Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19699

Search results for: human vision system

19699 Location Tracking of Human Using Mobile Robot and Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Muazzam A. Khan

Abstract:

In order to avoid dangerous environmental disasters, robots are being recognized as good entrants to step in as human rescuers. Robots has been gaining interest of many researchers in rescue matters especially which are furnished with advanced sensors. In distributed wireless robot system main objective for a rescue system is to track the location of the object continuously. This paper provides a novel idea to track and locate human in disaster area using stereo vision system and ZigBee technology. This system recursively predict and updates 3D coordinates in a robot coordinate camera system of a human which makes the system cost effective. This system is comprised of ZigBee network which has many advantages such as low power consumption, self-healing low data rates and low cost.

Keywords: stereo vision, segmentation, classification, human tracking, ZigBee module

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19698 Amorphous Silicon-Based PINIP Structure for Human-Like Photosensor

Authors: Sheng-Chuan Hsu

Abstract:

Because the existing structure of ambient light sensor is most silicon photodiode device, it is extremely sensitive in the red and infrared regions. Even though the IR-Cut filter had added, it still cannot completely eliminate the influence of infrared light, and the spectral response of infrared light was stronger than that of the human eyes. Therefore, it is not able to present the vision spectrum of the human eye reacts with the ambient light. Then it needs to consider that the human eye feels the spectra that show significant differences between light and dark place. Consequently, in practical applications, we must create and develop advanced device of human-like photosensor which can solve these problems of ambient light sensor and let cognitive lighting system to provide suitable light to achieve the goals of vision spectrum of human eye and save energy.

Keywords: ambient light sensor, vision spectrum, cognitive lighting system, human eye

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
19697 Vision-Based Hand Segmentation Techniques for Human-Computer Interaction

Authors: M. Jebali, M. Jemni

Abstract:

This work is the part of vision based hand gesture recognition system for Natural Human Computer Interface. Hand tracking and segmentation are the primary steps for any hand gesture recognition system. The aim of this paper is to develop robust and efficient hand segmentation algorithm such as an input to another system which attempt to bring the HCI performance nearby the human-human interaction, by modeling an intelligent sign language recognition system based on prediction in the context of dialogue between the system (avatar) and the interlocutor. For the purpose of hand segmentation, an overcoming occlusion approach has been proposed for superior results for detection of hand from an image.

Keywords: HCI, sign language recognition, object tracking, hand segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
19696 Optimizing Machine Vision System Setup Accuracy by Six-Sigma DMAIC Approach

Authors: Joseph C. Chen

Abstract:

Machine vision system provides automatic inspection to reduce manufacturing costs considerably. However, only a few principles have been found to optimize machine vision system and help it function more accurately in industrial practice. Mostly, there were complicated and impractical design techniques to improve the accuracy of machine vision system. This paper discusses implementing the Six Sigma Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC) approach to optimize the setup parameters of machine vision system when it is used as a direct measurement technique. This research follows a case study showing how Six Sigma DMAIC methodology has been put into use.

Keywords: DMAIC, machine vision system, process capability, Taguchi Parameter Design

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19695 Human Motion Capture: New Innovations in the Field of Computer Vision

Authors: Najm Alotaibi

Abstract:

Human motion capture has become one of the major area of interest in the field of computer vision. Some of the major application areas that have been rapidly evolving include the advanced human interfaces, virtual reality and security/surveillance systems. This study provides a brief overview of the techniques and applications used for the markerless human motion capture, which deals with analyzing the human motion in the form of mathematical formulations. The major contribution of this research is that it classifies the computer vision based techniques of human motion capture based on the taxonomy, and then breaks its down into four systematically different categories of tracking, initialization, pose estimation and recognition. The detailed descriptions and the relationships descriptions are given for the techniques of tracking and pose estimation. The subcategories of each process are further described. Various hypotheses have been used by the researchers in this domain are surveyed and the evolution of these techniques have been explained. It has been concluded in the survey that most researchers have focused on using the mathematical body models for the markerless motion capture.

