Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2279

Search results for: organic farming

2279 Impact of Organic Farming on Soil Fertility and Microbial Activity

Authors: Menuka Maharjan

Abstract:

In the name of food security, agriculture intensification through conventional farming is being implemented in Nepal. Government focus on increasing agriculture production completely ignores soil as well human health. This leads to create serious soil degradation, i.e., reduction of soil fertility and microbial activity and health hazard in the country. On this note, organic farming is sustainable agriculture approach which can address challenge of sustaining food security while protecting the environment. This creates a win-win situation both for people and the environment. However, people have limited knowledge on significance of organic farming for environment conservation and food security especially developing countries like Nepal. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the impacts of organic farming on soil fertility and microbial activity compared to conventional farming and forest in Chitwan, Nepal. Total soil organic carbon (C) was highest in organic farming (24 mg C g⁻¹ soil) followed by conventional farming (15 mg C g⁻¹ soil) and forest (9 mg C g⁻¹ soil) in the topsoil layer (0-10 cm depth). A similar trend was found for total nitrogen (N) content in all three land uses with organic farming soil possessing the highest total N content in both 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth. Microbial biomass C and N were also highest under organic farming, especially in the topsoil layer (350 and 46 mg g⁻¹ soil, respectively). Similarly, microbial biomass phosphorus (P) was higher (3.6 and 1.0 mg P kg⁻¹ at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth, respectively) in organic farming compared to conventional farming and forest at both depths. However, conventional farming and forest soils had similar microbial biomass (C, N, and P) content. After conversion of forest, the P stock significantly increased by 373% and 170% in soil under organic farming at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth, respectively. In conventional farming, the P stock increased by 64% and 36% at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth, respectively, compared to forest. Overall, organic farming practices, i.e., crop rotation, residue input and farmyard manure application, significantly alters soil fertility and microbial activity. Organic farming system is emerging as a sustainable land use system which can address the issues of food security and environment conservation by increasing sustainable agriculture production and carbon sequestration, respectively, supporting to achieve goals of sustainable development.

Keywords: organic farming, soil fertility, micobial biomas, food security

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
2278 A Study of Farming Earthworms Commercial with Organic Waste

Authors: Phrutsaya Piyanusorn

Abstract:

This study aimed to study the artificial barriers and potential restrictions. Aspects of farming, marketing and cost oriented commercial farming earthworms with organic waste. To promote the use of waste recycling and reduce the amount of organic waste that must be disposed. And to create added value this research focuses on qualitative and quantitative research. By earthworm farms surveyed collected insights to analyse the strengths, weaknesses, including problems, conditions and limitations. To get more updates, which covers the cost of marketing and farm management.

Keywords: farmin earthworms, commercial, organic waste, marketing management

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
2277 De-Commoditisation of Food: How Organic Farmers from the Madrid Region Reconnect Products and Places through Web Marketing

Authors: Salvatore Pinna

Abstract:

The growth of organic farming practices in the last few decades is continuing to stimulate the international debate about this alternative food market. As a part of a PhD project research about embeddedness in Alternative Food Networks (AFNs), this paper focuses on the promotional aspects of organic farms websites from the Madrid region. As a theoretical tool, some knowledge categories drawn on the geographic studies literature are used to classify the many ideas expressed in the web pages. By analysing texts and pictures of 30 websites, the study aims to question how and to what extent actors from organic world communicate to the potential customers their personal beliefs about farming practices, products qualities, and ecological and social benefits. Moreover, the paper raises the question of whether organic farming laws and regulations lack of completeness about the social and cultural aspects of food.

Keywords: alternative food networks, de-commoditisation, organic farming, madrid, reconnection of food

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
2276 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Small Scale Farmers on Organic Agriculture in a Rural Community in Ifugao, Philippines

Authors: Marah Joy A. Nanglegan

Abstract:

A survey was conducted to describe knowledge, attitude, practices, information needs, and information seeking behavior of small-scale farmers on Organic Agriculture Production (OAP) in a rural community in Ifugao, Philippines. Respondents’ age ranged from 23-67 years old. Most of them are male, married, and have reached high school level. The major source of income is farming with an average monthly income of less than Php 5,000 for a household size of seven. More than fifty percent of the respondents are members of a farmer’s organization. Farm size is less than one hectare. Majority of them own their farms and have been farming for more than twenty years. Very few attended training on Organic Agriculture Production (OAP). Most of them are not aware of any OAP program in their community. Hence, their farming practices are mostly conventional. The overall level of knowledge on OAP among all respondents was below the average. On attitude, most of the respondents agreed that organic farming would decrease production costs by reducing input purchases. They believe it benefits both the consumer and the producer. In fact, they are aware of the many benefits of organic farming, especially on health. Likewise, many of them agreed on the benefits of organic farming to soil fertility, to the environment, and to increase the income of farmers. Many of them, however, see organic farming as troublesome and difficult in terms of time and effort, obtaining organic inputs, limited production, and marketing aspects. They also have heavy reliance on pesticides and herbicides to control pests and diseases. On practices, majority of the respondents stated that they practiced crop rotation, manual weeding, and the use of animal manure. Most of them desired to do organic farming but needed information such as production techniques, costs, and marketing opportunities. Their most preferred communication channel is through extension agents and contact farmers. Their most preferred communication method is through trainings and seminars as well as through farm demonstrations. Results of this study will serve as a basis for developing appropriate communication strategies to improve knowledge, attitude, and practices of respondents on organic agriculture as well as enhance the promotion of organic agriculture production in the community.

