Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8404

Search results for: target group

8404 Towards a Systematic Evaluation of Web Design

Authors: Ivayla Trifonova, Naoum Jamous, Holger Schrödl

Abstract:

A good web design is a prerequisite for a successful business nowadays, especially since the internet is the most common way for people to inform themselves. Web design includes the optical composition, the structure, and the user guidance of websites. The importance of each website leads to the question if there is a way to measure its usefulness. The aim of this paper is to suggest a methodology for the evaluation of web design. The desired outcome is to have an evaluation that is concentrated on a specific website and its target group.

Keywords: evaluation methodology, factor analysis, target group, web design

Procedia PDF Downloads 545
8403 Data Analysis to Uncover Terrorist Attacks Using Data Mining Techniques

Authors: Saima Nazir, Mustansar Ali Ghazanfar, Sanay Muhammad Umar Saeed, Muhammad Awais Azam, Saad Ali Alahmari

Abstract:

Terrorism is an important and challenging concern. The entire world is threatened by only few sophisticated terrorist groups and especially in Gulf Region and Pakistan, it has become extremely destructive phenomena in recent years. Predicting the pattern of attack type, attack group and target type is an intricate task. This study offers new insight on terrorist group’s attack type and its chosen target. This research paper proposes a framework for prediction of terrorist attacks using the historical data and making an association between terrorist group, their attack type and target. Analysis shows that the number of attacks per year will keep on increasing, and Al-Harmayan in Saudi Arabia, Al-Qai’da in Gulf Region and Tehreek-e-Taliban in Pakistan will remain responsible for many future terrorist attacks. Top main targets of each group will be private citizen & property, police, government and military sector under constant circumstances.

Keywords: data mining, counter terrorism, machine learning, SVM

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
8402 The Use of Semantic Mapping Technique When Teaching English Vocabulary at Saudi Schools

Authors: Mohammed Hassan Alshaikhi

Abstract:

Vocabulary is essential factor of learning and mastering any languages, and it helps learners to communicate with others and to be understood. The aim of this study was to examine whether semantic mapping technique was helpful in terms of improving student's English vocabulary learning comparing to the traditional technique. The students’ age was between 11 and 13 years old. There were 60 students in total who participated in this study. 30 students were in the treatment group (target vocabulary items were taught with semantic mapping). The other 30 students were in the control group (the target vocabulary items were taught by a traditional technique). A t-test was used with the results of pre-test and post-test in order to examine the outcomes of using semantic mapping when teaching vocabulary. The results showed that the vocabulary mastery in the treatment group was increased more than the control group.

Keywords: English language, learning vocabulary, Saudi teachers, semantic mapping, teaching vocabulary strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
8401 Machine Learning for Targeting of Conditional Cash Transfers: Improving the Effectiveness of Proxy Means Tests to Identify Future School Dropouts and the Poor

Authors: Cristian Crespo

Abstract:

Conditional cash transfers (CCTs) have been targeted towards the poor. Thus, their targeting assessments check whether these schemes have been allocated to low-income households or individuals. However, CCTs have more than one goal and target group. An additional goal of CCTs is to increase school enrolment. Hence, students at risk of dropping out of school also are a target group. This paper analyses whether one of the most common targeting mechanisms of CCTs, a proxy means test (PMT), is suitable to identify the poor and future school dropouts. The PMT is compared with alternative approaches that use the outputs of a predictive model of school dropout. This model was built using machine learning algorithms and rich administrative datasets from Chile. The paper shows that using machine learning outputs in conjunction with the PMT increases targeting effectiveness by identifying more students who are either poor or future dropouts. This joint targeting approach increases effectiveness in different scenarios except when the social valuation of the two target groups largely differs. In these cases, the most likely optimal approach is to solely adopt the targeting mechanism designed to find the highly valued group.

Keywords: conditional cash transfers, machine learning, poverty, proxy means tests, school dropout prediction, targeting

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8400 Contribution for Rural Development Trough Training in Organic Farming

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Daniela V. T. A. Costa, Paula M. R. Correia, Moisés Castro, Luis T. Guerra, Cristina A. Costa

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to characterize a potential target group of people interested in participating into a training program in organic farming in the context of mobile-learning. The information sought addressed in particular, but not exclusively, possible contents, formats and forms of evaluation that will contribute to define the course objectives and curriculum, as well as to ensure that the course meets the needs of the learners and their preferences. The sample was selected among different European countries. The questionnaires were delivered electronically for answering online and in the end 135 consented valid questionnaires were obtained. The results allowed characterizing the target group and identifying their training needs and preferences towards m-learning formats, giving valuable tools to design the training offer.

