Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 85

Search results for: OFDM radars

85 OFDM Radar for Detecting a Rayleigh Fluctuating Target in Gaussian Noise

Authors: Mahboobeh Eghtesad, Reza Mohseni


We develop methods for detecting a target for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based radars. As a preliminary step we introduce the target and Gaussian noise models in discrete–time form. Then, resorting to match filter (MF) we derive a detector for two different scenarios: a non-fluctuating target and a Rayleigh fluctuating target. It will be shown that a MF is not suitable for Rayleigh fluctuating targets. In this paper we propose a reduced-complexity method based on fast Fourier transfrom (FFT) for such a situation. The proposed method has better detection performance.

Keywords: constant false alarm rate (CFAR), match filter (MF), fast Fourier transform (FFT), OFDM radars, Rayleigh fluctuating target

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84 Performance Analysis of MIMO-OFDM Using Convolution Codes with QAM Modulation

Authors: I Gede Puja Astawa, Yoedy Moegiharto, Ahmad Zainudin, Imam Dui Agus Salim, Nur Annisa Anggraeni


Performance of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system can be improved by adding channel coding (error correction code) to detect and correct the errors that occur during data transmission. One can use the convolution code. This paper presents performance of OFDM using Space Time Block Codes (STBC) diversity technique use QAM modulation with code rate 1/2. The evaluation is done by analyzing the value of Bit Error Rate (BER) vs. Energy per Bit to Noise Power Spectral Density Ratio (Eb/No). This scheme is conducted 256 sub-carrier which transmits Rayleigh multipath channel in OFDM system. To achieve a BER of 10-3 is required 30 dB SNR in SISO-OFDM scheme. For 2x2 MIMO-OFDM scheme requires 10 dB to achieve a BER of 10-3. For 4x4 MIMO-OFDM scheme requires 5 dB while adding convolution in a 4x4 MIMO-OFDM can improve performance up to 0 dB to achieve the same BER. This proves the existence of saving power by 3 dB of 4x4 MIMO-OFDM system without coding, power saving 7 dB of 2x2 MIMO-OFDM system without coding and significant power savings from SISO-OFDM system.

Keywords: convolution code, OFDM, MIMO, QAM, BER

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83 New Result for Optical OFDM in Code Division Multiple Access Systems Using Direct Detection

Authors: Cherifi Abdelhamid


In optical communication systems, OFDM has received increased attention as a means to overcome various limitations of optical transmission systems such as modal dispersion, relative intensity noise, chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion and self-phase modulation. The multipath dispersion limits the maximum transmission data rates. In this paper we investigate OFDM system where multipath induced intersymbol interference (ISI) is reduced and we increase the number of users by combining OFDM system with OCDMA system using direct detection Incorporate OOC (orthogonal optical code) for minimize a bit error rate.

Keywords: OFDM, OCDMA, OOC (orthogonal optical code), (ISI), prim codes (Pc)

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82 Perfomance of PAPR Reduction in OFDM System for Wireless Communications

Authors: Alcardo Alex Barakabitze, Saddam Aziz, Muhammad Zubair


The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a special form of multicarrier transmission that splits the total transmission bandwidth into a number of orthogonal and non-overlapping subcarriers and transmit the collection of bits called symbols in parallel using these subcarriers. In this paper, we explore the Peak to Average Power Reduction (PAPR) problem in OFDM systems. We provide the performance analysis of CCDF and BER through MATLAB simulations.

Keywords: bit error ratio (BER), OFDM, peak to average power reduction (PAPR), sub-carriers

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81 The OQAM-OFDM System Using WPT/IWPT Replaced FFT/IFFT

Authors: Alaa H. Thabet, Ehab F. Badran, Moustafa H. Aly


With the rapid expand of wireless digital communications, demand for wireless systems that are reliable and have a high spectral efficiency have increased too. FBMC scheme based on the OFDM/OQAM has been recognized for its good performance to achieve high data rates. Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) has been used to produce the orthogonal sub-carriers. Due to the drawbacks of OFDM -FFT based system which are the high peak-to-average ratio (PAR) and the synchronization. In this paper, Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) is used in the place of FFT, and show better performance.