Keywords: Ifugao, knowledge attitude practices, organic agriculture, Philippines

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
2275 On-Farm Research on Organic Fruits Production in the Eastern Thailand

Authors: Sali Chinsathit, Haruthai Kaenla

Abstract:

Organic agriculture has become a major policy theme for agricultural development in Thailand since October 2005. Organic farming is enlisted as an important national agenda, to promote safe food and national export, and many government authorities have initiated projects and activities centered on organic farming promotion. Currently, Thailand has the market share of about 32 million US$ a year by exporting organic products of rice, vegetables, tea, fruits and a few medicinal herbs. There is high potential in organic crop production as there is the tropical environment promoting crop growth and leader farmer in organic farming. However, organic sector is relatively small (0.2%) comparing with conventional agricultural area, since there are many factors affecting farmers’ adoption and success in organic farming. The objective of this project was to get the organic production technology for at least 3 organic crops. The treatment and method were complied with Thai Organic Standard, and were mainly concerned on increase plant biodiversity and soil improvement by using organic fertilizer and bio-extract from fish, egg, plant and fruits. The bio-logical control, plant-extracts, and cultural practices were used to control insect pests and diseases of 3 crops including mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), longkong (Aglaia dookoo Griff.) and banana (Musa (AA group)). The experiments were carried out at research centers of Department of Agriculture and farmers’ farms in Rayong and Chanthaburi provinces from 2009 to 2013. We found that both locations, plant biodiversity by intercropping mangosteen or longkong with banana and soil improvement with composts and bio-extract from fish could increased yield and farmers’ income by 6,835 US$/ha/year. Farmers got knowledge from these technologies to produce organic crops. The organic products were sold both in domestic and international countries. The organic production technologies were also environmental friendly and could be used as an alternative way for farmers in Thailand.

Keywords: banana, longkong, mangosteen, organic farming

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
2274 Chemometric Analysis of Raw Milk Quality Originating from Conventional and Organic Dairy Farming in AP Vojvodina, Serbia

Authors: Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Denis Kučević, Strahinja Kovačević, Milica Karadžić, Lidija Jevrić

Abstract:

The present study describes the application of chemometric methods in analysis of milk samples which were collected in a conventional dairy farm and an organic dairy farm in AP Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia. The chemometric analysis included the application of univariate regression modeling and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method. The ANOVA was used in order to determine the differences in fatty acids content in the milk samples from conventional and organic farm. The results of the ANOVA testing indicate that there is a highly statistically significant difference between the content of fatty acid (saturated fatty acid vs. unsaturated fatty acids) in different dairy farming. Besides, the linear univariate models have been obtained as a result of modeling the linear relationships between the milk fat content and saturated fatty acids content, and the linear relationships between the milk fat content and unsaturated fatty acids content. The models obtained on the basis of the milk samples which originate from the organic farming are statistically better than the models based on the milk samples from conventional farming.

Keywords: hemometrics, milk, organic farming, quality control

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
2273 Organic Paddy Production as a Coping Strategy to the Adverse Impact of Climate Change

Authors: Thapa M., J.P. Dutta, K.R. Pandey, R.R. Kattel

Abstract:

Nepal is extremely vulnerable to the impact of climate change. To mitigate the climate change effects on agricultural production and productivity a range of adaptive strategies needs to be considered. The study was conducted to assess organic paddy production as a coping strategy to the adverse impact of climate change in Phulbari, VDC of Chitwan district. Altogether, 120 respondents (60 adopters of organic farming and 60 from non adopter) were selected using snowball technique of sampling. Pre- tested interview schedule, direct observation, focus group discussion, key informant interview as well as secondary data were used to collect the required information. Factors determining the adoption of organic farming were found to be age, year of schooling, training, frequency of extension contact, perception about climate change, economically active members and poor. A unit increase in these factors except poor would increase the probability of adoption by 4.1%, 7.5%, 7.8%, 43.1%, 41.8% and 7% respectively. However, for poor, it would decrease the probability of adoption of organic farming by 5.1%. Average organic matter content in the adopters' field was higher (2.7%) than the non-adopters' field (2.5%). The regression result showed that type of farmer, price and area under rice cultivation had positive and significant relationship with income; however dependency ratio had negative relationship. As the year of adoption of organic farming increases, the production of rice decline in the first two years then after goes on increasing but the cost of production goes on decreasing with the year of adoption. The respondents adapted to the changing climate through diversification of crops, use of resistance varieties and following good cropping pattern. Gradually growing consumers' awareness about health, preference towards quality food products are the strong points behind organic farming, whereas lacks of bio-fertilizers, lack of effective extension services, no price differentiation between organic and inorganic products were the weak points. There is need for more training and education to change the attitude of farmers and enhance their confidence about the role of organic farming to cope with climate change impact.

Keywords: Organic farming, climate change, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
2272 Contribution for Rural Development Trough Training in Organic Farming

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Daniela V. T. A. Costa, Paula M. R. Correia, Moisés Castro, Luis T. Guerra, Cristina A. Costa

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to characterize a potential target group of people interested in participating into a training program in organic farming in the context of mobile-learning. The information sought addressed in particular, but not exclusively, possible contents, formats and forms of evaluation that will contribute to define the course objectives and curriculum, as well as to ensure that the course meets the needs of the learners and their preferences. The sample was selected among different European countries. The questionnaires were delivered electronically for answering online and in the end 135 consented valid questionnaires were obtained. The results allowed characterizing the target group and identifying their training needs and preferences towards m-learning formats, giving valuable tools to design the training offer.

Keywords: mobile-learning, organic farming, rural development, survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
2271 Choice Experiment Approach on Evaluation of Non-Market Farming System Outputs: First Results from Lithuanian Case Study

Authors: A. Novikova, L. Rocchi, G. Startiene

Abstract:

Market and non-market outputs are produced jointly in agriculture. Their supply depends on the intensity and type of production. The role of agriculture as an economic activity and its effects are important for the Lithuanian case study, as agricultural land covers more than a half of country. Positive and negative externalities, created in agriculture are not considered in the market. Therefore, specific techniques such as stated preferences methods, in particular choice experiments (CE) are used for evaluation of non-market outputs in agriculture. The main aim of this paper is to present construction of the research path for evaluation of non-market farming system outputs in Lithuania. The conventional and organic farming, covering crops (including both cereal and industrial crops) and livestock (including dairy and cattle) production has been selected. The CE method and nested logit (NL) model were selected as appropriate for evaluation of non-market outputs of different farming systems in Lithuania. A pilot survey was implemented between October–November 2018, in order to test and improve the CE questionnaire. The results of the survey showed that the questionnaire is accepted and well understood by the respondents. The econometric modelling showed that the selected NL model could be used for the main survey. The understanding of the differences between organic and conventional farming by residents was identified. It was revealed that they are more willing to choose organic farming in comparison to conventional farming.

