions. Osmosis agent 55% (w/w) was prepared by solving sucrose in deionized water and adding calcium or phosphorus in 1 and 2% concentration. Dry matter, solid gain, water loss as well as weight reduction were calculated. Results showed that by increasing of calcium concentration in osmosis solution solid gain, water loss and weight reduction were increased in short experiment time in kiwi fruit but the parameters decreased in long experiment time by concentration increasing and rise of calcium concentration caused decrease of osmosis parameters in banana. In the case of phosphorus, increasing of ion concentration had adverse effect on all treatments, this may be due to different osmosis force that is created by two types of ions. The mentioned parameters decreased in all treatments by increasing of ion concentration. Highest mass transfer in kiwi fruit occurs when 1% calcium solution applied for 60 minutes, values obtained for solid gain, water loss and weight reduction were 42.60, 51.97, and 9.37 respectively. In the case of banana, when 2% phosphorus concentration was applied as osmosis agent for 60 minutes highest values for solid gain, water loss and weight reduction obtained as 21, 25.84, and 4.84 respectively.

Keywords: calcium, concentration, osmotic dehydration, phosphorus

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5546 Investigation of Biocorrosion in Brass by Arthrobacter sulfureus in Neutral Medium

Authors: Ramachandran Manivannan, B. Sakthi Swaroop, Selvam Noyel Victoria

Abstract:

Microbial corrosion of brass gauze by the aerobic film forming bacteria Arthrobacter sulfurous in neutral media was investigated using gravimetric studies. Maximum weight loss of 166.98 mg was observed for a period of 28 days of exposure to the bacterial medium as against the weight loss of 13.69 mg for control. The optical density studies for the bacterial culture was found to show attainment of stationary phase in 48 h. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the samples shows the presence of pitting corrosion. The energy dispersive X-ray analysis of the samples showed increased oxygen and phosphorus content in the sample due to bacterial activity.

Keywords: Arthrobacter sulfureus, biocorrosion, brass, neutral medium

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5545 The Effects of Gas Metal Arc Welding Parameters on the Corrosion Behaviour of Austenitic Stainless Steel Immersed in Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide

Authors: I. M. B. Omiogbemi, D. S. Yawas, I. M. Dagwa, F. G. Okibe

Abstract:

This work present the effects of some gas metal arc welding parameters on the corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steel, exposed to 0.5M sodium hydroxide at ambient temperatures (298K) using conventional weight loss determination, together with surface morphology evaluation by scanning electron microscopy and the application of factorial design of experiment to determine welding conditions which enhance the integrity of the welded stainless steel. The welding variables evaluated include speed, voltage and current. Different samples of the welded stainless steels were immersed in the corrosion environment for 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 days and weight loss determined. From the results, it was found that increase in welding current and speed at constant voltage gave the optimum performance of the austenitic stainless steel in the environment. At a of speed 40cm/min, 110Amp current and voltage of 230 volt the welded stainless steel showed only a 0.0015mg loss in weight after 40 days. Pit-like openings were observed on the surface of the metals indicating corrosion but were minimal at the optimum conditions. It was concluded from the research that relatively high welding speed and current at a constant voltage gives a good welded austenitic stainless steel with better integrity.

Keywords: welding, current, speed, austenitic stainless steel, sodium hydroxide

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5544 University Students' Perspectives on a Mindfulness-Based App for Weight, Weight Related Behaviors, and Stress: A Qualitative Focus Group Study

Authors: Lynnette Lyzwinski, Liam Caffery, Matthew Bambling, Sisira Edirippulige

Abstract:

Introduction: A novel method of delivering mindfulness interventions for populations at risk of weight gain and stress-related eating, in particular, college students, is through mHealth. While there have been qualitative studies on mHealth for weight loss, there has not been a study on mHealth for weight loss using mindfulness that has explored student perspectives on a student centred mindfulness app and mindfulness-based text messages for eating and stress. Student perspective data will provide valuable information for creating a specific purpose weight management app and mindfulness-based text messages (for the Mindfulness App study). Methods: A qualitative focus group study was undertaken at St Lucia campus at the University of Queensland in March 2017. Students over the age of 18 were eligible to participate. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. One week following the focus group, students were sent sample mindfulness-based text messages based on their responses. Students provided written feedback via email. Data were analysed using N Vivo software. Results: The key themes in a future mindfulness-based app are a simple design interface, a focus on education/practical tips, and real-life practical exercises. Social media should be avoided. Key themes surrounding barriers include the perceived difficulty of mindfulness and a lack of proper guidance or knowledge. The mindfulness-based text messages were received positively. Key themes were creating messages with practical tips about how to be mindful and how to integrate mindful reflection of both one’s body and environment while on campus. Other themes including creating positive, inspirational messages. There was lack of agreement on the ideal timing for messages. Discussion: This is the first study that explored student perspectives on a mindfulness-app and mindfulness-based text messages for stress and weight management as a pre-trial study for the Mindfulness App trial for stress, lifestyle, and weight in students. It is important to consider maximizing the potential facilitators of use and minimize potential identified barriers when developing and designing a future mHealth mindfulness-based intervention tailored to the student consumer. Conclusion: Future mHealth studies may consider integrating mindfulness-based text messages in their interventions for weight and stress as this is a novel feature that appears to be acceptable for participants. The results of this focus group provide the basis to develop content for a specific purpose student app for weight management.