Keywords: OQAM-OFDM, wavelet packet transform, PAPR, FFT

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80 Performance Analysis of PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems based on Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) Technique

Authors: Alcardo Alex Barakabitze, Tan Xiaoheng


Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a special case of Multi-Carrier Modulation (MCM) technique which transmits a stream of data over a number of lower data rate subcarriers. OFDM splits the total transmission bandwidth into a number of orthogonal and non-overlapping subcarriers and transmit the collection of bits called symbols in parallel using these subcarriers. This paper explores the Peak to Average Power Reduction (PAPR) using the Partial Transmit Sequence technique. We provide the distribution analysis and the basics of OFDM signals and then show how the PAPR increases as the number of subcarriers increases. We provide the performance analysis of CCDF and PAPR expressed in decibels through MATLAB simulations. The simulation results show that, in PTS technique, the performance of PAPR reduction in OFDM systems improves significantly as the number of sub-blocks increases. However, by keeping the same number of sub-blocks variation, oversampling factor and the number of OFDM blocks’ iteration for generating the CCDF, the OFDM systems with 128 subcarriers have an improved performance in PAPR reduction compared to OFDM systems with 256, 512 or >512 subcarriers.

Keywords: OFDM, peak to average power reduction (PAPR), bit error rate (BER), subcarriers, wireless communications

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79 Equalization Algorithm for the Optical OFDM System Based on the Fractional Fourier Transform

Authors: A. Cherifi, B. Bouazza, A. O. Dahmane, B. Yagoubi


Transmission over Optical channels will introduce inter-symbol interference (ISI) as well as inter-channel (or inter-carrier) interference (ICI). To decrease the effects of ICI, this paper proposes equalizer for the Optical OFDM system based on the fractional Fourier transform (FrFFT). In this FrFT-OFDM system, traditional Fourier transform is replaced by fractional Fourier transform to modulate and demodulate the data symbols. The equalizer proposed consists of sampling the received signal in the different time per time symbol. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are discussed.

Keywords: OFDM, (FrFT) fractional fourier transform, optical OFDM, equalization algorithm

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78 Reduction of Impulsive Noise in OFDM System using Adaptive Algorithm

Authors: Alina Mirza, Sumrin M. Kabir, Shahzad A. Sheikh


The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) with high data rate, high spectral efficiency and its ability to mitigate the effects of multipath makes them most suitable in wireless application. Impulsive noise distorts the OFDM transmission and therefore methods must be investigated to suppress this noise. In this paper, a State Space Recursive Least Square (SSRLS) algorithm based adaptive impulsive noise suppressor for OFDM communication system is proposed. And a comparison with another adaptive algorithm is conducted. The state space model-dependent recursive parameters of proposed scheme enables to achieve steady state mean squared error (MSE), low bit error rate (BER), and faster convergence than that of some of existing algorithm.

Keywords: OFDM, impulsive noise, SSRLS, BER

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77 OFDM Radar for High Accuracy Target Tracking

Authors: Mahbube Eghtesad


For a number of years, the problem of simultaneous detection and tracking of a target has been one of the most relevant and challenging issues in a wide variety of military and civilian systems. We develop methods for detecting and tracking a target using an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based radar. As a preliminary step we introduce the target trajectory and Gaussian noise model in discrete time form. Then resorting to match filter and Kalman filter we derive a detector and target tracker. After that we propose an OFDM radar in order to achieve further improvement in tracking performance. The motivation for employing multiple frequencies is that the different scattering centers of a target resonate differently at each frequency. Numerical examples illustrate our analytical results, demonstrating the achieved performance improvement due to the OFDM signaling method.

