Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5308

Search results for: local contrast

5308 New Variational Approach for Contrast Enhancement of Color Image

Authors: Wanhyun Cho, Seongchae Seo, Soonja Kang

Abstract:

In this work, we propose a variational technique for image contrast enhancement which utilizes global and local information around each pixel. The energy functional is defined by a weighted linear combination of three terms which are called on a local, a global contrast term and dispersion term. The first one is a local contrast term that can lead to improve the contrast of an input image by increasing the grey-level differences between each pixel and its neighboring to utilize contextual information around each pixel. The second one is global contrast term, which can lead to enhance a contrast of image by minimizing the difference between its empirical distribution function and a cumulative distribution function to make the probability distribution of pixel values becoming a symmetric distribution about median. The third one is a dispersion term that controls the departure between new pixel value and pixel value of original image while preserving original image characteristics as well as possible. Second, we derive the Euler-Lagrange equation for true image that can achieve the minimum of a proposed functional by using the fundamental lemma for the calculus of variations. And, we considered the procedure that this equation can be solved by using a gradient decent method, which is one of the dynamic approximation techniques. Finally, by conducting various experiments, we can demonstrate that the proposed method can enhance the contrast of colour images better than existing techniques.

Keywords: color image, contrast enhancement technique, variational approach, Euler-Lagrang equation, dynamic approximation method, EME measure

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5307 Biologically Inspired Small Infrared Target Detection Using Local Contrast Mechanisms

Authors: Tian Xia, Yuan Yan Tang

Abstract:

In order to obtain higher small target detection accuracy, this paper presents an effective algorithm inspired by the local contrast mechanism. The proposed method can enhance target signal and suppress background clutter simultaneously. In the first stage, a enhanced image is obtained using the proposed Weighted Laplacian of Gaussian. In the second stage, an adaptive threshold is adopted to segment the target. Experimental results on two changeling image sequences show that the proposed method can detect the bright and dark targets simultaneously, and is not sensitive to sea-sky line of the infrared image. So it is fit for IR small infrared target detection.

Keywords: small target detection, local contrast, human vision system, Laplacian of Gaussian

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
5306 Enhancement of X-Rays Images Intensity Using Pixel Values Adjustments Technique

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Razan Manofely, Rajab M. Ben Yousef

Abstract:

X-Ray images are very popular as a first tool for diagnosis. Automating the process of analysis of such images is important in order to help physician procedures. In this practice, teeth segmentation from the radiographic images and feature extraction are essential steps. The main objective of this study was to study correction preprocessing of x-rays images using local adaptive filters in order to evaluate contrast enhancement pattern in different x-rays images such as grey color and to evaluate the usage of new nonlinear approach for contrast enhancement of soft tissues in x-rays images. The data analyzed by using MatLab program to enhance the contrast within the soft tissues, the gray levels in both enhanced and unenhanced images and noise variance. The main techniques of enhancement used in this study were contrast enhancement filtering and deblurring images using the blind deconvolution algorithm. In this paper, prominent constraints are firstly preservation of image's overall look; secondly, preservation of the diagnostic content in the image and thirdly detection of small low contrast details in diagnostic content of the image.

Keywords: enhancement, x-rays, pixel intensity values, MatLab

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5305 Liver Lesion Extraction with Fuzzy Thresholding in Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound Images

Authors: Abder-Rahman Ali, Adélaïde Albouy-Kissi, Manuel Grand-Brochier, Viviane Ladan-Marcus, Christine Hoeffl, Claude Marcus, Antoine Vacavant, Jean-Yves Boire

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a new segmentation approach for focal liver lesions in contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging. This approach, based on a two-cluster Fuzzy C-Means methodology, considers type-II fuzzy sets to handle uncertainty due to the image modality (presence of speckle noise, low contrast, etc.), and to calculate the optimum inter-cluster threshold. Fine boundaries are detected by a local recursive merging of ambiguous pixels. The method has been tested on a representative database. Compared to both Otsu and type-I Fuzzy C-Means techniques, the proposed method significantly reduces the segmentation errors.

