Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Holger Schrödl

15 Towards a Systematic Evaluation of Web Design

Authors: Ivayla Trifonova, Naoum Jamous, Holger Schrödl


A good web design is a prerequisite for a successful business nowadays, especially since the internet is the most common way for people to inform themselves. Web design includes the optical composition, the structure, and the user guidance of websites. The importance of each website leads to the question if there is a way to measure its usefulness. The aim of this paper is to suggest a methodology for the evaluation of web design. The desired outcome is to have an evaluation that is concentrated on a specific website and its target group.

Keywords: evaluation methodology, factor analysis, target group, web design

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14 Increasing the System Availability of Data Centers by Using Virtualization Technologies

Authors: Chris Ewe, Naoum Jamous, Holger Schrödl


Like most entrepreneurs, data center operators pursue goals such as profit-maximization, improvement of the company’s reputation or basically to exist on the market. Part of those aims is to guarantee a given quality of service. Quality characteristics are specified in a contract called the service level agreement. Central part of this agreement is non-functional properties of an IT service. The system availability is one of the most important properties as it will be shown in this paper. To comply with availability requirements, data center operators can use virtualization technologies. A clear model to assess the effect of virtualization functions on the parts of a data center in relation to the system availability is still missing. This paper aims to introduce a basic model that shows these connections, and consider if the identified effects are positive or negative. Thus, this work also points out possible disadvantages of the technology. In consequence, the paper shows opportunities as well as risks of data center virtualization in relation to system availability.

Keywords: availability, cloud computing IT service, quality of service, service level agreement, virtualization

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13 EMI Radiation Prediction and Final Measurement Process Optimization by Neural Network

Authors: Hussam Elias, Ninovic Perez, Holger Hirsch


The completion of the EMC regulations worldwide is growing steadily as the usage of electronics in our daily lives is increasing more than ever. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to perform the final phase of Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) measurement and to reduce the required test time according to the norm EN 55032 by using a developed tool and the conventional neural network(CNN). The neural network was trained using real EMC measurements, which were performed in the Semi Anechoic Chamber (SAC) by CETECOM GmbH in Essen, Germany. To implement our proposed method, we wrote software to perform the radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) measurements and use the CNN to predict and determine the position of the turntable that meets the maximum radiation value.

Keywords: conventional neural network, electromagnetic compatibility measurement, mean absolute error, position error

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12 OPEN-EmoRec-II-A Multimodal Corpus of Human-Computer Interaction

Authors: Stefanie Rukavina, Sascha Gruss, Steffen Walter, Holger Hoffmann, Harald C. Traue


OPEN-EmoRecII is an open multimodal corpus with experimentally induced emotions. In the first half of the experiment, emotions were induced with standardized picture material and in the second half during a human-computer interaction (HCI), realized with a wizard-of-oz design. The induced emotions are based on the dimensional theory of emotions (valence, arousal and dominance). These emotional sequences - recorded with multimodal data (mimic reactions, speech, audio and physiological reactions) during a naturalistic-like HCI-environment one can improve classification methods on a multimodal level. This database is the result of an HCI-experiment, for which 30 subjects in total agreed to a publication of their data including the video material for research purposes. The now available open corpus contains sensory signal of: video, audio, physiology (SCL, respiration, BVP, EMG Corrugator supercilii, EMG Zygomaticus Major) and mimic annotations.

Keywords: open multimodal emotion corpus, annotated labels, intelligent interaction

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11 Numerical Investigation of Wave Run-Up on Curved Dikes

Authors: Suba Periyal Subramaniam, Babette Scheres, Altomare Corrado, Holger Schuttrumpf


Due to the climatic change and the usage of coastal areas, there is an increasing risk of dike failures along the coast worldwide. Wave run-up plays a key role in planning and design of a coastal structure. The coastal dike lines are bent either due to geological characteristics or due to influence of anthropogenic activities. The effect of the curvature of coastal dikes on wave run-up and overtopping is not yet investigated. The scope of this research is to find the effects of the dike curvature on wave run-up by employing numerical model studies for various dike opening angles. Numerical simulation is carried out using DualSPHysics, a meshless method, and OpenFOAM, a mesh-based method. The numerical results of the wave run-up on a curved dike and the wave transformation process for various opening angles, wave attacks, and wave parameters will be compared and discussed. This research aims to contribute a more precise analysis and understanding the influence of the curvature in the dike line and thus ensuring a higher level of protection in the future development of coastal structures.

