Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: phytochemistry

17 Sceletium Tortuosum: A review on its Phytochemistry, Pharmacokinetics, Biological and Clinical Activities

Authors: Tomi Lois Olatunji, Frances Siebert, Ademola Emmanuel Adetunji, Brian Harvey, Johane Gericke, Josias Hamman, Frank Van Der Kooy

Abstract:

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Sceletium tortuosum (L.) N.E.Br, the most sought after and widely researched species in the genus Sceletium is a succulent forb endemic to South Africa. Traditionally, this medicinal plant is mainly masticated or smoked and used for the relief of toothache, abdominal pain, and as a mood-elevator, analgesic, hypnotic, anxiolytic, thirst and hunger suppressant, and for its intoxicating/euphoric effects. Sceletium tortuosum is currently of widespread scientific interest due to its clinical potential in treating anxiety and depression, relieving stress in healthy individuals, and enhancing cognitive functions. These pharmacological actions are attributed to its phytochemical constituents referred to as mesembrine-type alkaloids. Aim of the review: The aim of this review was to comprehensively summarize and critically evaluate recent research advances on the phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, biological and clinical activities of the medicinal plant S. tortuosum. Additionally, current ongoing research and future perspectives are also discussed. Methods: All relevant scientific articles, books, MSc and Ph.D. dissertations on botany, behavioral pharmacology, traditional uses, and phytochemistry of S. tortuosum were retrieved from different databases (including Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science). For pharmacokinetics and pharmacological effects of S. tortuosum, the focus fell on relevant publications published between 2009 and 2021. Results: Twenty-five alkaloids belonging to four structural classes viz: mesembrine, Sceletium A4, joubertiamine, and tortuosamine, have been identified from S. tortuosum, of which the mesembrine class is predominant. The crude extracts and commercially available standardized extracts of S. tortuosum have displayed a wide spectrum of biological activities (e.g. antimalarial, anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-HIV, neuroprotection, enhancement of cognitive function) in in vitro or in vivo studies. This plant has not yet been studied in a clinical population, but has potential for enhancing cognitive function, and managing anxiety and depression. Conclusion: As an important South African medicinal plant, S. tortuosum has garnered many research advances on its phytochemistry and biological activities over the last decade. These scientific studies have shown that S. tortuosum has various bioactivities. The findings have further established the link between the phytochemistry and pharmacological application, and support the traditional use of S. tortuosum in the indigenous medicine of South Africa.

Keywords: Aizoaceae, Mesembrine, Serotonin, Sceletium tortuosum, Zembrin®, psychoactive, antidepressant

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16 Prevention and Treatment of Hay Fever Prevalence by Natural Products: A Phytochemistry Study on India and Iran

Authors: Tina Naser Torabi

Abstract:

Prevalence of allergy is affected by different factors according to its base and seasonal weather changes, and it also needs various treatments.Although reasons of allergy existence are not clear but generally, allergens cause reaction between antigen and antibody because of their antigenic traits. In this state, allergens cause immune system to make mistake and identify safe material as threat, therefore function of immune system impaired because of histamine secretion. There are different reasons for allergy, but herbal reasons are on top of the list, although animal causes cannot be ignored. Important point is that allergenic compounds, cause making dedicated antibody, so in general every kind of allergy is different from the other one. Therefore, most of the plants in herbal allergenic category can cause various allergies for human beings, such as respiratory allergies, nutritional allergies, injection allergies, infection allergies, touch allergies, that each of them show different symptoms based on the reason of allergy and also each of them requires different prevention and treatment. Geographical condition is another effective factor in allergy. Seasonal changes, weather condition, herbal coverage variety play important roles in different allergies. It goes without saying that humid climate and herbal coverage variety in different seasons especially spring cause most allergies in human beings in Iran and India that are discussed in this article. These two countries are good choices for allergy prevalence because of their condition, various herbal coverage, human and animal factors. Hay fever is one of the allergies, although the reasons of its prevalence are unknown yet. It is one of the most popular allergies in Iran and India because of geographical, human, animal and herbal factors. Hay fever is on top of the list in these two countries. Significant point about these two countries is that herbal factor is the most important factor in prevalence of hay fever. Variety of herbal coverage especially in spring during herbal pollination is the main reason of hay fever prevalence in these two countries. Based on the research result of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, pollination of some plants in spring is major reason of hay fever prevalence in these countries. If airborne pollens in pollination season enter the human body through air, they will cause allergic reactions in eyes, nasal mucosa, lungs, and respiratory system, and if these particles enter the body of potential person through food, they will cause allergic reactions in mouth, stomach, and other digestive systems. Occasionally, chemical materials produced by human body such as Histamine cause problems like: developing of nasal polyps, nasal blockage, sleep disturbance, risk of asthma developing, blood vasodilation, sneezing, eye tears, itching and swelling of eyes and nasal mucosa, Urticaria, decrease in blood pressure, and rarely trauma, anesthesia, anaphylaxis and finally death. This article is going to study the reasons of hay fever prevalence in Iran and India and presents prevention and treatment Method from Phytochemistry and Pharmocognocy point of view by using local natural products in these two countries.