Keywords: matched filter, target trashing, OFDM radar, Kalman filter

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76 Cyclostationary Analysis of Polytime Coded Signals for LPI Radars

Authors: Metuku Shyamsunder, Kakarla Subbarao, P. Prasanna


In radars, an electromagnetic waveform is sent, and an echo of the same signal is received by the receiver. From this received signal, by extracting various parameters such as round trip delay, Doppler frequency it is possible to find distance, speed, altitude, etc. However, nowadays as the technology increases, intruders are intercepting transmitted signal as it reaches them, and they will be extracting the characteristics and trying to modify them. So there is a need to develop a system whose signal cannot be identified by no cooperative intercept receivers. That is why LPI radars came into existence. In this paper, a brief discussion on LPI radar and its modulation (polytime code (PT1)), detection (cyclostationary (DFSM & FAM) techniques such as DFSM, FAM are presented and compared with respect to computational complexity.

Keywords: LPI radar, polytime codes, cyclostationary DFSM, FAM

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75 Robustness of MIMO-OFDM Schemes for Future Digital TV to Carrier Frequency Offset

Authors: D. Sankara Reddy, T. Kranthi Kumar, K. Sreevani


This paper investigates the impact of carrier frequency offset (CFO) on the performance of different MIMO-OFDM schemes with high spectral efficiency for next generation of terrestrial digital TV. We show that all studied MIMO-OFDM schemes are sensitive to CFO when it is greater than 1% of intercarrier spacing. We show also that the Alamouti scheme is the most sensitive MIMO scheme to CFO.

Keywords: modulation and multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM), signal processing for transmission carrier frequency offset, future digital TV, imaging and signal processing

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74 The Optical OFDM Equalization Based on the Fractional Fourier Transform

Authors: A. Cherifi, B. S. Bouazza, A. O. Dahman, B. Yagoubi


Transmission over Optical channels will introduce inter-symbol interference (ISI) as well as inter-channel (or inter-carrier) interference (ICI). To decrease the effects of ICI, this paper proposes equalizer for the Optical OFDM system based on the fractional Fourier transform (FrFFT). In this FrFT-OFDM system, traditional Fourier transform is replaced by fractional Fourier transform to modulate and demodulate the data symbols. The equalizer proposed consists of sampling the received signal in the different time per time symbol. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are discussed.

Keywords: OFDM, fractional fourier transform, internet and information technology

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73 Comparative Analysis of Universal Filtered Multi Carrier and Filtered Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Systems for Wireless Communications

Authors: Raja Rajeswari K


Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), a multi Carrier transmission technique that has been used in implementing the majority of wireless applications like Wireless Network Protocol Standards (like IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11n), in telecommunications (like LTE, LTE-Advanced) and also in Digital Audio & Video Broadcast standards. The latest research and development in the area of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, Universal Filtered Multi Carrier (UFMC) & Filtered OFDM (F-OFDM) has attracted lots of attention for wideband wireless communications. In this paper UFMC & F-OFDM system are implemented and comparative analysis are carried out in terms of M-ary QAM modulation scheme over Dolph-chebyshev filter & rectangular window filter and to estimate Bit Error Rate (BER) over Rayleigh fading channel.

Keywords: UFMC, F-OFDM, BER, M-ary QAM

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72 A Robust Frequency Offset Estimator for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon


We address the integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation under the influence of the timing offset (TO) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Incorporating the IFO and TO into the symbol set used to represent the received OFDM symbol, we investigate the influence of the TO on the IFO, and then, propose a combining method between two consecutive OFDM correlations, reducing the influence. The proposed scheme has almost the same complexity as that of the conventional schemes, whereas it does not need the TO knowledge contrary to the conventional schemes. From numerical results it is confirmed that the proposed scheme is insensitive to the TO, consequently, yielding an improvement of the IFO estimation performance over the conventional schemes when the TO exists.

Keywords: estimation, integer frequency offset, OFDM, timing offset

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71 ML-Based Blind Frequency Offset Estimation Schemes for OFDM Systems in Non-Gaussian Noise Environments

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon


This paper proposes frequency offset (FO) estimation schemes robust to the non-Gaussian noise for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. A maximum-likelihood (ML) scheme and a low-complexity estimation scheme are proposed by applying the probability density function of the cyclic prefix of OFDM symbols to the ML criterion. From simulation results, it is confirmed that the proposed schemes offer a significant FO estimation performance improvement over the conventional estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments.

