Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: Raquel P. F. Guiné

41 Contribution for Rural Development Trough Training in Organic Farming

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Daniela V. T. A. Costa, Paula M. R. Correia, Moisés Castro, Luis T. Guerra, Cristina A. Costa

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to characterize a potential target group of people interested in participating into a training program in organic farming in the context of mobile-learning. The information sought addressed in particular, but not exclusively, possible contents, formats and forms of evaluation that will contribute to define the course objectives and curriculum, as well as to ensure that the course meets the needs of the learners and their preferences. The sample was selected among different European countries. The questionnaires were delivered electronically for answering online and in the end 135 consented valid questionnaires were obtained. The results allowed characterizing the target group and identifying their training needs and preferences towards m-learning formats, giving valuable tools to design the training offer.

Keywords: mobile-learning, organic farming, rural development, survey

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40 Determination of Some Chemical Properties of Uncommon Flours

Authors: Sónia C. Andrade, Solange F. Oliveira, Raquel P. F. Guiné, Paula M. R. Correia

Abstract:

Flours of wheat, chestnut, acorn and lupin were evaluated in relation to phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and oxalate content. At the chemical level the results show some variability between samples by type of flour, and the sample of chestnut flour presented the higher value of oxalate (0.00348 mg/100g) when compared to the other samples in the study. Considering the content of phenolic compounds, the sample that stood out was the acorn flour, having a high value of 0.812 g AGE/100 g. All the samples presented intermediate content of antioxidant activity and the sample that showed a slightly higher value was the wheat flour with a value of 0.746 mM TRE/g sample.

Keywords: Wheat, Acorn, Lupin, Chestnut, Flour, Antioxidant properties, Oxalate

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39 Evaluation of Bioactive Phenols in Blueberries from Different Cultivars

Authors: Christophe Gonçalves, Raquel P. F. Guiné, Daniela Teixeira, Fernando J. Gonçalves

Abstract:

Blueberries are widely valued for their high content in phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity, and hence beneficial for the human health. In this way, a study was done to determine the phenolic composition (total phenols, anthocyanins and tannins) and antioxidant activity of blueberries from three cultivars (Duke, Bluecrop, and Ozarblue) grown in two different Portuguese farms. Initially two successive extractions were done with methanol followed by two extractions with aqueous acetone solutions. These extracts obtained were then used to evaluate the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity. The total phenols were observed to vary from 4.9 to 8.2 mg GAE/g fresh weight, with anthocyanin’s contents in the range 1.5-2.8 mg EMv3G/g and tannins contents in the range 1.5- 3.8 mg/g. The results for antioxidant activity ranged from 9.3 to 23.2 mol TE/g, and from 24.7 to 53.4 mol TE/g, when measured, respectively, by DPPH and ABTS methods. In conclusion it was observed that, in general, the cultivar had a visible effect on the phenols present, and furthermore, the geographical origin showed relevance either in the phenols contents or the antioxidant activity.

Keywords: anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, blueberry cultivar, geographical origin, phenolic compounds

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38 Statistical Analysis of the Factors that Influence the Properties of Blueberries from Cultivar Bluecrop

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Susana R. Matos, Daniela V. T. A. Costa, Fernando J. Gonçalves

Abstract:

Because blueberries are worldwide recognized as a good source of beneficial components, their consumption has increased in the past decades, and so have the scientific works about their properties. Hence this work was undertaken to evaluate the effect of some production and conservation factors on the properties of blueberries from cultivar Bluecrop. The physical and chemical analyses were done according to established methodologies and then all data was treated using software SPSS for assessment of the possible differences among the factors investigated and/or the correlations between the variables at study. The results showed that location of production influenced some of the berries properties (caliber, sugars, antioxidant activity, color and texture) and that the age of the bushes was correlated with moisture, sugars and acidity, as well as lightness. On the other hand, altitude of the farm only was correlated to sugar content. With regards to conservation, it influenced only anthocyanins content and DPPH antioxidant activity. Finally, the type of extract and the order of extraction had a pronounced influence on all the phnolic properties evaluated.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, blueberry, conservation, geographical origin, phenolic compounds, statistical analysis

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37 Chemical and Sensorial Evaluation of a Newly Developed Bean Jam

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Ana R. B. Figueiredo, Paula M. R. Correia, Fernando J. Gonçalves

Abstract:

The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with nutritional properties as well as appealing organoleptic qualities. The product, a jam, was prepared with the beans’ cooking water combined with fresh apple or carrot, without the addition of any conservatives. Three different jams were produced: bean and carrot, bean and apple and bean, apple and cinnamon. The developed products underwent a sensorial analysis that revealed that the bean, apple and cinnamon jam was globally better accepted. However, with this study, the consumers determined that the bean and carrot jam had the most attractive color and the bean and apple jam the better consistency. Additionally, it was possible to analyze the jams for their chemical components, namely fat, fiber, protein, sugars and antioxidant activity. The obtained results showed that the bean and carrot jam had the highest lipid content, while the bean, apple and cinnamon jam had the highest fiber content, when compared to the other two jams. Regarding the sugar content, both jams with apple revealed similar sugar values, which were higher than the sugar content of the bean and carrot jam. The antioxidant activity was on average 10 mg TE/g.