Keywords: hay fever, India, Iran, natural treatment, phytochemistry

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15 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Jordanian Juglans regia L.

Authors: Hamoud Alshammari, Adnan Almezani, Hamdan Alshammari, Faris Alharbi

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In this study we have examined of antimicrobial activity for unripe Juglan Regia phenolic extracts against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is a member of Juglandaceae family used as a remedy in folk medicine. Leaves, barks, fruits and husk (peel) reported to harbor distinctive medical effect. In our study, we examined the anti-microbial effect against a set of gram positive and negative bacteria and even we have tested them against eukaryotic candida strains in a concentration gradual manner. Ethyl acetate extract of J. regia had the best antibacterial activity when compared with ciprofloxacin. The Minimum inhibition concentration for S. aureus, P. aerogenosa and S. epidermidis MIC was 0.85 mg/mL.

Keywords: antimicrobial, J. regia, S. aureus, phytochemistry

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14 Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Three Eryngium L. Species

Authors: R. Mickiene, A. Friese, U. Rosler, A. Maruska, O. Ragazinskiene

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This research focuses on phytochemistry and antimicrobial activities of compounds isolated and identified from three species of Eryngium. The antimicrobial activity of extracts from Eryngiumplanum L., Eryngium maritimum L., Eryngium campestre L. grown in Lithuania, were tested by the method of series dilutions, against different bacteria species: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus with and without antibiotic resistances, originating from livestock. The antimicrobial activity of extracts was described by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration. Preliminary results show that the minimal inhibitory concentration range between 8.0 % and 17.0 % for the different Eryngium extracts and bacterial species.The total amounts ofphenolic compounds and total amounts of flavonoids were tested in the methanolic extracts of the plants. Identification and evaluation of the phenolic compounds were performed by liquid chromatography. The essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

Keywords: antimicrobial activities, Eryngium L. species, essential oils, gas chromatography mass spectrometry

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13 Specialized Phytochemical Properties of Stachys inflata Eco-Types in Different Ecological Circumstances of Southern Iran

Authors: Ghasem Khodahami, Vahid Rowshan, Mojtaba Pakparvar

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Stachys forms one of the largest genera in the flowering plant family Lamiaceae. The number of species in the genus is estimated from about 300 to about 450 and comprises some 34 species in Iran. This genus is one of the richest sources of diterpenes which are particularly interesting because of their ecological role as antifeedants against different species of insects and for their role as the medicinal properties of the plants. The ecological distribution of Stachys inflata was studied and the resulted eco-types were sampled from four regions ranging 230-340 mm of rainfall and 1690-2125 m a.s.l of height In Fars Province Southern Iran. The essential oils of air-dried samples were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The number of secondary metabolites varied from 25 to 50 depending to ecological conditions. The main compounds in these areas were: Germacrene D, Bicyclogermacrene, spathulenol, δ-cadinene. Statistical analysis of photochemical resulted in recognizing 3 distinct groups that show internal variety in these herbs.

Keywords: eco-type, phytochemistry, secondary metabolites, Stachys inflata

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12 Synergistic Interactions between Secondary Metabolites in Rosmarinus officinalis L.