Keywords: curved dikes, DualSPHysics, OpenFOAM, wave run-up

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10 Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Binary Systems for Hydrogen Storage

Authors: Gauthier Lefevre, Holger Kohlmann, Sebastien Saitzek, Rachel Desfeux, Adlane Sayede


Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, compatible with the sustainable energy concept. In this context, solid-state hydrogen-storage is the key challenge in developing hydrogen economy. The capability of absorption of large quantities of hydrogen makes intermetallic systems of particular interest. In this study, efforts have been devoted to the theoretical investigation of binary systems with constraints consideration. On the one hand, besides considering hydrogen-storage, a reinvestigation of crystal structures of the palladium-arsenic system shows, with experimental validations, that binary systems could still currently present new or unknown relevant structures. On the other hand, various binary Mg-based systems were theoretically scrutinized in order to find new interesting alloys for hydrogen storage. Taking the effect of pressure into account reveals a wide range of alternative structures, changing radically the stable compounds of studied binary systems. Similar constraints, induced by Pulsed Laser Deposition, have been applied to binary systems, and results are presented.

Keywords: binary systems, evolutionary algorithm, first principles study, pulsed laser deposition

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9 Influence of UV/Ozone Treatment on the Electrical Performance of Polystyrene Buffered Pentacene-Based OFETs

Authors: Lin Gong, Holger Göbel


In the present study, we have investigated the influence of UV/ozone treatment on pentacene-based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) with a bilayer gate dielectric. The OFETs for this study were fabricated on heavily n-doped Si substrates with a thermally deposited SiO2 dielectric layer (300nm). On the SiO2 dielectric a very thin (≈ 15nm) buffer layer of polystyrene (PS) was first spin-coated and then treated by UV/ozone to modify the surface prior to the deposition of pentacene. We found out that by extending the UV/ozone treatment time the threshold voltage of the OFETs was monotonically shifted towards positive values, whereas the field effect mobility first decreased but eventually reached a stable value after a treatment time of approximately thirty seconds. Since the field effect mobility of the UV/ozone treated bilayer OFETs was found to be higher than the value of a comparable transistor with a single layer dielectric, we propose that the bilayer (SiO2/PS) structure can be used to shift the threshold voltage to a desired value without sacrificing field effect mobility.

Keywords: buffer layer, organic field effect transistors, threshold voltage, UV/ozone treatment

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8 Expert System for Road Bridge Constructions

Authors: Michael Dimmer, Holger Flederer


The basis of realizing a construction project is a technically flawless concept which satisfies conditions regarding environment and costs, as well as static-constructional terms. The presented software system actively supports civil engineers during the setup of optimal designs, by giving advice regarding durability, life-cycle costs, sustainability and much more. A major part of the surrounding conditions of a design process is gathered and assimilated by experienced engineers subconsciously. It is a question about eligible building techniques and their practicability by considering emerging costs. Planning engineers have acquired many of this experience during their professional life and use them for their daily work. Occasionally, the planning engineer should disassociate himself from his experience to be open for new and better solutions which meet the functional demands, as well. The developed expert system gives planning engineers recommendations for preferred design options of new constructions as well as for existing bridge constructions. It is possible to analyze construction elements and techniques regarding sustainability and life-cycle costs. This way the software provides recommendations for future constructions. Furthermore, there is an option to design existing road bridges especially for heavy duty transport. This implies a route planning tool to get quick and reliable information as to whether the bridge support structures of a transport route have been measured sufficiently for a certain heavy duty transport. The use of this expert system in bridge planning companies and building authorities will save costs massively for new and existent bridge constructions. This is achieved by consequently considering parameters like life-cycle costs and sustainability for its planning recommendations.

Keywords: expert system, planning process, road bridges, software system

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7 Seismic Loss Assessment for Peruvian University Buildings with Simulated Fragility Functions

