Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 104

Search results for: Kainat Umar

104 A Comparative Study of Substance Abusers and Non-Abusers on Peer Pressure, Tendency to Risk Taking Behavior and Anxiety

Authors: Musarrat Jabeen Khan, Uzma Azam, Kainat Umar, Jazba Amber Satti, Aiman Shehzadi, Nimo Omer

Abstract:

This study aimed to examine the comparison between substance abusers and non-abusers on anxiety, peer pressure, and risk-taking behavior among young adults. The sample consisted of 138 individuals including 64 female and 71 males, age range from 17-35 years, drawn from non-clinical population through convenient sampling. Questionnaire technique was used for the information assortment and the scales were susceptibility to peer pressure (Dieman, Pamella, Shope & Butchart, 1987), Zung self-rating anxiety scale (Zung, 1971), and risk-taking questionnaire (Gullone, Moore, Moss & Boyd, 2000) having alpha reliability of .54, .88, and .80 respectively. Results showed that anxiety negatively correlates with the risk-taking behavior. High level of anxiety stops an individual to involve himself in risk taking activities. Peer pressure have positive correlation with risk-taking behavior. Females are more susceptible to peer pressure irrespective of being abusers or non-abusers as compared to male abusers and non-abusers. Substance abusers have less anxiety as compared to non-abusers but are more susceptible to peer pressure and risk-taking behaviors.

Keywords: substance, substance abuse, anxiety, peer pressure, risk-taking behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
103 Effect of Gender Norms and Gender Equality on Depression and Quality of Life among Young and Old Married Couples

Authors: Musarrat Jabeen, Fatima Zahra Khan, Hamida Bano, Faiza Anjum, Sara Tahir, Kainat Umar, Uzma Azam

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of gender norms and gender equality on depression and quality of life among young and old married couples. The sample consisted of 60 old and 100 young married couples. It was mainly conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. However, since it was convenient and snowball sampling, we were able to get the data from other cities of Pakistan as well. By using Beck Depression Scale (Aaron T. Beck), Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener), the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske,1996), and Gender Norms Attitude Scale(Waszak et al., 2000). It was found that the old couples have a high quality of life than young couples, which further proved them to have positive attitude towards gender equality, negative attitude towards gender norms and low level of depression. Also, couples having positive attitude towards gender equality have high level of satisfaction with life than the ones having negative attitude towards gender norms, who have low level of depression. Also, having a negative attitude towards gender norms has adverse effects on the level of depression. To achieve a high quality of life, it would be helpful to evolve with the world, especially with respect to the concepts of gender norms and equality.

Keywords: depression, gender equality, gender norms, married couples, quality of life

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
102 Socio-Economic Factors Influencing the Use of Coping Strategies among Conflict Actors (Farmers and Herders) in Giron Masa Village, Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors: S. Umar, B. F. Umar

Abstract:

This study was conducted at Giron Masa village, located 30 km from Yauri town. The study determines the socio-economic factors influencing the use of coping strategies among farmers and herders during post-conflict situation. Simple random sampling was employed to select one hundred respondents (50 farmers and 50 herders) from the study area. Logistic regression analysis (LR) was used to ascertain the socioeconomic variables that influenced the use of the coping strategies. The results of the study shows that age, income, family size and farming experience were individually significant and thus influenced the use of POCS by farmers. Annual income and production system influenced the use of POCS by herders. Age, farm size and farming experience were found to be individually significant in influencing the use of EOCS among farmers. Specifically, years of occupation experience among the herders increased the use of emotion oriented coping strategies among herders. The use of SSCS among farmers was influenced by educational level; farm size and farming experience, while the variables are not collectively significant in influencing the use of SSCS among the herders. The research recommends a need to adopt the strategy of community coping to cope with stress.

Keywords: farmers, herders, conflict, coping strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
101 Intelligent Rescheduling Trains for Air Pollution Management

Authors: Kainat Affrin, P. Reshma, G. Narendra Kumar

Abstract:

Optimization of timetable is the need of the day for the rescheduling and routing of trains in real time. Trains are scheduled in parallel with the road transport vehicles to the same destination. As the number of trains is restricted due to single track, customers usually opt for road transport to use frequently. The air pollution increases as the density of vehicles on road transport is increased. Use of an alternate mode of transport like train helps in reducing air-pollution. This paper mainly aims at attracting the passengers to Train transport by proper rescheduling of trains using hybrid of stop-skip algorithm and iterative convex programming algorithm. Rescheduling of train bi-directionally is achieved on a single track with dynamic dual time and varying stops. Introduction of more trains attract customers to use rail transport frequently, thereby decreasing the pollution. The results are simulated using Network Simulator (NS-2).