Authors: Ruta Mickiene, Audrius Maruska, Ona Ragazinskiene

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This research focuses on phytochemistry and antimicrobial activities of compounds isolated and identified from species Rosmarinus officinalis L. This is a study of synergistic effects between phenolic fraction and essential oils. The antimicrobial activity of extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis L. originated from the sector of medicinal plants, Kaunas botanical garden of Vytautas Magnus University Lithuania, were tested by the method of series dilutions, against different bacteria species. Investigated microorganisms were Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus with and without antibiotic resistances originating from livestock. The antimicrobial activities of extracts were described by determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Preliminary results show that the MIC range between 9.0 % and 12.0 % for the different Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts and bacterial species. The total amounts of phenolic compounds and total amounts of flavonoids were tested in the methanolic extracts of the plants. The chemical composition for essential oils analysed by GC/MS. Predominant components were alpha pinene (20%), camphor (10%), 1.8‐cineole (5%), phellandrene (6%), camphene (5%), beta pinene (4%), bornylacetate (4%), limonene (2%), borneol (3%), alpha terpineol (3%), cymene (2%), caryophyllene (15%), verbenone (7%), alpha terpinene (3%), eucalyptol (11%).

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, essential oil, Rosmarinus officinalis L., escherichia coli

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11 Phytochemical Study and Antimicrobial Activity of Nigella sativa L. (Renunculaceae) in Algeria

Authors: L. Bendifallah, F. Acheuk, M. Djouabi, M. Oukili, R. Ghezraoui, W. Lakhdari, R. Allouane

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Nigella sativa L. (Renunculaceae) native to the Mediterranean region and Western Asia, Black cumin is grown to India, through Sudan and Ethiopia. It is widely cultivated in Egypt, the Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Sudan, Afghanistan and Europe. It is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. Despite its plethora of uses for treating various diseases, it has garnered very little scientific interest so far, particularly in Algeria. For this study, the seeds of Algerian Nigella sativa L cultivated in the area of Magra (M’sila) in northern Algeria, were collected in summer. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Nigella sativa as a medicinal herb. The phytochemical screening methods are used. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against four pathogenic bacterial strains and two pathogenic yeast strains. The phytochemical analysis results showed a remarkable combination of chemical components including a high content in tannins, in flavonoïds, and in alkaloids. The tannins and the polyphenols have strong antimicrobial activity against all the species. The maximum zone of inhibition was noted for polyphenol and tannin extracts against Escerichia coli (14 mm, 12.33 mm) and an antifungic activity against Aspergillus niger (11.66 mm, 9 mm). These results indicate to some benefits of Nigella sativa seeds which can use to treatment the microbial infection.

Keywords: Nigella sativa, phytochemistry, antimicrobial activity, Algeria

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10 Phytochemical Study and Antimicrobial Activity of Nigella Sativa L. (Renunculaceae) in Algeria

Authors: L. Bendifallah, F.Acheuk, M. Djouabi, M. Oukili, R. Ghezraoui, W. Lakhdari, R. Allouane

Abstract:

Nigella sativa L. (Renunculaceae) native to the Mediterranean region and Western Asia, Black cumin is grown to India, through Sudan and Ethiopia. It is widely cultivated in Egypt, the Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Sudan, Afghanistan and Europe. It is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. Despite its plethora of uses for treating various diseases, it has garnered very little scientific interest so far, particularly in Algeria. For this study, the seeds of Algerian Nigella sativa L cultivated in the area of Magra (M’sila) in northern Algeria, were collected in summer. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Nigella sativa as a medicinal herb. The phytochemical screening methods are used. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against four pathogenic bacterial strains and two pathogenic yeast strains. The phytochemical analysis results showed a remarkable combination of chemical components including a high content in tannins, in flavonoïds, and in alkaloids. The tannins and the polyphenols have strong antimicrobial activity against all the species. The maximum zone of inhibition was noted for polyphenol and tannin extracts against Escerichia coli (14 mm, 12.33 mm) and an antifungic activity against Aspergillus niger (11.66 mm, 9 mm). These results indicate to some benefits of Nigella sativa seeds which can use to treatment the microbial infection.

Keywords: Algeria, antimicrobial activity, Nigella sativa, phytochemistry

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9 Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants Used in Southwest Algeria to Treat Gastro-Intestinal Ailments

Authors: Karima Sekkoum Abdelkrim Cheriti, Leila Feguigui

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Algeria has a large plant biodiversity accounting more than 4125 species (123 Families) and is endowed with resources of medicinal plants growing on various bioclimatic zones from subhumide to semi-arid and Saharan. On the other hand, the ethnopharmacology investigation remains the principal way to improve, evaluate, and finding bioactive substances derived from medicinal plants. In continuation of our works in Saharan ethpharmacopeae and phytochemistry of Saharan medicinal plants, we focus our attention on the importance of local ethnopharmacology especially to treat gastro-intestinal disorders in the south west of Algeria (El Baydh, Naama and Bechar region) as platform for bioactive substances discovery and further development. Our present investigation deals with an ethnopharmacological study on medicinal plants used for the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorders in the south west of Algeria. The study presents the uses of plants in local traditional herbal medicines, determines the homogeneity of informant traditional knowledge and the preferred medicinal plants used to treat gastro-intestinal disorders. The results indicated that Asteraceae and Lamiaceae are the most locally used families and medicines were prepared in the form of powder or infusion and used orally. Aerial parts were the most frequently used plant part. Thus, the results can be used as platform for bioactive substances discovery and further development especially for the preferred plant species used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorders.