Keywords: frequency offset, cyclic prefix, maximum-likelihood, non-Gaussian noise, OFDM

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70 Pilot-Assisted Direct-Current Biased Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Visible Light Communication System

Authors: Ayad A. Abdulkafi, Shahir F. Nawaf, Mohammed K. Hussein, Ibrahim K. Sileh, Fouad A. Abdulkafi


Visible light communication (VLC) is a new approach of optical wireless communication proposed to support the congested radio frequency (RF) spectrum. VLC systems are combined with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to achieve high rate transmission and high spectral efficiency. In this paper, we investigate the Pilot-Assisted Channel Estimation for DC biased Optical OFDM (PACE-DCO-OFDM) systems to reduce the effects of the distortion on the transmitted signal. Least-square (LS) and linear minimum mean-squared error (LMMSE) estimators are implemented in MATLAB/Simulink to enhance the bit-error-rate (BER) of PACE-DCO-OFDM. Results show that DCO-OFDM system based on PACE scheme has achieved better BER performance compared to conventional system without pilot assisted channel estimation. Simulation results show that the proposed PACE-DCO-OFDM based on LMMSE algorithm can more accurately estimate the channel and achieves better BER performance when compared to the LS based PACE-DCO-OFDM and the traditional system without PACE. For the same signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 25 dB, the achieved BER is about 5×10-4 for LMMSE-PACE and 4.2×10-3 with LS-PACE while it is about 2×10-1 for system without PACE scheme.

Keywords: channel estimation, OFDM, pilot-assist, VLC

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69 A Novel Multi-Block Selective Mapping Scheme for PAPR Reduction in FBMC/OQAM Systems

Authors: Laabidi Mounira, Zayani Rafk, Bouallegue Ridha


Filter Bank Multicarrier with Offset Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (FBMC/OQAM) is presently known as a sustainable alternative to conventional Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) for signal transmission over multi-path fading channels. Like all multicarrier systems, FBMC/OQAM suffers from high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR). Due to the symbol overlap inherent in the FBMC/OQAM system, the direct application of conventional OFDM PAPR reduction scheme is far from being effective. This paper suggests a novel scheme termed Multi-Blocks Selective Mapping (MB-SLM) whose simulation results show that its performance in terms of PAPR reduction is almost identical to that of OFDM system.

Keywords: FBMC/OQAM, multi-blocks, OFDM, PAPR, SLM

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68 Bit Error Rate Analysis of Multiband OFCDM UWB System in UWB Fading Channel

Authors: Sanjay M. Gulhane, Athar Ravish Khan, Umesh W. Kaware


Orthogonal frequency and code division multiplexing (OFCDM) has received large attention as a modulation scheme to realize high data rate transmission. Multiband (MB) Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) Ultra Wide Band (UWB) system become promising technique for high data rate due to its large number of advantage over Singleband (UWB) system, but it suffer from coherent frequency diversity problem. In this paper we have proposed MB-OFCDM UWB system, in which two-dimensional (2D) spreading (time and frequency domain spreading), has been introduced, combining OFDM with 2D spreading, proposed system can provide frequency diversity. This paper presents the basic structure and main functions of the MB-OFCDM system, and evaluates the bit error rate BER performance of MB-OFDM and MB-OFCDM system under UWB indoor multi-path channel model. It is observe that BER curve of MB-OFCDM UWB improve its performance by 2dB as compare to MB-OFDM UWB system.

Keywords: MB-OFDM UWB system, MB-OFCDM UWB system, UWB IEEE channel model, BER

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67 Hybrid MIMO-OFDM Detection Scheme for High Performance

Authors: Young-Min Ko, Dong-Hyun Ha, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In recent years, a multi-antenna system is actively used to improve the performance of the communication. A MIMO-OFDM system can provide multiplexing gain or diversity gain. These gains are obtained in proportion to the increase of the number of antennas. In order to provide the optimal gain of the MIMO-OFDM system, various transmission and reception schemes are presented. This paper aims to propose a hybrid scheme that base station provides both diversity gain and multiplexing gain at the same time.