Keywords: mobile-learning, organic farming, rural development, survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
8399 Cultural Barriers in the Communication of Breast Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Kayum Fokoue Carole

Abstract:

This paper aims at verifying the effectiveness of reaching target populations while paying attention to their cultural background when communicating new knowledge, ideas or technology in a multicultural world. Our case study is an experiment on the communication of knowledge on breast cancer in three sub-Saharan countries (Ghana, Tchad, and Cameroon health). The methodology consisted of submitting a semi-structured questionnaire to local populations in some localities in these target countries in order to determine the cultural barriers hindering the effective communication of knowledge on breast cancer. Once this done, sensitization documents on breast cancer were translated into Ewe (Ghana), Mbaye (Tchad), Ghomala’, Ewondo, and Fufulde (Cameroon). In each locality, a sensitization programme was organised for two groups. For one group, the cultural barriers discovered were taken into consideration while communicating during the programme whereas in the other group, they were not. Another questionnaire was disseminated after three months to verify the level of appropriation of those who attended the campaign based on Chumbow’s appropriation theory. This paper, therefore, discusses some spiritual beliefs, representations and practices in the target African communities hindering effective communication of issues on breast cancer in the target localities. Findings reveal that only 38% of respondents in the group of those for whom cultural barriers were not taken into account during the programme had a high level of appropriation while for the other group, 86% had a high level of appropriation. This is evidence that the communication of issues on breast cancer can be more effective by reaching different populations in a language they best master while paying attention to their culture. Therefore, international communication of new knowledge should be culturally contextualised. Suggestions at the end of the paper are directed towards the achievement of these goals. The present work promotes international partnership in addressing and resolving global health preoccupations since research findings from one community/country can be mutualized in partnership with other communities and countries.

Keywords: cultural barriers, communication, health, breast cancer

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8398 Modelling a Hospital as a Queueing Network: Analysis for Improving Performance

Authors: Emad Alenany, M. Adel El-Baz

Abstract:

In this paper, the flow of different classes of patients into a hospital is modelled and analyzed by using the queueing network analyzer (QNA) algorithm and discrete event simulation. Input data for QNA are the rate and variability parameters of the arrival and service times in addition to the number of servers in each facility. Patient flows mostly match real flow for a hospital in Egypt. Based on the analysis of the waiting times, two approaches are suggested for improving performance: Separating patients into service groups, and adopting different service policies for sequencing patients through hospital units. The separation of a specific group of patients, with higher performance target, to be served separately from the rest of patients requiring lower performance target, requires the same capacity while improves performance for the selected group of patients with higher target. Besides, it is shown that adopting the shortest processing time and shortest remaining processing time service policies among other tested policies would results in, respectively, 11.47% and 13.75% reduction in average waiting time relative to first come first served policy.

Keywords: queueing network, discrete-event simulation, health applications, SPT

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
8397 Developing Islamic Module Project for Preschool Teachers Using Modified Delphi Technique

Authors: Mazeni Ismail, Nurul Aliah, Hasmadi Hassan

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to gather the consensus of experts regarding the use of moral guidance amongst preschool teachers vis-a-vis the Islamic Project module (I-Project Module). This I-Project Module seeks to provide pertinent data on the assimilation of noble values in subject-matter teaching. To obtain consensus for the various components of the module, the Modified Delphi technique was used to develop the module. 12 subject experts from various educational fields of Islamic education, early childhood education, counselling and language fully participated in the development of this module. The Modified Delphi technique was administered in two mean cycles. The standard deviation value derived from questionnaires completed by the participating panel of experts provided the value of expert consensus reached. This was subsequently analyzed using SPSS version 22. Findings revealed that the panel of experts reached a discernible degree of agreement on five topics outlined in the module, viz; content (mean value 3.36), teaching strategy (mean value 3.28), programme duration (mean value 3.0), staff involved and attention-grabbing strategy of target group participating in the value program (mean value 3.5), and strategy to attract attention of target group to utilize i-project (mean value 3.0). With regard to the strategy to attract the attention of the target group, the experts proposed for creative activities to be added in order to enhance teachers’ creativity.