Keywords: ethnopharmacology, gastro-intestinal, phytochemical, South Algeria, Sahara, endemic species

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8 Phytochemistry and Biological Activity of Extracts of the Red Raspberry Rubus rosifolius

Authors: Theresa Campbell, Camille Bowen-Forbes, William Aalbersberg

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Differences in the sensory properties of two subtly distinct varieties of Rubus rosifolius lead to the examination of their anthocyanin, essential oil and polyphenol profiles. In both cases, notable differences were identified. Pelargonidin-3-rhutinoside (17.2 mg/100 g FW) and Cyanidin-3-glucoside (66.2 mg/100g FW) proved to be the dominant anthocyanins in the red and wine red varieties respectively. Linalool and terpineol were the major constituents of the essential oil from the red variety; however, those of the wine red variety are unidentified. In regard to phenolic compounds, caffeic acid and quercetin were in a higher concentration in the red variety (1.85 and 0.73 mg/100g FW respectively, compared to 1.22 and 0.34 mg/100g FW respectively in the wine red fruits); while ellagic acid and ferulic acid were of a higher concentration in the wine red variety (0.92 and 0.84mg/100g FW respectively, compared to 0.15 and 0.48 mg/100g FW respectively in the red variety). The methanol extract of both fruit varieties showed great antioxidant activity. Analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the fruit extracts against the growth of drug resistant pathogens revealed that they are active against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), rifampicin resistant S. aureus (RRSA), wild-type S. aureus (WTSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF). Activity was also reported against several food-borne pathogens including two strains of E. coli, L. monocytogenes and Enterobacter aerogenes. The cytotoxicity of the various extracts was assessed and the essential oil extracts exhibited superior activity. The phenolic composition and biological activity of the fruits indicate that their consumption is beneficial to health and also that their incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals should be considered.

Keywords: phytochemicals, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, Rubus rosifolius

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7 In vitro Antioxidant Properties and Phytochemistry of Some Philippine Creeping Medicinal Plants

Authors: Richard I. Licayan, Aisle Janne B. Dagpin, Romeo M. Del Rosario, Nenita D. Palmes

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Hiptage benghalensis, Antigonon leptopus, Macroptillium atropurpureum, and Dioscorea bulbifera L. are herbal weeds that have been used by traditional healers in rural communities in the Philippines as medicine. In this study, the basic pharmacological components of the crude secondary metabolites extracted from the four herbal weeds and their in vitro antioxidant properties was investigated to provide baseline data for the possible development of these metabolites in pharmaceutical products. Qualitative screening of the secondary metabolites showed that alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, and flavonoids were present in their leaf extracts. All of the plant extracts showed varied antioxidant activity. The greatest DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed in H. begnhalensis (84.64%), followed by A. leptopus (68.21%), M. atropurpureum (26.62%), and D. bulbifera L. (19.04%). The FRAP assay revealed that H. benghalensis had the highest antioxidant activity (8.32 mg/g) while ABTS assay showed that M. atropurpureum had the strongest scavenging ability of free radicals (0.0842 mg Trolox/g). The total flavonoid content (TFC) analysis showed that D. bulbifera L. had the highest TFC (420.35 mg quercetin per gram-dried material). The total phenolic content (TPC) of the four herbal weeds showed large variations, between 26.56±0.160 and 55.91±0.087 mg GAE/g dried material. The plant leaf extracts arranged in increasing values of TPC are H. benghalensis (26.565) < A. leptopus (37.29) < D. bulbifera L. (46.81) < M. atropurpureum (55.91). The obtained results may support their use in herbal medicine and as baseline data for the development of new drugs and standardized phytomedicines.