Keywords: mindfulness, college students, mHealth, weight loss

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5543 A Case Report on Therapeutic Approach in Cases of Anasarca in Neonates Dogs

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

Anasarca is generalized congenital edema that is often lethal. The condition is transmitted hereditarily and is autosomal dominant, with a racial predisposition in French Bulldogs and English Bulldogs. This study aims at reporting a case of anasarca treatment in neonates. The fetuses of a one year and six months old, primiparous English Bulldog mother were diagnosed with anasarca during an ultrasound examination performed at the 55th day of pregnancy and, therefore, an elective cesarean section was scheduled to prevent fetal dystocia. At birth, all puppies presented anasarca, and one of the six was stillborn. The newborns presented cyanosis, dyspnea, bradycardia, absent reflexes, low vitality scores (3/10), and hypothermia ( < 32ºC). The weight of the puppies at the time of birth varied between 347 and 373 grams, about 100 grams above the average weight estimated for the breed. Immediate neonatal care was applied with oxygen therapy via a mask, aminophylline (0.2 ml/100 g/PV/sublingual), and slow heating. After 10 minutes, there was a significant improvement in the neonatal parameters. The anasarca was treated with the drug furosemide, administered subcutaneously, at a dose of 0.2 mg per 100 grams of weight, every three hours. The stimulation for urination of newborns was performed every 30 minutes, and weight loss was monitored every 30 minutes. Five grams of potassium chloride were administered orally for every 30 grams of weight loss to counterbalance the loss of potassium caused by the diuretic medication. After 15 hours, the neonates reached the ideal weight for the breed, around 209 to 230 grams. In total, four neonates received five doses of furosemide, while one received six doses. The puppies are currently ten months old, healthy and neutered. Anasarca should not be ignored and is considered potentially lethal and an indication for euthanasia in all cases. Early intervention is of utmost importance for the survival of these patients.

Keywords: Walrus syndrome, congenital edema, water puppy syndrome, puppies

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5542 Effects of a 6-Month Caloric Restriction Induced-Weight Loss Program in Obese Postmenopausal Women with and without the Metabolic Syndrome: A MONET Study

Authors: Ahmed Ghachem, Denis Prud’homme, Rémi-Rabasa-Lhoret, M. Brochu

Abstract:

Objective: To compare the effects of a CR on body composition, lipid profile and glucose homeostasis in obese postmenopausal women with and without MetS. Methods: Secondary analyses were performed on seventy-three inactive obese postmenopausal women (age: 57.7 ± 4.8 yrs; body mass index: 32.4 ± 4.6 kg/m2) who participated in the 6-month caloric restriction arm of a study of the Montreal-Ottawa New Emerging Team. The harmonized MetS definition was used to categorized participants with MetS [n = 20, 27.39%] and without MetS [n = 53, 72.61%]. Variables of interest were: body composition (DXA), body fat distribution (CT scan), glucose homeostasis at the fasting state and during a euglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamp, fasting lipids and resting blood pressure. Results: By design, the MetS group had a worse cardiometabolic profile; while both groups were comparable for age. Fifty-five patients out of seventy-three displayed no change in MetS status after the intervention. Twelve participants out of twenty (or 60.0%) in the MetS group had no more MetS after weight loss (P= NS); while six participants out of fifty three (or 11.3%) in the other group developed the MetS after the intervention (P= NS). Overall, indices of body composition and body fat distribution improved significantly and similarly in both groups (P between 0.03 and 0.0001). Furthermore, with the exception of triglyceride levels and triglycerides/HDL-C ratio, which decrease significantly more in the MetS group (P ≤ 0.05), no difference was observed between groups for the other variables of the cardiometabolic profile. Conclusion: Despite no overall significant effects on MetS, heterogeneous results were obtained in response to weight loss in the present study; with some improving the MetS while other displaying deteriorations. Further studies are needed in order to identify factors and phenotypes associated with positive and negative cardiometabolic responses to CR intervention.

Keywords: menopause, obesity, physical inactivity, metabolic syndrome, caloric restriction, weight loss

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5541 Effect of Waste Foundry Slag and Alccofine on Durability Properties of High Strength Concrete

Authors: Devinder Sharma, Sanjay Sharma, Ajay Goyal, Ashish Kapoor

Abstract:

The present research paper discussed the durability properties of high strength concrete (HSC) using Foundry Slag(FD) as partial substitute for fine aggregates (FA) and Alccofine (AF) in addition to portland pozzolana (PPC) cement. Specimens of Concrete M100 grade with water/binder ratio 0.239, with Foundry Slag (FD) varying from 0 to 50% and with optimum quantity of AF(15%) were casted and tested for durability properties such as Water absorption, water permeability, resistance to sulphate attack, alkali attack and nitrate attack of HSC at the age of 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days. Substitution of fine aggregates (FA) with up to 45% of foundry slag(FD) content and cement with 15% substitution and addition of alccofine showed an excellent resistance against durability properties at all ages but showed a decrease in these properties with 50% of FD contents. Loss of weight in concrete samples due to sulphate attack, alkali attack and nitrate attack of HSC at the age of 365 days was compared with loss in compressive strength. Correlation between loss in weight and loss in compressive strength in all the tests was found to be excellent.