Keywords: DFE, diversity gain, hybrid, MIMO, multiplexing gain.

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66 Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) Signal Detection and Analysis Using Choi-Williams Distribution

Authors: V. S. S. Kumar, V. Ramya


In the modern electronic warfare, the signal scenario is changing at a rapid pace with the introduction of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) radars. In the modern battlefield, radar system faces serious threats from passive intercept receivers such as Electronic Attack (EA) and Anti-Radiation Missiles (ARMs). To perform necessary target detection and tracking and simultaneously hide themselves from enemy attack, radar systems should be LPI. These LPI radars use a variety of complex signal modulation schemes together with pulse compression with the aid of advancement in signal processing capabilities of the radar such that the radar performs target detection and tracking while simultaneously hiding enemy from attack such as EA etc., thus posing a major challenge to the ES/ELINT receivers. Today an increasing number of LPI radars are being introduced into the modern platforms and weapon systems so these LPI radars created a requirement for the armed forces to develop new techniques, strategies and equipment to counter them. This paper presents various modulation techniques used in generation of LPI signals and development of Time Frequency Algorithms to analyse those signals.

Keywords: anti-radiation missiles, cross terms, electronic attack, electronic intelligence, electronic warfare, intercept receiver, low probability of intercept

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65 A Comparative Analysis of Various Companding Techniques Used to Reduce PAPR in VLC Systems

Authors: Arushi Singh, Anjana Jain, Prakash Vyavahare


Recently, Li-Fi(light-fiedelity) has been launched based on VLC(visible light communication) technique, 100 times faster than WiFi. Now 5G mobile communication system is proposed to use VLC-OFDM as the transmission technique. The VLC system focused on visible rays, is considered for efficient spectrum use and easy intensity modulation through LEDs. The reason of high speed in VLC is LED, as they flicker incredibly fast(order of MHz). Another advantage of employing LED is-it acts as low pass filter results no out-of-band emission. The VLC system falls under the category of ‘green technology’ for utilizing LEDs. In present scenario, OFDM is used for high data-rates, interference immunity and high spectral efficiency. Inspite of the advantages OFDM suffers from large PAPR, ICI among carriers and frequency offset errors. Since, the data transmission technique used in VLC system is OFDM, the system suffers the drawbacks of OFDM as well as VLC, the non-linearity dues to non-linear characteristics of LED and PAPR of OFDM due to which the high power amplifier enters in non-linear region. The proposed paper focuses on reduction of PAPR in VLC-OFDM systems. Many techniques are applied to reduce PAPR such as-clipping-introduces distortion in the carrier; selective mapping technique-suffers wastage of bandwidth; partial transmit sequence-very complex due to exponentially increased number of sub-blocks. The paper discusses three companding techniques namely- µ-law, A-law and advance A-law companding technique. The analysis shows that the advance A-law companding techniques reduces the PAPR of the signal by adjusting the companding parameter within the range. VLC-OFDM systems are the future of the wireless communication but non-linearity in VLC-OFDM is a severe issue. The proposed paper discusses the techniques to reduce PAPR, one of the non-linearities of the system. The companding techniques mentioned in this paper provides better results without increasing the complexity of the system.

Keywords: non-linear companding techniques, peak to average power ratio (PAPR), visible light communication (VLC), VLC-OFDM

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64 Channel Sounding and PAPR Reduction in OFDM for WiMAX Using Software Defined Radio

Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi


WiMAX is a high speed broadband wireless access technology that adopted OFDM/OFDMA techniques to supply higher data rates with high spectral efficiency. However, OFDM suffers in view of high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) and high affect to synchronization errors. In this paper, the high PAPR problem is solved by using phase modulation to get Constant Envelop Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (CE-OFDM). The synchronization failures are brought down by employing a frequency lock loop, Poly phase clock synchronizer, Costas loop and blind equalizers such as Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA) equalizer and Sign Kurtosis Maximization Adaptive Algorithm (SKMAA) equalizers. The WiMAX physical layer is executed on Software Defined Radio (SDR) prototype by utilizing USRP N210 as hardware and GNU Radio as software plat-forms. A SNR estimation is performed on the signal received through USRP N210. To empathize wireless propagation in specific environments, a sliding correlator wireless channel sounding system is designed by using SDR testbed.