Keywords: antioxidant properties, total flavonoids, total phenolics, creeping herbal weeds

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6 Study of Irritant and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Snuhi/Zaqqum (Euphorbia nerifolia) with Special Reference to Holy Quran and Ayurveda

Authors: Mohammed Khalil Ur Rahman, Pradnya Chigle, Bushra Farhen

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Indian mythology believes that Vedas are eternal treatises. Vedas are categorized into four divisions viz., Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samveda, Atharveda. All these spiritual classics not only deal with rituals and customs but also consist of inclusion of many references related to health. Out of these four, Atharveda deals with maximum principles pertaining to health sciences. Therefore, it is said that the science and the art of Ayurveda has developed from Atharveda. Ayurveda deals with many medicinal plants either as a single therapeutic use or in combination. One such medicinal plant is Snuhi (Euphorbia neriifolia Linn.) which finds its extensive importance along with Haridra and Apamargakshar, in the preparation of Ksharsutra which in turn is used for the treatment of Fistula in Ano. It is interesting to note that this plant Snuhi is also referred in Holy Quran as the Tree of Zaqqum advocated as the food for the sinners as a part of torment. The reference in Surat Ad-Dukhan is as follows: - 44:43-46. “Verily, the tree of Zaqqum will be the food of the sinners, Like boiling oil, it will boil in the bellies, like the boiling of scalding water.” The above verse implies that plant Snuhi/Zaqqum due to irritant property acts as a drastic purgative but at the same time it also possesses anti inflammatory properties in order to relieve the irritation. These properties of Zaqqum has been unfolded in the modern research which states that, Diterpene polycyclic esters are responsible for its toxic and irritant nature whereas; triterpenes are responsible for its anti inflammatory property. Present work will be an effort to review the concept of Quran about latex of the Tree of Zaqqum in terms of its phytochemistry and its therapeutic use in Ksharsutra pertaining to irritant and anti inflammatory property.

Keywords: ayurveda, Quran, zaqqum, ksharsutra, latex piles, inflammation

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5 In vitro Antifungal Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Eight Various Cultivar of Persian Punica granatum L. against Candida Species

Authors: Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi, Mohammad Reza Pourshafie, Farzad Katiraee, Mannan Hajimahmoodi, Ehsan Mostafavi, Malihe Talebi

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Objective: Resistance of Candida species to antifungal agents has potentially serious implications for management of infections. Candida species are now fourth common organisms isolated from hospitalized patients. It is important to increase effective therapy. In the past decade, numerous reports of treatment failures were reported. Prevention and control of these infections will require new antimicrobial agents. Plant-derived antifungal have always been a source of novel therapeutics. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of methanolic extract of pomegranate peel and pulp against Candida species. Material and Methods: Eight cultivars of Punica granatum L. were collected from Saveh Agricultural Investigation Center in Iran. Both pomegranate pulp and peel were dried and powdered separately. The dried powders were extracted by using a soxhlet extractor. The antifungal effect of methanolic extract of pomegranate peel and pulp were determined in vitro by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against five standard species of (ATCC 10231), C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019), C. tropicalis (ATCC 750), C. glabrata (PTCC 5297), and C. kroseii (PTCC 5295). Results: Maximum inhibitions of antifungal effect were attributed to peel extract pomegranate cultivar and Candida species. The most potential antifungal inhibition among 8 different cultivars observed by sour malas, sour white peel, and sour summer extracts respectively, against five Candida strains. The antifungal activity of pulp extracts against Candida species was approximately negative. Conclusion: The use of Punica granatum peel extract has been shown to possess antifungal activities. The phytochemistry and pharmacological actions of Punica granatum peel components suggest a wide range of clinical applications for the treatment and prevention of candidiasis.

Keywords: antifungal activity, Candida species, Punica granatum L., pharmacognosy

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4 Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content within the Aerial Parts of Artemisia absinthium