Keywords: Bean jam, chemical composition, sensorial analysis, product acceptability

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36 Development and Characterization of Wheat Bread with Lupin Flour

Authors: Paula M. R. Correia, Marta Gonzaga, Luis M. Batista, Luísa Beirão-Costa, Raquel F. P. Guiné

Abstract:

The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with good textural and sensorial characteristics. The product, a new type of bread, was prepared with wheat (90%) and lupin (10%) flours, without the addition of any conservatives. Several experiences were also done to find the most appropriate proportion of lupin flour. The optimized product was characterized considering the rheological, physical-chemical and sensorial properties. The water absorption of wheat flour with 10% of lupin was higher than that of the normal wheat flours, and Wheat Ceres flour presented the lower value, with lower dough development time and high stability time. The breads presented low moisture but a considerable water activity. The density of bread decreased with the introduction of lupin flour. The breads were quite white, and during storage the colour parameters decreased. The lupin flour clearly increased the number of alveolus, but the total area increased significantly just for the Wheat Cerealis bread. The addition of lupin flour increased the hardness and chewiness of breads, but the elasticity did not vary significantly. Lupin bread was sensorially similar to wheat bread produced with WCerealis flour, and the main differences are the crust rugosity, colour and alveolus characteristics.

Keywords: Lupin flour, physical-chemical properties, sensorial analysis, wheat flour

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35 Effect of Thistle Ecotype in the Physical-Chemical and Sensorial Properties of Serra da Estrela Cheese

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Marlene I. C. Tenreiro, Ana C. Correia, Paulo Barracosa, Paula M. R. Correia

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of Serra da Estrela cheese and compare these results with those of the sensory analysis. For the study were taken six samples of Serra da Estrela cheese produced with 6 different ecotypes of thistle in a dairy situated in Penalva do Castelo. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture content, protein, fat, ash, chloride and pH; the physical properties studied were color and texture; and finally a sensory evaluation was undertaken. The results showed moisture varying in the range 40-48%, protein in the range 15-20%, fat between 41-45%, ash between 3.9-5.0% and chlorides varying from 1.2 to 3.0%. The pH varied from 4.8 to 5.4. The textural properties revealed that the crust hardness is relatively low (maximum 7.3 N), although greater than flesh firmness (maximum 1.7 N), and also that these cheeses are in fact soft paste type, with measurable stickiness and intense adhesiveness. The color analysis showed that the crust is relatively light (L* over 50), and with a predominant yellow coloration (b* around 20 or over) although with a slight greenish tone (a* negative). The results of the sensory analysis did not show great variability for most of the attributes measured, although some differences were found in attributes such as crust thickness, crust uniformity, and creamy flesh.

Keywords: chemical composition, color, sensorial analysis, Serra da Estrela cheese, texture

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34 Simulations in Structural Masonry Walls with Chases Horizontal Through Models in State Deformation Plan (2D)

Authors: Raquel Zydeck, Karina Azzolin, Luis Kosteski, Alisson Milani

Abstract:

This work presents numerical models in plane deformations (2D), using the Discrete Element Method formedbybars (LDEM) andtheFiniteElementMethod (FEM), in structuralmasonrywallswith horizontal chasesof 20%, 30%, and 50% deep, located in the central part and 1/3 oftheupperpartofthewall, withcenteredandeccentricloading. Differentcombinationsofboundaryconditionsandinteractionsbetweenthemethodswerestudied.

Keywords: chases in structural masonry walls, discrete element method formed by bars, finite element method, numerical models, boundary condition

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33 Failure Simulation of Small-scale Walls with Chases Using the Lattic Discrete Element Method

Authors: Karina C. Azzolin, Luis E. Kosteski, Alisson S. Milani, Raquel C. Zydeck

Abstract:

This work aims to represent Numerically tests experimentally developed in reduced scale walls with horizontal and inclined cuts by using the Lattice Discrete Element Method (LDEM) implemented On de Abaqus/explicit environment. The cuts were performed with depths of 20%, 30%, and 50% On the walls subjected to centered and eccentric loading. The parameters used to evaluate the numerical model are its strength, the failure mode, and the in-plane and out-of-plane displacements.

Keywords: structural masonry, wall chases, small scale, numerical model, lattice discrete element method

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32 Receptive Vocabulary Development in Adolescents and Adults with Down Syndrome

Authors: Esther Moraleda Sepúlveda, Soraya Delgado Matute, Paula Salido Escudero, Raquel Mimoso García, M Cristina Alcón Lancho

Abstract:

Although there is some consensus when it comes to establishing the lexicon as one of the strengths of language in people with Down Syndrome (DS), little is known about its evolution throughout development and changes based on age. The objective of this study was to find out if there are differences in receptive vocabulary between adolescence and adulthood. In this research, 30 people with DS between 11 and 40 years old, divided into two age ranges (11-18; 19 - 30) and matched in mental age, were evaluated through the Peabody Vocabulary Test. The results show significant differences between both groups in favor of the group with the oldest chronological age and a direct correlation between chronological age and receptive vocabulary development, regardless of mental age. These data support the natural evolution of the passive lexicon in people with DS.