Keywords: BER, CMA equalizer, Kurtosis equalizer, GNU Radio, OFDM/OFDMA, USRP N210

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63 Impact of Hard Limited Clipping Crest Factor Reduction Technique on Bit Error Rate in OFDM Based Systems

Authors: Theodore Grosch, Felipe Koji Godinho Hoshino


In wireless communications, 3GPP LTE is one of the solutions to meet the greater transmission data rate demand. One issue inherent to this technology is the PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio) of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) modulation. This high PAPR affects the efficiency of power amplifiers. One approach to mitigate this effect is the Crest Factor Reduction (CFR) technique. In this work, we simulate the impact of Hard Limited Clipping Crest Factor Reduction technique on BER (Bit Error Rate) in OFDM based Systems. In general, the results showed that CFR has more effects on higher digital modulation schemes, as expected. More importantly, we show the worst-case degradation due to CFR on QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM signals in a linear system. For example, hard clipping of 9 dB results in a 2 dB increase in signal to noise energy at a 1% BER for 64-QAM modulation.

Keywords: bit error rate, crest factor reduction, OFDM, physical layer simulation

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62 Efficient Signal Detection Using QRD-M Based on Channel Condition in MIMO-OFDM System

Authors: Jae-Jeong Kim, Ki-Ro Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In this paper, we propose an efficient signal detector that switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme is proposed for MIMO-OFDM system. The proposed detection scheme calculates the threshold by 1-norm condition number and then switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme according to channel information. If channel condition is bad, the parameter M is set to high value to increase the accuracy of detection. If channel condition is good, the parameter M is set to low value to reduce complexity of detection. Therefore, the proposed detection scheme has better trade off between BER performance and complexity than the conventional detection scheme. The simulation result shows that the complexity of proposed detection scheme is lower than QRD-M detection scheme with similar BER performance.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, QRD-M, channel condition, BER

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61 Comprehensive Analysis of Power Allocation Algorithms for OFDM Based Communication Systems

Authors: Rakesh Dubey, Vaishali Bahl, Dalveer Kaur


The spiralling urge for high rate data transmission over wireless mediums needs intelligent use of electromagnetic resources considering restrictions like power ingestion, spectrum competence, robustness against multipath propagation and implementation intricacy. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a capable technique for next generation wireless communication systems. For such high rate data transfers there is requirement of proper allocation of resources like power and capacity amongst the sub channels. This paper illustrates various available methods of allocating power and the capacity requirement with the constraint of Shannon limit.

Keywords: Additive White Gaussian Noise, Multi-Carrier Modulation, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), Water Filling

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60 Frequency Offset Estimation Schemes Based on ML for OFDM Systems in Non-Gaussian Noise Environments

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon


In this paper, frequency offset (FO) estimation schemes robust to the non-Gaussian noise environments are proposed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. First, a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments is proposed, and then, the complexity of the ML estimation scheme is reduced by employing a reduced set of candidate values. In numerical results, it is demonstrated that the proposed schemes provide a significant performance improvement over the conventional estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments while maintaining the performance similar to the estimation performance in Gaussian noise environments.