Keywords: human motion capture, computer vision, vision-based, tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
19694 Human Computer Interaction Using Computer Vision and Speech Processing

Authors: Shreyansh Jain Jeetmal, Shobith P. Chadaga, Shreyas H. Srinivas

Abstract:

Internet of Things (IoT) is seen as the next major step in the ongoing revolution in the Information Age. It is predicted that in the near future billions of embedded devices will be communicating with each other to perform a plethora of tasks with or without human intervention. One of the major ongoing hotbed of research activity in IoT is Human Computer Interaction (HCI). HCI is used to facilitate communication between an intelligent system and a user. An intelligent system typically comprises of a system consisting of various sensors, actuators and embedded controllers which communicate with each other to monitor data collected from the environment. Communication by the user to the system is typically done using voice. One of the major ongoing applications of HCI is in home automation as a personal assistant. The prime objective of our project is to implement a use case of HCI for home automation. Our system is designed to detect and recognize the users and personalize the appliances in the house according to their individual preferences. Our HCI system is also capable of speaking with the user when certain commands are spoken such as searching on the web for information and controlling appliances. Our system can also monitor the environment in the house such as air quality and gas leakages for added safety.

Keywords: human computer interaction, internet of things, computer vision, sensor networks, speech to text, text to speech, android

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19693 Development of Agricultural Robotic Platform for Inter-Row Plant: An Autonomous Navigation Based on Machine Vision

Authors: Alaa El-Din Rezk

Abstract:

In Egypt, management of crops still away from what is being used today by utilizing the advances of mechanical design capabilities, sensing and electronics technology. These technologies have been introduced in many places and recorm, for Straight Path, Curved Path, Sine Wave ded high accuracy in different field operations. So, an autonomous robotic platform based on machine vision has been developed and constructed to be implemented in Egyptian conditions as self-propelled mobile vehicle for carrying tools for inter/intra-row crop management based on different control modules. The experiments were carried out at plant protection research institute (PPRI) during 2014-2015 to optimize the accuracy of agricultural robotic platform control using machine vision in term of the autonomous navigation and performance of the robot’s guidance system. Results showed that the robotic platform' guidance system with machine vision was able to adequately distinguish the path and resisted image noise and did better than human operators for getting less lateral offset error. The average error of autonomous was 2.75, 19.33, 21.22, 34.18, and 16.69 mm. while the human operator was 32.70, 4.85, 7.85, 38.35 and 14.75 mm Path, Offset Discontinuity and Angle Discontinuity respectively.

Keywords: autonomous robotic, Hough transform, image processing, machine vision

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19692 Development of a Computer Vision System for the Blind and Visually Impaired Person

Authors: Rodrigo C. Belleza, Jr., Roselyn A. Maaño, Karl Patrick E. Camota, Darwin Kim Q. Bulawan

Abstract:

Eyes are an essential and conspicuous organ of the human body. Human eyes are outward and inward portals of the body that allows to see the outside world and provides glimpses into ones inner thoughts and feelings. Inevitable blindness and visual impairments may result from eye-related disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means. The study emphasizes innovative tools that will serve as an aid to the blind and visually impaired (VI) individuals. The researchers fabricated a prototype that utilizes the Microsoft Kinect for Windows and Arduino microcontroller board. The prototype facilitates advanced gesture recognition, voice recognition, obstacle detection and indoor environment navigation. Open Computer Vision (OpenCV) performs image analysis, and gesture tracking to transform Kinect data to the desired output. A computer vision technology device provides greater accessibility for those with vision impairments.

Keywords: algorithms, blind, computer vision, embedded systems, image analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
19691 Texture Identification Using Vision System: A Method to Predict Functionality of a Component

Authors: Varsha Singh, Shraddha Prajapati, M. B. Kiran

Abstract:

Texture identification is useful in predicting the functionality of a component. Many of the existing texture identification methods are of contact in nature, which limits its measuring speed. These contact measurement techniques use a diamond stylus and the diamond stylus being sharp going to damage the surface under inspection and hence these techniques can be used in statistical sampling. Though these contact methods are very accurate, they do not give complete information for full characterization of surface. In this context, the presented method assumes special significance. The method uses a relatively low cost vision system for image acquisition. Software is developed based on wavelet transform, for analyzing texture images. Specimens are made using different manufacturing process (shaping, grinding, milling etc.) During experimentation, the specimens are illuminated using proper lighting and texture images a capture using CCD camera connected to the vision system. The software installed in the vision system processes these images and subsequently identify the texture of manufacturing processes.