Keywords: down syndrome, language, receptive vocabulary, adolescents, adults

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
31 Synergistic Effect between Titanium Oxide and Silver Nanoparticles in Polymeric Binary Systems

Authors: Raquel C. A. G. Mota, Livia R. Menezes, Emerson O. da Silva

Abstract:

Both silver nanoparticles and titanium dioxide have been extensively used in tissue engineering since they’ve been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and present a bactericide effect when added to a polymeric matrix. In this work, the focus is on fabricating binary systems with both nanoparticles so that the synergistic effect can be investigated. The systems were tested by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Fourier-Transformed Infrared (FTIR), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and had both their bioactivity and bactericide effect tested. The binary systems presented different properties than the individual systems, enhancing both the thermal and biological properties as was to be expected. The crystallinity was also affected, as indicated by the finding of the DSC and XDR techniques, and the NMR showed a good dispersion of both nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. These findings indicate the potential of combining TiO₂ and silver nanoparticles in biomedicine.

Keywords: metallic nanoparticles, nanotechnology, polymer nanocomposites, polymer science

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30 Smartphone Video Source Identification Based on Sensor Pattern Noise

Authors: Raquel Ramos López, Anissa El-Khattabi, Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco, Luis Javier García Villalba

Abstract:

An increasing number of mobile devices with integrated cameras has meant that most digital video comes from these devices. These digital videos can be made anytime, anywhere and for different purposes. They can also be shared on the Internet in a short period of time and may sometimes contain recordings of illegal acts. The need to reliably trace the origin becomes evident when these videos are used for forensic purposes. This work proposes an algorithm to identify the brand and model of mobile device which generated the video. Its procedure is as follows: after obtaining the relevant video information, a classification algorithm based on sensor noise and Wavelet Transform performs the aforementioned identification process. We also present experimental results that support the validity of the techniques used and show promising results.

Keywords: digital video, forensics analysis, key frame, mobile device, PRNU, sensor noise, source identification

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29 Looking for a Connection between Oceanic Regions with Trends in Evaporation with Continental Ones with Trends in Precipitation through a Lagrangian Approach

Authors: Raquel Nieto, Marta Vázquez, Anita Drumond, Luis Gimeno

Abstract:

One of the hot spots of climate change is the increment of ocean evaporation. The best estimation of evaporation, OAFlux data, shows strong increasing trends in evaporation from the oceans since 1978, with peaks during the hemispheric winter and strongest along the paths of the global western boundary currents and any inner Seas. The transport of moisture from oceanic sources to the continents is the connection between evaporation from the ocean and precipitation over the continents. A key question is to try to relate evaporative source regions over the oceans where trends have occurred in the last decades with their sinks over the continents to check if there have been also any trends in the precipitation amount or its characteristics. A Lagrangian approach based on FLEXPART and ERA-interim data is used to establish this connection. The analyzed period was 1980 to 2012. Results show that there is not a general pattern, but a significant agreement was found in important areas of climate interest.

Keywords: ocean evaporation, Lagrangian approaches, contiental precipitation, Europe

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
28 Using Wiki for Enhancing the Knowledge Transfer to Newcomers: An Experience Report

Authors: Hualter Oliveira Barbosa, Raquel Feitosa do Vale Cunha, Erika Muniz dos Santos, Fernanda Belmira Souza, Fabio Sousa, Luis Henrique Pascareli, Franciney de Oliveira Lima, Ana Cláudia Reis da Silva, Christiane Moreira de Almeida

Abstract:

Software development is intrinsic human-based knowledge-intensive. Due to globalization, software development has become a complex challenge and we usually face barriers related to knowledge management, team building, costly testing processes, especially in distributed settings. For this reason, several approaches have been proposed to minimize barriers caused by geographic distance. In this paper, we present as we use experimental studies to improve our knowledge management process using the Wiki system. According to the results, it was possible to identify learning preferences from our software projects leader team, organize and improve the learning experience of our Wiki and; facilitate collaboration by newcomers to improve Wiki with new contents available in the Wiki.

Keywords: mobile product, knowledge transfer, knowledge management process, wiki, GSD

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
27 Major Mechanisms of Atmospheric Moisture Transport and Their Role in Precipitation Extreme Events in the Amazonia

Authors: Luis Gimeno, Rosmeri da Rocha, Raquel Nieto, Tercio Ambrizzi, Alex Ramos, Anita Drumond

Abstract:

The transport of moisture from oceanic sources to the continents represents the atmospheric branch of the water cycle, forming the connection between evaporation from the ocean and precipitation over the continents. In this regard two large scale dynamical/meteorological structures appear to play a key role, namely Low Level Jet (LLJ) systems and Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). The former are particularly important in tropical and subtropical regions; the latter is mostly confined to extratropical regions. A key question relates to the anomalies in the transport of moisture observed during natural hazards related to extremes of precipitation (i.e., drought or wet spells). In this study we will be focused on these two major atmospheric moisture transport mechanisms (LLJs and ARs) and its role in precipitation extreme events (droughts and wet spells) in the Amazonia paying particular attention to i) intensification (decreasing) of moisture transport by them and its role in wet spells (droughts), and ii) changes in their positions and occurrence with associated flooding and wet spells.