Keywords: defuzzification, fuzzy clustering, image segmentation, type-II fuzzy sets

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5304 Contrast Enhancement of Color Images with Color Morphing Approach

Authors: Javed Khan, Aamir Saeed Malik, Nidal Kamel, Sarat Chandra Dass, Azura Mohd Affandi

Abstract:

Low contrast images can result from the wrong setting of image acquisition or poor illumination conditions. Such images may not be visually appealing and can be difficult for feature extraction. Contrast enhancement of color images can be useful in medical area for visual inspection. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to improve the contrast of color images. The RGB (red, green, blue) color image is transformed into normalized RGB color space. Adaptive histogram equalization technique is applied to each of the three channels of normalized RGB color space. The corresponding channels in the original image (low contrast) and that of contrast enhanced image with adaptive histogram equalization (AHE) are morphed together in proper proportions. The proposed technique is tested on seventy color images of acne patients. The results of the proposed technique are analyzed using cumulative variance and contrast improvement factor measures. The results are also compared with decorrelation stretch. Both subjective and quantitative analysis demonstrates that the proposed techniques outperform the other techniques.

Keywords: contrast enhacement, normalized RGB, adaptive histogram equalization, cumulative variance.

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5303 Comparative Study of Different Enhancement Techniques for Computed Tomography Images

Authors: C. G. Jinimole, A. Harsha

Abstract:

One of the key problems facing in the analysis of Computed Tomography (CT) images is the poor contrast of the images. Image enhancement can be used to improve the visual clarity and quality of the images or to provide a better transformation representation for further processing. Contrast enhancement of images is one of the acceptable methods used for image enhancement in various applications in the medical field. This will be helpful to visualize and extract details of brain infarctions, tumors, and cancers from the CT image. This paper presents a comparison study of five contrast enhancement techniques suitable for the contrast enhancement of CT images. The types of techniques include Power Law Transformation, Logarithmic Transformation, Histogram Equalization, Contrast Stretching, and Laplacian Transformation. All these techniques are compared with each other to find out which enhancement provides better contrast of CT image. For the comparison of the techniques, the parameters Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Square Error (MSE) are used. Logarithmic Transformation provided the clearer and best quality image compared to all other techniques studied and has got the highest value of PSNR. Comparison concludes with better approach for its future research especially for mapping abnormalities from CT images resulting from Brain Injuries.

Keywords: computed tomography, enhancement techniques, increasing contrast, PSNR and MSE

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5302 New Method to Increase Contrast of Electromicrograph of Rat Tissues Sections

Authors: Lise Paule Labéjof, Raíza Sales Pereira Bizerra, Galileu Barbosa Costa, Thaísa Barros dos Santos

Abstract:

Since the beginning of the microscopy, improving the image quality has always been a concern of its users. Especially for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the problem is even more important due to the complexity of the sample preparation technique and the many variables that can affect the conservation of structures, proper operation of the equipment used and then the quality of the images obtained. Animal tissues being transparent it is necessary to apply a contrast agent in order to identify the elements of their ultrastructural morphology. Several methods of contrastation of tissues for TEM imaging have already been developed. The most used are the “in block” contrastation and “in situ” contrastation. This report presents an alternative technique of application of contrast agent in vivo, i.e. before sampling. By this new method the electromicrographies of the tissue sections have better contrast compared to that in situ and present no artefact of precipitation of contrast agent. Another advantage is that a small amount of contrast is needed to get a good result given that most of them are expensive and extremely toxic.

Keywords: image quality, microscopy research, staining technique, ultra thin section

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5301 Intended and Unintended Outcomes of Partnerships at the Local Level in Slovakia

Authors: Daniel Klimovský

Abstract:

Slovakia belongs to the most fragmented countries if one looks at its local government structure. The Slovak central governments implemented both broad devolution and fiscal decentralization some decades ago. However, neither territorial consolidation nor size categorization of local competences and powers has been implemented yet. Taking this fact into account, it is clear that the local governments are challenged not only by their citizens as customers but also by effectiveness as well as efficiency of delivered services. The paper is focused on behavior of the local governments in Slovakia and their approaches towards other local partners, including other local governments. Analysis of set of interviews shows that inter-municipal cooperation is the most common local partnership in Slovakia, but due to diversity of the local governments, this kind of cooperation leads to both intended and unintended outcomes. While in many cases the local governments are more efficient as well as effective in delivery of local services thanks to inter-municipal cooperation, there are many cases where inter-municipal cooperation fails, and it brings rather questionable or even negative outcomes.