Keywords: Modified Delphi Technique, Islamic project, noble values, teacher moral guidance

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8396 OFDM Radar for High Accuracy Target Tracking

Authors: Mahbube Eghtesad

Abstract:

For a number of years, the problem of simultaneous detection and tracking of a target has been one of the most relevant and challenging issues in a wide variety of military and civilian systems. We develop methods for detecting and tracking a target using an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based radar. As a preliminary step we introduce the target trajectory and Gaussian noise model in discrete time form. Then resorting to match filter and Kalman filter we derive a detector and target tracker. After that we propose an OFDM radar in order to achieve further improvement in tracking performance. The motivation for employing multiple frequencies is that the different scattering centers of a target resonate differently at each frequency. Numerical examples illustrate our analytical results, demonstrating the achieved performance improvement due to the OFDM signaling method.

Keywords: matched filter, target trashing, OFDM radar, Kalman filter

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8395 Fast and Scale-Adaptive Target Tracking via PCA-SIFT

Authors: Yawen Wang, Hongchang Chen, Shaomei Li, Chao Gao, Jiangpeng Zhang

Abstract:

As the main challenge for target tracking is accounting for target scale change and real-time, we combine Mean-Shift and PCA-SIFT algorithm together to solve the problem. We introduce similarity comparison method to determine how the target scale changes, and taking different strategies according to different situation. For target scale getting larger will cause location error, we employ backward tracking to reduce the error. Mean-Shift algorithm has poor performance when tracking scale-changing target due to the fixed bandwidth of its kernel function. In order to overcome this problem, we introduce PCA-SIFT matching. Through key point matching between target and template, that adjusting the scale of tracking window adaptively can be achieved. Because this algorithm is sensitive to wrong match, we introduce RANSAC to reduce mismatch as far as possible. Furthermore target relocating will trigger when number of match is too small. In addition we take comprehensive consideration about target deformation and error accumulation to put forward a new template update method. Experiments on five image sequences and comparison with 6 kinds of other algorithm demonstrate favorable performance of the proposed tracking algorithm.

Keywords: target tracking, PCA-SIFT, mean-shift, scale-adaptive

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
8394 OFDM Radar for Detecting a Rayleigh Fluctuating Target in Gaussian Noise

Authors: Mahboobeh Eghtesad, Reza Mohseni

Abstract:

We develop methods for detecting a target for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based radars. As a preliminary step we introduce the target and Gaussian noise models in discrete–time form. Then, resorting to match filter (MF) we derive a detector for two different scenarios: a non-fluctuating target and a Rayleigh fluctuating target. It will be shown that a MF is not suitable for Rayleigh fluctuating targets. In this paper we propose a reduced-complexity method based on fast Fourier transfrom (FFT) for such a situation. The proposed method has better detection performance.

Keywords: constant false alarm rate (CFAR), match filter (MF), fast Fourier transform (FFT), OFDM radars, Rayleigh fluctuating target

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8393 Designing State Feedback Multi-Target Controllers by the Use of Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Seyedmahdi Mousavihashemi

Abstract:

One of the most important subjects of interest in researches is 'improving' which result in various algorithms. In so many geometrical problems we are faced with target functions which should be optimized. In group practices, all the functions’ cooperation lead to convergence. In the study, the optimization algorithm of dense particles is used. Usage of the algorithm improves the given performance norms. The results reveal that usage of swarm algorithm for reinforced particles in designing state feedback improves the given performance norm and in optimized designing of multi-target state feedback controlling, the network will maintain its bearing structure. The results also show that PSO is usable for optimization of state feedback controllers.

Keywords: multi-objective, enhanced, feedback, optimization, algorithm, particle, design

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8392 Biologically Inspired Small Infrared Target Detection Using Local Contrast Mechanisms

Authors: Tian Xia, Yuan Yan Tang

Abstract:

In order to obtain higher small target detection accuracy, this paper presents an effective algorithm inspired by the local contrast mechanism. The proposed method can enhance target signal and suppress background clutter simultaneously. In the first stage, a enhanced image is obtained using the proposed Weighted Laplacian of Gaussian. In the second stage, an adaptive threshold is adopted to segment the target. Experimental results on two changeling image sequences show that the proposed method can detect the bright and dark targets simultaneously, and is not sensitive to sea-sky line of the infrared image. So it is fit for IR small infrared target detection.