Keywords: droughts, wet spells, amazonia, LLJs, atmospheric rivers

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
26 Application and Assessment of Artificial Neural Networks for Biodiesel Iodine Value Prediction

Authors: Raquel M. De sousa, Sofiane Labidi, Allan Kardec D. Barros, Alex O. Barradas Filho, Aldalea L. B. Marques

Abstract:

Several parameters are established in order to measure biodiesel quality. One of them is the iodine value, which is an important parameter that measures the total unsaturation within a mixture of fatty acids. Limitation of unsaturated fatty acids is necessary since warming of a higher quantity of these ones ends in either formation of deposits inside the motor or damage of lubricant. Determination of iodine value by official procedure tends to be very laborious, with high costs and toxicity of the reagents, this study uses an artificial neural network (ANN) in order to predict the iodine value property as an alternative to these problems. The methodology of development of networks used 13 esters of fatty acids in the input with convergence algorithms of backpropagation type were optimized in order to get an architecture of prediction of iodine value. This study allowed us to demonstrate the neural networks’ ability to learn the correlation between biodiesel quality properties, in this case iodine value, and the molecular structures that make it up. The model developed in the study reached a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.99 for both network validation and network simulation, with Levenberg-Maquardt algorithm.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, biodiesel, iodine value, prediction

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25 Impacts of Filmmaking on Destinations: Perceptions of the Residents of Arcos de Valdevez

Authors: André Rafael Ferreira, Laurentina Vareiro, Raquel Mendes

Abstract:

This study’s main objective is to explore residents’ perceptions of film-induced tourism and the impacts of filmmaking on the development of a destination. Specifically, the research examines resident´s perceptions of the social, economic, and environmental impacts on a Portuguese municipality (Arcos de Valdevez) given its feature in a popular Portuguese television series. Data is collected by means of an Internet survey, in which resident´s perceptions of the impacts of filmmaking are solicited. Residents generally agree that the recording and exhibition of the television series is important to the municipality, and contributes to the increased number of tourists. Given that residents consider that the positive impacts are more significant than the negative impacts, they supported the recording of another television series in the same municipality. Considering that destination managers and tourism development authorities aim to plan for optimal tourism development, and at the same time wish to minimize the negative impacts of this development on the local communities, monitoring residents’ opinions of perceived impacts is a good way of incorporating their reaction into tourism planning and development. The results of this research may provide useful information in this sense.

Keywords: film-induced tourism, residents’ perceptions, tourism development, tourism impacts

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24 Water Management in Mexico City and Its Metropolitan Area

Authors: Raquel Salazar Moreno, Uwe Schmidt, Efrén Fitz Rodríguez, Dennis Dannehl, Abraham Rojano Aguilar, Irineo López Cruz, Gilberto Navas Gómez

Abstract:

As urban areas expand, strategic and protected water reserves become more critical. In this study we investigate the water problems in Mexico City and its Metropolitan area. This region faces a complex water problem that concerns not only Mexican boundaries but also international level because is one of the biggest human concentrations in the World. The current water shortage situation raises the necessity of importing surface and groundwater from the Cutzamala River and from the Alto Rio Lerma System respectively. Water management is the real issue in this region, because waste water generation is more than aquifer overexploitation, and surface water loss in the rainfall period is greater than water imported from other regions. However, the possible solutions of the water supply schemes are complicated, there is a need to look for alternatives socially acceptable and environmentally desirable, considering first the possible solutions on the demand side. Also, it is necessary more investment in water treatment plants and hydraulic infrastructure to ensure water supply and decrease the environmental problems in the area. More studies need to be done related to water efficiency in the three sectors.

Keywords: megacities, aquifer overexploitation, environmental problems, vulnerability

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
23 Evaluation of Corrosion Behaviour of Coatings Applied in a High-Strength Low Alloy Steel in Different Climatic Cabinets

Authors: Raquel Bayon, Ainara Lopez-Ortega, Elena Rodriguez, Amaya Igartua

Abstract:

Corrosion is one of the most concerning phenomenon that accelerates material degradation in offshore applications. In order to avoid the premature failure of metallic materials in marine environments, organic coatings have widely been used, due to their elevated corrosion resistance. Thermally-sprayed metals have recently been used in offshore applications, whereas ceramic materials are usually less employed, due to their high cost. The protectiveness of the coatings can be evaluated and categorized in corrosivity categories in accordance with the ISO 12944-6 Standard. According to this standard, for coatings that are supposed to work in marine environments, a C5-M category is required for components working out of the water or partially immersed in the splash zone, and an Im2 category for totally immersed components. C5-M/Im-2 high category would correspond to a durability of more than 20 years without maintenance in accordance with ISO 12944 and NORSOK M501 standards. In this work, the corrosion behavior of three potential coatings used in offshore applications has been evaluated. For this aim, the materials have been subjected to different environmental conditions in several climatic chambers (humidostatic, climatic, immersion, UV and salt-fog). The category of the coatings to each condition has been selected, in accordance with the previously mentioned standard.