Keywords: local governments, local partnerships, inter-municipal cooperation, delivery of local services

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5300 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh K. Pandey

Abstract:

The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to the human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Keywords: low contrast image, fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, chebyshev polynomial

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5299 Comparison Of Virtual Non-Contrast To True Non-Contrast Images Using Dual Layer Spectral Computed Tomography

Authors: O’Day Luke

Abstract:

Purpose: To validate virtual non-contrast reconstructions generated from dual-layer spectral computed tomography (DL-CT) data as an alternative for the acquisition of a dedicated true non-contrast dataset during multiphase contrast studies. Material and methods: Thirty-three patients underwent a routine multiphase clinical CT examination, using Dual-Layer Spectral CT, from March to August 2021. True non-contrast (TNC) and virtual non-contrast (VNC) datasets, generated from both portal venous and arterial phase imaging were evaluated. For every patient in both true and virtual non-contrast datasets, a region-of-interest (ROI) was defined in aorta, liver, fluid (i.e. gallbladder, urinary bladder), kidney, muscle, fat and spongious bone, resulting in 693 ROIs. Differences in attenuation for VNC and TNV images were compared, both separately and combined. Consistency between VNC reconstructions obtained from the arterial and portal venous phase was evaluated. Results: Comparison of CT density (HU) on the VNC and TNC images showed a high correlation. The mean difference between TNC and VNC images (excluding bone results) was 5.5 ± 9.1 HU and > 90% of all comparisons showed a difference of less than 15 HU. For all tissues but spongious bone, the mean absolute difference between TNC and VNC images was below 10 HU. VNC images derived from the arterial and the portal venous phase showed a good correlation in most tissue types. The aortic attenuation was somewhat dependent however on which dataset was used for reconstruction. Bone evaluation with VNC datasets continues to be a problem, as spectral CT algorithms are currently poor in differentiating bone and iodine. Conclusion: Given the increasing availability of DL-CT and proven accuracy of virtual non-contrast processing, VNC is a promising tool for generating additional data during routine contrast-enhanced studies. This study shows the utility of virtual non-contrast scans as an alternative for true non-contrast studies during multiphase CT, with potential for dose reduction, without loss of diagnostic information.

Keywords: dual-layer spectral computed tomography, virtual non-contrast, true non-contrast, clinical comparison

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5298 Contrast Enhancement of Masses in Mammograms Using Multiscale Morphology

Authors: Amit Kamra, V. K. Jain, Pragya

Abstract:

Mammography is widely used technique for breast cancer screening. There are various other techniques for breast cancer screening but mammography is the most reliable and effective technique. The images obtained through mammography are of low contrast which causes problem for the radiologists to interpret. Hence, a high quality image is mandatory for the processing of the image for extracting any kind of information from it. Many contrast enhancement algorithms have been developed over the years. In the present work, an efficient morphology based technique is proposed for contrast enhancement of masses in mammographic images. The proposed method is based on Multiscale Morphology and it takes into consideration the scale of the structuring element. The proposed method is compared with other state-of-the-art techniques. The experimental results show that the proposed method is better both qualitatively and quantitatively than the other standard contrast enhancement techniques.

Keywords: enhancement, mammography, multi-scale, mathematical morphology

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5297 Lineament Analysis as a Method of Mineral Deposit Exploration

Authors: Dmitry Kukushkin

Abstract:

Lineaments form complex grids on Earth's surface. Currently, one particular object of study for many researchers is the analysis and geological interpretation of maps of lineament density in an attempt to locate various geological structures. But lineament grids are made up of global, regional and local components, and this superimposition of lineament grids of various scales (global, regional, and local) renders this method less effective. Besides, the erosion processes and the erosional resistance of rocks lying on the surface play a significant role in the formation of lineament grids. Therefore, specific lineament density map is characterized by poor contrast (most anomalies do not exceed the average values by more than 30%) and unstable relation with local geological structures. Our method allows to confidently determine the location and boundaries of local geological structures that are likely to contain mineral deposits. Maps of the fields of lineament distortion (residual specific density) created by our method are characterized by high contrast with anomalies exceeding the average by upward of 200%, and stable correlation to local geological structures containing mineral deposits. Our method considers a lineament grid as a general lineaments field – surface manifestation of stress and strain fields of Earth associated with geological structures of global, regional and local scales. Each of these structures has its own field of brittle dislocations that appears on the surface of its lineament field. Our method allows singling out local components by suppressing global and regional components of the general lineaments field. The remaining local lineament field is an indicator of local geological structures.The following are some of the examples of the method application: 1. Srednevilyuiskoye gas condensate field (Yakutia) - a direct proof of the effectiveness of methodology; 2. Structure of Astronomy (Taimyr) - confirmed by the seismic survey; 3. Active gold mine of Kadara (Chita Region) – confirmed by geochemistry; 4. Active gold mine of Davenda (Yakutia) - determined the boundaries of the granite massif that controls mineralization; 5. Object, promising to search for hydrocarbons in the north of Algeria - correlated with the results of geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys. For both Kadara and Davenda, the method demonstrated that the intensive anomalies of the local lineament fields are consistent with the geochemical anomalies and indicate the presence of the gold content at commercial levels. Our method of suppression of global and regional components results in isolating a local lineament field. In early stages of a geological exploration for oil and gas, this allows determining boundaries of various geological structures with very high reliability. Therefore, our method allows optimization of placement of seismic profile and exploratory drilling equipment, and this leads to a reduction of costs of prospecting and exploration of deposits, as well as acceleration of its commissioning.

