Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 389

Search results for: maxillofacial trauma

389 Maxillofacial Trauma: A Case of Diacapitular Condylar Fracture

Authors: Krishna Prasad Regmi, Jun-Bo Tu, Cheng-Qun Hou, Li-Feng Li

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Maxillofacial trauma in a pediatric group of patients is particularly challenging, as these patients have significant differences from adults as far as the facial skeleton is concerned. Mandibular condylar fractures are common presentations to hospitals across the globe and remain the most important cause of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis. The etiology and epidemiology of pediatric trauma involving the diacapitular condylar fractures (DFs) have been reported in a large series of patients. Nevertheless, little is known about treatment protocols for DFs in children. Accordingly, the treatment modalities for the management of pediatric fractures also differ. We suggest following the PDA and intracapsular ABC classification of condylar fracture to increase the overall postoperative satisfaction level that bypasses the change of subjective feelings of patients’ from preoperative to the postoperative condition. At the same time, use of 3-D technology and surgical navigation may also increase treatment accuracy.

Keywords: maxillofacial trauma, diacapitular fracture, condylar fracture, PDA classification

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388 Midface Trauma: Outpatient Follow-Up and Surgical Treatment Times

Authors: Divya Pathak, James Sloane

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Surgical treatment of midface fractures should ideally occur within two weeks of injury, after which bony healing and consolidation make the repair more difficult for the operating surgeon. The oral and maxillofacial unit at the Royal Surrey Hospital is the tertiary referral center for maxillofacial trauma from five regional hospitals. This is a complete audit cycle of midface trauma referrals managed over a one year period. The standard set was that clinical assessment of the midface fracture would take place in a consultant led outpatient clinic within 7 days, and when indicated, surgical fixation would occur within 10 days of referral. Retrospective data was collected over one year (01/11/2018 - 31/12/2019). Three key changes were implemented: an IT referral mailbox, standardization of an on-call trauma table, and creation of a trauma theatre list. Re-audit was carried out over six months completing the cycle. 283 midface fracture referrals were received, of which 22 patients needed surgical fixation. The average time from referral to outpatient follow-up improved from 14.5 days to 8.3 days, and time from referral to surgery improved from 21.5 days to 11.6 days. Changes implemented in this audit significantly improved patient prioritization to appropriate outpatient clinics and shortened time to surgical intervention.

Keywords: maxillofacial trauma, midface trauma, oral and maxillofacial surgery, surgery fixation

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387 Reflections from Participants and Researchers on a Trauma-Sensitive Yoga Program

Authors: Jessica Gladden

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This study explored the perceived benefits of trauma-sensitive yoga programs. Participants attended one of two six-week trauma-sensitive yoga programs utilizing the G.R.A.C.E model, a format developed based on Emerson’s trauma-sensitive yoga guidelines and modified by the instructors. Participants in this study completed surveys on their experiences. The results of the surveys indicated that participants perceived improvements in self-care, embodiment, and mood. These results show that trauma-sensitive yoga may have benefits beyond the treatment of specific diagnoses that could be applied to a variety of populations. Reflections from one of the researchers who teaches in this program, as well as qualitative statements from the participants, will be shared to support the continued use of this method.

Keywords: yoga, trauma-sensitive, yoga therapy, trauma

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386 Trauma in the Unconsoled: A Crisis of the Self

Authors: Assil Ghariri

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This article studies the process of rewriting the self through memory in Kazuo Ishiguro’s novel, the Unconsoled (1995). It deals with the journey that the protagonist Mr. Ryder takes through the unconscious, in search for his real self, in which trauma stands as an obstacle. The article uses Carl Jung’s theory of archetypes. Trauma, in this article, is discussed as one of the true obstacles of the unconscious that prevent people from realizing the truth about their selves.

Keywords: Carl Jung, Kazuo Ishiguro, memory, trauma

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385 Retrospective Casenote Audit of Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Maxillofacial Patients

Authors: Joshua Abraham, Craig Wales

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Abstract—SIGN Guideline 122 recommends that all patients who are admitted to hospital are assessed for venous thromboembolism risk within 24 hours of admission. NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde provide guidance on this in the form of a proforma. Patients are then subsequently prescribed either thrombo-embolic-deterrent stockings (TEDS)/low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for the prevention of VTE based on their score. A retrospective casenote audit of a random sample of fifty oncology and trauma inpatients at the QEUH in December 2019 was performed. 90% of patients had a risk assessment conducted as evidenced by a completed proforma. In 78% of these patients, the proforma fully completed. Overall 94% of patients had some for of thromboprophylaxis prescribed in the form of TEDS or LMWH. A lack of 100% compliance against the given standards highlighted potential implications for patient safety, but also medico-legal ramifications for staff. Clinical judgement can only be relied upon if there is written documentation as evidence. Further staff education and the suggestion of a written prompt to the clerk-in documentation will hopefully improve compliance, whilst a repeat audit should demonstrate any improvement.