Keywords: air pollution, AODV, re-scheduling, WSNs

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
100 Litho-Structural Variations and Gold Mineralization around Wonaka Schist Belt, North West Nigeria

Authors: Umar Sambo Umar, Ahmad Isah Haruna, Abubakar Sadik Maigari, Muhammad Bello Abubakar

Abstract:

Schist belts in Nigeria occur prominently west of longitude 80 E and sporadic to the east, they are upper Proterozioc low-medium grade deformed metasediments and metavolcanics that were intruded by Pan-African granitoids. The Wonaka schist belt, though reportedly distinctive in composition and metamorphism, is the least understood; the host for primary gold were not defined, structures which may control primary enrichment have not been delineated. The aim of this work is to determine the relationship between litho-structures and the gold around Wonaka schist belt through geological field mapping, petrographic studies and structural data analysis via ArcGis 10.2, Surfer 11.0 and Stereopro 2.0. The results show that the major rock types are mica schist and migmatites, muscovites detected during microstructural analysis suggests low-grade metamorphism in the metapelites. The shear zones identified were trending North Northeast – South Southwest (NNE-SSW), fractures trend mostly Northeast-Southwest (NE-SW) perpendicular to planes of gneissic foliations, these conform to the late Pan-African deformational episode. Pegmatite lodes, net self-cross cutting quartz veins as well as the quartz stringers hosted by both migmatites and schist are delineated as targets for primary gold mineralization, while major confluences of the streams serve as zones for secondary (placer) gold targets since the streams are dendritic and intermittent.

Keywords: gold mineralization, Nigeria, migmatites, Wonaka schist belt

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
99 Single Fly Over as a Solution to Congestion of Intersection Junction: Case Study of Jalan Jatingaleh Semarang

Authors: Rachmat Mudiyono, Siti Sumiati

Abstract:

In the next few years, traffic will happen most of the time. This was triggered by the growing rate of vehicles againts the road capacity which is not balance. All the time the congestion in the city of Semarang has been occured at peak hours. Congestion also occured in between Teuku Umar and Setia Budi road Jatingaleh because of a plot intersection (Kesatrian intersection, PLN intersection and Jatingaleh intersection) with the Toll Road. Jatingaleh is located in the southern city of Semarang which is a central meeting point between the upper and lower Semarang where the vehicle flows in through a combination of local current and regional traffic, and the flow of vehicles coming in and out from highway. The main cause of the problems that occurred in the area of Jatingaleh is due to the numbers of vehicles movement that occurs at the intersections. With the above issues, it is necessary to analyse the existing conditions and look into some solutions. Before carrying out an analysis of field surveys at peak hours for example morning (06:00 to 08:00 am) and for the afternoon (04:00 to 06:00 pm)should be conducted, then the number of vehicles is counted manually with “short-breakcounting” according to types of vehicles. From the analysis we found that the degree of saturation (DS) is 1.61 between Teuku Umar and Setia Budi road during the morning peak hours and 1.56 during the afternoon peak hours. This means that the capacity of the existing road is no longer able to accommodate the traffic flow. One of the solutions for the congestion that occurs at the intersection of Jatingaleh is to apply the efficiency of the intersection that is not in a plot with a Fly over, Underpass and the combination of Fly Over-Underpass. Base on the flow reduction calculation with 3 comparative modeling it shows that the Fly Over is the most technically efficient to be applied in this research.