Keywords: lineaments, mineral exploration, oil and gas, remote sensing

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5296 Improvement of Bone Scintography Image Using Image Texture Analysis

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Eltayeb Wagallah

Abstract:

Image enhancement allows the observer to see details in images that may not be immediately observable in the original image. Image enhancement is the transformation or mapping of one image to another. The enhancement of certain features in images is accompanied by undesirable effects. To achieve maximum image quality after denoising, a new, low order, local adaptive Gaussian scale mixture model and median filter were presented, which accomplishes nonlinearities from scattering a new nonlinear approach for contrast enhancement of bones in bone scan images using both gamma correction and negative transform methods. The usual assumption of a distribution of gamma and Poisson statistics only lead to overestimation of the noise variance in regions of low intensity but to underestimation in regions of high intensity and therefore to non-optional results. The contrast enhancement results were obtained and evaluated using MatLab program in nuclear medicine images of the bones. The optimal number of bins, in particular the number of gray-levels, is chosen automatically using entropy and average distance between the histogram of the original gray-level distribution and the contrast enhancement function’s curve.

Keywords: bone scan, nuclear medicine, Matlab, image processing technique

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5295 The Local Centers' Development of Berlin: Analyzing Different Cultural Influences with Impact on Urban Changes

Authors: Monika Moggert

Abstract:

The aim of the research evaluates the local centers' development of Berlin, the capital of Germany. There are included studies of their potential, considers the possibility of applying different cultural influences and the issue of the current demographic transformation of Europe. The solution utilizes the analysis of historical, cultural, political and sociological changes after 2nd World War; the exploration of historical as well as strategic maps and personal evaluation of the current condition of selected boroughs – Berlin Neuköln, Kreuzberg and Wedding, where more than 30% of the inhabitants have a migration background. The research provides an example of the likely development of centers in urban agglomerations. It examines the issue of local centers with an inhumane scale in contrast to small-scale centering sites, mostly located in areas largely with immigrant communities. The research results enable a better understanding of the influence of different cultures and lifestyles on the appearance of the city and its local centers. We can use it as an inspiration for the new design of the Berlin centers. The results will be used for further research on urban space development in the cultural environment of Europe and the Middle East as well.

Keywords: Berlin, cultural environment, life in the city, public and urban space, the urban city centers development, town and society

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5294 Local Religion 'Parmalim': Between Civilization and Faith

Authors: Sabrina Yulianti

Abstract:

This study aims to explain the identity struggles of local religious communities in Indonesia. Local religion in Indonesia is not recognized by the government and is not incorporated into the official religion in Indonesia. This makes the local religions in Indonesia experienced the challenges and obstacles in fulfilling their rights as citizens of Indonesia. Challenges and barriers they experience such as: difficulty in making of the birth certificate and marriage. It is as experienced by one of the local religions namely Parmalim which located in North Sumatra. Not only difficulty in taking care of the bureaucracy as a citizen, but the local religion is seen as a minority and sometimes regarded as follower of deviate religion.

Keywords: local religion, faith, struggles, civilization, discrimination

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5293 The Development and Future of Hong Kong Typography

Authors: Amic G. Ho

Abstract:

Language usage and typography in Hong Kong are unique, as can be seen clearly on the streets of the city. In contrast to many other parts of the world, where there is only one language, in Hong Kong many signs and billboards display two languages: Chinese and English. The language usage on signage, fonts and types used, and the designs in magazines and advertisements all demonstrate the unique features of Hong Kong typographic design, which reflect the multicultural nature of Hong Kong society. This study is the first step in investigating the nature and development of Hong Kong typography. The preliminary research explored how the historical development of Hong Kong is reflected in its unique typography. Following a review of historical development, a quantitative study was designed: Local Hong Kong participants were invited to provide input on what makes the Hong Kong typographic style unique. Their input was collected and analyzed. This provided us with information about the characteristic criteria and features of Hong Kong typography, as recognized by the local people. The most significant typographic designs in Hong Kong were then investigated and the influence of Chinese and other cultures on Hong Kong typography was assessed. The research results provide an indication to local designers on how they can strengthen local design outcomes and promote the values and culture of their mother town.