Keywords: cabinet, coatings, corrosion, offshore

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22 Corrosion and Tribocorrosion Behaviour of Potential Coatings Applied in High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel for Offshore Applications

Authors: Ainara Lopez-Ortega, Raquel Bayon, Elena Rodriguez, Amaya Igartua

Abstract:

The materials used in offshore structural applications are continuously subjected to aggressive environmental conditions that accelerate their degradation, thus shortening their useful life. Wear, corrosion and the effect of marine microorganisms are the main processes taking place in marine environments, and whenever they occur simultaneously the durability of materials is strongly reduced. In the present work, the tribocorrosion behaviour of a High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) steel and three coatings commonly used for protecting offshore components has been studied by means of unidirectional tribological tests in synthetic seawater. The coatings were found to enhance the tribological response of the uncoated steel and provide the system with improved corrosion resistance, in terms of smaller material losses and reduction of friction coefficients. The tests were repeated after ageing the materials in a salt-fog cabinet, and the aging process was found to slightly affect the performance of two of the coatings, in terms of higher material losses, meanwhile the third coating was not affected.

Keywords: coatings, corrosion, high-strength low-alloy steel, seawater, tribocorrosion

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21 A Cognitive Semantic Analysis of the Metaphorical Extensions of Come out and Take Over

Authors: Raquel Rossini, Edelvais Caldeira

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to investigate the motivation for the metaphorical uses of two verb combinations: come out and take over. Drawing from cognitive semantics theories, image schemas and metaphors, it was attempted to demonstrate that: a) the metaphorical senses of both 'come out' and 'take over' extend from both the verbs and the particles central (spatial) senses in such verb combinations; and b) the particles 'out' and 'over' also contribute to the whole meaning of the verb combinations. In order to do so, a random selection of 579 concordance lines for come out and 1,412 for take over was obtained from the Corpus of Contemporary American English – COCA. One of the main procedures adopted in the present work was the establishment of verb and particle central senses. As per the research questions addressed in this study, they are as follows: a) how does the identification of trajector and landmark help reveal patterns that contribute for the identification of the semantic network of these two verb combinations?; b) what is the relationship between the schematic structures attributed to the particles and the metaphorical uses found in empirical data?; and c) what conceptual metaphors underlie the mappings from the source to the target domains? The results demonstrated that not only the lexical verbs come and take, but also the particles out and over play an important whole in the different meanings of come out and take over. Besides, image schemas and conceptual metaphors were found to be helpful in order to establish the motivations for the metaphorical uses of these linguistic structures.

Keywords: cognitive linguistics, English syntax, multi-word verbs, prepositions

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20 Synthesis of Pyrimidine-Based Polymers Consist of 2-{3-[4,6-Bis-(4-Hexyl-Thiophen-2-yl)-Pyrimidin-2-yl]Phenyl}-Thiazolo[5,4-B]Pyridine as Electron-Deficient Unit for Photovoltaics

Authors: Hyehyeon Lee, Juwon Yu, Juwon Kim, Raquel Kristina Leoni Tumiar, Taewon Kim, Juae Kim, Hongsuk Suh

Abstract:

Recently, the development of photovoltaics is rapidly accelerating as one of green energy sources. So we designed pyrimidine-based polymers with 2-{3-[4,6-bis-(4-hexyl-thiophen-2-yl)-pyrimidin-2-yl]-phenyl}-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridine (mPTP), as active layer substances for polymer solar cells. Polymers with push-pull types, mPTPBDT-12, mPTPBDT-EH, mPTPBDTT-EH and mPTPTTI, are comprised of electron pushing unit using benzo[1,2-b;3,4-b’]dithiophene (BDT) or 4,8-bis(5-thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDTT) or 6-(2-thienyl)-4H-thieno[3,2-b]indole(TTI) and electron pulling unit using mPTP. The device including mPTPTTI-12 indicated a VOC of 0.67 V, a JSC of 2.16 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.30, giving a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.43%. The device including mPTPBDT-EH indicated a VOC of 0.56 V, a JSC of 2.64 mA/cm², and an FF of 0.30, giving a PCE of 0.44%. The device including mPTPBDTT-EH indicated a VOC of 0.44 V, a JSC of 2.45 mA/cm², and an FF of 0.29, giving a PCE of 0.31%. The device including mPTPTTI indicated a VOC of 0.72 V, a JSC of 4.95 mA/cm², and an FF of 0.32, giving a PCE of 1.15%. Therefore, mPTPBDT-12, mPTPBDT-EH, mPTPBDTT-EH and mPTPTTI were fabricated by Stille polymerization. Their optical properties were measured and the results show that pyrimidine-based polymers have a great promise to act as donor of active layer.