Keywords: diamond stylus, manufacturing process, texture identification, vision system

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
19690 Vision Based People Tracking System

Authors: Boukerch Haroun, Luo Qing Sheng, Li Hua Shi, Boukraa Sebti

Abstract:

In this paper we present the design and the implementation of a target tracking system where the target is set to be a moving person in a video sequence. The system can be applied easily as a vision system for mobile robot. The system is composed of two major parts the first is the detection of the person in the video frame using the SVM learning machine based on the “HOG” descriptors. The second part is the tracking of a moving person it’s done by using a combination of the Kalman filter and a modified version of the Camshift tracking algorithm by adding the target motion feature to the color feature, the experimental results had shown that the new algorithm had overcame the traditional Camshift algorithm in robustness and in case of occlusion.

Keywords: camshift algorithm, computer vision, Kalman filter, object tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
19689 Human Tracking across Heterogeneous Systems Based on Mobile Agent Technologies

Authors: Tappei Yotsumoto, Atsushi Nomura, Kozo Tanigawa, Kenichi Takahashi, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

In a human tracking system, expanding a monitoring range of one system is complicating the management of devices and increasing its cost. Therefore, we propose a method to realize a wide-range human tracking by connecting small systems. In this paper, we examined an agent deploy method and information contents across the heterogeneous human tracking systems. By implementing the proposed method, we can construct a human tracking system across heterogeneous systems, and the system can track a target continuously between systems.

Keywords: human tracking system, mobile agent, monitoring, heterogeneous systems

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19688 Inspection of Railway Track Fastening Elements Using Artificial Vision

Authors: Abdelkrim Belhaoua, Jean-Pierre Radoux

Abstract:

In France, the railway network is one of the main transport infrastructures and is the second largest European network. Therefore, railway inspection is an important task in railway maintenance to ensure safety for passengers using significant means in personal and technical facilities. Artificial vision has recently been applied to several railway applications due to its potential to improve the efficiency and accuracy when analyzing large databases of acquired images. In this paper, we present a vision system able to detect fastening elements based on artificial vision approach. This system acquires railway images using a CCD camera installed under a control carriage. These images are stitched together before having processed. Experimental results are presented to show that the proposed method is robust for detection fasteners in a complex environment.

Keywords: computer vision, image processing, railway inspection, image stitching, fastener recognition, neural network

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19687 Shared Vision System Support for Maintenance Tasks of Wind Turbines

Authors: Buket Celik Ünal, Onur Ünal

Abstract:

Communication is the most challenging part of maintenance operations. Communication between expert and fieldworker is crucial for effective maintenance and this also affects the safety of the fieldworkers. To support a machine user in a remote collaborative physical task, both, a mobile and a stationary device are needed. Such a system is called a shared vision system and the system supports two people to solve a problem from different places. This system reduces the errors and provides a reliable support for qualified and less qualified users. Through this research, it was aimed to validate the effectiveness of using a shared vision system to facilitate communication between on-site workers and those issuing instructions regarding maintenance or inspection works over long distances. The system is designed with head-worn display which is called a shared vision system. As a part of this study, a substitute system is used and implemented by using a shared vision system for maintenance operation. The benefits of the use of a shared vision system are analyzed and results are adapted to the wind turbines to improve the occupational safety and health for maintenance technicians. The motivation for the research effort in this study can be summarized in the following research questions: -How can expert support technician over long distances during maintenance operation? -What are the advantages of using a shared vision system? Experience from the experiment shows that using a shared vision system is an advantage for both electrical and mechanical system failures. Results support that the shared vision system can be used for wind turbine maintenance and repair tasks. Because wind turbine generator/gearbox and the substitute system have similar failures. Electrical failures, such as voltage irregularities, wiring failures and mechanical failures, such as alignment, vibration, over-speed conditions are the common and similar failures for both. Furthermore, it was analyzed the effectiveness of the shared vision system by using a smart glasses in connection with the maintenance task performed by a substitute system under four different circumstances, namely by using a shared vision system, an audio communication, a smartphone and by yourself condition. A suitable method for determining dependencies between factors measured in Chi Square Test, and Chi Square Test for Independence measured for determining a relationship between two qualitative variables and finally Mann Whitney U Test is used to compare any two data sets. While based on this experiment, no relation was found between the results and the gender. Participants` responses confirmed that the shared vision system is efficient and helpful for maintenance operations. From the results of the research, there was a statistically significant difference in the average time taken by subjects on works using a shared vision system under the other conditions. Additionally, this study confirmed that a shared vision system provides reduction in time to diagnose and resolve maintenance issues, reduction in diagnosis errors, reduced travel costs for experts, and increased reliability in service.

Keywords: communication support, maintenance and inspection tasks, occupational health and safety, shared vision system

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
19686 Research of Control System for Space Intelligent Robot Based on Vision Servo

Authors: Changchun Liang, Xiaodong Zhang, Xin Liu, Pengfei Sun

Abstract:

Space intelligent robotic systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in the future. The robotic on-orbital service, whose key is the tracking and capturing technology, becomes research hot in recent years. In this paper, the authors propose a vision servo control system for target capturing. Robotic manipulator will be an intelligent robotic system with large-scale movement, functional agility, and autonomous ability, and it can be operated by astronauts in the space station or be controlled by the ground operator in the remote operation mode. To realize the autonomous movement and capture mission of SRM, a kind of autonomous programming strategy based on multi-camera vision fusion is designed and the selection principle of object visual position and orientation measurement information is defined for the better precision. Distributed control system hierarchy is designed and reliability is considering to guarantee the abilities of control system. At last, a ground experiment system is set up based on the concept of robotic control system. With that, the autonomous target capturing experiments are conducted. The experiment results validate the proposed algorithm, and demonstrates that the control system can fulfill the needs of function, real-time and reliability.

Keywords: control system, on-orbital service, space robot, vision servo

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19685 Framework for Socio-Technical Issues in Requirements Engineering for Developing Resilient Machine Vision Systems Using Levels of Automation through the Lifecycle

Authors: Ryan Messina, Mehedi Hasan

Abstract:

This research is to examine the impacts of using data to generate performance requirements for automation in visual inspections using machine vision. These situations are intended for design and how projects can smooth the transfer of tacit knowledge to using an algorithm. We have proposed a framework when specifying machine vision systems. This framework utilizes varying levels of automation as contingency planning to reduce data processing complexity. Using data assists in extracting tacit knowledge from those who can perform the manual tasks to assist design the system; this means that real data from the system is always referenced and minimizes errors between participating parties. We propose using three indicators to know if the project has a high risk of failing to meet requirements related to accuracy and reliability. All systems tested achieved a better integration into operations after applying the framework.

Keywords: automation, contingency planning, continuous engineering, control theory, machine vision, system requirements, system thinking

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19684 A Systematic Categorization of Arguments against the Vision Zero Goal: A Literature Review

Authors: Henok Girma Abebe

Abstract:

The Vision Zero is a long-term goal of preventing all road traffic fatalities and serious injuries which was first adopted in Sweden in 1997. It is based on the assumption that death and serious injury in the road system is morally unacceptable. In order to approach this end, vision zero has put in place strategies that are radically different from the traditional safety work. The vision zero, for instance, promoted the adoption of the best available technology to promote safety, and placed the ultimate responsibility for traffic safety on system designers. Despite Vision Zero’s moral appeal and its expansion to different safety areas and also parts of the world, important philosophical concerns related to the adoption and implementation of the vision zero remain to be addressed. Moreover, the vision zero goal has been criticized on different grounds. The aim of this paper is to identify and systematically categorize criticisms that have been put forward against vision zero. The findings of the paper are solely based on a critical analysis of secondary sources and snowball method is employed to identify the relevant philosophical and empirical literatures. Two general categories of criticisms on the vision zero goal are identified. The first category consists of criticisms that target the setting of vision zero as a ‘goal’ and some of the basic assumptions upon which the goal is based. Among others, the goal of achieving zero fatalities and serious injuries, together with vision zero’s lexicographical prioritization of safety has been criticized as unrealistic. The second category consists of criticisms that target the strategies put in place to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries. For instance, Vision zero’s responsibility ascription for road safety and its rejection of cost-benefit analysis in the formulation and adoption of safety measures has both been criticized as counterproductive. In this category also falls the criticism that Vision Zero safety measures tend to be too paternalistic. Significant improvements have been recorded in road safety work since the adoption of vision zero, however, for the vision zero to even succeed more, it is important that issues and criticisms of philosophical nature associated with it are identified and critically dealt with.

Keywords: criticisms, systems approach, traffic safety, vision zero

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19683 A Combined Approach Based on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Vision for Qualitative Grading of Rice Grains

Authors: Hemad Zareiforoush, Saeed Minaei, Ahmad Banakar, Mohammad Reza Alizadeh

Abstract:

The quality inspection of rice (Oryza sativa L.) during its various processing stages is very important. In this research, an artificial intelligence-based model coupled with computer vision techniques was developed as a decision support system for qualitative grading of rice grains. For conducting the experiments, first, 25 samples of rice grains with different levels of percentage of broken kernels (PBK) and degree of milling (DOM) were prepared and their qualitative grade was assessed by experienced experts. Then, the quality parameters of the same samples examined by experts were determined using a machine vision system. A grading model was developed based on fuzzy logic theory in MATLAB software for making a relationship between the qualitative characteristics of the product and its quality. Totally, 25 rules were used for qualitative grading based on AND operator and Mamdani inference system. The fuzzy inference system was consisted of two input linguistic variables namely, DOM and PBK, which were obtained by the machine vision system, and one output variable (quality of the product). The model output was finally defuzzified using Center of Maximum (COM) method. In order to evaluate the developed model, the output of the fuzzy system was compared with experts’ assessments. It was revealed that the developed model can estimate the qualitative grade of the product with an accuracy of 95.74%.

Keywords: machine vision, fuzzy logic, rice, quality

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19682 Classical Myths in Modern Drama: A Study of the Vision of Jean Anouilh in Antigone

Authors: Azza Taha Zaki

Abstract:

Modern drama was characterised by realism and naturalism as dominant literary movements that focused on contemporary people and their issues to reflect the status of modern man and his environment. However, some modern dramatists have often fallen on classical mythology in ancient Greek tragedies to create a sense of the universality of the human experience. The tragic overtones of classical myths have helped modern dramatists in their attempts to create an enduring piece by evoking the majestic grandeur of the ancient myths and the heroic struggle of man against forces he cannot fight. Myths have continued to appeal to modern playwrights not only for the plot and narrative material but also for the vision and insight into the human experience and human condition. This paper intends to study how the reworking of Sophocles’ Antigone by Jean Anouilh in his Antigone, written in 1942 at the height of the Second World War and during the German occupation of his country, France, fits his own purpose and his own time. The paper will also offer an analysis of the vision in both plays to show how Anouilh has used the classical Antigone freely to produce a modern vision of the dilemma of man when faced by personal and national conflicts.

Keywords: Anouilh, Antigone, drama, Greek tragedy, modern, myth, sophocles

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19681 Design of Orientation-Free Handler and Fuzzy Controller for Wire-Driven Heavy Object Lifting System

Authors: Bo-Wei Song, Yun-Jung Lee

Abstract:

This paper presents an intention interface and controller for a wire-driven heavy object lifting system that assists the operator with moving a heavy object. The handler is designed to allow a comfortable working posture for the operator. Plus, as a human assistive system, the operator is involved in the control loop, where a fuzzy control system is used to consider the human control characteristics. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed system are proved by experiments.