Keywords: typography, Hong Kong, historical developments, multiple cultures

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5292 The Application of Pareto Local Search to the Single-Objective Quadratic Assignment Problem

Authors: Abdullah Alsheddy

Abstract:

This paper presents the employment of Pareto optimality as a strategy to help (single-objective) local search escaping local optima. Instead of local search, Pareto local search is applied to solve the quadratic assignment problem which is multi-objectivized by adding a helper objective. The additional objective is defined as a function of the primary one with augmented penalties that are dynamically updated.

Keywords: Pareto optimization, multi-objectivization, quadratic assignment problem, local search

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5291 A Comparative Analysis Of Da’wah Methodology Applied by the Two Variant Factions of Jama’atu Izalatil Bid’ah Wa-Iqamatis Sunnah in Nigeria

Authors: Aminu Alhaji Bala

Abstract:

The Jama’atu Izalatil Bid’ah Wa-Iqamatis Sunnah is a Da’wah organization and reform movement launched in Jos - Nigeria in 1978 as a purely reform movement under the leadership of late Shaykh Ismai’la Idris. The organization started a full fledge preaching sessions at National, State and Local Government levels immediately after its formation. The contributions of this organization to da'wah activities in Nigeria are paramount. The organization conducted its preaching under the council of preaching with the help of the executives, elders and patrons of the movement. Teaching and preaching have been recognized as the major programs of the society. Its preaching activities are conducted from ward, local, state and national levels throughout the states of Nigeria and beyond. It also engaged itself in establishing Mosques, schools and offers sermons during Friday congregation and Eid days throughout its mosques where its sermon is translated into vernacular language, this attracted many Muslims who don’t understand Arabic to patronize the its activities. The organization however split into two faction due to different approaches to Da’wah methodology and some seemingly selfish interests among its leaders. It is upon this background that this research was conducted using analytical method to compare and contrast the da’wah methodology applied by the two factions of the organization. The research discussed about the formation, Da’wah activities of the organization. It also compared and contrast the Da’wah approach and methodology of the two factions. The research finding reveals that different approach and methods applied by these factions is one of the main reason of their split in addition to other selfish interest among its leaders.

Keywords: activities, Da’wah, methodology, organization

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5290 Effect of Phonological Complexity in Children with Specific Language Impairment

Authors: Irfana M., Priyandi Kabasi

Abstract:

Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty acquiring and using language despite having all the requirements of cognitive skills to support language acquisition. These children have normal non-verbal intelligence, hearing, and oral-motor skills, with no history of social/emotional problems or significant neurological impairment. Nevertheless, their language acquisition lags behind their peers. Phonological complexity can be considered to be the major factor that causes the inaccurate production of speech in this population. However, the implementation of various ranges of complex phonological stimuli in the treatment session of SLI should be followed for a better prognosis of speech accuracy. Hence there is a need to study the levels of phonological complexity. The present study consisted of 7 individuals who were diagnosed with SLI and 10 developmentally normal children. All of them were Hindi speakers with both genders and their age ranged from 4 to 5 years. There were 4 sets of stimuli; among them were minimal contrast vs maximal contrast nonwords, minimal coarticulation vs maximal coarticulation nonwords, minimal contrast vs maximal contrast words and minimal coarticulation vs maximal coarticulation words. Each set contained 10 stimuli and participants were asked to repeat each stimulus. Results showed that production of maximal contrast was significantly accurate, followed by minimal coarticulation, minimal contrast and maximal coarticulation. A similar trend was shown for both word and non-word categories of stimuli. The phonological complexity effect was evident in the study for each participant group. Moreover, present study findings can be implemented for the management of SLI, specifically for the selection of stimuli.

Keywords: coarticulation, minimal contrast, phonological complexity, specific language impairment

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5289 Contestation of Local and Non-Local Knowledge in Developing Bali Cattle at Barru Regency, Province of South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: A. Amidah Amrawaty, M. Saleh S. Ali, Darmawan Salman

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to identify local and non local knowledge in Bali cattle development, to analyze the contestation between local and non-local knowledge. The paradigm used was constructivism paradigm with a qualitative approach. descriptive type of research using case study method. The study was conducted in four villages subjected to Agropolitan Program, i.e. Palakka, Tompo, Galung and Anabanua in Barru District, province of South Sulawesi. The results indicated that the local knowledge of the farmers were: a) knowledge of animal housing, b) knowledge of the prevention and control disease, c) knowledge of the feed, d) knowledge of breed selection, e) knowledge of sharing arrangement, f) knowledge of marketing, Generally, there are three patterns of knowledge contestation namely coexistence, ‘zero sum game’ and hybridization but in this research only coexistence and zero sum game patterns took place, while the pattern of hybridization did not occur.