Keywords: small target detection, local contrast, human vision system, Laplacian of Gaussian

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8391 CRISPR-DT: Designing gRNAs for the CRISPR-Cpf1 System with Improved Target Efficiency and Specificity

Authors: Houxiang Zhu, Chun Liang

Abstract:

The CRISPR-Cpf1 system has been successfully applied in genome editing. However, target efficiency of the CRISPR-Cpf1 system varies among different gRNA sequences. The published CRISPR-Cpf1 gRNA data was reanalyzed. Many sequences and structural features of gRNAs (e.g., the position-specific nucleotide composition, position-nonspecific nucleotide composition, GC content, minimum free energy, and melting temperature) correlated with target efficiency were found. Using machine learning technology, a support vector machine (SVM) model was created to predict target efficiency for any given gRNAs. The first web service application, CRISPR-DT (CRISPR DNA Targeting), has been developed to help users design optimal gRNAs for the CRISPR-Cpf1 system by considering both target efficiency and specificity. CRISPR-DT will empower researchers in genome editing.

Keywords: CRISPR-Cpf1, genome editing, target efficiency, target specificity

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8390 Group Decision Making through Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Set TOPSIS Method Using New Hybrid Score Function

Authors: Syed Talib Abbas Raza, Tahseen Ahmed Jilani, Saleem Abdullah

Abstract:

This paper presents interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets based TOPSIS method for group decision making. The interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft set is a mutation of an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set and soft set. In group decision making problems IVIFSS makes the process much more algebraically elegant. We have used weighted arithmetic averaging operator for aggregating the information and define a new Hybrid Score Function as metric tool for comparison between interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy values. In an illustrative example we have applied the developed method to a criminological problem. We have developed a group decision making model for integrating the imprecise and hesitant evaluations of multiple law enforcement agencies working on target killing cases in the country.

Keywords: group decision making, interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft set, TOPSIS, score function, criminology

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8389 Scheduling Nodes Activity and Data Communication for Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: AmirHossein Mohajerzadeh, Mohammad Alishahi, Saeed Aslishahi, Mohsen Zabihi

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider sensor nodes with the capability of measuring the bearings (relative angle to the target). We use geometric methods to select a set of observer nodes which are responsible for collecting data from the target. Considering the characteristics of target tracking applications, it is clear that significant numbers of sensor nodes are usually inactive. Therefore, in order to minimize the total network energy consumption, a set of sensor nodes, called sentinel, is periodically selected for monitoring, controlling the environment and transmitting data through the network. The other nodes are inactive. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm provides a joint scheduling and routing algorithm to transmit data between network nodes and the fusion center (FC) in which not only provides an efficient way to estimate the target position but also provides an efficient target tracking. Performance evaluation confirms the superiority of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: coverage, routing, scheduling, target tracking, wireless sensor networks

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8388 Boundary Feedback Stabilization of an Overhead Crane Model

Authors: Abdelhadi Elharfi

Abstract:

A problem of boundary feedback (exponential) stabilization of an overhead crane model represented by a PDE is considered. For any $r>0$, the exponential stability at the desired decay rate $r$ is solved in semi group setting by a collocated-type stabiliser of a target system combined with a term involving the solution of an appropriate PDE.

Keywords: feedback stabilization, semi group and generator, overhead crane system

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
8387 Comparison of Remifentanil EC50 for Facilitating I-Gel and Laryngeal Mask Airway Insertion with Propofol Anesthesia

Authors: Jong Yeop Kim, Jong Bum Choi, Hyun Jeong Kwak, Sook Young Lee

Abstract:

Background: Each supraglottic airway requires different anesthetic depth because it has a specific structure and different compressive force in the oropharyngeal cavity. We designed the study to investigate remifentanil effect-site concentration (Ce) in 50% of patients (EC50) for successful insertion of i- gel, and to compare it with that for laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion during propofol target-controlled infusion (TCI). Methods: Forty-one female patients were randomized to the i-gel group (n=20) or the LMA group (n=21). Anesthesia induction was performed using propofol Ce of 5 μg/ml and the predetermined remifentanil Ce, and i-gel or LMA insertion was attempted 5 min later. The remifentanil Ce was estimated by modified Dixon's up-and-down method (initial concentration: 3.0 ng/ml, step size: 0.5 ng/ml). The patient’s response to device insertion was classified as either ‘success (no movement)’ or ‘failure (movement)’. Results: Using the Dixon’s up and down method, EC50 of remifentanil Ce for i-gel (1.58 ± 0.41 ng/ml) was significantly lower than that for LMA (2.25 ± 0.55 ng/ml) (p=0.038). Using isotonic regression, EC50 (83% CI) of remifentanil in the i-gel group [1.50 (1.37-1.80) ng/ml] was statistically lower than that in the LMA group [2.00 (1.82-2.34) ng/ml]. EC95 (95% CI) of remifentanil in the i-gel group [2.38 (1.48-2.50) ng/ml] was statistically lower than that in the LMA group [3.35 (2.58-3.48) ng/ml]. Conclusion: We found that EC50 of remifentanil Ce for i-gel insertion (1.58 ng/ml) was significantly lower than that for LMA insertion (2.25 ng/ml), in female patients during propofol TCI without neuromuscular blockade.