Authors: Jose Ruiz, Jose Velasquez, Holger Lovon


Peruvian university buildings are critical structures for which very little research about its seismic vulnerability is available. This paper develops a probabilistic methodology that predicts seismic loss for university buildings with simulated fragility functions. Two university buildings located in the city of Cusco were analyzed. Fragility functions were developed considering seismic and structural parameters uncertainty. The fragility functions were generated with the Latin Hypercube technique, an improved Montecarlo-based method, which optimizes the sampling of structural parameters and provides at least 100 reliable samples for every level of seismic demand. Concrete compressive strength, maximum concrete strain and yield stress of the reinforcing steel were considered as the key structural parameters. The seismic demand is defined by synthetic records which are compatible with the elastic Peruvian design spectrum. Acceleration records are scaled based on the peak ground acceleration on rigid soil (PGA) which goes from 0.05g to 1.00g. A total of 2000 structural models were considered to account for both structural and seismic variability. These functions represent the overall building behavior because they give rational information regarding damage ratios for defined levels of seismic demand. The university buildings show an expected Mean Damage Factor of 8.80% and 19.05%, respectively, for the 0.22g-PGA scenario, which was amplified by the soil type coefficient and resulted in 0.26g-PGA. These ratios were computed considering a seismic demand related to 10% of probability of exceedance in 50 years which is a requirement in the Peruvian seismic code. These results show an acceptable seismic performance for both buildings.

Keywords: fragility functions, university buildings, loss assessment, Montecarlo simulation, latin hypercube

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6 Evaluating Gene-Gene Interaction among Nicotine Dependence Genes on the Risk of Oral Clefts

Authors: Mengying Wang, Dongjing Liu, Holger Schwender, Ping Wang, Hongping Zhu, Tao Wu, Terri H Beaty


Background: Maternal smoking is a recognized risk factor for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P). It has been reported that the effect of maternal smoking on oral clefts is mediated through genes that influence nicotine dependence. The polymorphisms of cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha (CHRNA) and beta (CHRNB) subunits genes have previously shown strong associations with nicotine dependence. Here, we attempted to investigate whether the above genes are associated with clefting risk through testing for potential gene-gene (G×G) and gene-environment (G×E) interaction. Methods: We selected 120 markers in 14 genes associated with nicotine dependence to conduct transmission disequilibrium tests among 806 Chinese NSCL/P case-parent trios ascertained in an international consortium which conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of oral clefts. We applied Cordell’s method using “TRIO” package in R to explore G×G as well as G×E interaction involving environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) based on conditional logistic regression model. Results: while no SNP showed significant association with NSCL/P after Bonferroni correction, we found signals for G×G interaction between 10 pairs of SNPs in CHRNA3, CHRNA5, and CHRNB4 (p<10-8), among which the most significant interaction was found between RS3743077 (CHRNA3) and RS11636753 (CHRNB4, p<8.2×10-12). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis revealed only low level of LD between these markers. However, there were no significant results for G×ETS interaction. Conclusion: This study fails to detect association between nicotine dependence genes and NSCL/P, but illustrates the importance of taking into account potential G×G interaction for genetic association analysis in NSCL/P. This study also suggests nicotine dependence genes should be considered as important candidate genes for NSCL/P in future studies.

Keywords: Gene-Gene Interaction, Maternal Smoking, Nicotine Dependence, Non-Syndromic Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate

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5 An Object-Oriented Modelica Model of the Water Level Swell during Depressurization of the Reactor Pressure Vessel of the Boiling Water Reactor

Authors: Rafal Bryk, Holger Schmidt, Thomas Mull, Ingo Ganzmann, Oliver Herbst


Prediction of the two-phase water mixture level during fast depressurization of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) resulting from an accident scenario is an important issue from the view point of the reactor safety. Since the level swell may influence the behavior of some passive safety systems, it has been recognized that an assumption which at the beginning may be considered as a conservative one, not necessary leads to a conservative result. This paper discusses outcomes obtained during simulations of the water dynamics and heat transfer during sudden depressurization of a vessel filled up to a certain level with liquid water under saturation conditions and with the rest of the vessel occupied by saturated steam. In case of the pressure decrease e.g. due to the main steam line break, the liquid water evaporates abruptly, being a reason thereby, of strong transients in the vessel. These transients and the sudden emergence of void in the region occupied at the beginning by liquid, cause elevation of the two-phase mixture. In this work, several models calculating the water collapse and swell levels are presented and validated against experimental data. Each of the models uses different approach to calculate void fraction. The object-oriented models were developed with the Modelica modelling language and the OpenModelica environment. The models represent the RPV of the Integral Test Facility Karlstein (INKA) – a dedicated test rig for simulation of KERENA – a new Boiling Water Reactor design of Framatome. The models are based on dynamic mass and energy equations. They are divided into several dynamic volumes in each of which, the fluid may be single-phase liquid, steam or a two-phase mixture. The heat transfer between the wall of the vessel and the fluid is taken into account. Additional heat flow rate may be applied to the first volume of the vessel in order to simulate the decay heat of the reactor core in a similar manner as it is simulated at INKA. The comparison of the simulations results against the reference data shows a good agreement.