Keywords: Maxillofacial , Thromboembolism, Thromboprophylaxis , Prescription

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
384 Transmission of Intergenerational Trauma: Protecting Those who Still Suffer from Pain of their Ancestors’ Trauma

Authors: Bonnie Pollak

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As the world continues to suffer grievous injuries, future generations will suffer from trauma that was inflicted on innocent victims. Trauma can result from refugees fleeing their homes, exposure to warfare, loss of loved ones, and lack of shelter and basic necessities. The Holocaust continues to cause pain even though WWII ended nearly 80 years ago. One cannot forget the inhumane treatment and murder of relatives. The pain and trauma may continue for generations. The purpose of the Final Solution was to eliminate Jews in totality. Though Hitler’s plan was not successful, he managed to cause trauma that will continue with no end date in sight. “The Effects of Trauma and Secondary Trauma,” Trauma can cause life-long challenges, eating disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer, sleeping difficulties, fear of going outside, guilt, separation problems, and epigenetic changes. Secondary Trauma, witnessing a loved one in danger or hearing about the danger, can cause similar symptoms as seen in primary trauma. The transmission of trauma was demonstrated in children of Holocaust survivors and in communities where oppression was commonplace. We are witnessing a repeat of widescale death and horrific injuries today in Ukraine and in other parts of the world, where concern for pain and trauma is not acknowledged by perpetrators. Lessons from the Holocaust can be applied to help others who have been traumatized by widescale terrorism resulting in death of loved ones, loss of home and shelter, food and other life-sustaining measures. The world must help victims by providing basic necessities but also by using trauma-informed care, focusing on strength and resilience, and helping individuals to feel pride in their identity.

Keywords: transmission of intergenerational trauma, impact on religious beliefs and practices, 2nd generation, identity

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383 Trauma-Informed Leadership: Educational Leadership Practices in a Global Pandemic

Authors: Kyna Elliott

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The COVID-19 global pandemic has changed the shape, design, and delivery of education. As communities continue to fight the pandemic, research suggests the coronavirus is leaving an indelible mark on education which will last long after the pandemic has ended. Faculty and students bring more than their textbooks into the classroom. They bring their lived experiences into the classroom, and it is through these lived experiences that interactions and learning filter through. The COVID-19 pandemic has proved to be a traumatic experience for many. Leaders will need to have the tools and skills to mitigate trauma's impact on faculty and students. This presentation will explore research-based trauma-informed leadership practices, pedagogy, and mitigation strategies within secondary school environments.

Keywords: COVID-19, compassion fatigue, educational leadership, the science of trauma, trauma-informed leadership, trauma-informed pedagogy

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382 Perpetrator Trauma in Current World Cinema

Authors: Raya Morag

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This paper proposes a new paradigm for cinema/trauma studies - the trauma of the perpetrator. Canonical trauma research from Freud’s Aetiology of Hysteria to the present has been carried out from the perspective of identification with the victim, as have cinema trauma research and contemporary humanities-based trauma studies, climaxing during the 1990s in widespread interest in the victim vis-à-vis the Holocaust, war, and domestic violence. Breaking over 100 years of repression of the abhorrent and rejected concept of the perpetrator in psychoanalytic-based research proposes an uncanny shift in our conception of psychoanalysis' trajectory from women's 'hysteria' to 'post-traumatic stress disorder'. This new paradigm is driven by the global emergence of new waves of films (2007-2015) representing trauma suffered by perpetrators involved in the new style of war entailing deliberate targeting of non-combatants. Analyzing prominent examples from Israeli post-second Intifada documentaries (e.g., Ari Folman’s Waltz with Bashir), and post post-Iraq (and Afghanistan) War American documentaries (e.g., Errol Morris' Standard Operating Procedure), the paper discusses the limitations of victim trauma by the firm boundaries it (rightly) set in order to defend such victims of nineteenth and especially twentieth-century catastrophes; the epistemological processes needed in order to consider perpetrators’ trauma as an inevitable part of psychiatric-psychological and cultural perspectives on trauma, and, thus, the definition of perpetrators' trauma in contrast to victims'. It also analyzes the perpetrator's figure in order to go beyond the limitation of current trauma theory's relation to the Real, thus transgressing the 'unspeakableness' of the trauma itself. The paper seeks an exploration of what perpetrator trauma teaches us not only as a counter-paradigm to victim trauma, but as a reflection on the complex intertwining of the two paradigms in the twenty-first century collective new war unconscious, and on what psychoanalysis might offer us in the first decade of this terrorized-ethnicized century.

Keywords: American war documentaries, Israeli war documentaries, 'new war', perpetrator trauma

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381 Self Determination Theory and Trauma Informed Approach in Women's Shelters: A Common Ground

Authors: Gamze Dogan Birer

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Women’s shelters provide service to women who had been subjected to physical, psychological, economical, and sexual violence. It is proposed that adopting a trauma-informed approach in these shelters would contribute to the ‘woman-defined’ success of the service. This includes reshaping the physical qualities of the shelter, contacts, and interventions that women face during their stay in a way that accepts and addresses their traumatic experiences. It is stated in this paper that the trauma-informed approach has commonalities with the basic psychological needs that are proposed by self-determination theory. Therefore, it is proposed that self-determination theory can be used as a theoretical background for trauma-informed approach

Keywords: self determination theory, trauma informed approach, violence against women, women's shelters

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380 Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Midfacial: Nasal Defects