Keywords: i-gel, laryngeal mask airway, propofol, remifentanil

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8386 A Social Decision Support Mechanism for Group Purchasing

Authors: Lien-Fa Lin, Yung-Ming Li, Fu-Shun Hsieh

Abstract:

With the advancement of information technology and development of group commerce, people have obviously changed in their lifestyle. However, group commerce faces some challenging problems. The products or services provided by vendors do not satisfactorily reflect customers’ opinions, so that the sale and revenue of group commerce gradually become lower. On the other hand, the process for a formed customer group to reach group-purchasing consensus is time-consuming and the final decision is not the best choice for each group members. In this paper, we design a social decision support mechanism, by using group discussion message to recommend suitable options for group members and we consider social influence and personal preference to generate option ranking list. The proposed mechanism can enhance the group purchasing decision making efficiently and effectively and venders can provide group products or services according to the group option ranking list.

Keywords: social network, group decision, text mining, group commerce

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8385 Mild Auditory Perception and Cognitive Impairment in mid-Trimester Pregnancy

Authors: Tahamina Begum, Wan Nor Azlen Wan Mohamad, Faruque Reza, Wan Rosilawati Wan Rosli

Abstract:

To assess auditory perception and cognitive function during pregnancy is necessary as the pregnant women need extra effort for attention mainly for their executive function to maintain their quality of life. This study aimed to investigate neural correlates of cognitive and behavioral processing during mid trimester pregnancy. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were studied by using 128-sensor net and PAS or COWA (controlled Oral Word Association), WCST (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test), RAVLTIM (Rey Auditory Verbal and Learning Test: immediate or interference recall, delayed recall (RAVLT DR) and total score (RAVLT TS) were tested for neuropsychology assessment. In total 18 subjects were recruited (n= 9 in each group; control and pregnant group). All participants of the pregnant group were within 16-27 (mid trimester) weeks gestation. Age and education matched control healthy subjects were recruited in the control group. Participants were given a standardized test of auditory cognitive function as auditory oddball paradigm during ERP study. In this paradigm, two different auditory stimuli (standard and target stimuli) were used where subjects counted silently only target stimuli with giving attention by ignoring standard stimuli. Mean differences between target and standard stimuli were compared across groups. N100 (auditory sensory ERP component) and P300 (auditory cognitive ERP component) were recorded at T3, T4, T5, T6, Cz and Pz electrode sites. An equal number of electrodes showed non-significantly shorter amplitude of N100 component (except significantly shorter at T3, P= 0.05) and non-significant longer latencies (except significantly longer latency at T5, P= 0.008) of N100 component in pregnant group comparing control. In case of P300 component, maximum electrode sites showed non-significantly higher amplitudes and equal number of sites showed non-significant shorter latencies in pregnant group comparing control. Neuropsychology results revealed the non-significant higher score of PAS, lower score of WCST, lower score of RAVLTIM and RAVLTDR in pregnant group comparing control. The results of N100 component and RAVLT scores concluded that auditory perception is mildly impaired and P300 component proved very mild cognitive dysfunction with good executive functions in second trimester of pregnancy.

Keywords: auditory perception, pregnancy, stimuli, trimester

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8384 Evaluation of Real Time PCR Methods for Food Safety

Authors: Ergun Sakalar, Kubra Bilgic

Abstract:

In the last decades, real-time PCR has become a reliable tool preferred to use in many laboratories for pathogen detection. This technique allows for monitoring target amplification via fluorescent molecules besides admit of quantitative analysis by enabling of convert outcomes of thermal cycling to digital data. Sensitivity and traceability of real-time PCR are based on measuring of fluorescence that appears only when fluorescent reporter dye bound to specific target DNA.The fluorescent reporter systems developed for this purpose are divided into two groups. The first group consists of intercalator fluorescence dyes such as SYBR Green, EvaGreen which binds to double-stranded DNA. On the other hand, the second group includes fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotide probes that are separated into three subgroups due to differences in mechanism of action; initial primer-probes such as Cyclicons, Angler®, Amplifluor®, LUX™, Scorpions, and the second one hydrolysis probes like TaqMan, Snake assay, finally hybridization probes, for instance, Molecular Beacons, Hybprobe/FRET, HyBeacon™, MGB-Eclipse, ResonSense®, Yin-Yang, MGB-Pleiades. In addition nucleic acid analogues, an increase of probe affinity to target site is also employed with fluorescence-labeled probes. Consequently, abundant real-time PCR detection chemistries are chosen by researcher according to the field of application, mechanism of action, advantages, and proper structures of primer/probes.