Keywords: single fly over, congestion, intersection, interchange

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
98 Studies on the Histomorphometry of the Digestive Tract and Associated Digestive Glands in Ostrich (Struthio camelus) with Gender and Progressing Age in Pakistan

Authors: Zaima Umar, Anas S. Qureshi, Adeel Sarfraz, Saqib Umar, Talha Umar, Muhammad Usman

Abstract:

Ostrich has been a good source of food and income for people across the world. To get a better understanding of health and health-related problems, the knowledge of its digestive system is of utmost importance. The present study was conducted to determine the morphological and histometrical variations in the digestive system and associated glands of ostrich (Struthio camelus) as regard to the gender and progressive age. A total of 40 apparently healthy ostriches of both genders and two progressive age groups; young one (less than two year, group A); and adult (2-15 years, group B) in equal number were used in this study. Digestive organs including tongue, esophagus, proventriculus, gizzard, small and large intestines and associated glands like liver and pancreas were collected immediately after slaughtering the birds. The organs of the digestive system and associated glands of each group were studied grossly and histologically. Grossly colour, shape consistency, weight and various dimensions (length, width, and circumference) of organs of the digestive tract and associated glands were recorded. The mean (± SEM) of all gross anatomical parameters in group A were significantly (p ≤ 0.01) different from that of group B. For microscopic studies, 1-2 cm tissue samples of organs of the digestive system and associated glands were taken. The tissue was marked and fixed in the neutral buffer formaldehyde solution for histological studies. After fixation, the sections of 5-7 µm were cut and stained by haematoxylin and eosin stain. All the layers (epithelium, lamina propria, lamina muscularis, submucosa and tunica muscularis) were measured (µm) with the help of automated computer software Image J®. The results of this study provide valuable information on the gender and age-related histological and histometrical variations in the digestive organs of ostrich (Struthio camelus). The microscopic studies of different parts of the digestive system revealed highly significant differences (p ≤ 0.01) among the two groups. The esophagus was lined by non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The duodenum, jejunum, and ileum showed similar histological structures. Statistical analysis revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in the thickness of different tunics of the gastrointestinal tract in adult birds (up to 15 years) as compared with young ones (less than two years). Therefore, it can be concluded that there is a gradual but consistent growth in the observed digestive organs mimicking that of other poultry species and may be helpful in determining the growth pattern in this bird. However, there is a need to record the changes at closer time intervals.

Keywords: ostrich, digestive system, histomorphometry, grossly

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
97 Comparative Analysis of the Treatment of Okra Seed and Soy Beans Oil with Crude Enzyme Extract from Malted Rice

Authors: Eduzor Esther, Uhiara Ngozi, Ya’u Abubakar Umar, Anayo Jacob Gabriel, Umar Ahmed

Abstract:

The study investigated the characteristic effect of treating okra seed and soybeans seed oil with crude enzymes extract from malted rice. The oils from okra seeds and soybeans were obtained by solvent extraction method using N-hexane solvent. Soybeans seeds had higher percentage oil yield than okra seed. 250ml of each oil was thoroughly mixed with 5ml of the malted rice extract at 400C for 5mins and then filtered and regarded as treated oil while another batch of 250ml of each oil was not mixed with the malted rice extract and regarded as untreated oil. All the oils were analyzed for specific gravity, refractive index, emulsification capacity, absortivity, TSS and viscosity. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil gave higher values for specific gravity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. The emulsification capacity values were also higher for treated oils, when compared to the untreated oil, for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil also had higher range of values for absorptivity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The ranges of T.S.S values of the treated oil were also higher, than those of the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The results of viscosity showed that the treated oil had higher values, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. However, the results of refractive index showed that the untreated oils had higher values ranges of than the treated oils for okra seed and soybeans respectively. Treated oil show better quality in respect to the parameters analyst, except the refractive index which is slightly less but also is within the rangiest of standard, the oils are high in unsaturation especially okra oil when compared with soya beans oil. It is recommended that, treated oil of okra seeds and soya beans can serve better than many oils that presently in use such as ground nut oil, palm oil and cotton seeds oil.

Keywords: extract, malted, oil, okra, rice, seed, soybeans

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
96 Haematological Changes and Anticoccidial Activities of Kaempferol in Eimeria Tenella Infected Broiler Chickens

Authors: Ya'u Muhammad, Umar Umar A. Mallammadori, Dahiru Mansur

Abstract:

Effect of kaempferol on haematological parameters in two weeks old broiler chickens with experimental Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated in this study. Sixty-day old broilers were randomly allotted into six groups (I-VI) of ten broilers each and brooded for two weeks with commercial broiler feed (vital feed®) and provided water ad libitum. At two weeks of age broilers in group 1 were neither infected nor treated. Broilers in groups II-VI were infected with Eimeria tenella sporulated oocyst (104/ml) via oral inoculation. After infection was established, broilers in groups II-IV were treated orally with 1 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg, and 2 mg/kg of kaempferol, respectively. Broilers in group V were treated for five days with amprolium, 1.25 g/L in drinking water. Broilers in group VI were administered normal saline, 5 ml/kg per os for five days. Five days post infection; all broilers were sacrificed by severing their jugular veins. Blood sample from each bird was collected in EDTA container for haematology. Caecal contents were harvested and used to determine the lesion score and caecal Oocyst count respectively. Data obtained was analyzed using pad prism version 5.0. Mean Packed Cell Volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, and Red Blood Cell (RBC) count significantly (P < 0.05) increased in groups II, III, and IV in a dose dependent manner. Similarly, PCV, Hb concentration, and RBC count significantly (P < 0.05) increased in groups II, III, and IV when compared to VI. No significant (P > 0.05) difference in the mean values of PCV, Hb and RBC count were recorded between groups treated with kaempferol and group V. Caecal Oocyst counts and lesion scores reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in groups II, III, and IV in a dose dependent manner. It was therefore observed in this study that kaempferol improved haematological parameters and reduced Oocyst count as well as the lesion scores in broilers infected with Eimeria tenella.

Keywords: broilers, Eimeria tenella, kaempferol, lesion scores, oocyst count,

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
95 Transformation of the Traditional Landscape of Kabul Old City: A Study for Its Conservation

Authors: Mohammad Umar Azizi, Tetsuya Ando

Abstract:

This study investigates the transformation of the traditional landscape of Kabul Old City through an examination of five case study areas. Based on physical observation, three types of houses are found: traditional, mixed and modern. Firstly, characteristics of the houses are described according to construction materials and the number of stories. Secondly, internal and external factors are considered in order to implement a conservation plan. Finally, an adaptive conservation plan is suggested to protect the traditional landscape of Kabul Old City.

Keywords: conservation, district 1, Kabul Old City, landscape, transformation, traditional houses

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
94 A Study on the Vegetative and Osmolyte Accumulation of Capsicum frutescens L. under Zinc Metal Stress

Authors: Ja’afar Umar, Adamu Aliyu Aliero

Abstract:

Plant growth, biochemical parameters, zinc metal concentrations were determined for Capsicum frutescens L. in response to varied concentration of zinc metal. The plant exhibited a decline in the vegetative parameters measured. Free proline and glycine betaine content increases with increasing concentration of zinc metal and differ significantly (P<0.05). It can be concluded that the osmolyte (pro and GB) accumulations, and high length of stem and wide leaf expansion are possible indicator of tolerance to heavy metals (Zinc) in Capsicum frutescens.

Keywords: zinc metal, osmolyte, Capsicum frutescens, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
93 Effect of Bilateral and Unilateral Castration on Feed Utilization and Carcass Characteristics of Growers Rabbit (Orytolagus cunniculus)

Authors: A. H. Dikko, D. N Tsado, M. S. T. Rita, D. S. Umar

Abstract:

This study was conducted on eighteen (18) New Zealand and chinchilla breeds of rabbits were used. The rabbits were allotted to 3 treatments with each treatment having six (6) animals with two (2) replicates. T1 were castrated, which both testes was removed (Bilateral); T2 were castrated, which only one testes was removed (unilateral) and T3 were not castrated (control). In nutrient digestibility, T1 and T2 (p>0.05) has a higher rate than T3. There was no significant (p<0.05) difference in live weight and dressing weight among the treatment groups. There is a significant (p > 0.05) difference in visceral organs in the treatment groups.

Keywords: New Zealand, chinchilla, castration, bilateral, unilateral

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
92 Survival Data with Incomplete Missing Categorical Covariates

Authors: Madaki Umar Yusuf, Mohd Rizam B. Abubakar

Abstract:

The survival censored data with incomplete covariate data is a common occurrence in many studies in which the outcome is survival time. With model when the missing covariates are categorical, a useful technique for obtaining parameter estimates is the EM by the method of weights. The survival outcome for the class of generalized linear model is applied and this method requires the estimation of the parameters of the distribution of the covariates. In this paper, we propose some clinical trials with ve covariates, four of which have some missing values which clearly show that they were fully censored data.