Keywords: boiling water reactor, level swell, Modelica, RPV depressurization, thermal-hydraulics

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4 Analyzing Water Waves in Underground Pumped Storage Reservoirs: A Combined 3D Numerical and Experimental Approach

Authors: Elena Pummer, Holger Schuettrumpf


By today underground pumped storage plants as an outstanding alternative for classical pumped storage plants do not exist. They are needed to ensure the required balance between production and demand of energy. As a short to medium term storage pumped storage plants have been used economically over a long period of time, but their expansion is limited locally. The reasons are in particular the required topography and the extensive human land use. Through the use of underground reservoirs instead of surface lakes expansion options could be increased. Fulfilling the same functions, several hydrodynamic processes result in the specific design of the underground reservoirs and must be implemented in the planning process of such systems. A combined 3D numerical and experimental approach leads to currently unknown results about the occurring wave types and their behavior in dependence of different design and operating criteria. For the 3D numerical simulations, OpenFOAM was used and combined with an experimental approach in the laboratory of the Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management at RWTH Aachen University, Germany. Using the finite-volume method and an explicit time discretization, a RANS-Simulation (k-ε) has been run. Convergence analyses for different time discretization, different meshes etc. and clear comparisons between both approaches lead to the result, that the numerical and experimental models can be combined and used as hybrid model. Undular bores partly with secondary waves and breaking bores occurred in the underground reservoir. Different water levels and discharges change the global effects, defined as the time-dependent average of the water level as well as the local processes, defined as the single, local hydrodynamic processes (water waves). Design criteria, like branches, directional changes, changes in cross-section or bottom slope, as well as changes in roughness have a great effect on the local processes, the global effects remain unaffected. Design calculations for underground pumped storage plants were developed on the basis of existing formulae and the results of the hybrid approach. Using the design calculations reservoirs heights as well as oscillation periods can be determined and lead to the knowledge of construction and operation possibilities of the plants. Consequently, future plants can be hydraulically optimized applying the design calculations on the local boundary conditions.

Keywords: energy storage, experimental approach, hybrid approach, undular and breaking Bores, 3D numerical approach

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3 Estimating Affected Croplands and Potential Crop Yield Loss of an Individual Farmer Due to Floods

Authors: Shima Nabinejad, Holger Schüttrumpf


Farmers who are living in flood-prone areas such as coasts are exposed to storm surges increased due to climate change. Crop cultivation is the most important economic activity of farmers, and in the time of flooding, agricultural lands are subject to inundation. Additionally, overflow saline water causes more severe damage outcomes than riverine flooding. Agricultural crops are more vulnerable to salinity than other land uses for which the economic damages may continue for a number of years even after flooding and affect farmers’ decision-making for the following year. Therefore, it is essential to assess what extent the agricultural areas are flooded and how much the associated flood damage to each individual farmer is. To address these questions, we integrated farmers’ decision-making at farm-scale with flood risk management. The integrated model includes identification of hazard scenarios, failure analysis of structural measures, derivation of hydraulic parameters for the inundated areas and analysis of the economic damages experienced by each farmer. The present study has two aims; firstly, it attempts to investigate the flooded cropland and potential crop damages for the whole area. Secondly, it compares them among farmers’ field for three flood scenarios, which differ in breach locations of the flood protection structure. To achieve its goal, the spatial distribution of fields and cultivated crops of farmers were fed into the flood risk model, and a 100-year storm surge hydrograph was selected as the flood event. The study area was Pellworm Island that is located in the German Wadden Sea National Park and surrounded by North Sea. Due to high salt content in seawater of North Sea, crops cultivated in the agricultural areas of Pellworm Island are 100% destroyed by storm surges which were taken into account in developing of depth-damage curve for analysis of consequences. As a result, inundated croplands and economic damages to crops were estimated in the whole Island which was further compared for six selected farmers under three flood scenarios. The results demonstrate the significance and the flexibility of the proposed model in flood risk assessment of flood-prone areas by integrating flood risk management and decision-making.