Authors: Hallal Nouria, Kharoubi Omar

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Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) is a medicinal and aromatic bitter herb, which has been used as a medicine from ancient times. It has traditionally been used as anthelmintic, choleretic, antiseptic, balsamic, depurative, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue and in treating leukemia and sclerosis. The species was cited to be used externally as cataplasm of crushed leaves for snake and scorpion bites or decoction for wounds and sores applied locally as antiseptic and antifungal. Wormwood extract have high contents of total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids indicating that these compounds contribute to antiradical and antioxidative activity. Most of the degenerative diseases are caused by free radicals. Antioxidants are the agents responsible for scavenging free radicals. The aim of present study was to evaluate the phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of Wormwood extract. DPPH assay and reducing power assay were the method adopted to study antioxidant potentials of extracts. Standard methods were used to screen preliminary phytochemistry and quantitative analysis of tannin, phenolics and flavanoids. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts were showed good antioxidant effect with IC50 ranges from 62 μg/ml for aqueous and 116μg/ml for alcoholic extracts. Phenolic compounds, tannins and flavonoids were the major phytochemicals present in both the extracts. Percentage of inhibition increased with the increased concentration of extracts. The aqueous and alcoholic extract yielded 20, 15& 3, 59 mg/g gallic acid equivalent phenolic content 2, 78 & 1,83 mg/g quercetin equivalent flavonoid and 2, 34 & 6, 40 g tannic acid equivalent tannins respectively. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the aerial parts showed a positive correlation between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity measured in the plant samples. The present study provides evidence that both extracts of Artemisia absinthium is a potential source of natural antioxidant.

Keywords: pharmaceutical industries, medicinal and aromatic plant, antioxidants, phenolic compounds, Artemisia absinthium

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3 Antimicrobial Activity, Phytochemistry and Toxicity Of Extracts Of Naturally Growing and Cultivated Aloe Turkanensis

Authors: Zachary Muthii Rukenya, James Mbaria, Peter Mbaabu, Kiama Stephen Gitahi, Ronald Onzago

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Aloe turkanensis is one of the widely used medicinal shrub and in Kenya the plant is mainly found in Baringo, Isiolo, Laikipia, Turkana and West Pokot Counties where it is used in ethno-medicine and ethno-veterinary medicine. The Turkana community uses the plant products to manage malaria, wounds, stomach ache, constipation, pain, skin infection, poultry diseases and retained afterbirth in cows. This evaluated the efficacy and safety of the plant obtained from Turkana County, Kenya. Preliminary data on the use of the plant in the county was collected through observation, photographing and interviews. A sample of the whole plant was harvested in Natira sublocation, in ex-Turkana west district in February 2012 after identification by Aloe-working group herbalists who voluntarily provided information on its medicinal uses. Botanical identification was done at Kenya Forest Research Centre in Karura where voucher specimen was deposited. Cold maceration using 70% methanol and distilled water was used for extraction. Bioassays were to determine the effects of the plant extracts on brine shrimp and selected bacterial and fungal cultures. The extracts were tested in-vitro activity against standard cultures of B. cereus (ATCC 11778), S. aureus (ATCC25923), P. aeroginosa (ATCC 27853), E. coli (ATCC 25922) and a human infections clinical isolate of C. albicans. The extracts of Aloe turkanensis inhibited the growth B. cereus (100-200 mg/ml), S. aureus (50-100 mg/ml), P. aeroginosa (200mg/ml), E. coli (400mg/ml) while C. albicans was not affected. The extracts also inhibited the growth of S. aureus and B. cereus with mean diameters of inhibition zones being 19.75±1 mm and 18.5±05 mm reapectively. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, tarpenoids, steroids, quinones, saponins and tannins in the plant extracts. The extract was found to be non-toxic at a concentration of 1000µg/ml with a 100% survival of Brine Shrimp larva. It was concluded that Aloe turkanensis growing the study area has metabolites that inhibit the growth of microorganisms and is however, there is need for further studies to validate the in-vivo bioactivity of the plant and more generate adequate toxicological data.to support conservation, value chain addition of its products and widespread use as a herbal remedy.

Keywords: Aloe turkanensis, bioactivity, cultivated, human infections

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2 Phytochemistry and Alpha-Amylase Inhibitory Activities of Rauvolfia vomitoria (Afzel) Leaves and Picralima nitida (Stapf) Seeds