Keywords: choice experiments, farming system, Lithuania market outputs, non-market outputs

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
2270 Evaluation of Different Cropping Systems under Organic, Inorganic and Integrated Production Systems

Authors: Sidramappa Gaddnakeri, Lokanath Malligawad

Abstract:

Any kind of research on production technology of individual crop / commodity /breed has not brought sustainability or stability in crop production. The sustainability of the system over years depends on the maintenance of the soil health. Organic production system includes use of organic manures, biofertilizers, green manuring for nutrient supply and biopesticides for plant protection helps to sustain the productivity even under adverse climatic condition. The study was initiated to evaluate the performance of different cropping systems under organic, inorganic and integrated production systems at The Institute of Organic Farming, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka-India) under ICAR Network Project on Organic Farming. The trial was conducted for four years (2013-14 to 2016-17) on fixed site. Five cropping systems viz., sequence cropping of cowpea – safflower, greengram– rabi sorghum, maize-bengalgram, sole cropping of pigeonpea and intercropping of groundnut + cotton were evaluated under six nutrient management practices. The nutrient management practices are NM1 (100% Organic farming (Organic manures equivalent to 100% N (Cereals/cotton) or 100% P2O5 (Legumes), NM2 (75% Organic farming (Organic manures equivalent to 75% N (Cereals/cotton) or 100% P2O5 (Legumes) + Cow urine and Vermi-wash application), NM3 (Integrated farming (50% Organic + 50% Inorganic nutrients, NM4 (Integrated farming (75% Organic + 25% Inorganic nutrients, NM5 (100% Inorganic farming (Recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers)) and NM6 (Recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + Recommended rate of farm yard manure (FYM). Among the cropping systems evaluated for different production systems indicated that the Groundnut + Hybrid cotton (2:1) intercropping system found more remunerative as compared to Sole pigeonpea cropping system, Greengram-Sorghum sequence cropping system, Maize-Chickpea sequence cropping system and Cowpea-Safflower sequence cropping system irrespective of the production systems. Production practices involving application of recommended rates of fertilizers + recommended rates of organic manures (Farmyard manure) produced higher net monetary returns and higher B:C ratio as compared to integrated production system involving application of 50 % organics + 50 % inorganic and application of 75 % organics + 25 % inorganic and organic production system only Both the two organic production systems viz., 100 % Organic production system (Organic manures equivalent to 100 % N (Cereals/cotton) or 100 % P2O5 (Legumes) and 75 % Organic production system (Organic manures equivalent to 75 % N (Cereals) or 100 % P2O5 (Legumes) + Cow urine and Vermi-wash application) are found to be on par. Further, integrated production system involving application of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers found more beneficial over organic production systems.

Keywords: cropping systems, production systems, cowpea, safflower, greengram, pigeonpea, groundnut, cotton

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
2269 Organic Agriculture Harmony in Nutrition, Environment and Health: Case Study in Iran

Authors: Sara Jelodarian

Abstract:

Organic agriculture is a kind of living and dynamic agriculture that was introduced in the early 20th century. The fundamental basis for organic agriculture is in harmony with nature. This version of farming emphasizes removing growth hormones, chemical fertilizers, toxins, radiation, genetic manipulation and instead, integration of modern scientific techniques (such as biologic and microbial control) that leads to the production of healthy food and the preservation of the environment and use of agricultural products such as forage and manure. Supports from governments for the markets producing organic products and taking advantage of the experiences from other successful societies in this field can help progress the positive and effective aspects of this technology, especially in developing countries. This research proves that till 2030, 25% of the global agricultural lands would be covered by organic farming. Consequently Iran, due to its rich genetic resources and various climates, can be a pioneer in promoting organic products. In addition, for sustainable farming, blend of organic and other innovative systems is needed. Important limitations exist to accept these systems, also a diversity of policy instruments will be required to comfort their development and implementation. The paper was conducted to results of compilation of reports, issues, books, articles related to the subject with library studies and research. Likewise we combined experimental and survey to get data.

Keywords: develop, production markets, progress, strategic role, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
2268 Agro-Measures Influence Soil Physical Parameters in Alternative Farming

Authors: Laura Masilionyte, Danute Jablonskyte-Rasce, Kestutis Venslauskas, Zita Kriauciuniene

Abstract:

Alternative farming systems are used to cultivate high-quality food products and sustain the viability and fertility of the soil. Plant nutrition in all ecosystems depends not only on fertilization intensity or soil richness in organic matter but also on soil physical parameters –bulk density, structure, pores with the optimum moisture and air ratio available to plants. The field experiments of alternative (sustainable and organic) farming systems were conducted at Joniskelis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2006–2016. The soil of the experimental site was Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-n-w-can). In alternative farming systems, farmyard manure, straw and catch crops for green manure were used for fertilization both in the soil with low and moderate humus contents. It had a more significant effect in the 0–20 cm depth layer on soil moisture than on other physical soil properties. In the agricultural systems, where catch crops were grown, soil physical characteristics did not differ significantly before their biomass incorporation, except for the moisture content, which was lower in rainy periods and higher in drier periods than in the soil of farming systems without catch crops. Soil bulk density and porosity in the topsoil layer were more dependent on soil humus content than on agricultural measures used: in the soil with moderate humus content, compared with the soil with low humus content, bulk density was by 1.4% lower, and porosity by 1.8% higher. The research findings allow to make improvements in alternative farming systems by choosing appropriate combinations of organic fertilizers and catch crops that have a sustainable effect on soil and maintain the sustainability of soil productivity parameters. Rational fertilization systems, securing the stability of soil productivity parameters and crop rotation productivity will promote the development of organic agriculture.

Keywords: agro-measures, soil physical parameters, organic farming, sustainable farming

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
2267 A Comparative Analysis of the Private and Social Benefit-Cost Ratios of Organic and Inorganic Rice Farming: Case Study of Smallholder Farmers in the Aveyime Community, Ghana

Authors: Jerome E. Abiemo, Takeshi Mizunoya

Abstract:

The Aveyime community in the Volta region of Ghana is one of the major hubs for rice production. In the past, rice farmers applied organic pesticides to control pests, and compost as a soil amendment to improve fertility and productivity. However, the introduction of chemical pesticides and fertilizers have led many farmers to convert to inorganic system of rice production, without considering the social costs (e.g. groundwater contamination and health costs) related to the use of pesticides. The study estimates and compares the private and social BCRs of organic and inorganic systems of rice production. Both stratified and simple random sampling techniques were employed to select 300 organic and inorganic rice farmers and 50 pesticide applicators. The respondents were interviewed with pre-tested questionnaires. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) which elucidates organic farmers` Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) was employed to estimate the cost of groundwater contamination. The Cost of Illness (COI) analysis was used to estimate the health cost of pesticide-induced poisoning of applicators. The data collated, was analyzed with the aid of Microsoft excel. The study found that high private benefit (e.g. increase in farm yield and income) was the most influential factor for the rapid adoption of pesticides among rice farmers. The study also shows that the social costs of inorganic rice production were high. As such the social BCR of inorganic farming (0.2) was low as compared to organic farming (0.7). Based on the results, it was recommended that government should impose pesticide environmental tax, review current agricultural policies to favour organic farming and promote extension education to farmers on pesticide risk, to ensure agricultural and environmental sustainability.