Authors: Bilal Ahmed

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Rehabilitation of congenital and acquired maxillofacial defects is always a challenging clinical scenario. These defects pose major physiological and psychological threat not only to the patient but to the entire family. There has been an enormous scientific development in maxillofacial rehabilitation with the advent of CAD CAM, 3-D scanning, Osseo-integrated implants and improved restorative materials. There are also specialized centers with latest diagnostic and treatment facilities in the developed countries. However, in certain clinical case scenarios, conventional prosthodontic principles are still the gold standards. Similarly in a less developed world, financial and technical constraints are factors affecting treatment planning and final outcomes. However, we can do a lot of benefits to the affected human beings, even with use of simple and cost-effective conventional prosthodontic techniques and materials. These treatment strategies may sometimes be considered as intermediate or temporary options, but with regular follow-up maintenance these can be used on a definitive basis.

Keywords: maxillofacial defects, obturators, prosthodontics, medical and health sciences

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379 Implementation of an Accessible State-Wide Trauma Education Program

Authors: Christine Lassen, Elizabeth Leonard, Matthew Oliver

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The management of trauma is often complex and outcomes dependent on clinical expertise, effective teamwork, and a supported trauma system. The implementation of a statewide trauma education program should be accessible to all clinicians who manage trauma, but this can be challenging due to diverse individual needs, trauma service needs and geography. The NSW Institute of Trauma and Injury Management (ITIM) is a government funded body, responsible for coordinating and supporting the NSW Trauma System. The aim of this presentation is to describe how education initiatives have been implemented across the state. Simulation: In 2006, ITIM developed a Trauma Team Training Course - aimed to educate clinicians on the technical and non-technical skills required to manage trauma. The course is now independently coordinated by trauma services across the state at major trauma centres as well as in regional and rural hospitals. ITIM is currently in the process of re-evaluating and updating the Trauma Team Training Course to allow for the development of new resources and simulation scenarios. Trauma Education Evenings: In 2013, ITIM supported major trauma services to develop trauma education evenings which allowed the provision of free education to staff within the area health service and local area. The success of these local events expanded to regional hospitals. A total of 75 trauma education evenings have been conducted within NSW, with over 10,000 attendees. Wed-Based Resources: Recently, ITIM commenced free live streaming of the trauma education evenings which have now had over 3000 live views. The Trauma App developed in 2015 provides trauma clinicians with a centralised portal for trauma information and works on smartphones and tablets that integrate with the ITIM website. This supports pre-hospital and bedside clinical decisions and allows for trauma care to be more standardised, evidence-based, timely, and appropriate. Online e-Learning modules have been developed to assist clinicians, reduce unwarranted clinical variation and provide up to date evidence based education. The modules incorporate clinically focused education content with summative and formative assessments. Conclusion: Since 2005, ITIM has helped to facilitate the development of trauma education programs for doctors, nurses, pre-hospital and allied health clinicians. ITIM has been actively involved in more than 100 specialized trauma education programs, seminars and clinical workshops - attended by over 12,000 staff. The provision of state-wide trauma education is a challenging task requiring collaboration amongst numerous agencies working towards a common goal – to provide easily accessible trauma education.

Keywords: education, simulation, team-training, trauma

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378 Predicting the Relationship Between Childhood Trauma on the Formation of Defense Mechanisms with the Mediating Role of Object Relations in Traders

Authors: Ahmadreza Jabalameli, Mohammad Ebrahimpour Borujeni

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According to psychodynamic theories, the major personality structure of individuals is formed in the first years of life. Trauma is an inseparable and undeniable part of everyone's life and they inevitably struggle with many traumas that can have a very significant impact on their lives. The present study deals with the relationship between childhood trauma on the formation of defense mechanisms and the role of object relations. The present descriptive study is a correlation with structural equation modeling (SEM). Sample selection is available and consists of 200 knowledgeable traders in Jabalameli Information Technology Company. The results indicate that the experience of childhood trauma with a demographic moderating effect, through the mediating role of object relations can lead to vulnerability to ego reality functionality and immature and psychically disturbed defense mechanisms. In this regard, there is a significant negative relationship between childhood trauma and object relations with mature defense mechanisms.

Keywords: childhood trauma, defense mechanisms, object relations, trade

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377 An Autopsy Case of Blunt Chest Trauma from a Traffic Accident Complicated by Chest Compression Due to Resuscitation Attempts

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

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Coronary artery dissection leading to acute myocardial infarction after blunt chest trauma is extremely rare. A 67-year-old woman suffered blunt chest trauma following a traffic accident. The electrocardiogram revealed acute posterior ST-segment elevation and myocardial infarction and coronary angiography demonstrated acute right coronary artery dissection. Following the death of the victim an autopsy was performed after cardiopulmonary support had been carried out. In this case report, we describe the case of a woman with blunt chest trauma, who developed an acute myocardial infarction secondary to right coronary artery dissection. Although there was additional the blunt chest trauma due to chest compression, we confirmed the injury at autopsy and by histological findings.