Keywords: fluorescent dye, food safety, molecular probes, nucleic acid analogues

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8383 Bioinformatics and Molecular Biological Characterization of a Hypothetical Protein SAV1226 as a Potential Drug Target for Methicillin/Vancomycin-Staphylococcus aureus Infections

Authors: Nichole Haag, Kimberly Velk, Tyler McCune, Chun Wu

Abstract:

Methicillin/multiple-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are infectious bacteria that are resistant to common antibiotics. A previous in silico study in our group has identified a hypothetical protein SAV1226 as one of the potential drug targets. In this study, we reported the bioinformatics characterization, as well as cloning, expression, purification and kinetic assays of hypothetical protein SAV1226 from methicillin/vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Mu50 strain. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis revealed a low degree of structural similarity with known proteins. Kinetic assays demonstrated that hypothetical protein SAV1226 is neither a domain of an ATP dependent dihydroxyacetone kinase nor of a phosphotransferase system (PTS) dihydroxyacetone kinase, suggesting that the function of hypothetical protein SAV1226 might be misannotated on public databases such as UniProt and InterProScan 5.

Keywords: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, dihydroxyacetone kinase, essential genes, drug target, phosphoryl group donor

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8382 Culture of Writing and Writing of Culture: Organizational Connections and Pedagogical Implications of ESL Writing in Multilingual Philippine Setting

Authors: Randy S. Magdaluyo, Lea M. Cabar, Jefferson Q. Correa

Abstract:

One recurring issue in ESL writing is the confusing differences in the writing conventions of the first language and the target language. Culture may play an intriguing role in specifying writing features and structures that ESL writers have to follow. Although writing is typically organized in a three-part structure with introduction, body, and conclusion, it is important to analyze the complex nature of ESL writing. This study investigated the organizational features and structures of argumentative essays written in English by thirty college ESL students from three linguistic backgrounds (Cebuano, Chavacao, and Tausug) in a Philippine university. The nature of word order and sentence construction in the students’ essays and the specific components of the introduction, body, and conclusion were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed based on ESL writing models. Focus group discussions were also conducted to help clarify the possible influence of students’ first language on the ways their essays were conceptualized and organized. Results indicate that while there was no significant difference in the overall introduction, body, and conclusion in all essays, the sentence length was interestingly different for each linguistic group of ESL students, and the word order was notably inconsistent with the S-V-O pattern of the target language. The first language was also revealed to have a facilitative role in the cognitive translation process of these ESL students. As such, implications for a multicultural writing pedagogy was discussed and recommended considering both the students’ native resources in their first language and the ESL writing models in their target language.

Keywords: community funds of knowledge, contrastive rhetoric, ESL writing, multicultural writing pedagogy

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8381 Gene Expressions in Left Ventricle Heart Tissue of Rat after 150 Mev Proton Irradiation

Authors: R. Fardid, R. Coppes

Abstract:

Introduction: In mediastinal radiotherapy and to a lesser extend also in total-body irradiation (TBI) radiation exposure may lead to development of cardiac diseases. Radiation-induced heart disease is dose-dependent and it is characterized by a loss of cardiac function, associated with progressive heart cells degeneration. We aimed to determine the in-vivo radiation effects on fibronectin, ColaA1, ColaA2, galectin and TGFb1 gene expression levels in left ventricle heart tissues of rats after irradiation. Material and method: Four non-treatment adult Wistar rats as control group (group A) were selected. In group B, 4 adult Wistar rats irradiated to 20 Gy single dose of 150 Mev proton beam locally in heart only. In heart plus lung irradiate group (group C) 4 adult rats was irradiated by 50% of lung laterally plus heart radiation that mentioned in before group. At 8 weeks after radiation animals sacrificed and left ventricle heart dropped in liquid nitrogen for RNA extraction by Absolutely RNA® Miniprep Kit (Stratagen, Cat no. 400800). cDNA was synthesized using M-MLV reverse transcriptase (Life Technologies, Cat no. 28025-013). We used Bio-Rad machine (Bio Rad iQ5 Real Time PCR) for QPCR testing by relative standard curve method. Results: We found that gene expression of fibronectin in group C significantly increased compared to control group, but it was not showed significant change in group B compared to group A. The levels of gene expressions of Cola1 and Cola2 in mRNA did not show any significant changes between normal and radiation groups. Changes of expression of galectin target significantly increased only in group C compared to group A. TGFb1 expressions in group C more than group B showed significant enhancement compared to group A. Conclusion: In summary we can say that 20 Gy of proton exposure of heart tissue may lead to detectable damages in heart cells and may distribute function of them as a component of heart tissue structure in molecular level.