Keywords: alccofine, alkali attack, foundry slag, high strength concrete, nitrate attack, water absorption, water permeability

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5540 Irregular Meal Pattern: What Is the Impact on Weight

Authors: Maha Alhussain, Moira A Taylor, Ian A. Macdonald

Abstract:

Background: It is well established that dietary composition has effects on metabolism and therefore impacts on health; however other aspects of diet, such as meal pattern, could also be important in both obesity management and promoting health. The present study investigated the effect of irregular meal frequency on anthropometric measurements and energy expenditure (EE) in healthy women. Design: 11 healthy weight women (18–40 years) were studied in a randomized crossover trial with two phases of 2 weeks each. In Phase 1, participants consumed either a regular meal pattern (6 meals/day) or an irregular meal pattern (varying from 3 to 9 meals/day). In Phase 2, participants followed the alternative meal pattern to that followed in Phase 1, after a 2-weeks washout period. In the two phases, identical foods were provided to a participant in amounts designed to keep body weight constant. Participants came to the laboratory after an overnight fast at the start and end of each phase. EE was measured in fasting state by indirect calorimetry. Postprandial EE was measured during the 3 h period after consumption of a milkshake, test drink. Results: There were no significant changes in body weight and anthropometric measurements after both meal pattern interventions. There was also no significant difference in mean daily energy intake between the regular and irregular meal pattern (2043 ±31 and 2099 ±33 respectively). EE in the fasting state showed no significant differences cross the experiment visits. There was a significant difference in Postprandial EE (measured for 3 h) by visit (P=0.04). Postprandial EE after the regular meal pattern was significantly higher than at baseline (P=0.002) or than after the irregular meal pattern (P= 0.04). Conclusion: Eating regularly for 14-day period significantly increases Postprandial EE which may contribute to weight loss and obesity management.

Keywords: energy expenditure, energy intake, meal pattern, weight loss

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5539 Studies of the Corrosion Kinetics of Metal Alloys in Stagnant Simulated Seawater Environment

Authors: G. Kabir, A. M. Mohammed, M. A. Bawa

Abstract:

The paper presents corrosion behaviors of Naval Brass, aluminum alloy and carbon steel in simulated seawater under stagnant conditions. The behaviors were characterized on the variation of chloride ions concentration in the range of 3.0wt% and 3.5wt% and exposure time. The weight loss coupon-method immersion technique was employed. The weight loss for the various alloys was measured. Based on the obtained results, the corrosion rate was determined. It was found that the corrosion rates of the various alloys are related to the chloride ions concentrations, exposure time and kinetics of passive film formation of the various alloys. Carbon steel, suffers corrosion many folds more than Naval Brass. This indicated that the alloy exhibited relatively strong resistance to corrosion in the exposure environment of the seawater. Whereas, the aluminum alloy exhibited an excellent and beneficial resistance to corrosion more than the Naval Brass studied. Despite the prohibitive cost, Naval Brass and aluminum alloy, indicated to have beneficial corrosion behavior that can offer wide range of application in seashore operations. The corrosion kinetics parameters indicated that the corrosion reaction is limited by diffusion mass transfer of the corrosion reaction elements and not by reaction controlled.

Keywords: alloys, chloride ions concentration, corrosion kinetics, corrosion rate, diffusion mass transfer, exposure time, seawater, weight loss

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5538 Mechanical and Micro-Structural Properties of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer with High-Temperature Exposure

Authors: Young-Cheol Choi, Joo-Hyung Kim, Gyu-Don Moon

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effect of Na2O (alkali) content, SiO2/Na2O mole ratio, and elevated temperature on the mechanical performance of fly-ash-based inorganic green geopolymer composites. Fly-ash-based geopolymers, which were manufactured with varying alkali contents (4–8 % of fly ash weight) and SiO2/Na2O mole ratios (0.6–1.4), were subjected to elevated temperatures up to 900 ºC ; the geopolymer composites and their performance were evaluated on the basis of weight loss and strength loss after temperature exposure. In addition, mineralogical changes due to the elevated temperature exposure were studied using x-ray diffraction. Investigations of microstructures and microprobe analysis were performed using mercury intrusion porosimetry. The results showed that the fly-ash-based geopolymer responded significantly to high-temperature conditions.

Keywords: fly ash, geopolymer, micro-structure, high-temperature, mechanical structural

Procedia PDF Downloads 531