Keywords: benefit-cost-ratio (BCR), inorganic farming, pesticides, social cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
2266 Organic Farming Profitability: Evidence from South Korea

Authors: Saem Lee, Thanh Nguyen, Hio-Jung Shin, Thomas Koellner

Abstract:

Land-use management has an influence on the provision of ecosystem service in dynamic, agricultural landscapes. Agricultural land use is important for maintaining the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. However, in Korea, intensive farming activities in this highland agricultural zone, the upper stream of Soyang has led to contaminated soil caused by over-use pesticides and fertilizers. This has led to decrease in water and soil quality, which has consequences for ecosystem services and human wellbeing. Conventional farming has still high percentage in this area and there is no special measure to prevent low water quality caused by farming activities. Therefore, the adoption of environmentally friendly farming has been considered one of the alternatives that lead to improved water quality and increase in biomass production. Concurrently, farm households with environmentally friendly farming have occupied still low rates. Therefore, our research involved a farm household survey spanning conventional farming, the farm in transition and organic farming in Soyang watershed. Another purpose of our research was to compare economic advantage of the farmers adopting environmentally friendly farming and non-adaptors and to investigate the different factors by logistic regression analysis with socio-economic and benefit-cost ratio variables. The results found that farmers with environmentally friendly farming tended to be younger than conventional farming and farmer in transition. They are similar in terms of gender which was predominately male. Farmers with environmentally friendly farming were more educated and had less farming experience than conventional farming and farmer in transition. Based on the benefit-cost analysis, total costs that farm in transition farmers spent for one year are about two times as much as the sum of costs in environmentally friendly farming. The benefit of organic farmers was assessed with 2,800 KRW per household per year. In logistic regression, the factors having statistical significance are subsidy and district, residence period and benefit-cost ratio. And district and residence period have the negative impact on the practice of environmentally friendly farming techniques. The results of our research make a valuable contribution to provide important information to describe Korean policy-making for agricultural and water management and to consider potential approaches to policy that would substantiate ways beneficial for sustainable resource management.

Keywords: organic farming, logistic regression, profitability, agricultural land-use

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
2265 Effect of Organic Manure on Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

Authors: R. Behrooz, D. Jahanfar, D. Reza

Abstract:

Organic farming is a fundamental principle in sustainable agriculture. Preventing excessive contamination of water and soil with pesticides and chemical fertilizers is important in order to produce healthy food. For this purpose, two potato cultivars (Sante and Marfona) and seven levels of fertilizer (non-fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, granulated chicken manure, common manure, compost, vermicompost and tea compost) were evaluated by factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. According to the results, the effect of different manure was significant on number of tubers per plant, tuber weight per plant and tuber yield. The highest value of these traits was obtained by using of chicken manure which was significantly superior to other treatments. However, there was no significant difference between the two varieties. According to the results, the use of chicken manure has produced the highest potato yield even in comparison with the use of chemical fertilizer.

Keywords: organic farming, organic manure, potato, tuber yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
2264 The Influense of Alternative Farming Systems on Physical Parameters of the Soil

Authors: L. Masilionyte, S. Maiksteniene

Abstract:

Alternative farming systems are used to cultivate high quality food products and retain the viability and fertility of soil. The field experiments of different farming systems were conducted at Joniškėlis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2006–2013. The soil of the experimental site was Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-n-w-can). In different farming systems, farmyard manure, straw and green manure catch crops used for fertilization both in the soil low in humus and in the soil moderate in humus. In the 0–20 cm depth layer, it had a more significant effect on soil moisture than on other physical soil properties. In the agricultural systems, in which catch crops had been grown, soil physical characteristics did not differ significantly before their biomass incorporation, except for the moisture content, which was lower in rainy periods and higher in drier periods than in the soil without catch crops. Soil bulk density and porosity in the topsoil layer were more dependent on soil humus content than on agricultural measures used: in the soil moderate in humus content, compared with the soil low in humus, bulk density was by 1.4 % lower, and porosity by 1.8 % higher. The research findings create a possibility to make improvements in alternative cropping systems by choosing organic fertilizers and catch crops’ combinations that have the sustainable effect on soil and that maintain the sustainability of soil productivity parameters. Rational fertilization systems, securing the stability of soil productivity parameters and crop rotation productivity will promote a development of organic agriculture.

Keywords: agro-measures, soil physical parameters, organic farming, sustainable farming

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
2263 The Influence of Production Hygiene Training on Farming Practices Employed by Rural Small-Scale Organic Farmers - South Africa

Authors: Mdluli Fezile, Schmidt Stefan, Thamaga-Chitja Joyce

Abstract:

In view of the frequently reported foodborne disease outbreaks caused by contaminated fresh produce, consumers have a preference for foods that meet requisite hygiene standards to reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses. Producing good quality fresh produce then becomes critical in improving market access and food security, especially for small-scale farmers. Questions of hygiene and subsequent microbiological quality in the rural small-scale farming sector of South Africa are even more crucial, given the policy drive to develop small-scale farming as a measure for reinforcement of household food security and reduction of poverty. Farming practices and methods, throughout the fresh produce value chain, influence the quality of the final product, which in turn determines its success in the market. This study’s aim was to therefore determine the extent to which training on organic farming methods, including modules such as Importance of Production Hygiene, influenced the hygienic farming practices employed by eTholeni small-scale organic farmers in uMbumbulu, KwaZulu-Natal- South Africa. Questionnaires were administered to 73 uncertified organic farmers and analysis showed that a total of 33 farmers were trained and supplied the local Agri-Hub while 40 had not received training. The questionnaire probed respondents’ attitudes, knowledge of hygiene and composting practices. Data analysis included descriptive statistics such as the Chi-square test and a logistic regression model. Descriptive analysis indicated that a majority of the farmers (60%) were female, most of which (73%) were above the age of 40. The logistic regression indicated that factors such as farmer training and prior experience in the farming sector had a significant influence on hygiene practices both at 5% significance levels. These results emphasize the importance of training, education and farming experience in implementing good hygiene practices in small-scale farming. It is therefore recommended that South African policies should advocate for small-scale farmer training, not only for subsistence purposes, but also with an aim of supplying produce markets with high fresh produce.