Keywords: polymer solar cells, photovoltaics, thiazolopyridine, conjugated polymer

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19 Drop-Out Rate in Leocadio Alejo Entienza High School for SY 2013-2014: Its Causes and Interventions

Authors: Raquel Balon Quintana

Abstract:

This study aims to help the Students-At-Risk of Dropping Out to finish their studies in their grade/year level category for this school year by finding out students’ behavior in and out the school, community involvement in the learning process and the causes or reasons behind drop-out rate that affect the performance level of the school. This study also looked for the intervention measures to reduce the drop-out rate of the school. The Normative Survey Method of research was used to achieve its purpose and objective of conducting interview with students and their parents, subject teachers, classmates and friends; undertaking observation and monitoring to find out the whereabouts of SARDO’s on and off classes hours; using questionnaires; and conducting home visitation to be able to link the community involvement into dropping-out of student. Results of the study revealed that out of 32 Students-At-Risk of Dropping Out, 50% were over age for high school (16 years old to 21 years old) while the other 50% came from the regular high school students. These 16 students came from the 41 students who dropped-out from their classes last school year. All Students-At-Risk of Dropping-Out are single and seventy-eight percent of them are male. Top five (5) among the factors that affect their school performance were peer pressure, self-drive, malnutrition, family problem/support and truancy. The five (5) least factors that affect their schooling were problems within their community, school-administration factor, harassment, teacher factor and distance from the school.

Keywords: students-at-risk of dropping-out, drop-out rate, Leocadio Alejo Entienza High School, Philippines

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18 Designing a Corpus Database to Enhance the Learning of Old English Language

Authors: Raquel Mateo Mendaza, Carmen Novo Urraca

Abstract:

The current paper presents the elaboration of a corpus database that aligns two different corpora in order to simplify the search of information both for researchers and students of Old English. This database comprises the information contained in two main reference corpora, namely the Dictionary of Old English Corpus (DOEC), compiled at the University of Toronto, and the York-Toronto-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Old English (YCOE). The first one provides information on all surviving texts written in the Old English language. The latter offers the syntactical and morphological annotation of several texts included in the DOEC. Although both corpora are closely related, as the YCOE includes the DOE source text identifier, the main problem detected is that there is not an alignment of texts that allows for the search of whole fragments to be further analysed in terms of morphology and syntax. The database proposed in this paper gathers all this information and presents it in a simple, more accessible, visual, and educational way. The alignment of fragments has been done in an automatized way. However, some problems have emerged during the creating process particularly related to the lack of correspondence in the division of fragments. For this reason, it has been necessary to revise the whole entries manually to obtain a truthful high-quality product and to carefully indicate the gaps encountered in these corpora. All in all, this database contains more than 60,000 entries corresponding with the DOE fragments annotated by the YCOE. The main strength of the resulting product is its research and teaching implications in the study of Old English. The use of this database will help researchers and students in the study of different aspects of the language, such as inflectional morphology, syntactic behaviour of given words, or translation studies, among others. By means of the search of words or fragments, the annotated information on morphology and syntax will be automatically displayed, automatizing, and speeding up the search of data.

Keywords: alignment, corpus database, morphosyntactic analysis, Old English

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17 Synthesis of Pyrimidine-Based Polymers Consist of 2-{4-[4,6-Bis-(4-Hexyl-Thiophen-2-yl)-Pyrimidin-2-yl]-Phenyl}-Thiazolo[5,4-B]Pyridine with Deep HOMO Level for Photovoltaics

Authors: Hyehyeon Lee, Jiwon Yu, Juwon Kim, Raquel Kristina Leoni Tumiar, Taewon Kim, Juae Kim, Hongsuk Suh

Abstract:

Photovoltaics, which have many advantages in cost, easy processing, and light-weight, have attracted attention. We synthesized pyrimidine-based conjugated polymers with 2-{4-[4,6-bis-(4-hexyl-thiophen-2-yl)-pyrimidin-2-yl]-phenyl}-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridine (pPTP) which have an ability of powerful electron withdrawing and introduced into the PSCs. By Stille polymerization, we designed the conjugated polymers, pPTPBDT-12, pPTPBDT-EH, pPTPBDTT-EH and pPTPTTI. The HOMO energy levels of four polymers (pPTPBDT-12, pPTPBDT-EH, pPTPBDTT-EH and pPTPTTI) were at -5.61 ~ -5.89 eV, their LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital) energy levels were at -3.95 ~ -4.09 eV. The device including pPTPBDT-12 and PC71BM (1:2) indicated a V_oc of 0.67 V, a J_sc of 1.33 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.25, giving a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.23%. The device including pPTPBDT-EH and PC71BM (1:2) indicated a V_oc of 0.72 V, a J_sc of 2.56 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.30, giving a power conversion efficiency of 0.56%. The device including pPTPBDTT-EH and PC71BM (1:2) indicated a V_oc of 0.72 V, a J_sc of 3.61 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.29, giving a power conversion efficiency of 0.74%. The device including pPTPTTI and PC71BM (1:2) indicated a V_oc of 0.83 V, a J_sc of 4.41 mA/cm², and a fill factor (FF) of 0.31, giving a power conversion efficiency of 1.13%. Therefore, pPTPBDT-12, pPTPBDT-EH, pPTPBDTT-EH, and pPTPTTI were synthesized by Stille polymerization. And We find one of the best efficiency for these polymers, called pPTPTTI. Their optical properties were measured and the results show that pyrimidine-based polymers especially like pPTPTTI have a great promise to act as the donor of the active layer.