Keywords: contestation, local knowledge, non-local knowledge, developing of Bali cattle

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5288 Adverse Reactions from Contrast Media in Patients Undergone Computed Tomography at the Department of Radiology, Srinagarind Hospital

Authors: Pranee Suecharoen, Jaturat Kanpittaya

Abstract:

Background: The incidence of adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media has risen. The dearth of reports on reactions to the administration of iso- and low-osmolar contrast media should be addressed. We, therefore, studied the profile of adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media; viz., (a) the body systems affected (b) causality, (c) severity, and (d) preventability. Objective: To study adverse reactions (causes and severity) to iodinated contrast media at Srinagarind Hospital. Method: Between March and July, 2015, 1,101 patients from the Department of Radiology were observed and interviewed for the occurrence of adverse reactions. The patients were classified per Naranjo’s algorithm and through use of an adverse reactions questionnaire. Results: A total of 105 cases (9.5%) reported adverse reactions (57% male; 43% female); among whom 2% were iso-osmolar vs. 98% low-osmolar. Diagnoses included hepatoma and cholangiocarcinoma (24.8%), colorectal cancer (9.5%), breast cancer (5.7%), cervical cancer (3.8%), lung cancer (2.9%), bone cancer (1.9%), and others (51.5%). Underlying diseases included hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2. Mild, moderate, and severe adverse reactions accounted for 92, 5 and 3%, respectively. The respective groups of escalating symptoms included (a) mild urticaria, itching, rash, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache; (b) moderate hypertension, hypotension, dyspnea, tachycardia and bronchospasm; and (c) severe laryngeal edema, profound hypotension, and convulsions. All reactions could be anticipated per Naranjo’s algorithm. Conclusion: Mild to moderate adverse reactions to low-osmolar contrast media were most common and these occurred immediately after administration. For patient safety and better outcomes, improving the identification of patients likely to have an adverse reaction is essential.

Keywords: adverse reactions, contrast media, computed tomography, iodinated contrast agents

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5287 Local Homology Modules

Authors: Fatemeh Mohammadi Aghjeh Mashhad

Abstract:

In this paper, we give several ways for computing generalized local homology modules by using Gorenstein flat resolutions. Also, we find some bounds for vanishing of generalized local homology modules.

Keywords: a-adic completion functor, generalized local homology modules, Gorenstein flat modules

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5286 An Inquiry on Imaging of Soft Tissues in Micro-Computed Tomography

Authors: Matej Patzelt, Jana Mrzilkova, Jan Dudak, Frantisek Krejci, Jan Zemlicka, Zdenek Wurst, Petr Zach, Vladimir Musil

Abstract:

Introduction: Micro-CT is well used for examination of bone structures and teeth. On the other hand visualization of the soft tissues is still limited. The goal of our study was to elaborate methodology for soft tissue samples imaging in micro-CT. Methodology: We used organs of rats and mice. We either did a preparation of the organs and fixation in contrast solution or we did cannulation of blood vessels and their injection for imaging of the vascular system. First, we scanned native specimens, then we created corrosive specimens by resins. In the next step, we injected vascular system either by Aurovist contrast agent or by Exitron. In the next step, we focused on soft tissues contrast increase. We scanned samples fixated in Lugol solution, samples fixated in pure ethanol and in formaldehyde solution. All used methods were afterwards compared. Results: Native specimens did not provide sufficient contrast of the tissues in any of organs. Corrosive samples of the blood stream provided great contrast and details; on the other hand, it was necessary to destroy the organ. Further examined possibility was injection of the AuroVist contrast that leads to the great bloodstream contrast. Injection of Exitron contrast agent comparing to Aurovist did not provide such a great contrast. The soft tissues (kidney, heart, lungs, brain, and liver) were best visualized after fixation in ethanol. This type of fixation showed best results in all studied tissues. Lugol solution had great results in muscle tissue. Fixation by formaldehyde solution showed similar quality of contrast in the tissues like ethanol. Conclusion: Before imaging, we need to, first, determinate which structures of the soft tissues we want to visualize. In the case of the bloodstream, the best was AuroVist and corrosive specimens. Muscle tissue is best visualized by Lugol solution. In the case of the organs containing cavities, like kidneys or brain, the best way was ethanol fixation.