Keywords: blunt chest trauma, right coronary artery dissection, coronary angiography, autopsy, histological examination

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376 Acute Kidney Injury in Severe Trauma Patients: Clinical Presentation and Risk Factor Analysis

Authors: Inkyong Yi

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Acute kidney injury (AKI) in trauma patients is known to be associated with multiple factors, especially shock and consequent inadequate renal perfusion, yet its clinical presentation is little known in severe trauma patients. Our aim was to investigate the clinical presentation of acute kidney injury and its outcome in severe trauma patients at a level I trauma center. A total of 93 consecutive adult trauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) of more than 15 were analyzed retrospectively from our Level I trauma center data base. Patients with direct renal injury were excluded. Patients were dichotomized into two groups, according to the presence of AKI. Various clinical parameters were compared between two groups, with Student’s T test and Mann-Whitney’s U test. The AKI group was further dichotomized into patients who recovered within seven days, and those who required more than 7days for recovery or those who did not recover at all. Various clinical parameters associated with outcome were further analyzed. Patients with AKI (n=33, 35%) presented with significantly higher age (61.4±17.3 vs. 45.4±17.3, p < 0.0001), incidence of comorbidities (hypertension; 51.5% vs. 13.3%, OR 6.906 95%CI 2.515-18.967, diabetes; 27.3% vs. 6.7%, OR 5.250, 95%CI 1.472-18.722), odds of head and neck trauma (69.7% vs. 41.7%, OR 3.220, 95%CI 1.306-7.942) and presence of shock during emergency room care (66.7% vs 21.7% OR 7.231, 95%CI, 2.798-18.687). Among AKI patients, patients who recovered within 1 week showed lower peak lactate (4.7mmol/L, 95%CI 2.9-6.5 vs 7.3mmol/L, 95%CI 5.0-9.6, p < 0.0287), lesser units of transfusion during first 24 hours (pRBC; 20.4unit, 95%CI 12.5-28.3 vs. 58.9unit, 95%CI 39.4-78.5, p=0.0003, FFP; 16.6unit, 95%CI 6.8-26.4 vs. 56.1unit, 95%CI 26.9-85.2, p=0.0027). In severe trauma patients, patients with AKI showed different clinical presentations and worse outcomes. Initial presence of shock and higher DIC profiles may be important risk factors for AKI in severe trauma patients. In patients with AKI, peak lactate level and amounts of transfusion are related to recovery.

Keywords: acute kidney injury, lactate, transfusion, trauma

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375 Voice in Music Therapy and Adult Trauma Research: Presenting a Meta-Synthesis of Lived Experience Perspectives

Authors: Kirsten B. Hillman

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There is a growing body of qualitative research in adult mental health and music therapy contexts which highlights user perspectives; however, only a very small sub-section of this literature pertains to people with lived experiences of psychological trauma. This paper will provide a meta-synthesis of this existing body of research, with the intention to present a cohesive overview of salient themes in this research and a platform for the under-represented voices of those with lived experience. This synthesis will be contextualised within a broader discussion of ‘Voice’ in trauma and music therapy research, considering its layered meanings: including literal expressive vocalising and musical expression, voicing after experiences of silencing, and the possibilities of experiencing self-determination and agency in therapy after trauma.

Keywords: lived experience, music therapy, trauma, user perspectives

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374 Paucity of Trauma Literature from a Highly Burdened Developing Country

Authors: Rizwan Sultan, Hasnain Zafar

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Trauma is the leading cause of death among young population not only in USA but Pakistan as well. The high prevalence of disease should result in larger amount of data and larger number of publications resulting in exploring room for improvement in the field. We aimed to review trauma literature generated from Pakistan in journals indexed with PubMed from January 2010 to December 2014. Search using term “Trauma AND Pakistan” filtering for relevant dates and species human was done on Pubmed. The abstracts and articles were reviewed by the authors to collect data on a preformed performa. 114 articles were published from Pakistan during these 5 years. 64% articles were published in international journals. 63% articles were published in journals with impact factor less than 1. 54% articles were published from one of the four provinces of Pakistan. 64% of articles provided level 4 while 14% articles provided level 5 evidence on the topic. 55% articles discussed epidemiology in non-representative populations. Trauma literature from Pakistan is not only lacking significantly but is also of poor quality and is unable to offer conclusions on this particular subject. There is a lot of space for improvement in the upcoming years.

Keywords: trauma, literature, Pakistan, level of evidence

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373 Autopsy-Based Study of Abdominal Traffic Trauma Death after Emergency Room Arrival

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

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We experience the autopsy cases that the deceased was alive in emergency room on arrival. Bleeding is the leading cause of preventable death after injury. This retrospective study aimed to characterize opportunities for performance improvement identified in patients who died from traffic trauma and were considered by the quality improvement of education system. The Japan Advanced Trauma Evaluation and Care (JATEC) education program was introduced in 2002. We focused the abdominal traffic trauma injury. An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 41 post-mortems of road traffic accident between April 1999 and March 2014 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science. 16 patients (39.0%) were abdominal trauma injury. The mean period of survival after meet with accident was 13.5 hours, compared abdominal trauma death was 27.4 hours longer. In road traffic accidents, the most injured abdominal organs were liver followed by mesentery. We thought delayed treatment was associated with immediate diagnostic imaging, and so expected to expand trauma management examination.