Keywords: EM algorithm, incomplete categorical covariates, ignorable missing data, missing at random (MAR), Weibull Distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
91 A Survey of Some Technology Enhanced Teaching and Learning Techniques: Implication to Educational Development in Nigeria

Authors: Abdullahi Bn Umar

Abstract:

Over the years curriculum planners and researchers in education have continued to seek for ways to improve teaching and learning by way of varying approaches to curriculum and instruction in line with dynamic nature of knowledge. In this regards various innovative strategies to teaching and learning have been adopted to match with the technological advancement in education particularly in the aspect of instructional delivery through Information Communication Technology (ICT) as a tools. This paper reviews some innovative strategies and how they impact on learner’s achievement and educational development in Nigeria. The paper concludes by recommending innovative approach appropriate for use in Nigerian context.

Keywords: innovation, instructional delivery, virtual laboratory, educational design

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
90 Real-Time Aerial Marine Surveillance System for Safe Navigation

Authors: Vinesh Thiruchelvam, Umar Mumtaz Chowdry, Sathish Kumar Selvaperumal

Abstract:

The prime purpose of the project is to provide a sophisticated system for surveillance specialized for the Port Authorities in the Maritime Industry. The current aerial surveillance does not have a wide dimensioning view. The channels of communication is shared and not exclusive allowing for communications errors or disturbance mainly due to traffic. The scope is to analyze the various aspects as real-time aerial and marine surveillance is one of the most important methods which could ensure the domain security of the sailors. The system will improve real time data as obtained for the controller base station. The key implementation will be based on camera speed, angle and adherence to a sustainable power utilization module.

Keywords: SMS, real time, GUI, maritime industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
89 Development of Fem Code for 2-D Elasticity Problems Using Quadrilateral and Triangular Elements

Authors: Muhammad Umar Kiani, Waseem Sakawat

Abstract:

This study presents the development of FEM code using Quadrilateral 4-Node (Q4) and Triangular 3-Node (T3) elements. Code is formulated using MATLAB language. Instead of using both elements in the same code, two separate codes are written. Quadrilateral element is difficult to handle directly, that is why natural coordinates (eta, ksi) are used. Due to this, Q4 code includes numerical integration (Gauss quadrature). In this case, complete numerical integration is performed using 2 points. On the other hand, T3 element can be modeled directly, by using direct stiffness approach. Axially loaded element, cantilever (special constraints) and Patch test cases were analyzed using both codes and the results were verified by using Ansys.

Keywords: FEM code, MATLAB, numerical integration, ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
88 Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Maikudi Umar

Abstract:

This paper conceived Vocational and Technical Education as those aspects of educational process, in addition to general education leading to acquisition of practical skills, attitudes as well as basic scientific knowledge as it relates to occupations in various sectors of the economic and social life. The paper therefore viewed Vocational and Technical education as those aspects of educational training designed to provide the recipient with the skills abilities and understanding needed for efficient performance in chosen occupational carrier for self reliance. The paper also examined some major inhibitions to the attainment of self reliance through VTE. The paper also recommended a change of attitudes by governments in Nigeria by providing adequate equipment so as to meet up with the challenges.

Keywords: vocational education, technical education, skills and self reliance, issues and challenges

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
87 Application of Facilities Management Practice in High Rise Commercial Properties: Jos in Perpective

Authors: Aliyu Ahmad Aliyu, Abubakar Ahmad, Muhammad Umar Bello, Rozilah Kasim, David Martin

Abstract:

The article studied the application of facilities management practice in high rise commercial properties. Convenience sampling technique was used in administering questionnaires to the 60 respondents who responded to the survey. It was found out that the extent of application of facilities management in the subject properties is better described as below average. Similarly, the most frequently tools of facilities management in use and employed in the properties were outsourcing and in-house sourcing. This was influenced by the level of their familiarity with the tools. Planned and Preventive maintenance should be taken regularly in other to enhance the effectiveness of the facilities management and to satisfy both the owner and customers of the organization.

Keywords: commercial properties, facilities management, high-rise buildings, Jos metropolis and outsourcing

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
86 Strong Convergence of an Iterative Sequence in Real Banach Spaces with Kadec Klee Property

Authors: Umar Yusuf Batsari

Abstract:

Let E be a uniformly smooth and uniformly convex real Banach space and C be a nonempty, closed and convex subset of E. Let $V= \{S_i : C\to C, ~i=1, 2, 3\cdots N\}$ be a convex set of relatively nonexpansive mappings containing identity. In this paper, an iterative sequence obtained from CQ algorithm was shown to have strongly converge to a point $\hat{x}$ which is a common fixed point of relatively nonexpansive mappings in V and also solve the system of equilibrium problems in E. The result improve some existing results in the literature.