Authors: Oseyemi Omowunmi Olubomehin, Olufemi Michael Denton

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Diabetes mellitus is a disease that is related to the digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats and how this affects the blood glucose levels. Various synthetic drugs employed in the management of the disease work through different mechanisms. Keeping postprandial blood glucose levels within acceptable range is a major factor in the management of type 2 diabetes and its complications. Thus, the inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase is an important strategy in lowering postprandial blood glucose levels, but synthetic inhibitors have undesirable side effects like flatulence, diarrhea, gastrointestinal disorders to mention a few. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and explore the α-amylase inhibitors from plants due to their availability, safety, and low costs. In the present study, extracts from the leaves of Rauvolfia vomitoria and seeds of Picralima nitida which are used in the Nigeria traditional system of medicine to treat diabetes were tested for their α-amylase inhibitory effect. The powdered plant samples were subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. The leaves and seeds macerated successively using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol resulted in the crude extracts which at different concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL) alongside the standard drug acarbose, were subjected to α-amylase inhibitory assay using the Benfield and Miller methods, with slight modification. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA, SPSS version 2.0. The phytochemical screening results of the leaves of Rauvolfia vomitoria and the seeds of Picralima nitida showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides while in addition Rauvolfia vomitoria had phenols and Picralima nitida had terpenoids. The α-amylase assay results revealed that at 1 mg/mL the methanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Rauvolfia vomitoria gave (15.74, 23.13 and 26.36 %) α-amylase inhibitions respectively, the seeds of Picralima nitida gave (15.50, 30.68, 36.72 %) inhibitions which were not significantly different from the control at p < 0.05, while acarbose gave a significant 56 % inhibition at p < 0.05. The presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins, steroids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and terpenoids in these plants are responsible for the observed anti-diabetic activity. However, the low percentages of α-amylase inhibition by these plant samples shows that α-amylase inhibition is not the major way by which both plants exhibit their anti-diabetic effect.

Keywords: alpha-amylase, Picralima nitida, postprandial hyperglycemia, Rauvolfia vomitoria

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1 Phytochemicals and Photosynthesis of Grape Berry Exocarp and Seed (Vitis vinifera, cv. Alvarinho): Effects of Foliar Kaolin and Irrigation

Authors: Andreia Garrido, Artur Conde, Ana Cunha, Ric De Vos

Abstract:

Climate changes predictions point to increases in abiotic stress for crop plants in Portugal, like pronounced temperature variation and decreased precipitation, which will have negative impact on grapevine physiology and consequently, on grape berry and wine quality. Short-term mitigation strategies have, therefore, been implemented to alleviate the impacts caused by adverse climatic periods. These strategies include foliar application of kaolin, an inert mineral, which has radiation reflection proprieties that decreases stress from excessive heat/radiation absorbed by its leaves, as well as smart irrigation strategies to avoid water stress. However, little is known about the influence of these mitigation measures on grape berries, neither on the photosynthetic activity nor on the photosynthesis-related metabolic profiles of its various tissues. Moreover, the role of fruit photosynthesis on berry quality is poorly understood. The main objective of our work was to assess the effects of kaolin and irrigation treatments on the photosynthetic activity of grape berry tissues (exocarp and seeds) and on their global metabolic profile, also investigating their possible relationship. We therefore collected berries of field-grown plants of the white grape variety Alvarinho from two distinct microclimates, i.e. from clusters exposed to high light (HL, 150 µmol photons m⁻² s⁻¹) and low light (LL, 50 µmol photons m⁻² s⁻¹), from both kaolin and non-kaolin (control) treated plants at three fruit developmental stages (green, véraison and mature). Plant irrigation was applied after harvesting the green berries, which also enabled comparison of véraison and mature berries from irrigated and non-irrigated growth conditions. Photosynthesis was assessed by pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence imaging analysis, and the metabolite profile of both tissues was assessed by complementary metabolomics approaches. Foliar kaolin application resulted in, for instance, an increased photosynthetic activity of the exocarp of LL-grown berries at green developmental stage, as compared to the control non-kaolin treatment, with a concomitant increase in the levels of several lipid-soluble isoprenoids (chlorophylls, carotenoids, and tocopherols). The exocarp of mature berries grown at HL microclimate on kaolin-sprayed non-irrigated plants had higher total sugar levels content than all other treatments, suggesting that foliar application of this mineral results in an increased accumulation of photoassimilates in mature berries. Unbiased liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based profiling of semi-polar compounds followed by ASCA (ANOVA simultaneous component analysis) and ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that kaolin had no or inconsistent effect on the flavonoid and phenylpropanoid composition in both seed and exocarp at any developmental stage; in contrast, both microclimate and irrigation influenced the level of several of these compounds depending on berry ripening stage. Overall, our study provides more insight into the effects of mitigation strategies on berry tissue photosynthesis and phytochemistry, under contrasting conditions of cluster light microclimate. We hope that this may contribute to develop sustainable management in vineyards and to maintain grape berries and wines with high quality even at increasing abiotic stress challenges.

Keywords: climate change, grape berry tissues, metabolomics, mitigation strategies

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