Keywords: frequency offset estimation, maximum-likelihood, non-Gaussian noise environment, OFDM, training symbol

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59 Multi-Impairment Compensation Based Deep Neural Networks for 16-QAM Coherent Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing System

Authors: Ying Han, Yuanxiang Chen, Yongtao Huang, Jia Fu, Kaile Li, Shangjing Lin, Jianguo Yu


In long-haul and high-speed optical transmission system, the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal suffers various linear and non-linear impairments. In recent years, researchers have proposed compensation schemes for specific impairment, and the effects are remarkable. However, different impairment compensation algorithms have caused an increase in transmission delay. With the widespread application of deep neural networks (DNN) in communication, multi-impairment compensation based on DNN will be a promising scheme. In this paper, we propose and apply DNN to compensate multi-impairment of 16-QAM coherent optical OFDM signal, thereby improving the performance of the transmission system. The trained DNN models are applied in the offline digital signal processing (DSP) module of the transmission system. The models can optimize the constellation mapping signals at the transmitter and compensate multi-impairment of the OFDM decoded signal at the receiver. Furthermore, the models reduce the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted OFDM signal and the bit error rate (BER) of the received signal. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme for 16-QAM Coherent Optical OFDM signal and demonstrate and analyze transmission performance in different transmission scenarios. The experimental results show that the PAPR and BER of the transmission system are significantly reduced after using the trained DNN. It shows that the DNN with specific loss function and network structure can optimize the transmitted signal and learn the channel feature and compensate for multi-impairment in fiber transmission effectively.

Keywords: coherent optical OFDM, deep neural network, multi-impairment compensation, optical transmission

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58 The Effectiveness of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing as Modulation Technique

Authors: Mohamed O. Babana


In wireless channel multipath is the propagation phenomena where the transmitted signal arrive at the receiver side with many of paths, the signal at these paths arrive with different time delay the results is random signal fading due to intersymbols interference(ISI). This paper deals with identification of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology, and how it is used to overcome intersymbol interference due to multipath. Also investigates the effect of Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel (AWGN) on OFDM using multi-level modulation of Phase Shift Keying (PSK), computer simulation to calculate the bit error rate (BER) under AWGN channel is applied. A comparison study is carried out to obtain the Bit Error Rate performance for OFDM to identify the best multi-level modulation of PSK.

Keywords: intersymbol interference(ISI), bit error rate(BER), modulation, multiplexing, simulation

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57 Variable Tree Structure QR Decomposition-M Algorithm (QRD-M) in Multiple Input Multiple Output-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) Systems

Authors: Jae-Hyun Ro, Jong-Kwang Kim, Chang-Hee Kang, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems, QR decomposition-M algorithm (QRD-M) has suboptimal error performance. However, the QRD-M has still high complexity due to many calculations at each layer in tree structure. To reduce the complexity of the QRD-M, proposed QRD-M modifies existing tree structure by eliminating unnecessary candidates at almost whole layers. The method of the elimination is discarding the candidates which have accumulated squared Euclidean distances larger than calculated threshold. The simulation results show that the proposed QRD-M has same bit error rate (BER) performance with lower complexity than the conventional QRD-M.

Keywords: complexity, MIMO-OFDM, QRD-M, squared Euclidean distance

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56 Low Complexity Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation for Cooperative Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Communication Systems without Cyclic Prefix

Authors: Tsui-Tsai Lin


Cooperative orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission, which possesses the advantages of better connectivity, expanded coverage, and resistance to frequency selective fading, has been a more powerful solution for the physical layer in wireless communications. However, such a hybrid scheme suffers from the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effects inherited from the OFDM-based systems, which lead to a significant degradation in performance. In addition, insertion of a cyclic prefix (CP) at each symbol block head for combating inter-symbol interference will lead to a reduction in spectral efficiency. The design on the CFO estimation for the cooperative OFDM system without CP is a suspended problem. This motivates us to develop a low complexity CFO estimator for the cooperative OFDM decode-and-forward (DF) communication system without CP over the multipath fading channel. Especially, using a block-type pilot, the CFO estimation is first derived in accordance with the least square criterion. A reliable performance can be obtained through an exhaustive two-dimensional (2D) search with a penalty of heavy computational complexity. As a remedy, an alternative solution realized with an iteration approach is proposed for the CFO estimation. In contrast to the 2D-search estimator, the iterative method enjoys the advantage of the substantially reduced implementation complexity without sacrificing the estimate performance. Computer simulations have been presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed CFO estimation.

Keywords: cooperative transmission, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), carrier frequency offset, iteration

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