Keywords: abdominal traffic trauma, preventable death, autopsy, emergency medicine

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372 Optic Nerve Sheath Measurement in Children with Head Trauma

Authors: Sabiha Sahin, Kursad Bora Carman, Coskun Yarar

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Introduction: Measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath is a noninvasive and easy to use imaging technique to predict intracranial pressure in children and adults. The aim was to measure the diameter of the optic nerve sheath in pediatric head trauma. Methods: The study group consisted of 40 children with healthy and 40 patients with head trauma. Transorbital sonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter was performed. Conclusion: The mean diameters of the optic nerve sheath of right and left eyes were 0.408 ± 0.064 mm and 0.417 ± 0.065 mm, respectively, in the trauma group. These results were higher in patients than in control group. There was a negative correlation between optic nerve sheath diameters and Glasgow Coma Scales in patients with head trauma (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between optic nerve sheath diameters and positive CT findings, systolic blood pressure in patients with head trauma. The clinical status of the patients at admission, blood pH and lactate level were related to the optic nerve sheath diameter. Conclusion: Measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath is not an invasive technique and can be easily used to predict increased intracranial pressure and to prevent secondary brain injury.

Keywords: head trauma, intracranial pressure, optic nerve, sonography

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371 The Investigation of Predictor Affect of Childhood Trauma, Dissociation, Alexithymia, and Gender on Dissociation in University Students

Authors: Gizem Akcan, Erdinc Ozturk

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The purpose of the study was to determine some psychosocial variables that predict dissociation in university students. These psychosocial variables were perceived childhood trauma, alexithymia, and gender. 150 (75 males, 75 females) university students (bachelor, master and postgraduate) were enrolled in this study. They were chosen from universities in Istanbul at the education year of 2016-2017. Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Toronto Alexithymia Scale were used to assess related variables. Demographic Information Form was given to students in order to have their demographic information. Frequency Distribution, Linear Regression Analysis, and t-test analysis were used for statistical analysis. Childhood trauma and alexithymia were found to have predictive value on dissociation among university students. However, physical abuse, physical neglect and emotional neglect sub dimensions of childhood trauma and externally-oriented thinking sub dimension of alexithymia did not have predictive value on dissociation. Moreover, there was no significant difference between males and females in terms of dissociation scores of participants.

Keywords: childhood trauma, dissociation, alexithymia, gender

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370 The Relationship between Human Neutrophil Elastase Levels and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Patients with Thoracic Trauma

Authors: Wahyu Purnama Putra, Artono Isharanto

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Thoracic trauma is trauma that hits the thoracic wall or intrathoracic organs, either due to blunt trauma or sharp trauma. Thoracic trauma often causes impaired ventilation-perfusion due to damage to the lung parenchyma. This results in impaired tissue oxygenation, which is one of the causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). These changes are caused by the release of pro-inflammatory mediators, plasmatic proteins, and proteases into the alveolar space associated with ongoing edema, as well as oxidative products that ultimately result in severe inhibition of the surfactant system. This study aims to predict the incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) through human neutrophil elastase levels. This study examines the relationship between plasma elastase levels as a predictor of the incidence of ARDS in thoracic trauma patients in Malang. This study is an observational cohort study. Data analysis uses the Pearson correlation test and ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic curve). It can be concluded that there is a significant (p= 0.000, r= -0.988) relationship between elastase levels and BGA-3. If the value of elastase levels is limited to 23.79 ± 3.95, the patient will experience mild ARDS. While if the value of elastase levels is limited to 57.68 ± 18.55, in the future, the patient will experience moderate ARDS. Meanwhile, if the elastase level is between 107.85 ± 5.04, the patient will likely experience severe ARDS. Neutrophil elastase levels correlate with the degree of severity of ARDS incidence.

Keywords: ARDS, human neutrophil elastase, severity, thoracic trauma

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369 Trauma after Childbirth: The Mediating Effects of Subjective Experience

Authors: Grace Baptie, Jackie Andrade, Alison Bacon, Alyson Norman

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Background: Many women experience their childbirth as traumatic, and 4-6% of mothers present with postnatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of their birth. Aims: To measure the relationship between obstetric and subjective experience of childbirth on mothers’ experience of postnatal trauma and identify salient aspects of the birth experience considered traumatic. Methods: Women who had given birth within the last year completed an online mixed-methods survey reporting on their subjective and obstetric birth experience as well as symptoms of postnatal trauma, depression and anxiety. Findings: 29% of mothers experienced their labour as traumatic and 15% met full or partial criteria for PTSD. Feeling supported and in control mediated the relationship between obstetric intervention and postnatal trauma symptoms. Five key themes were identified from the qualitative data regarding aspects of the birth considered traumatic including: obstetric complications; lack of control; concern for baby; psychological trauma and lack of support. Conclusion: Subjective birth experience is a significantly stronger predictor of postnatal trauma than level of medical intervention, the psychological consequences of which can be buffered by an increased level of support and control.