Keywords: experimental imaging, fixation, micro-CT, soft tissues

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5285 A Literature Review on the Role of Local Potential for Creative Industries

Authors: Maya Irjayanti

Abstract:

Local creativity utilization has been a strategic investment to be expanded as a creative industry due to its significant contribution to the national gross domestic product. Many developed and developing countries look toward creative industries as an agenda for the economic growth. This study aims to identify the role of local potential for creative industries from various empirical studies. The method performed in this study will involve a peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers review addressing local potential and creative industries. The literature review analysis will include several steps: material collection, descriptive analysis, category selection, and material evaluation. Finally, the outcome expected provides a creative industries clustering based on the local potential of various nations. In addition, the finding of this study will be used as future research reference to explore a particular area with well-known aspects of local potential for creative industry products.

Keywords: business, creativity, local potential, local wisdom

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5284 Non-Local Behavior of a Mixed-Mode Crack in a Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Medium

Authors: Nidhal Jamia, Sami El-Borgi

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of a mixed-Mode crack embedded in an infinite medium made of a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) with crack surfaces subjected to electro-mechanical loadings is investigated. Eringen’s non-local theory of elasticity is adopted to formulate the governing electro-elastic equations. The properties of the piezoelectric material are assumed to vary exponentially along a perpendicular plane to the crack. Using Fourier transform, three integral equations are obtained in which the unknown variables are the jumps of mechanical displacements and electric potentials across the crack surfaces. To solve the integral equations, the unknowns are directly expanded as a series of Jacobi polynomials, and the resulting equations solved using the Schmidt method. In contrast to the classical solutions based on the local theory, it is found that no mechanical stress and electric displacement singularities are present at the crack tips when nonlocal theory is employed to investigate the problem. A direct benefit is the ability to use the calculated maximum stress as a fracture criterion. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of crack length, material gradient parameter describing FGPMs, and lattice parameter on the mechanical stress and electric displacement field near crack tips.

Keywords: functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM), mixed-mode crack, non-local theory, Schmidt method

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5283 Present State of Local Public Transportation Service in Local Municipalities of Japan and Its Effects on Population

Authors: Akiko Kondo, Akio Kondo

Abstract:

We are facing regional problems to low birth rate and longevity in Japan. Under this situation, there are some local municipalities which lose their vitality. The aims of this study are to clarify the present state of local public transportation services in local municipalities and relation between local public transportation services and population quantitatively. We conducted a questionnaire survey concerning regional agenda in all local municipalities in Japan. We obtained responses concerning the present state of convenience in use of public transportation and local public transportation services. Based on the data gathered from the survey, it is apparent that we should some sort of measures concerning public transportation services. Convenience in use of public transportation becomes an object of public concern in many rural regions. It is also clarified that some local municipalities introduce a demand bus for the purpose of promotion of administrative and financial efficiency. They also introduce a demand taxi in order to secure transportation to weak people in transportation and eliminate of blank area related to public transportation services. In addition, we construct a population model which includes explanatory variables of present states of local public transportation services. From this result, we can clarify the relation between public transportation services and population quantitatively.

Keywords: public transportation, local municipality, regional analysis, regional issue

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5282 Mean-Field Type Modeling of Non-Local Congestion in Pedestrian Crowd Dynamics

Authors: Alexander Aurell

Abstract:

One of the latest trends in the modeling of human crowds is the mean-field game approach. In the mean-field game approach, the motion of a human crowd is described by a nonstandard stochastic optimal control problem. It is nonstandard since congestion is considered, introduced through a dependence in the performance functional on the distribution of the crowd. This study extends the class of mean-field pedestrian crowd models to allow for non-local congestion and arbitrary, but finitely, many interacting crowds. The new congestion feature grants pedestrians a 'personal space' where crowding is undesirable. The model is treated as a mean-field type game which is derived from a particle picture. This, in contrast to a mean-field game, better describes a situation where the crowd can be controlled by a central planner. The latter is suitable for decentralized situations. Solutions to the mean-field type game are characterized via a Pontryagin-type Maximum Principle.