Keywords: crop damages, flood risk analysis, individual farmer, inundated cropland, Pellworm Island, storm surges

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2 Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant: Experimental-Parametric Design of a Hydraulic Structure Capable of Inducing the Artificial Formation of a Gravitational Water Vortex Appropriate for Hydroelectric Generation

Authors: Henrry Vicente Rojas Asuero, Holger Manuel Benavides Muñoz


Approximately 80% of the energy consumed worldwide is generated from fossil sources, which are responsible for the emission of a large volume of greenhouse gases. For this reason, the global trend, at present, is the widespread use of energy produced from renewable sources. This seeks safety and diversification of energy supply, based on social cohesion, economic feasibility and environmental protection. In this scenario, small hydropower systems (P ≤ 10MW) stand out due to their high efficiency, economic competitiveness and low environmental impact. Small hydropower systems, along with wind and solar energy, are expected to represent a significant percentage of the world's energy matrix in the near term. Among the various technologies present in the state of the art, relating to small hydropower systems, is the Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant, a recent technology that excels because of its versatility of operation, since it can operate with jumps in the range of 0.70 m-2.00 m and flow rates from 1 m3/s to 20 m3/s. Its operating system is based on the utilization of the energy of rotation contained within a large water vortex artificially induced. This paper presents the study and experimental design of an optimal hydraulic structure with the capacity to induce the artificial formation of a gravitational water vortex trough a system of easy application and high efficiency, able to operate in conditions of very low head and minimum flow. The proposed structure consists of a channel, with variable base, vortex inductor, tangential flow generator, coupled to a circular tank with a conical transition bottom hole. In the laboratory test, the angular velocity of the water vortex was related to the geometric characteristics of the inductor channel, as well as the influence of the conical transition bottom hole on the physical characteristics of the water vortex. The results show angular velocity values of greater magnitude as a function of depth, in addition the presence of the conical transition in the bottom hole of the circular tank improves the water vortex formation conditions while increasing the angular velocity values. Thus, the proposed system is a sustainable solution for the energy supply of rural areas near to watercourses.

Keywords: experimental model, gravitational water vortex power plant, renewable energy, small hydropower

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1 Introducing, Testing, and Evaluating a Unified JavaScript Framework for Professional Online Studies

Authors: Caspar Goeke, Holger Finger, Dorena Diekamp, Peter König


Online-based research has recently gained increasing attention from various fields of research in the cognitive sciences. Technological advances in the form of online crowdsourcing (Amazon Mechanical Turk), open data repositories (Open Science Framework), and online analysis (Ipython notebook) offer rich possibilities to improve, validate, and speed up research. However, until today there is no cross-platform integration of these subsystems. Furthermore, implementation of online studies still suffers from the complex implementation (server infrastructure, database programming, security considerations etc.). Here we propose and test a new JavaScript framework that enables researchers to conduct any kind of behavioral research in the browser without the need to program a single line of code. In particular our framework offers the possibility to manipulate and combine the experimental stimuli via a graphical editor, directly in the browser. Moreover, we included an action-event system that can be used to handle user interactions, interactively change stimuli properties or store participants’ responses. Besides traditional recordings such as reaction time, mouse and keyboard presses, the tool offers webcam based eye and face-tracking. On top of these features our framework also takes care about the participant recruitment, via crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon Mechanical Turk. Furthermore, the build in functionality of google translate will ensure automatic text translations of the experimental content. Thereby, thousands of participants from different cultures and nationalities can be recruited literally within hours. Finally, the recorded data can be visualized and cleaned online, and then exported into the desired formats (csv, xls, sav, mat) for statistical analysis. Alternatively, the data can also be analyzed online within our framework using the integrated Ipython notebook. The framework was designed such that studies can be used interchangeably between researchers. This will support not only the idea of open data repositories but also constitutes the possibility to share and reuse the experimental designs and analyses such that the validity of the paradigms will be improved. Particularly, sharing and integrating the experimental designs and analysis will lead to an increased consistency of experimental paradigms. To demonstrate the functionality of the framework we present the results of a pilot study in the field of spatial navigation that was conducted using the framework. Specifically, we recruited over 2000 subjects with various cultural backgrounds and consequently analyzed performance difference in dependence on the factors culture, gender and age. Overall, our results demonstrate a strong influence of cultural factors in spatial cognition. Such an influence has not yet been reported before and would not have been possible to show without the massive amount of data collected via our framework. In fact, these findings shed new lights on cultural differences in spatial navigation. As a consequence we conclude that our new framework constitutes a wide range of advantages for online research and a methodological innovation, by which new insights can be revealed on the basis of massive data collection.

Keywords: cultural differences, crowdsourcing, JavaScript framework, methodological innovation, online data collection, online study, spatial cognition

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