Keywords: birth trauma, perinatal mental health, postnatal PTSD, subjective experience

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368 Trauma Scores and Outcome Prediction After Chest Trauma

Authors: Mohamed Abo El Nasr, Mohamed Shoeib, Abdelhamid Abdelkhalik, Amro Serag

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Background: Early assessment of severity of chest trauma, either blunt or penetrating is of critical importance in prediction of patient outcome. Different trauma scoring systems are widely available and are based on anatomical or physiological parameters to expect patient morbidity or mortality. Up till now, there is no ideal, universally accepted trauma score that could be applied in all trauma centers and is suitable for assessment of severity of chest trauma patients. Aim: Our aim was to compare various trauma scoring systems regarding their predictability of morbidity and mortality in chest trauma patients. Patients and Methods: This study was a prospective study including 400 patients with chest trauma who were managed at Tanta University Emergency Hospital, Egypt during a period of 2 years (March 2014 until March 2016). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the mode of trauma: blunt or penetrating. The collected data included age, sex, hemodynamic status on admission, intrathoracic injuries, and associated extra-thoracic injuries. The patients outcome including mortality, need of thoracotomy, need for ICU admission, need for mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay and the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome were also recorded. The relevant data were used to calculate the following trauma scores: 1. Anatomical scores including abbreviated injury scale (AIS), Injury severity score (ISS), New injury severity score (NISS) and Chest wall injury scale (CWIS). 2. Physiological scores including revised trauma score (RTS), Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score. 3. Combined score including Trauma and injury severity score (TRISS ) and 4. Chest-Specific score Thoracic trauma severity score (TTSS). All these scores were analyzed statistically to detect their sensitivity, specificity and compared regarding their predictive power of mortality and morbidity in blunt and penetrating chest trauma patients. Results: The incidence of mortality was 3.75% (15/400). Eleven patients (11/230) died in blunt chest trauma group, while (4/170) patients died in penetrating trauma group. The mortality rate increased more than three folds to reach 13% (13/100) in patients with severe chest trauma (ISS of >16). The physiological scores APACHE II and RTS had the highest predictive value for mortality in both blunt and penetrating chest injuries. The physiological score APACHE II followed by the combined score TRISS were more predictive for intensive care admission in penetrating injuries while RTS was more predictive in blunt trauma. Also, RTS had a higher predictive value for expectation of need for mechanical ventilation followed by the combined score TRISS. APACHE II score was more predictive for the need of thoracotomy in penetrating injuries and the Chest-Specific score TTSS was higher in blunt injuries. The anatomical score ISS and TTSS score were more predictive for prolonged hospital stay in penetrating and blunt injuries respectively. Conclusion: Trauma scores including physiological parameters have a higher predictive power for mortality in both blunt and penetrating chest trauma. They are more suitable for assessment of injury severity and prediction of patients outcome.

Keywords: chest trauma, trauma scores, blunt injuries, penetrating injuries

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367 Exploring the Link between Hoarding Disorder and Trauma: A Scoping Review

Authors: Murray Anderson, Galina Freed, Karli Jahn

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Trauma is increasingly recognized as an important construct that has health implications for those who struggle with various mental health issues. For those individuals who meet the criteria for a diagnosis of hoarding disorder (HD), many have experienced some form of trauma. Further, some of the therapeutic interventions for those with HD can further perpetuate or magnify the experience of trauma. Therefore, the aim of this scoping review is to identify and document the nature and extent of research evidence related to trauma as it connects with HD. This review was guided by the questions, ‘How can our understanding of the trauma cycle help us to better appreciate the experiences of individuals who hoard, and how will a trauma informed lens inform the interventions for hoarding disorder? A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify original studies that contained the words “hoarding” and “trauma.” PsychINFO”,''EBSCO host,” “CINAHL” and “PubMed” were searched between January 2005 and April 2021. Articles were screened by three reviewers. Data extracted included publication date, demographics, study design, type of analysis, and noted connections between hoarding and trauma. Of the 329 articles, all duplicates, articles on hoardings of animals, articles not in English, and those without full-text availability were removed. Five categories were found in the remaining 45 articles, including (a) traumatic and stressful life events; (b) the link between posttraumatic stress disorder, trauma, and hoarding; (c) the relationships between different comorbidities, trauma, and hoarding; (d) the lack of early emotional expression and other forms of parental deprivation; and (e) the role of attachment. Lastly, the literature explains how the links between hoarding and trauma are difficult to study due to the highly stigmatized identities with this population. The review provided strong support for the connections between the experience of trauma and HD. What is missing from the literature is the use of a trauma-informed lens to better account for the ways in which hoarding disorder is understood. Other missing pieces in the literature are the potential uses of a trauma-informed lens to enhance the therapeutic process, to understand and reduce treatment attrition, and to improve treatment outcomes. The application of a trauma informed lens could improve our understanding of effective interactions among clients, families, and communities and improve the education around hoarding-related matters. Exploring the connections between trauma and HD can improve therapeutic delivery and destigmatize the experience of dealing with clutter and hoarding concerns. This awareness can also provide health care professionals with both the language and skills to liberate them from a reductionist view on HD.