Keywords: small-scale farmers, leafy salad vegetables, organic produce, food safety, hygienic practices, food security

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
2262 A Comparative Study of Modern Trends in Traditional Farming Methods of Paddy Cultivation

Authors: Prasansha Kumari

Abstract:

This research intends to identify and analyze the new trends of usage the traditional farming methods to modern paddy cultivation. Information gathered through conducting interviews with total of 200 farmers in selected paddy cultivation areas in Kurunegalla district. As well as this research utilized by case study and observation in Ulpotha Traditional Village, Galgamuwa of Sri Lanka. Secondary data collected from books, articles, relevant websites and other relevant documents. Collected data analyzed by descriptive research methodology. Outcomes are there is growing interest in usage the traditional farming methods to the small consumption level paddy lands that have emerged during the last few decades as well as the research revealed that traditional farming method has identified the ecofriendly farming practices to restrict long term side effects inherited from the modern methods. The study finds out the demand of traditional rice varieties has been growing among the community as health and nutrition purpose.

Keywords: traditional farming, organic, inorganic, paddy cultivation

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
2261 Training Manual of Organic Agriculture Farming for the Farmers: A Case Study from Kunjpura and Surrounding Villages

Authors: Rishi Pal Singh

Abstract:

In Indian Scenario, Organic agriculture is growing by the conscious efforts of inspired people who are able to create the best promising relationship between the earth and men. Nowadays, the major challenge is its entry into the policy-making framework, its entry into the global market and weak sensitization among the farmers. But, during the last two decades, the contamination in environment and food which is linked with the bad agricultural potential/techniques has diverted the mind set of farmers towards the organic farming. In the view of above concept, a small-scale project has been installed to promote the 20 farmers from the Kunjura and surrounding villages for organic farming. This project is working since from the last 3 crops (starting from October, 2016) and found that it can meet both demands and complete development of rural areas. Farmers of this concept are working on the principles such that the nature never demands unreasonable quantities of water, mining and to destroy the microbes and other organisms. As per details of Organic Monitor estimates, global sales reached in billion in the present analysis. In this initiative, firstly, wheat and rice were considered for farming and observed that the production of crop has grown almost 10-15% per year from the last crop production. This is not linked only with the profit or loss but also emphasized on the concept of health, ecology, fairness and care of soil enrichment. Several techniques were used like use of biological fertilizers instead of chemicals, multiple cropping, temperature management, rain water harvesting, development of own seed, vermicompost and integration of animals. In the first year, to increase the fertility of the land, legumes (moong, cow pea and red gram) were grown in strips for the 60, 90 and 120 days. Simultaneously, the mixture of compost and vermicompost in the proportion of 2:1 was applied at the rate of 2.0 ton per acre which was enriched with 5 kg Azotobacter and 5 kg Rhizobium biofertilizer. To complete the amount of phosphorus, 250 kg rock phosphate was used. After the one month, jivamrut can be used with the irrigation water or during the rainy days. In next season, compost-vermicompost mixture @ 2.5 ton/ha was used for all type of crops. After the completion of this treatment, now the soil is ready for high value ordinary/horticultural crops. The amount of above stated biofertilizers, compost-vermicompost and rock phosphate may be increased for the high alternative fertilizers. The significance of the projects is that now the farmers believe in cultural alternative (use of disease-free their own seed, organic pest management), maintenance of biodiversity, crop rotation practices and health benefits of organic farming. This type of organic farming projects should be installed at the level of gram/block/district administration.

Keywords: organic farming, Kunjpura, compost, bio-fertilizers

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
2260 Perceptions of Farmers against Liquid Fertilizer Benefits of Beef Cattle Urine

Authors: Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin, Ikrar Moh. Saleh, Kasmiyati Kasim

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to know the perception of livestock farmers on the use of liquid organic fertilizer from urine of cattle at Sinjai Regency, South Sulawesi Province. The choice of location for a farmer group manufactures and markets liquid organic fertilizer from cattle urine. This research was conducted in May to July 2013.The population were all livestock farmers who use organic liquid fertilizer from cattle urine samples while livestock farmers who are directly involved in the manufacture of liquid organic fertilizer totaled 42 people. Data were collected through observation and interview. Data were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the perception of livestock farmers of using liquid organic fertilizer from cattle urine provide additional revenue benefits, cost minimization farming, reducing environmental pollution which not contrary to the customs.

Keywords: liquid organic fertilizer, perceptions, farmers, beef cattle

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
2259 Comparative Study on Productivity, Chemical Composition and Yield Quality of Some Alternative Crops in Romanian Organic Farming

Authors: Maria Toader, Gheorghe Valentin Roman, Alina Maria Ionescu

Abstract:

Crops diversity and maintaining and enhancing the fertility of agricultural lands are basic principles of organic farming. With a wider range of crops in agroecosystem can improve the ability to control weeds, pests and diseases, and the performance of crops rotation and food safety. In this sense, the main objective of the research was to study the productivity and chemical composition of some alternative crops and their adaptability to soil and climatic conditions of the agricultural area in Southern Romania and to cultivation in the organic farming system. The alternative crops were: lentil (7 genotypes); five species of grain legumes (5 genotypes); four species of oil crops (5 genotypes). The seed production was, on average: 1343 kg/ha of lentil; 2500 kg/ha of field beans; 2400 kg/ha of chick peas and blackeyed peas; more than 2000 kg/ha of atzuki beans, over 1250 kg/ha of fenugreek; 2200 kg/ha of safflower; 570 kg/ha of oil pumpkin; 2150 kg/ha of oil flax; 1518 kg/ha of camelina. Regarding chemical composition, lentil seeds contained: 22.18% proteins, 3.03% lipids, 33.29% glucides, 4.00% minerals, and 259.97 kcal energy values. For field beans: 21.50% proteins, 4.40% lipids, 63.90% glucides, 5.85% minerals, 395.36 kcal energetic value. For chick peas: 21.23% proteins, 4.55% lipids, 53.00% glucides, 3.67% minerals, 348.22 kcal energetic value. For blackeyed peas: 23.30% proteins, 2.10% lipids, 68.10% glucides, 3.93% minerals, 350.14 kcal energetic value. For adzuki beans: 21.90% proteins, 2.60% lipids, 69.30% glucides, 4.10% minerals, 402.48 kcal energetic value. For fenugreek: 21.30% proteins, 4.65% lipids, 63.83% glucides, 5.69% minerals, 396.54 kcal energetic value. For safflower: 12.60% proteins, 28.37% lipids, 46.41% glucides, 3.60% minerals, 505.78 kcal energetic value. For camelina: 20.29% proteins, 31.68% lipids, 36.28% glucides, 4.29% minerals, 526.63 kcal energetic value. For oil pumpkin: 29.50% proteins, 36.92% lipids, 18.50% glucides, 5.41% minerals, 540.15 kcal energetic value. For oil flax: 22.56% proteins, 34.10% lipids, 27.73% glucides, 5.25% minerals, 558.45 kcal energetic value.

Keywords: adaptability, alternative crops, chemical composition, organic farming productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
2258 Optimization and Coordination of Organic Product Supply Chains under Competition: An Analytical Modeling Perspective

Authors: Mohammadreza Nematollahi, Bahareh Mosadegh Sedghy, Alireza Tajbakhsh

Abstract:

The last two decades have witnessed substantial attention to organic and sustainable agricultural supply chains. Motivated by real-world practices, this paper aims to address two main challenges observed in organic product supply chains: decentralized decision-making process between farmers and their retailers, and competition between organic products and their conventional counterparts. To this aim, an agricultural supply chain consisting of two farmers, a conventional farmer and an organic farmer who offers an organic version of the same product, is considered. Both farmers distribute their products through a single retailer, where there exists competition between the organic and the conventional product. The retailer, as the market leader, sets the wholesale price, and afterward, the farmers set their production quantity decisions. This paper first models the demand functions of the conventional and organic products by incorporating the effect of asymmetric brand equity, which captures the fact that consumers usually pay a premium for organic due to positive perceptions regarding their health and environmental benefits. Then, profit functions with consideration of some characteristics of organic farming, including crop yield gap and organic cost factor, are modeled. Our research also considers both economies and diseconomies of scale in farming production as well as the effects of organic subsidy paid by the government to support organic farming. This paper explores the investigated supply chain in three scenarios: decentralized, centralized, and coordinated decision-making structures. In the decentralized scenario, the conventional and organic farmers and the retailer maximize their own profits individually. In this case, the interaction between the farmers is modeled under the Bertrand competition, while analyzing the interaction between the retailer and farmers under the Stackelberg game structure. In the centralized model, the optimal production strategies are obtained from the entire supply chain perspective. Analytical models are developed to derive closed-form optimal solutions. Moreover, analytical sensitivity analyses are conducted to explore the effects of main parameters like the crop yield gap, organic cost factor, organic subsidy, and percent price premium of the organic product on the farmers’ and retailer’s optimal strategies. Afterward, a coordination scenario is proposed to convince the three supply chain members to shift from the decentralized to centralized decision-making structure. The results indicate that the proposed coordination scenario provides a win-win-win situation for all three members compared to the decentralized model. Moreover, our paper demonstrates that the coordinated model respectively increases and decreases the production and price of organic produce, which in turn motivates the consumption of organic products in the market. Moreover, the proposed coordination model helps the organic farmer better handle the challenges of organic farming, including the additional cost and crop yield gap. Last but not least, our results highlight the active role of the organic subsidy paid by the government as a means of promoting sustainable organic product supply chains. Our paper shows that although the amount of organic subsidy plays a significant role in the production and sales price of organic products, the allocation method of subsidy between the organic farmer and retailer is not of that importance.

Keywords: analytical game-theoretic model, product competition, supply chain coordination, sustainable organic supply chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
2257 Equipping Organic Farming in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants' Scientific Interventions

Authors: Alok Kalra

Abstract:

Consumers and practitioners (medical herbalists, pharmacists, and aromatherapists) with strong and increased awareness about health and environment demand organically grown medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) to offer a valued product. As the system does not permit the use of synthetic fertilizers the use of nutrient rich organic manures is extremely important. CSIR-CIMAP has developed a complete recycling package for managing distillation and agro-waste of medicinal and aromatic plants for production of superior quality vermicompost involving microbes capable of producing high amounts of humic acid. The major benefits being faster composting period and nutrient rich vermicompost; a nutrient advantage of about 100-150% over the most commonly used organic manure (FYM). At CSIR-CIMAP, strains of microbial inoculants with multiple activities especially strains useful both as biofertilizers and biofungicide and consortia of microbes possessing diverse functional activities have been developed. CSIR-CIMAP has also initiated a program where a large number of accessions are being screened for identifying organic proficient genotypes in mints, ashwagandha, geranium and safed musli. Some of the natural plant growth promoters like calliterpenones from the plant Callicarpa macrophylla has been tested successfully for induction of rooting in stem cuttings and improving growth and yield of various crops. Some of the microbes especially the endophytes have even been identified improving the active constituents of medicinal and aromatic plants. The above said scientific interventions making organic farming a charming proposition would be discussed in details.