Keywords: fuzzy controller, handler design, heavy object lifting system, human-assistive device, human-in-the-loop system

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
19680 Wearable Interface for Telepresence in Robotics

Authors: Uriel Martinez-Hernandez, Luke W. Boorman, Hamideh Kerdegari, Tony J. Prescott

Abstract:

In this paper, we present architecture for the study of telepresence, immersion and human-robot interaction. The architecture is built around a wearable interface, developed here, that provides the human with visual, audio and tactile feedback from a remote location. We have chosen to interface the system with the iCub humanoid robot, as it mimics many human sensory modalities, such as vision, with gaze control and tactile feedback. This allows for a straightforward integration of multiple sensory modalities, but also offers a more complete immersion experience for the human. These systems are integrated, controlled and synchronised by an architecture developed for telepresence and human-robot interaction. Our wearable interface allows human participants to observe and explore a remote location, while also being able to communicate verbally with humans located in the remote environment. Our approach has been tested from local, domestic and business venues, using wired, wireless and Internet based connections. This has involved the implementation of data compression to maintain data quality to improve the immersion experience. Initial testing has shown the wearable interface to be robust. The system will endow humans with the ability to explore and interact with other humans at remote locations using multiple sensing modalities.

Keywords: telepresence, telerobotics, human-robot interaction, virtual reality

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19679 The Conception of Implementation of Vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania

Authors: Eglė Bilevičiūtė, Vidmantas Egidijus Kurapka, Snieguolė Matulienė, Sigutė Stankevičiūtė

Abstract:

The Council of European Union (EU Council) has stressed on several occasions the need for a concerted, comprehensive and effective solution to delinquency problems in EU communities. In the context of establishing a European Forensic Science Area and the development of forensic science infrastructure in Europe, EU Council believes that forensic science can significantly contribute to the efficiency of law enforcement, crime prevention and combating crimes. Lithuanian scientists have consolidated to implement a project named “Conception of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 implementation in Lithuania” (the project is funded for the period of 1 March 2014 - 31 December 2016) with the objective to create a conception of implementation of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania by 1) evaluating the current status of Lithuania’s forensic system and opportunities for its improvement; 2) analysing achievements and knowledge in investigation of crimes listed in conclusions of EU Council on the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 including creation of a European Forensic Science Area and the development of forensic science infrastructure in Europe: trafficking in human beings, organised crime and terrorism; 3) analysing conceptions of criminalistics, which differ in different EU member states due to the variety of forensic schools, and finding means for their harmonization. Apart from the conception of implementation of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania, the project is expected to suggest provisions that will be relevant to other EU countries as well. Consequently, the presented conception of implementation of vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania could initiate a project for a common vision of European Forensic Science and contribute to the development of the EU as an area of freedom, security and justice. The article presents main ideas of the project of the conception of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 of EU Council and analyses its legal background, as well as prospects of and challenges for its implementation in Lithuania and the EU.

Keywords: EUROVIFOR, standardization, vision for European Forensic Science 2020, Lithuania

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19678 The Framework of System Safety for Multi Human-in-The-Loop System

Authors: Hideyuki Shintani, Ichiro Koshijima

Abstract:

In Cyber Physical System (CPS), if there are a large number of persons in the process, a role of person in CPS might be different comparing with the one-man system. It is also necessary to consider how Human-in-The-Loop Cyber Physical Systems (HiTLCPS) ensure safety of each person in the loop process. In this paper, the authors discuss a system safety framework with an illustrative example with STAMP model to clarify what point for safety should be considered and what role of person in the should have.