Keywords: gene expression, heart damage, proton irradiation, radiotherapy

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8380 Comparative Study of Learning Achievement via Jigsaw I and IV Techniques

Authors: Phongkon Weerpiput

Abstract:

This research study aimed to compare learning achievement between Jigsaw I and jigsaw IV techniques. The target group was 70 Thai major sophomores enrolled in a course entitled Foreign Language in Thai at the Faculty of Education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The research methodology was quasi-experimental design. A control group was given the Jigsaw I technique while an experimental group experienced the Jigsaw IV technique. The treatment content focused on Khmer loanwords in Thai language executed for a period of 3 hours per week for total of 3 weeks. The instruments included learning management plans and multiple-choice test items. The result yields no significant difference at level .05 between learning achievement of both techniques.

Keywords: Jigsaw I technique, Jigsaw IV technique, learning achievement, major sophomores

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8379 Disability, Stigma and In-Group Identification: An Exploration across Different Disability Subgroups

Authors: Sharmila Rathee

Abstract:

Individuals with disability/ies often face negative attitudes, discrimination, exclusion, and inequality of treatment due to stigmatization and stigmatized treatment. While a significant number of studies in field of stigma suggest that group-identification has positive consequences for stigmatized individuals, ironically very miniscule empirical work in sight has attempted to investigate in-group identification as a coping measure against stigma, humiliation and related experiences among disability group. In view of death of empirical research on in-group identification among disability group, through present work, an attempt has been made to examine the experiences of stigma, humiliation, and in-group identification among disability group. Results of the study suggest that use of in-group identification as a coping strategy is not uniform across members of disability group and degree of in-group identification differs across different sub-groups of disability groups. Further, in-group identification among members of disability group depends on variables like degree and impact of disability, factors like onset of disability, nature, and visibility of disability, educational experiences and resources available to deal with disabling conditions.

Keywords: disability, stigma, in-group identification, social identity

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8378 A Weighted Group EI Incorporating Role Information for More Representative Group EI Measurement

Authors: Siyu Wang, Anthony Ward

Abstract:

Emotional intelligence (EI) is a well-established personal characteristic. It has been viewed as a critical factor which can influence an individual's academic achievement, ability to work and potential to succeed. When working in a group, EI is fundamentally connected to the group members' interaction and ability to work as a team. The ability of a group member to intelligently perceive and understand own emotions (Intrapersonal EI), to intelligently perceive and understand other members' emotions (Interpersonal EI), and to intelligently perceive and understand emotions between different groups (Cross-boundary EI) can be considered as Group emotional intelligence (Group EI). In this research, a more representative Group EI measurement approach, which incorporates the information of the composition of a group and an individual’s role in that group, is proposed. To demonstrate the claim of being more representative Group EI measurement approach, this study adopts a multi-method research design, involving a combination of both qualitative and quantitative techniques to establish a metric of Group EI. From the results, it can be concluded that by introducing the weight coefficient of each group member on group work into the measurement of Group EI, Group EI will be more representative and more capable of understanding what happens during teamwork than previous approaches.

Keywords: case study, emotional intelligence, group EI, multi-method research

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8377 Trainability of Executive Functions during Preschool Age Analysis of Inhibition of 5-Year-Old Children

Authors: Christian Andrä, Pauline Hähner, Sebastian Ludyga

Abstract:

Introduction: In the recent past, discussions on the importance of physical activity for child development have contributed to a growing interest in executive functions, which refer to cognitive processes. By controlling, modulating and coordinating sub-processes, they make it possible to achieve superior goals. Major components include working memory, inhibition and cognitive flexibility. While executive functions can be trained easily in school children, there are still research deficits regarding the trainability during preschool age. Methodology: This quasi-experimental study with pre- and post-design analyzes 23 children [age: 5.0 (mean value) ± 0.7 (standard deviation)] from four different sports groups. The intervention group was made up of 13 children (IG: 4.9 ± 0.6), while the control group consisted of ten children (CG: 5.1 ± 0.9). Between pre-test and post-test, children from the intervention group participated special games that train executive functions (i.e., changing rules of the game, introduction of new stimuli in familiar games) for ten units of their weekly sports program. The sports program of the control group was not modified. A computer-based version of the Eriksen Flanker Task was employed in order to analyze the participants’ inhibition ability. In two rounds, the participants had to respond 50 times and as fast as possible to a certain target (direction of sight of a fish; the target was always placed in a central position between five fish). Congruent (all fish have the same direction of sight) and incongruent (central fish faces opposite direction) stimuli were used. Relevant parameters were response time and accuracy. The main objective was to investigate whether children from the intervention group show more improvement in the two parameters than the children from the control group. Major findings: The intervention group revealed significant improvements in congruent response time (pre: 1.34 s, post: 1.12 s, p<.01), while the control group did not show any statistically relevant difference (pre: 1.31 s, post: 1.24 s). Likewise, the comparison of incongruent response times indicates a comparable result (IG: pre: 1.44 s, post: 1.25 s, p<.05 vs. CG: pre: 1.38 s, post: 1.38 s). In terms of accuracy for congruent stimuli, the intervention group showed significant improvements (pre: 90.1 %, post: 95.9 %, p<.01). In contrast, no significant improvement was found for the control group (pre: 88.8 %, post: 92.9 %). Vice versa, the intervention group did not display any significant results for incongruent stimuli (pre: 74.9 %, post: 83.5 %), while the control group revealed a significant difference (pre: 68.9 %, post: 80.3 %, p<.01). The analysis of three out of four criteria demonstrates that children who took part in a special sports program improved more than children who did not. The contrary results for the last criterion could be caused by the control group’s low results from the pre-test. Conclusion: The findings illustrate that inhibition can be trained as early as in preschool age. The combination of familiar games with increased requirements for attention and control processes appears to be particularly suitable.

Keywords: executive functions, flanker task, inhibition, preschool children

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8376 The Effect of Using Computer-Assisted Translation Tools on the Translation of Collocations

Authors: Hassan Mahdi

Abstract:

The integration of computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools in translation creates several opportunities for translators. However, this integration is not useful in all types of English structures. This study aims at examining the impact of using CAT tools in translating collocations. Seventy students of English as a foreign language participated in this study. The participants were divided into three groups (i.e., CAT tools group, Machine Translation group, and the control group). The comparison of the results obtained from the translation output of the three groups demonstrated the improvement of translation using CAT tools. The results indicated that the participants who used CAT tools outscored the participants who used MT, and in turn, both groups outscored the control group who did not use any type of technology in translation. In addition, there was a significant difference in the use of CAT for translation different types of collocations. The results also indicated that CAT tools were more effective in translation fixed and medium-strength collocations than weak collocations. Finally, the results showed that CAT tools were effective in translation collocations in both types of languages (i.e. target language or source language). The study suggests some guidelines for translators to use CAT tools.

Keywords: machine translation, computer-assisted translation, collocations, technology

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8375 Identity Conflict between Social and Business Entrepreneurs: The Challenge of Constructing a Novel Social Identity

Authors: Rui G. Serôdio, Carina Martins, Alexandra Serra, José A. Lima, Luísa Catita, Paula Lopes

Abstract:

Building on social identity approach, we tested the impact of social categorization and comparison in the psychosocial process by which social entrepreneurs define their group identity. Specifically, we address how both differentiation and assimilation processes are set of in the context of constructing a novel, distinctive and socially salient – social entrepreneurs. As part of a larger research line, a quasi-experimental study with Social and Business Entrepreneurs, as well as “Lay People” provided evidence consistent with our predictions: (1) Social Entrepreneurs, in contrast with Lay People and Business Entrepreneurs, value more strongly social identity than personal identity, and the later is the only group that values Personal Differentiation; (2) unlike Entrepreneurs, Social Entrepreneurs display an ingroup bias across group evaluations; (3) Lay People, display a self-serving bias, although, overall, they allocate a more positive image to the target groups; (4) combining own vs. others evaluations across all groups, Social Entrepreneurs receive the more positive value. From the standpoint of social identity and self-categorization theories and their approach to group process, we discuss the processes of intergroup comparison and differentiation as core processes in the construction of a positive social identity. We illustrate it within the context of social entrepreneurship, a political and social “wave” that flows across Europe at this time.

Keywords: group processes, social entrepreneurship, social identity, business entrepreneurs

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