Keywords: organic agriculture, microbial inoculants, organic fertilizers, natural plant growth promoters

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
2256 Quality of So-Called Organic Fertilizers in Vietnam's Market

Authors: Hoang Thi Quynh, Shima Kazuto

Abstract:

Organic farming is gaining interest in Vietnam. However, organic fertilizer production is not sufficiently regulated, resulting in unknown quality. This study investigated characteristics of so-called organic fertilizers in the Vietnam’s market and their mineralization in soil-plant system. We collected 15 commercial products (11 domestic and 4 imported) which labelled 'organic fertilizer' in the market to analyze nutrients composition. A 20 day-incubation experiment was carried on with 80 g sandy-textured soil, amended with the fertilizer at a rate of 109.4 mgN.kg⁻¹soil in 150 mL glass bottle at 25℃. We categorized them according to nutrients content and mineralization rate, and then selected 8 samples for cultivation experiment. The experiment was conducted by growing Komatsuna (Brassica campestris) in sandy-textured soil using an automatic watering apparatus in a greenhouse. The fertilizers were applied to the top one-third of the soil stratum at a rate of 200 mgN.kg⁻¹ soil. Our study also analyzed material flow of coffee husk compost in Central Highland of Vietnam. Total N, P, K, Ca, Mg and C: N ratio varied greatly cross the domestic products, whereas they were quite similar among the imported materials. The proportion of inorganic-N to T-N of domestic products was higher than 25% in 8 of 11 samples. These indicate that N concentration increased dramatically in most domestic products compared with their raw materials. Additionally, most domestic products contained less P, and their proportions of Truog-P to T-P were greatly different. These imply that some manufactures were interested in adjusting P concentration, but some ones were not. Furthermore, the compost was made by mixing with chemical substances to increase nutrients content (N, P), and also added construction surplus soil to gain weight before packing product to sell in the market as 'organic fertilizer'. There was a negative correlation between C:N ratio and mineralization rate of the fertilizers. There was a significant difference in N efficiency among the fertilizer treatments. N efficiency of most domestic products was higher than chemical fertilizer and imported organic fertilizers. These results suggest regulations on organic fertilizers production needed to support organic farming that is based on internationally accepted standards in Vietnam.

Keywords: inorganic N, mineralization, N efficiency, so-called organic fertilizers, Vietnam’s market

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
2255 Organic Tuber Production Fosters Food Security and Soil Health: A Decade of Evidence from India

Authors: G. Suja, J. Sreekumar, A. N. Jyothi, V. S. Santhosh Mithra

Abstract:

Worldwide concerns regarding food safety, environmental degradation and threats to human health have generated interest in alternative systems like organic farming. Tropical tuber crops, cassava, sweet potato, yams, and aroids are food-cum-nutritional security-cum climate resilient crops. These form stable or subsidiary food for about 500 million global population. Cassava, yams (white yam, greater yam, and lesser yam) and edible aroids (elephant foot yam, taro, and tannia) are high energy tuberous vegetables with good taste and nutritive value. Seven on-station field experiments at ICAR-Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, India and seventeen on-farm trials in three districts of Kerala, were conducted over a decade (2004-2015) to compare the varietal response, yield, quality and soil properties under organic vs conventional system in these crops and to develop a learning system based on the data generated. The industrial, as well as domestic varieties of cassava, the elite and local varieties of elephant foot yam and taro and the three species of Dioscorea (yams), were on a par under both systems. Organic management promoted yield by 8%, 20%, 9%, 11% and 7% over conventional practice in cassava, elephant foot yam, white yam, greater yam and lesser yam respectively. Elephant foot yam was the most responsive to organic management followed by yams and cassava. In taro, slight yield reduction (5%) was noticed under organic farming with almost similar tuber quality. The tuber quality was improved with higher dry matter, starch, crude protein, K, Ca and Mg contents. The anti-nutritional factors, oxalate content in elephant foot yam and cyanogenic glucoside content in cassava were lowered by 21 and 12.4% respectively. Organic plots had significantly higher water holding capacity, pH, available K, Fe, Mn and Cu, higher soil organic matter, available N, P, exchangeable Ca and Mg, dehydrogenase enzyme activity and microbial count. Organic farming scored significantly higher soil quality index (1.93) than conventional practice (1.46). The soil quality index was driven by water holding capacity, pH and available Zn followed by soil organic matter. Organic management enhanced net profit by 20-40% over chemical farming. A case in point is the cost-benefit analysis in elephant foot yam which indicated that the net profit was 28% higher and additional income of Rs. 47,716 ha-1 was obtained due to organic farming. Cost-effective technologies were field validated. The on-station technologies developed were validated and popularized through on-farm trials in 10 sites (5 ha) under National Horticulture Mission funded programme in elephant foot yam and seven sites in yams and taro. The technologies are included in the Package of Practices Recommendations for crops of Kerala Agricultural University. A learning system developed using artificial neural networks (ANN) predicted the performance of elephant foot yam organic system. Use of organically produced seed materials, seed treatment in cow-dung, neem cake, bio-inoculant slurry, farmyard manure incubated with bio-inoculants, green manuring, use of neem cake, bio-fertilizers and ash formed the strategies for organic production. Organic farming is an eco-friendly management strategy that enables 10-20% higher yield, quality tubers and maintenance of soil health in tuber crops.

Keywords: eco-agriculture, quality, root crops, healthy soil, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
2254 Production and Market of Certified Organic Products in Thailand

Authors: Chaiwat Kongsom, Vitoon Panyakul

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to assess the production and market of certified organic products in Thailand. A purposive sampling technique was used to identify a sample group of 154 organic entrepreneurs for the study. A survey and in-depth interview were employed for data collection. Also, secondary data from organic agriculture certification body and publications was collected. Then descriptive statistics and content analysis technique were used to describe about production and market of certified organic products in Thailand. Results showed that there were 9,218 farmers on 213,183.68 Rai (83,309.2 acre) of certified organic agriculture land (0.29% of national agriculture land). A total of 57.8% of certified organic agricultural lands were certified by the international certification body. Organic farmers produced around 71,847 tons/year and worth around THB 1,914 million (Euro 47.92 million). Excluding primary producers, 471 operators involved in the Thai organic supply chains, including processors, exporters, distributors, green shops, modern trade shops (supermarket shop), farmer’s markets and food establishments were included. Export market was the major market channel and most of organic products were exported to Europe and North America. The total Thai organic market in 2014 was estimated to be worth around THB 2,331.55 million (Euro 58.22 million), of which, 77.9% was for export and 22.06% was for the domestic market. The largest exports of certified organic products were processed foods (66.1% of total export value), followed by organic rice (30.4%). In the domestic market, modern trade was the largest sale channel, accounting for 59.48% of total domestic sales, followed by green shop (29.47%) and food establishment (5.85%). To become a center of organic farming and trading within ASEAN, the Thai organic sector needs to have more policy support in regard to agricultural chemicals, GMO, and community land title. In addition, appropriate strategies need to be developed.