Keywords: cyber-physical-system, human-in-the-loop, safety, STAMP model

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19677 Musical Composition by Computer with Inspiration from Files of Different Media Types

Authors: Cassandra Pratt Romero, Andres Gomez de Silva Garza

Abstract:

This paper describes a computational system designed to imitate human inspiration during musical composition. The system is called MIS (Musical Inspiration Simulator). The MIS system is inspired by media to which human beings are exposed daily (visual, textual, or auditory) to create new musical compositions based on the emotions detected in said media. After building the system we carried out a series of evaluations with volunteer users who used MIS to compose music based on images, texts, and audio files. The volunteers were asked to judge the harmoniousness and innovation in the system's compositions. An analysis of the results points to the difficulty of computational analysis of the characteristics of the media to which we are exposed daily, as human emotions have a subjective character. This observation will direct future improvements in the system.

Keywords: human inspiration, musical composition, musical composition by computer, theory of sensation and human perception

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19676 Optimized Deep Learning-Based Facial Emotion Recognition System

Authors: Erick C. Valverde, Wansu Lim

Abstract:

Facial emotion recognition (FER) system has been recently developed for more advanced computer vision applications. The ability to identify human emotions would enable smart healthcare facility to diagnose mental health illnesses (e.g., depression and stress) as well as better human social interactions with smart technologies. The FER system involves two steps: 1) face detection task and 2) facial emotion recognition task. It classifies the human expression in various categories such as angry, disgust, fear, happy, sad, surprise, and neutral. This system requires intensive research to address issues with human diversity, various unique human expressions, and variety of human facial features due to age differences. These issues generally affect the ability of the FER system to detect human emotions with high accuracy. Early stage of FER systems used simple supervised classification task algorithms like K-nearest neighbors (KNN) and artificial neural networks (ANN). These conventional FER systems have issues with low accuracy due to its inefficiency to extract significant features of several human emotions. To increase the accuracy of FER systems, deep learning (DL)-based methods, like convolutional neural networks (CNN), are proposed. These methods can find more complex features in the human face by means of the deeper connections within its architectures. However, the inference speed and computational costs of a DL-based FER system is often disregarded in exchange for higher accuracy results. To cope with this drawback, an optimized DL-based FER system is proposed in this study.An extreme version of Inception V3, known as Xception model, is leveraged by applying different network optimization methods. Specifically, network pruning and quantization are used to enable lower computational costs and reduce memory usage, respectively. To support low resource requirements, a 68-landmark face detector from Dlib is used in the early step of the FER system.Furthermore, a DL compiler is utilized to incorporate advanced optimization techniques to the Xception model to improve the inference speed of the FER system. In comparison to VGG-Net and ResNet50, the proposed optimized DL-based FER system experimentally demonstrates the objectives of the network optimization methods used. As a result, the proposed approach can be used to create an efficient and real-time FER system.

Keywords: deep learning, face detection, facial emotion recognition, network optimization methods

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19675 Enterpreneurship as a Strategic Tool for Higher Productivity in Nigerian Universities System

Authors: Yahaya Salihu Emeje, Amuchie Austine Anthony

Abstract:

The topic examined the prospects of entrepreneurship as an emerging dynamic and strategic tool in the upliftment of human and non-human resources in the Nigerian university system, with a view of showcasing the abundant positive impact, on the Nigerian University system in particular and Nigerian economy at large. It is end at bringing out the benefits of entrepreneurship in the university system which includes, namely cultivating the culture of enterprise in University system; improvement in the quality and quantity of both human and non-human resources; innovative and creative methods of production; new employment strategies in the University system; improved sources of internal generated revenue; entrepreneurship as the culture of sustainability within and outside the university system. Secondary data was used in analyzing entrepreneurship as a productivity tool in the Nigeria University system. From the findings, the university system could be enriched through innovative ideas and technical revenue and employment generation; sustainable financial and economic base; university autonomy and improved international ranking of Nigerian Universities system; therefore, recommended that entrepreneurship is necessary therapy for reviving the ailing, Nigerian universities system.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, strategic, productivity, universities

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
19674 Human Dignity as a Source and Limitation of Personal Autonomy

Authors: Jan Podkowik

Abstract:

The article discusses issues of mutual relationships of human dignity and personal autonomy. According to constitutions of many countries and international human rights law, human dignity is a fundamental and inviolable value. It is the source of all freedoms and rights, including personal autonomy. Human dignity, as an inherent, inalienable and non-gradable value comprising an attribute of all people, justifies freedom of action according to one's will and following one's vision of good life. On the other hand, human dignity imposes immanent restrictions to personal autonomy regarding decisions on commercialization of the one’s body, etc. It points to the paradox of dignity – the source of freedom and conditions (basic) of its limitations. The paper shows the theoretical concept of human dignity as an objective value among legal systems, determining the boundaries of legal protection of personal autonomy. It is not, therefore, the relevant perception of human dignity and freedom as opposite values. Reference point has been made the normative provisions of the Polish Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms as well as judgments of constitutional courts.

Keywords: autonomy, constitution, human dignity, human rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
19673 Simulation-Based Diversity Management in Human-Robot Collaborative Scenarios

Authors: Titanilla Komenda, Viktorio Malisa

Abstract:

In this paper, the influence of diversity-related factors on the design of collaborative scenarios is analysed. Based on the evaluation, a framework for simulating human-robot-collaboration is presented that considers both human factors as well as the overall system performance. The implementation of the model is shown on a real-life scenario from industry and validated in terms of traceability, safety and physical limitations. By comparing scenarios that consider diversity with those only meeting system performance, an overall understanding of individually adapted human-robot-collaborative workspaces is reached. A diversity-related guideline for human-robot-collaborations provides a summary of the research and aids in optimizing future applications. Finally, limitations and future amendments of the model are discussed.

Keywords: diversity, human-machine system, human-robot collaboration, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
19672 Anatomical Survey for Text Pattern Detection

Authors: S. Tehsin, S. Kausar

Abstract:

The ultimate aim of machine intelligence is to explore and materialize the human capabilities, one of which is the ability to detect various text objects within one or more images displayed on any canvas including prints, videos or electronic displays. Multimedia data has increased rapidly in past years. Textual information present in multimedia contains important information about the image/video content. However, it needs to technologically testify the commonly used human intelligence of detecting and differentiating the text within an image, for computers. Hence in this paper feature set based on anatomical study of human text detection system is proposed. Subsequent examination bears testimony to the fact that the features extracted proved instrumental to text detection.

Keywords: biologically inspired vision, content based retrieval, document analysis, text extraction

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19671 Regional Trade Agreements versus the WTO: A Human Rights Perspective

Authors: Mohsen Qasemi

Abstract:

In the international economic order multilateral trading system which established by General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1947 (GATT) was dominant until about two decades ago. Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) have changed this order and become an important phenomenon. One of the main objectives of the World Trade Organization (WTO) as a central institution of multilateral trading system is raising standards of living. There are many scholars who suggest that WTO should take steps to protect human rights in its activities. Although it has always been opposing views who declare that since WTO has no explicit rule for human rights, it has no human rights related obligations. At the time that the WTO was established, member states began to join RTAs and since then, the escalating growth of these agreements and their effects on multilateral trading system has been controversial. There are some aspects of RTAs that have received too little attention from scholars. It is important to take a different view and evaluate the RTAs based on non-commercial aspects. The present paper seeks to answer this question: which system could be more useful in protecting human rights, RTAs or WTO?

Keywords: WTO, RTAs, human rights, multilateral trading system, non discrimination

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19670 The Prediction of Evolutionary Process of Coloured Vision in Mammals: A System Biology Approach

Authors: Shivani Sharma, Prashant Saxena, Inamul Hasan Madar

Abstract:

Since the time of Darwin, it has been considered that genetic change is the direct indicator of variation in phenotype. But a few studies in system biology in the past years have proposed that epigenetic developmental processes also affect the phenotype thus shifting the focus from a linear genotype-phenotype map to a non-linear G-P map. In this paper, we attempt at explaining the evolution of colour vision in mammals by taking LWS/ Long-wave sensitive gene under consideration.

Keywords: evolution, phenotypes, epigenetics, LWS gene, G-P map

Procedia PDF Downloads 428