Keywords: polymer solar cells, pyrimidine-based polymers, photovoltaics, conjugated polymer

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16 Efficiency on the Enteric Viral Removal in Four Potable Water Treatment Plants in Northeastern Colombia

Authors: Raquel Amanda Villamizar Gallardo, Oscar Orlando Ortíz Rodríguez

Abstract:

Enteric viruses are cosmopolitan agents present in several environments including water. These viruses can cause different diseases including gastroenteritis, hepatitis, conjunctivitis, respiratory problems among others. Although in Colombia there are not regulations concerning to routine viral analysis of drinking water, an enhanced understanding of viral pollution and resistance to treatments is desired in order to assure pure water to the population. Viral detection is often complex due to the need of specialized and time-consuming procedures. In addition, viruses are highly diluted in water which is a drawback from the analytical point of view. To this end, a fast and selective detection method for detection enteric viruses (i.e. Hepatitis A and Rotavirus) were applied. Micro- magnetic particles were functionalized with monoclonal antibodies anti-Hepatitis and anti-Rotavirus and they were used to capture, concentrate and separate whole viral particles in raw water and drinking water samples from four treatment plants identified as CAR-01, MON-02, POR-03, TON-04 and located in the Northeastern Colombia. Viruses were molecularly by using RT-PCR One Step Superscript III. Each plant was analyzed at the entry and exit points, in order to determine the initial presence and eventual reduction of Hepatitis A and Rotavirus after disinfection. The results revealed the presence of both enteric viruses in a 100 % of raw water analyzed in all plants. This represents a potential health hazard, especially for those people whose use this water for agricultural purposes. However, in drinking water analysis, enteric viruses was only positive in CAR-01, where was found the presence of Rotavirus. As a conclusion, the results confirm Rotavirus as the best indicator to evaluate the efficacy of potable treatment plant in eliminating viruses. CAR potable water plant should improve their disinfection process in order to remove efficiently enteric viruses.

Keywords: drinking water, hepatitis A, rotavirus, virus removal

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15 Molecular Mechanisms of Lipid Metabolism and Obesity Modulation by Caspase-1/11 and nlrp3 Inflammasome in Mice

Authors: Lívia Pimentel Sant'ana Dourado, Raquel Das Neves Almeida, Luís Henrique Costa Corrêa Neto, Nayara Soares, Kelly Grace Magalhães

Abstract:

Introduction: Obesity and high-fat diet intake have a crucial impact on immune cells and inflammatory profile, highlighting an emerging realization that obesity is an inflammatory disease. In the present work, we aimed to characterize the role of caspase-1/11 and NLRP3 inflammasome in the establishment of mice obesity and modulation of inflammatory lipid metabolism induced by high fat diet intake. Methods and results: Wild type, caspase-1/11 and NLRP3 knockout mice were fed with standard fat diet (SFD) or high fat diet (HFD) for 90 days. The weight of animals was measured weekly to monitor the weight gain. After 90 days, the blood, peritoneal lavage cells, heart and liver were collected from mice studied here. Cytokines were measured in serum by ELISA and analyzed in spectrophotometry. Lipid antigen presentation molecule CD1d expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid droplets biogenesis were analyzed in cells from mice peritoneal cavity by flow cytometry. Liver histopathology was performed for morphological evaluation of the organ. The absence of caspase-1/11, but not NLRP3, in mice fed with HFD favored the mice weight gain, increased liver size, induced development of hepatic steatosis and IL-12 secretion in mice compared to mice fed with SFD. In addition, caspase-1/11 knockout mice fed with HFD presented an increased CD1d molecule expression, as well as higher levels of lipid droplets biogenesis and ROS generation compared to wild type mice also fed with HFD. Conclusion: Our data suggest that caspase-1/11 knockout mice have greater susceptibility to obesity as well as increased activation of lipid metabolism and inflammatory markers.

Keywords: caspase 1, caspase 11, inflamassome, obesity, lipids

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14 Disentangling the Relationship between Sustainable Consumption and Psychological Well-Being

Authors: Isabel Carrero, Raquel Redondo, Carmen Valor

Abstract:

An unclosed issue in sustainable consumption (SC) literature is the relationship between SC and well-being. This paper seeks to address three limitations in past research. First, well-being has been measured as a single-faceted construct. However, other authors have defended the need to broaden the well-being construct since it goes beyond the emotional experiences and life satisfaction. By examining the relationship between SC and the multifaceted construct of psychological well-being, past contradictory results may be reconciled. To illustrate, past studies have shown that sustainable consumers experience negative emotions when they become aware of the harm that human beings inflict on the planet but they realize they have limited power to solving the problem or when they find limited alternatives or useful information to make sustainable decisions. Thus, these experiences may negatively affect the dimension of well-being 'environmental mastery'. However, as past studies have demonstrated that sustainable consumers feel meaningful, their assessment of the dimension 'purpose in life' would be positive. Thus, we need to understand how SC impinge on the different facets of psychological well-being, in order to better understand the relationship between SC and well-being. Another limitation of past research is that most studies failed to distinguish among different pro-environmental actions under SC (i.e., boycotting, buycotting) among others. For instance, activists have been found to experience higher levels of well-being and sense of meaning than less committed sustainable consumers but also burnt-out and social rejection, which should affect negatively the dimension of 'positive relations'. Finally, the influence of gender has been overlooked in the literature of SC and well-being when it has been identified consistently as a moderator variable in SC. Therefore, this study aims to (1) investigate the effect of SC on the six facets of psychological well-being, (2) distinguish between conventional SC behaviors vs. activism to examine whether these behaviors influence psychological well-being differently (3) and test gender as a moderator variable. It does so by surveying 861 individuals. This paper contributes to existing literature by showing that the relationship between well-being and SC is more intricate than it has been presented in previous literature, as it depends on the facet, the type of behavior carried out and gender.

Keywords: activism, gender, psychological well-being, structural equation modelling, sustainable consumption

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13 Effect of Different Sterilization Processes on Drug Loaded Silicone-Hydrogel

Authors: Raquel Galante, Marina Braga, Daniela Ghisleni, Terezinha J. A. Pinto, Rogério Colaço, Ana Paula Serro

Abstract:

The sensitive nature of soft biomaterials, such as hydrogels, renders their sterilization a particularly challenging task for the biomedical industry. Widely used contact lenses are now studied as promising platforms for topical corneal drug delivery. However, to the best of the authors knowledge, the influence of sterilization methods on these systems has yet to be evaluated. The main goal of this study was to understand how different pairs drug-hydrogel would interact under an ozone-based sterilization method in comparison with two conventional processes (steam heat and gamma irradiation). For that, Si-Hy containing hydroxylethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and [tris(trimethylsiloxy)silyl]propyl methacrylate (TRIS) was produced and soaked in different drug solutions, commonly used for the treatment of ocular diseases (levofloxacin, chlorhexidine, diclofenac and timolol maleate). The drug release profiles and main material properties were evaluated before and after the sterilization. Namely, swelling capacity was determined by water uptake studies, transparency was accessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, surface topography/morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical properties by performing tensile tests. The drug released was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effectiveness of the sterilization procedures was assured by performing sterility tests. Ozone gas method led to a significant reduction of drug released and to the formation of degradation products specially for diclofenac and levofloxacin. Gamma irradiation led to darkening of the loaded Si-Hys and to the complete degradation of levofloxacin. Steam heat led to smoother surfaces and to a decrease of the amount of drug released, however, with no formation of degradation products. This difference in the total drug released could be the related to drug/polymer interactions promoted by the sterilization conditions in presence of the drug. Our findings offer important insights that, in turn, could be a useful contribution to the safe development of actual products.

Keywords: drug delivery, silicone hydrogels, sterilization, gamma irradiation, steam heat, ozone gas

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12 Using Life Cycle Assessment in Potable Water Treatment Plant: A Colombian Case Study

Authors: Oscar Orlando Ortiz Rodriguez, Raquel A. Villamizar-G, Alexander Araque

Abstract:

There is a total of 1027 municipal development plants in Colombia, 70% of municipalities had Potable Water Treatment Plants (PWTPs) in urban areas and 20% in rural areas. These PWTPs are typically supplied by surface waters (mainly rivers) and resort to gravity, pumping and/or mixed systems to get the water from the catchment point, where the first stage of the potable water process takes place. Subsequently, a series of conventional methods are applied, consisting in a more or less standardized sequence of physicochemical and, sometimes, biological treatment processes which vary depending on the quality of the water that enters the plant. These processes require energy and chemical supplies in order to guarantee an adequate product for human consumption. Therefore, in this paper, we applied the environmental methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental loads of a potable water treatment plant (PWTP) located in northeastern Colombia following international guidelines of ISO 14040. The different stages of the potable water process, from the catchment point through pumping to the distribution network, were thoroughly assessed. The functional unit was defined as 1 m³ of water treated. The data were analyzed through the database Ecoinvent v.3.01, and modeled and processed in the software LCA-Data Manager. The results allowed determining that in the plant, the largest impact was caused by Clarifloc (82%), followed by Chlorine gas (13%) and power consumption (4%). In this context, the company involved in the sustainability of the potable water service should ideally reduce these environmental loads during the potable water process. A strategy could be the use of Clarifloc can be reduced by applying coadjuvants or other coagulant agents. Also, the preservation of the hydric source that supplies the treatment plant constitutes an important factor, since its deterioration confers unfavorable features to the water that is to be treated. By concluding, treatment processes and techniques, bioclimatic conditions and culturally driven consumption behavior vary from region to region. Furthermore, changes in treatment processes and techniques are likely to affect the environment during all stages of a plant’s operation cycle.

Keywords: climate change, environmental impact, life cycle assessment, treated water

Procedia PDF Downloads 154