Keywords: certified organic products, production, market, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
2253 Organic Farming for Sustainable Production of Some Promising Halophytic Species in Saline Environment

Authors: Medhat Tawfik, Ezzat Abd El Lateef, Bahr Amany, Mohamed Magda

Abstract:

Applying organic farming systems in biosaline agriculture is unconventional approach for sustainable use of marginal soil and desert land for planting non-traditional halophytic crops such as Leptochloa fusca, Kochia indica, Sporobolus virginicus and Spartina patens. These plants are highly salt tolerant C4 halophytic forage plants grown well in coastal salt marsh. These halophytic plant will take important place in the farming system, especially in the coastal areas and salt-affected land. We can call it environmentally smart crops because they ensure food security, contribute to energy security, guarantee environmental sustainability, and mitigate the negative impacts of climate change. Organic Agriculture is the most important and widely practiced agro-ecological farming system. It is claimed to be the most sustainable approach and long term adaptation strategy. It promotes soil fertility and diversity at all levels and makes soils less susceptible to erosion. It is also reported to be climate change resilience farming systems as it promotes the proper management of soil, water, biodiversity and local knowledge and provides producers with ecologically sound management decisions. A field experiment was carried out at the Model Farm of National Research Centre, El Tour, South Sinai to study the impact of (Mycorrhiza 1kg/fed., charcoal 4 tons/fed., chicken manure 5 tons/fed., in addition to control treatment) on some growth characters, photosynthetic pigments content, and some physiological aspects i.e. prolind and soluble carbohydrates content, succulence and osmotic pressure values, as well as nutritive values i.e. Crude fat (CF), Acid detergent fiber (ADF), Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), Ether extract (EE) and Nitrogen-free extract (NFE) of five halophytic plant species (Leptochloa fusca, Kochia indica, Sporobolus virginicus and Spartina patens). Our results showed that organic fertilizer treatment enhanced all the previous character as compared with control with superiority to chicken manure over the other treatments.

Keywords: organic agriculture, halophytic plants, saline environment, water security

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
2252 Polyhouse Farming: An Integrated Approach to Organic Farming

Authors: Promila Dahiya, Kiran Singh

Abstract:

Indian agriculture has come a long way from being an era of frequent droughts and vulnerability to food shortages to becoming a significant exporter of agricultural commodities. Polyhouses are essentially microcosms aimed at providing physical environment suitable for the survival and growth of plants with high degree of temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide. The present study was conducted in 21 districts of Haryana State to review Polyhouse farming is an alternative farming in Haryana State to fulfil the needs of population byminimum use of land, water and energy. The information regarding number, area and type of polyhouses and subsidy provided by Govt. of India and Haryana on polyhouse farming was collected from respective district horticulture offices of Haryana State. Four different types of polyhouses were studied during work viz., Hitechnology polyhouse (Hi-tech), Anti-Insect Net Shade House (AINSH), Naturally Ventilated Polyhouse (NVPH) and Walk-In-Tunnel (WIT).In study it was found that in walk-in-tunnel (WIT) and natural ventilated polyhouses (NVPH) the temperature was 69.54% and 52.29% higher and the humidity was 96.37% and 85.19 % higher in comparison to open farming in the months of January and May. No significant different was found in temperature, humidity, dust, solar radiation and CO2 level between open and anti insect net shade house (AINH). In Hi-tech polyhouse, the environment was totally controlled by computer and was not found to much strenuous. Health status of workers was checked by doctor, and it was found that in polyhouse farming workers were more prone to problems of allergy and asthma.

Keywords: polyhouse, unfavorable climate, walk-in-tunnel, psychological aspect

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
2251 Yield Parameters of Hulled Wheat Species, Grown in Organic Farming

Authors: Petr Konvalina, Jan Moudry

Abstract:

As organic farmers are searching foregoing crops for horticultural crops, there is possible to choice neglected wheat species and also have a new market and sale opportunities. Concerning wheat, there are landraces so called hulled wheat species (einkorn, emmer wheat, spelt) comprising parts of collections of the world gene banks. The advantage of this wheat species are small demands on growing conditions and also droughtiness in conditions of changing climate. Our paper aims at presenting the results of the study and the assessment of spring wheat forms, four einkorn cultivars, eight emmer wheat cultivars, seven spelt wheat cultivars in particular, as compared to modern bread wheat variety. Small-plot trials were established at two different localities within the Czech Republic and Austria in 2009 and 2012. The results of the trials show that some varieties were inclined to lodging. On the other hand, they were resistant to common wheat diseases (mildew, brown rust). Hulls served as barriers and obstacles against the DON grain contamination. The yield rate was lower. The grains were characterized by a high proportion of protein in grain (up to 18.1 %). However, they may be difficult to use for common baking. Moreover, new food products demonstrating a different technological quality of the hulled wheat species have to be launched on the market. They will be suitable for regional marketing.

Keywords: organic farming, hulled wheat species, einkorn, emmer, spelt

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
2250 Detection of Arcobacter and Helicobacter pylori Contamination in Organic Vegetables by Cultural and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Methods

Authors: Miguel García-Ferrús, Ana González, María A. Ferrús

Abstract:

The most demanded organic foods worldwide are those that are consumed fresh, such as fruits and vegetables. However, there is a knowledge gap about some aspects of organic food microbiological quality and safety. Organic fruits and vegetables are more exposed to pathogenic microorganisms due to surface contact with natural fertilizers such as animal manure, wastes and vermicompost used during farming. It has been suggested that some emergent pathogens, such as Helicobacter pylori or Arcobacter spp., could reach humans through the consumption of raw or minimally processed vegetables. Therefore, the objective of this work was to study the contamination of organic fresh green leafy vegetables by Arcobacter spp. and Helicobacter pylori. For this purpose, a total of 24 vegetable samples, 13 lettuce and 11 spinach were acquired from 10 different ecological supermarkets and greengroceries and analyzed by culture and PCR. Arcobacter spp. was detected in 5 samples (20%) by PCR, 4 spinach and one lettuce. One spinach sample was found to be also positive by culture. For H. pylori, the H. pylori VacA gene-specific band was detected in 12 vegetable samples (50%), 10 lettuces and 2 spinach. Isolation in the selective medium did not yield any positive result, possibly because of low contamination levels together with the presence of the organism in its viable but non-culturable form. Results showed significant levels of H. pylori and Arcobacter contamination in organic vegetables that are generally consumed raw, which seems to confirm that these foods can act as transmission vehicles to humans.

Keywords: Arcobacter sp., Helicobacter pylori, Organic Vegetables, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 45