Keywords: relatively nonexpansive mappings, strong convergence, equilibrium problems, uniformly smooth space, uniformly convex space, convex set, kadec klee property

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
85 A Review of Ultralightweight Mutual Authentication Protocols

Authors: Umar Mujahid, Greatzel Unabia, Hongsik Choi, Binh Tran

Abstract:

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is one of the most commonly used technologies in IoTs and Wireless Sensor Networks which makes the devices identification and tracking extremely easy to manage. Since RFID uses wireless channel for communication, which is open for all types of adversaries, researchers have proposed many Ultralightweight Mutual Authentication Protocols (UMAPs) to ensure security and privacy in a cost-effective manner. These UMAPs involve simple bitwise logical operators such as XOR, AND, OR & Rot, etc., to design the protocol messages. However, most of these UMAPs were later reported to be vulnerable against many malicious attacks. In this paper, we have presented a detailed overview of some eminent UMAPs and also discussed the many security attacks on them. Finally, some recommendations and suggestions have been discussed, which can improve the design of the UMAPs.

Keywords: RFID, Ultralightweight, UMAP, SASI

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
84 New Media Impact on Newspaper Readership

Authors: Umar Lawal Maradun

Abstract:

Newspapers are very important sources of information and are trusted by majority of populations in America, Latin America, Europe and many parts of the world. In the mid-1950s newspapers were at the forefront of providing people with information. However, in the 1970s television took over, while in the 1980s cable satellites became popular and in the 1990s the Internet and World Wide Web became major sources of media content and also major threats to the print media form. This paper looks at how newspaper readership has been affected by new media technology, especially the Internet. It uses empirical data by reviewing available literature within the context of change that is likely to threaten conventional media. It discovers that there is a growing decline in newspaper readership as a result of widespread use of the Internet. The decline in readership has been discovered to be a global phenomenon. The paper suggests strategies for the survival and revenue generation for print-based newspapers.

Keywords: Internet, media, newspaper, press

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
83 Salinity Stress: Effects on Growth Biochemical Parameters and Ion Homeostasis in Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea L.)

Authors: Umar Jaafar, Mungadi

Abstract:

Plant growth, biochemical parameters, cytotoxic ion sequestration and ionic in balance were determined for spinach in response to varied concentrations of NaCl. The plant show decline in all vegetative parameters measured. Free proline content increase with increasing salt concentration and differ significantly (p<0.05) while the glycine betaine insignificantly (p>0.05) affected by concentration of NaCl. Salinity increases the cytotoxic ions, sodium chlorine ion and calcium with corresponding decrease in potassium ion concentrations. The ionic balance (Na+/K+) is low due to high content of potassium ion in plant accumulation ranging from 7700 to 6500 mg/kg. It can be concluded that the osmolyte accumulations, high number of leaves are possible indicators of salt tolerance in the spinach.

Keywords: spinach, salinity, osmolyte, cytotoxic

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
82 Transformative Concept of Logic to Islamic Science: Reflections on Al-Ghazālī's Influence

Authors: Umar Sheikh Tahir

Abstract:

Before al-Ghazālī, Islamic scholars perceived logic as an intrusive knowledge. The knowledge therefore, did not receive ample attention among scholars on how it should be adapted into Islamic sciences. General scholarship in that period rejects logic as an instrumental knowledge. This attitude became unquestionable to the scholars from different perspectives with diversification of suggestions in the pre-al-Ghazālī’s period. However, al-Ghazālī proclaimed with new perspective that transform Logic from ‘intrusive knowledge’ to a useful tool for Islamic sciences. This study explores the contributions of al-Ghazālī to epistemology regarding the use and the relevance of Logic. The study applies qualitative research methodology dealing strictly with secondary data from medieval age and contemporary sources. The study concludes that al-Ghazālī’s contributions which supported the transformation of Logic to useful tool in the Muslim world were drawn from his experience within Islamic tradition. He succeeded in reconciling Islamic tradition with the wisdom of Greek sciences.