Keywords: hoarding, attachment, parental deprivation, trauma

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366 The Continuation of Trauma through Transcribing: Second Generation Survivors and the Inability for a 'Post-Holocaust'

Authors: Sarah Snyder

Abstract:

Historians use the term ‘post-Holocaust’ to indicate the period from 1945 onward; however, for survivors of the Holocaust and their families, the Holocaust did not end in 1945. In fact, for some, it was just the beginning of their struggles. There are those who could not return to their homes, find loved ones, or fight off night terrors. Additionally, they continue to suffer from mental illness or physical disease stemming from the Holocaust. In order for historians to have a clearer understanding of the trauma survivors have endured, it is must to approach time differently. Trauma does not operate on a timeline and thereby, our understanding of ‘before,’ ‘during’ and ‘after’ are flawed. In order to convey this flaw, this study will examine memoirs of second and third-generation survivors and of child survivors. Within the second and third generation group, there are two types of generational memoirs that are scrutinized for this case study. The first being when a child or grandchild records the stories of their parent(s) or grandparent(s) without any of the second or third generation’s stories implicitly written. ‘Implicitly’ is used in the context that it is impossible for any writer to not impose at least some stylistic portion of themselves into writing, but the intent was to focus on the parent or grandparent. The other type of memoir is when they write their parent(s) or grandparent(s) story intertwined with their own story. Additionally, the child survivor has a unique role in memory and trauma studies. Much like later generations who write about the Holocaust but have not experienced the trauma firsthand, the child survivor must write about what they lived through and experienced but cannot remember without the assistance of research or other survivors. This study shows that survivors continue to demonstrate trauma-related paranoia. They fear experiencing another Holocaust. In their minds, they replay the horrors that they had experienced. A pilgrimage to a 20th century Europe, unlike one of the 1940s, causes uncertainty, confusion, and additional paranoia. It is through these findings that it becomes evident that historians must learn to study trauma without placing strict timelines that prevent understanding of how trauma impacts those who have experienced complex trauma.

Keywords: holocaust, generational, memoirs, trauma

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365 Predictors of Childhood Trauma and Dissociation in University Students

Authors: Erdinc Ozturk, Gizem Akcan

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine some psychosocial variables that predict childhood trauma and dissociation in university students. These psychosocial variables were perceived social support, relationship status, gender and life satisfaction. 250 (125 males, 125 females) university students (bachelor, master and postgraduate degree) were enrolled in this study. They were chosen from universities in Istanbul at the education year of 2016-2017. Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale and Relationship Scales Questionnaire were used to assess related variables. Demographic information form was given to students in order to have their demographic information. Frequency distribution, multiple linear regression, and t-test analysis were used for statistical analysis. As together, perceived social support, relationship status and life satisfaction were found to have predictive value on trauma among university students. However, as together, these psychosocial variables did not have predictive value on dissociation. Only, trauma and relationship status had significant predictive value on dissociation. Moreover, there was significant difference between males and females in terms of trauma; however, dissociation scores of participants were not significantly different in terms of gender.

Keywords: childhood trauma, dissociation, perceived social support, relationship status, life satisfaction

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364 Demographic Characteristics and Factors Affecting Mortality in Pediatric Trauma Patients Who Are Admitted to Emergency Service

Authors: Latif Duran, Erdem Aydin, Ahmet Baydin, Ali Kemal Erenler, Iskender Aksoy

Abstract:

Aim: In this retrospective study, we aim to contribute to the literature by presenting the proposals for taking measures to reduce the mortality by examining the demographic characteristics of the pediatric age group patients presenting with trauma and the factors that may cause mortality Material and Method: This study has been performed by retrospectively investigating the data obtained from the patient files and the hospital automation registration system of the pediatric trauma patients who applied to the Adult Emergency Department of the Ondokuz Mayıs University Medical Faculty between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2016. Results: 289 of 415 patients involved in our study, were males. The median age was 11.3 years. The most common trauma mechanism was falling from the high. A significant statistical difference was found on the association between trauma mechanisms and gender. An increase in the number of trauma cases was found especially in the summer months. The study showed that thoracic and abdominal trauma was relevant to the increased mortality. Computerized tomography was the most common diagnostic imaging modality. The presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage has increased the risk of mortality by 62.3 fold. Eight of the patients (1.9%) died. Scoring systems were statistically significant to predict mortality. Conclusion: Children are vulnerable to trauma because of their unique anatomical and physiological differences compared to adult patient groups. It will be more successful in the mortality rate and in the post-traumatic healing process by administering the patient triage fast and most appropriate trauma centers in the prehospital period, management of the critical patients with the scoring systems and management with standard treatment protocols

Keywords: emergency service, pediatric patients, scoring systems, trauma, age groups

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363 Innovations in International Trauma Education: An Evaluation of Learning Outcomes and Community Impact of a Guyanese trauma Training Graduate Program

Authors: Jeffrey Ansloos

Abstract:

International trauma education in low and emerging economies requires innovative methods for capacity building in existing social service infrastructures. This study details the findings of a program evaluation used to assess the learning outcomes and community impact of an international trauma-focused graduate degree program in Guyana. Through a collaborative partnership between Lesley University, the Government of Guyana, and UNICEF, a 2-year low-residency masters degree graduate program in trauma-focused assessment, intervention, and treatment was piloted with a cohort of Guyanese mental health professionals. Through an analytical review of the program development, as well as qualitative data analysis of participant interviews and focus-groups, this study will address the efficacy of the programming in terms of preparedness of professionals to understand, evaluate and implement trauma-informed practices across various child, youth, and family mental health service settings. Strengths and limitations of this international trauma-education delivery model will be discussed with particular emphasis on the role of capacity-building interventions, community-based participatory curriculum development, innovative technological delivery platforms, and interdisciplinary education. Implications for further research and subsequent program development will be discussed.