Keywords: congestion, crowd dynamics, interacting populations, mean-field approximation, optimal control

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5281 Allopurinol Prophylactic Therapy in the Prevention of Contrast Induced Nephropathy in High Risk Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Seyed Fakhreddin Hejazi, Leili Iranirad, Mohammad Sadeghi, Mohsen Talebizadeh

Abstract:

Background: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) remains to be a potentially serious complication of radiographic procedures. We performed this clinical trial to assess the preventive effect of allopurinol against CIN in high-risk patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods: In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 140 patients with at least two risk factors for CIN undergoing coronary angiography were randomly assigned to either the allopurinol group or the control group. Patients in the allopurinol group received 300 mg allopurinol 24 hours before a procedure and intravenous hydration for 12 hours before and after coronary angiography, whereas patients in the control group received intravenous hydration. Serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and uric acid were measured before contrast exposure and at 48 hours. CIN was defined as an increase of 25% in serum creatinine (SCr) or >0.5 mg/dl 48 hours after contrast administration. Results: CIN occurred in 11 out of 70 (7.9%) patients in the control group and in 8 out of 70 (5.7%) patients in the allopurinol group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of CIN between the two groups at 48 hours after administering the radiocontrast agent (p = 0.459). However, there were significant differences between the two groups in SCr, BUN, uric acid, and eGFR 48 hours after radiocontrast administration (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that allopurinol had no substantial efficacy over hydration protocol in high-risk patients for the development of CIN.

Keywords: contrast-induced nephropathy, allopurinol, coronary angiography, contrast agent

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5280 Study of Contrast Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization: Upper Egypt Experience

Authors: Ali Kassem, Sharf Eldeen-Shazly, Alshemaa Lotfy

Abstract:

Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) has been the third leading cause of hospital-acquired renal failure. Patients with cardiac diseases are particularly at risk especially with repeated injections of contrast media. CIN is generally defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration of > 0.5 mg/dL or 25% above baseline within 48 hours after contrast administration. Aim of work: To examine the frequency of CIN for patients undergoing cardiac catheterization at Sohag University Hospital (Upper Egypt) and to identify possible risk factors for CIN in these patients. Material and methods: The study included 104 patients with mean age 56.11 ±10.03, 64(61.5%) are males while 40(38.5%) are females. 44(42.3%) patients are diabetics, 43(41%) patients are hypertensive, 6(5.7%) patients have congestive heart failure, 69(66.3%) patients on statins, 74 (71.2 %) are on ACEIs or ARBs, 19(15.4%) are on metformin, 6 (5.8%) are on NSAIDs, 30(28.8%) are on diuretics. RESULTS: Patients were classified at the end of the study into two groups: Group A: Included 91 patients who did not develop CIN. Group B: Included 13 patients who developed CIN, of which serum creatinine raised > 0.5mg/dl in 6 patients and raised > 25% from the baseline after the procedure in 13 patients. The overall incidence of CIN was 12.5%. CIN increased with older age. There was an increase in the incidence of CIN in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients (20.5% and 6.7%) respectively. (p< 0.03). There was a highly significant increase in the incidence of CIN in patients with CHF versus those without CHF (100% and 71%) respectively, (P<0001). Patients on diuretics showed a significant increase in the incidence of CIN representing 61.5% of all patients who developed CIN. Conclusion: Older patients, diabetic patients, patients with CHF and patients on diuretics have higher risk of developing CIN during coronary catheterization and should receive reno-protective measures before contrast exposure.

Keywords: cardiac diseases, contrast-induced nephropathy, coronary catheterization, CIN

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5279 An Appraisal of Revenue Collection in Local Government: A Case Study of Boripe Local Government Iragbiji Osun State

Authors: Olanike O. Akinwale, Isiaka S. Adedoyin

Abstract:

Revenue is a fund realized by the government to meet both current and capital expenditures. The study found out the various ways through which local governments in Nigeria generate revenue or obtain funds and determined whether the people of Boripe local government are paying tax as at when due and also evaluated how the revenue generated is being used by the local government. During the course of this study, research questionnaires were drafted and distributed to respondents in the local government secretariat who supplied the information needed to carry out the research work. Data were collected by using simple random sampling technique where members of the population have been given equal chance of being picked as a member of the sample. Data were analysed using chart table; the chart analyzed the figure of the past two years revenue and expenditure of the local government. It was deduced from the result that revenue generated but this was not up to what one expected for this local government to finance the projected expenditure when the size was considered, its location as well as its natural endowment of this local government. This was due to lack of cooperation of the people and staffs within the local government in the local government jurisdiction as well as fraudulent activities the revenue collectors engaged in. Revenue generation is a fuel for development in any organization whether public or private. The ability of revenue drive of Boripe was not strong enough since the targeted revenue from taxation was not enough to meet the projected expenditure for a particular year as in 2016, the difference was carried forward to the next year.

Keywords: appraisal, expenditure, local government, questionnaire, revenue

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