Keywords: Al-Ghazālī, classical logic, epistemology, Islamdom and Islamic sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
81 The Impact of Road Development on the Emergence of the Commercial Area

Authors: Ida Bagus Ilham Malik, Bart Julian Dewancker

Abstract:

The road construction will affect the development of the region along the new road. With this principle, the government developed Antasari Street in order to become one of the main economic corridors for the city of Bandar Lampung. Since its construction in 1997, Antasari Street developed into one of the main economic corridors that greatly affect the economic condition of the city, in addition to other economic corridors such as Pagar Alam Street and Teuku Umar Street. The data shows that the construction of roads affects economic development in the corridor that with the advent of commercial buildings in large quantities. Among them are shops, office, restaurants, and a car showroom. This study proves that the road construction could accelerate the economic progress of the road corridor, especially in the construction and development of urban roads.

Keywords: road development, commercial area, Antasari street, Bandar Lampung

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
80 Cryopreservation of Ring-Necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) Semen for Establishing Cryobank

Authors: Rida Pervaiz, Bushra Allah Rakha, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari, Shamim Akhter, Kainat Waseem, Sumiyyah Zuha, Tooba Javed

Abstract:

Ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) belongs to order Galliformes and family Phasianidae. It has been recognized as the most hunted bird due to its attractive colorful appearance and meat. Loss of habitat and hunting pressure has caused population fluctuations in the native range. Under these circumstances, this species can be conserved by employing ex-situ in vitro conservation techniques. Captive breeding, in combination with semen cryobanking is the most appropriate option to conserve/propagate this species without deteriorating the genetic diversity. Cryopreservation protocols of adequate efficiency are necessary to establish semen cryobanking for a species. Therefore, present study was designed to devise an efficient extender for cryopreservation of ring-necked pheasant semen. For this purpose, a range of extenders (Beltsville Poultry, red fowl, Lake, EK, Tselutin Poultry and Chicken semen extenders) were evaluated for cryopreservation of ring-necked pheasant semen. Semen collected from 10 cocks, diluted in the Beltsville Poultry (BPSE), Red Fowl (RFE), Lake (LE), EK (EKE), Tselutin Poultry (TPE) and Chicken Semen (CSE) extenders and cryopreserved. Glycerol (10%) was added to semen at 4°C, equilibrated for 10 min, filled in 0.5 mL French straws, kept over liquid nitrogen vapors for 10 min, cryopreserved in LN2 and stored. Sperm motility (%), viability (%), live/dead ratio (%), plasma membrane (%) and DNA Integrity (%) were evaluated at post-dilution, post-cooling, post-equilibration and post-thawing stage of cryopreservation. Sperm motility (83.8 ± 3.1; 81.3 ± 3.8; 73.8 ± 2.4; 62.5 ± 1.4), viability (79.0 ± 1.7; 75.5 ± 1.6; 69.5 ± 2.3; 65.5 ± 2.4), live/dead ratio (80.5 ± 5.7; 77.3 ± 4.9; 76.0 ± 2.7; 68.3 ± 2.3), plasma membrane (74.5 ± 2.9; 73.8 ± 3.4; 71.3 ± 2.3; 75.0 ± 3.4) and DNA integrity (78.3 ± 1.7; 73.0 ± 1.2; 68.0 ± 2.0; 63.0 ± 2.5) at all four stages of cryopreservation were recorded higher (P < 0.05) in red fowl extender compared to all experimental extenders. It is concluded that red fowl extender is the best extender for cryopreservation of ring-necked pheasant semen and can be used in establishing cryobank for ex situ conservation.

Keywords: ring-necked pheasant; extenders; cryopreservation; semen quality; DNA integrity

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
79 Growth Mechanism, Structural and Compositional Properties of Cu₂ZnSnS₄ (CZTS) Thin Films Deposited by Sputtering Method from a Compound Target

Authors: Sanusi Abdullahi, Musa Momoh, Abubakar Umar Moreh, Aminu Muhammad Bayawa, Olubunmi Popoola

Abstract:

Kesterite-type Cu₂ZnSnS₄ (CZTS) thin films were deposited on corning glass from a single quaternary target. In this study, we investigated the growth mechanism and the influence of thin film thickness on the structural and compositional properties of CZTS films. All the four samples (as-deposited inclusive) show peaks corresponding to kesterite-type structure. The diffraction peaks of (112) are sharp and the small characteristics peaks of the kesterite structure such as (220)/ (204) and (312)/ (116) are also clearly observed in X-ray diffraction pattern. These results indicate that the quaternary CZTS would be a potential candidate for solar cell applications.