Keywords: mental health promotion, global health promotion, trauma education, innovations in education, child, youth, mental health education

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362 Knowledge of Trauma-Informed Practice: A Mixed Methods Exploratory Study with Educators of Young Children

Authors: N. Khodarahmi, L. Ford

Abstract:

Decades of research on the impact of trauma in early childhood suggest severe risks to the mental health, emotional, social and physical development of a young child. Trauma-exposed students can pose a variety of different levels of challenges to schools and educators of young children and to date, few studies have addressed ECE teachers’ role in providing trauma support. The present study aims to contribute to this literature by exploring the beliefs of British Columbia’s (BC) early childhood education (ECE) teachers in their level of readiness and capability to work within a trauma-informed practice (TIP) framework to support their trauma-exposed students. Through a sequential, mix-methods approach, a self-report questionnaire and semi-structured interviews will be used to gauge BC ECE teachers’ knowledge of TIP, their preparedness, and their ability in using this framework to support their most vulnerable students. Teacher participants will be recruited through the ECEBC organization and various school districts in the Greater Vancouver Area. Questionnaire data will be primarily collected through an online survey tool whereas interviews will be taking place in-person and audio-recorded. Data analysis of survey responses will be largely descriptive, whereas interviews, once transcribed, will be employing thematic content analysis to generate themes from teacher responses. Ultimately, this study hopes to highlight the necessity of utilizing the TIP framework in BC ECE classrooms in order to support both trauma-exposed students and provide essential resources to compassionate educators of young children.

Keywords: early childhood education, early learning classrooms, refugee students, trauma-exposed students, trauma-informed practice

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361 Self-Inflicted Major Trauma: Inpatient Mental Health Management and Patient Outcomes

Authors: M. Walmsley, S. Elmatarri, S. Mannion

Abstract:

Introduction: Self-inflicted injury is a recognised cause of major trauma in adults and is an independent indicator of a reduced functional outcome compared to non-intentional major trauma. There is little literature available on the inpatient mental health (MH) management of this vulnerable group. A retrospective review was conducted of inpatient MH management of major trauma patients admitted to a UK regional Major Trauma Centre (MTC). Their outcomes were compared to all major trauma patients. This group of patients required multiple MH interventions whilst on the Major Trauma Ward (MTW) and a had worse functional outcome compared to non-intentional trauma. Method: The national TARN (Trauma Audit and Research Network) database was used to identify patients admitted to a regional MTC over a 2-year period from June 2018 to July 2020. Patients with an ISS (Injury Severity Score) of greater than 15 with a mechanism of either self-harm or high-risk behavior were included for further analysis. Inpatient medical notes were reviewed for MH interventions on the MTW. Further outcomes, including mortality, length of stay (LOS) and Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) were compared with all major trauma patients for the same time period. Results: A total of 60 patients were identified in the time period and of those, 27 spent time on the MTW. A total of 23 (85%) had a prior MH diagnosis, with 11 (41%) under the care of secondary MH services. Adequate inpatient records for review were available for 24 patients. During their inpatient stay, 8 (33%) were reviewed on the ward by the inpatient MH team. There were 10 interventions required for 6 (25%) patients on the MTW including, sections under the Mental Health Act, transfer to specialist MH facility, pharmacological sedation and security being called to the MTW. When compared to all major trauma patients, those admitted due to self-harm or high-risk behavior had a statistically significantly higher ISS (31.43 vs 24.22, p=0.0001) and LOS (23.51d vs 16.06d, p=0.002). Functional outcomes using the GOS were reduced in this group of patients, GOS 5 (low disability) (51.66% vs. 61.01%) and they additionally had a higher level of mortality, GOS 1 (15.00% vs 11.67%). Discussion: Intentional self-harm is a recognised cause of major trauma in adults and this patient group sustains more severe injuries, requiring a longer hospital stay with worse outcomes compared to all major trauma patients. Inpatient MH interventions are required for a significant proportion of these patients and therefore, there needs to be a close relationship with MH services. There is limited available evidence for how this patient group is best managed as an inpatient to aid their recovery and further work is needed on how outcomes in this vulnerable group can be improved.

Keywords: adult major trauma, attempted suicide, self-inflicted major trauma, inpatient management

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360 Baring Witness, Bearing Withness: Paradoxes of Testimony in J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians

Authors: Alexandra Sweny

Abstract:

This paper contends with the intersection between the act of witnessing and the act of reading in order to consider the relevance of literary testimony and fiction as tools for postcolonial readings of history. J. M. Coetzee's Waiting for the Barbarians elucidates what Primo Levi deems the 'paradoxical' task of testimony: that suffering can only be fully narrated by the sufferer themselves, whose voice and narrative capacity is often foreclosed by the very extent of their trauma. By examining the fictional Magistrate's position as both a reader and translator of history, this paper posits Waiting for the Barbarians as an ethical command against the appropriation of trauma.

Keywords: ethical criticism, limit-experience, postcolonialism, psychic trauma in literature, testimony

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