Keywords: RF sputtering, Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film, annealing, growth mechanism, annealing, growth mechanism, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
78 Use of Dendrochronology in Estimation of Creep Velocity and Its Dependence on the Bulk Density of Soils

Authors: Mohammad Amjad Sabir, Ishtiaq Khan, Shahid Ali, Umar Shabbir, Aneel Ahmad

Abstract:

Creep, being the main silt contributor to the rivers, is a slow, downhill flow of soils. The creep velocity is measured in millimeters to a couple of centimeters per year and is determined with the help of tilt caused by creep in the vertical objects and needs at least ten years to get a reliable creep velocity. This project was devised to calculate creep velocity using dendrochronology and looking for the difference of creep velocity registered by different trees on the same slope. It was concluded that dendrochronology provides a very reliable procedure of creep velocity estimation if ‘J’ shaped trees are studied for their horizontal movement and age. The age of these trees was measured using tree coring, and the horizontal movement was measured with a conventional tape. Using this procedure it does not require decades and additionally the data reveals the creep velocity for up to 150 years and even more instead of just a decade. It was also concluded that the creep velocity does not only depend on bulk density of soil hence no pronounced effect of bulk density was detected.

Keywords: creep velocity, Galiyat, Pakistan, dendrochronology, Nagri Bala

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
77 Geotechnical Distress Evaluation of a Damaged Structure

Authors: Zulfiqar Ali, Umar Saleem, Muhammad Junaid, Rizwan Tahir

Abstract:

Gulzar Mahal is a heritage site located in the city of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The site is under a process of degradation, as cracks are appearing on the walls, roofs, and floor around the building due to differential settlement. To preserve the integrity of the structure, a geotechnical distress evaluation was carried out to evaluate the causal factors and recommend remediation measures. The research involved the characterization of the problematic soil and analysis of the observed distress with respect to the geotechnical properties. Both conventional lab and field tests were used in conjunction with the unconventional techniques like; Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and FEA. The temporal, geophysical and geotechnical evaluations have concluded that the foundation soil over the past was subjected to variations in the land use, poor drainage patterns, overloading and fluctuations in groundwater table all contributing to the differential settlements manifesting in the form of the visible shear crack across the length and breadth of the building.

Keywords: differential settlement, distress evaluation, finite element analysis, Gulzar Mahal

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
76 Prediction Modeling of Compression Properties of a Knitted Sportswear Fabric Using Response Surface Method

Authors: Jawairia Umar, Tanveer Hussain, Zulfiqar Ali, Muhammad Maqsood

Abstract:

Different knitted structures and knitted parameters play a vital role in the stretch and recovery management of compression sportswear in addition to the materials use to generate this stretch and recovery behavior of the fabric. The present work was planned to predict the different performance indicators of a compression sportswear fabric with some ground parameters i.e. base yarn stitch length (polyester as base yarn and spandex as plating yarn involve to make a compression fabric) and linear density of the spandex which is a key material of any sportswear fabric. The prediction models were generated by response surface method for performance indicators such as stretch & recovery percentage, compression generated by the garment on body, total elongation on application of high power force and load generated on certain percentage extension in fabric. Certain physical properties of the fabric were also modeled using these two parameters.

Keywords: Compression, sportswear, stretch and recovery, statistical model, kikuhime

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
75 Data Analysis to Uncover Terrorist Attacks Using Data Mining Techniques

Authors: Saima Nazir, Mustansar Ali Ghazanfar, Sanay Muhammad Umar Saeed, Muhammad Awais Azam, Saad Ali Alahmari

Abstract:

Terrorism is an important and challenging concern. The entire world is threatened by only few sophisticated terrorist groups and especially in Gulf Region and Pakistan, it has become extremely destructive phenomena in recent years. Predicting the pattern of attack type, attack group and target type is an intricate task. This study offers new insight on terrorist group’s attack type and its chosen target. This research paper proposes a framework for prediction of terrorist attacks using the historical data and making an association between terrorist group, their attack type and target. Analysis shows that the number of attacks per year will keep on increasing, and Al-Harmayan in Saudi Arabia, Al-Qai’da in Gulf Region and Tehreek-e-Taliban in Pakistan will remain responsible for many future terrorist attacks. Top main targets of each group will be private citizen & property, police, government and military sector under constant circumstances.

Keywords: data mining, counter terrorism, machine learning, SVM

Procedia PDF Downloads 322