Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: delinquency

40 The Influence of Parenting Patterns on Adolescent Deliquincy

Authors: Salsabila Rizka Pratama

Abstract:

In this day and age, delinquency has become common to young children, and it is a violation of the norms, and legal systems of a society that are carried out during adolescenceIt is the transition from childhood to adulthood. PerversionYouth from criminal law are a common problem among adolescents in homes, schools, and communities. Without proper treatment, delinquency can turn into a crime and is likely to send a child to prison. If dug deeper, the development of delinquency is strongly influenced by family and community life. Families play an important role in the prevention of delinquency. One way a family can help prevent delinquency is by using the proper upbringing. The upbringing that parents use affects children's behavior. Improper parenting can lead to delinquency. On the other hand, proper parenting will prevent delinquency. But delinquency is not influenced only by parental upbringing, the appearance of delinquency can be influenced by the environment, religion, economic factors, information technology factors.

Keywords: parenting, parents, juvenile delinquency, family, youth, crime, environment, religion, economy, information technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
39 Influences of Victimization Experiences on Delinquency: Comparison between Young Offenders and Non-Offenders

Authors: Yoshihiro Horio

Abstract:

Many young offenders grow up in difficult environments. It has often been suggested that many young offenders are victims of abuse. However, there were restricted to abuse or family’s problem. Little research has examined data on ‘multiple victimization’ experiences of young offenders. Thus, this study investigated the victimization experiences of young offenders, including child abuse at home, bullying at school, and crime in the community. Specifically, the number of victimization experiences of young offenders was compared with those of non-delinquents at home, school, and in the community. It was found that young offenders experienced significantly more victimization than non-delinquents. Additionally, the influence of childhood victimization on later misconduct and/or delinquency was examined, then it was founded that victimization experiences to be a risk factor for subsequent delinquency. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that young offenders who had a strong emotional reaction to their experience of abuse began their misconduct at an earlier age. If juveniles start their misconduct early, the degree of delinquency will increase. The anger of young offenders was stronger than that of non-delinquents. A strong emotion of anger may be related to juvenile delinquency.

Keywords: abuse, bullying, delinquency, victimization, young offenders

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
38 Juvenile Delinquency of Senior High School Students in Surabaya, Indonesia

Authors: Herdina Indrijati

Abstract:

This research aims to describe teenager delinquency behavior (Juvenile Delinquency) of senior high school students in Surabaya, Indonesia. Juvenile Delinquency is a broad range of behaviors start from socially unacceptable behavior (overreact in school), violation (escape from home) to crimes (like stealing). This research uses quantitative descriptive method using 498 students who come from 8 different schools in Surabaya as subjects. Juvenile Delinquency behavior form questionnaire has been completed by subjects and was used to measure and describe the behavior. The result of this research is presented in statistic descriptive forms. Result shows that 169 subjects skip school, 55 subjects get out of home without parent’s permission, 110 subjects engage in smoking behavior, 74 subjects damage other people properties, 32 subjects steal, 16 subjects exploit others and 7 subjects engage in drug abuse. Frequency of the top five mentioned behavior are 1-10 times. It is also found that subject’s peers are most likely to be the victim of Juvenile Delinquency. The reasons teenagers engage in Juvenile Delinquency include (1) feeling tired, bored or lazy – that contributes to their skip school behavior (2) Having a lot of problem with parents - contrives them to run away from home, (3) accidentally damage other people’s properties, (4) financial problems – force them to steal and exploit, (5) feeling like having a lot of life problems – that makes them do drugs (6) trying smoking for experience.

Keywords: juvenile delinquency, senior high school, student

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
37 Parental and Peer Influences on Juvenile Delinquency: Case Studies in Malaysia

Authors: Tan Bee Piang

Abstract:

The family is always seen as the most important agent of socialization, therefore, abusive parents and broken family have often been highlighted as two main factors contributing to juvenile delinquency. However, several studies have indicated that the peer group is one of the most powerful socialization agents in adolescent development, the influences of family are insignificant after peer influences are taken. This study aimed to investigate the relative influence of parents and peers on juvenile delinquency in Malaysia. Malaysia is a multicultural society, so different types of traditional values and religions permeate all aspects of Malaysian society, and the influences of family and parents are always seen as the most important agents of socialization. 80 juveniles from a reform school in Malaysia have been selected to participate in this study. Based on the experiences of juveniles in this study, it found that peer groups play an important role when the adolescents try to create their own identities. Adolescents merely make friends with those who have similar life experiences, so adolescents are easily influenced by their friends and the juvenile delinquency is mostly group behavior. This research found that there is no significant relationship between family factors and delinquency. The data shows that a significant percentage of juveniles come from middle-class family and most of them are not from broken family. However, most of them have strained family relationship. This research suggests that we should take a look into other causes, like peer influence, of juvenile delinquency in Malaysia.

Keywords: juvenile delinquency, peer influence, group behaviour, family relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
36 The Impact of Life Satisfaction on Substance Abuse: Delinquency as a Mediator

Authors: Mahadzirah Mohamad, Morliyati Mohammad, Nor Azman Mat Ali, Zainudin Awang

Abstract:

Globally, youth substance abuse has been identified as the problem that causes substantial damage not only to individuals, but also to families and communities. In addition, substance abuse youths have become unproductive resources that would play lesser roles in the nation’s development. The increasing trend of substance abuse among youths has raised a lot of concern among various quarters in Malaysia. It has also been reported that Malay youths are the majority group involved in substance abuse. However, it was noted that life satisfaction had been found to be an important mitigating factor that addressed substance abuse. The objectives of the study were twofold: firstly, to ascertain the effect of life satisfaction on substance abuse among Malay youth. Secondly, to identify the role of delinquency on the relationship between life satisfaction and substance abuse. This study adopted a cross-sectional research design. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 500 Malay youths at the youth programmes using a two-step sampling technique: area sampling and systematic sampling. The research hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modelling. The findings of the study revealed that there is no significance relationship between life satisfaction and substance abuse. There is a significant inverse relationship between life satisfaction and delinquency. Moreover, delinquency has a positive significant influence on substance abuse. The use of Bootstrapping analysis proved that delinquency plays a full mediating role in the relationship between life satisfaction and substance abuse. This study suggested that life satisfaction has no effect on youth substance abuse. In order to reduce substance abuse, efforts should be undertaken to reduce delinquency behaviour by increasing youth life satisfaction.

Keywords: delinquency, life satisfaction, substance abuse, youth

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
35 The Relationship of Socioeconomic Status and Levels of Delinquency among Senior High School Students with Secured Attachment to Their Mothers

Authors: Aldrin Avergas, Quennie Mariel Peñaranda, Niña Karen San Miguel, Alexis Katrina Agustin, Peralta Xusha Mae, Maria Luisa Sison

Abstract:

The research is entitled “The Relationship of Socioeconomic Status and Levels of Delinquency among Senior High School Students with Secured Attachment to their Mothers”. The researchers had explored the relationship between socioeconomic status and delinquent tendencies among grade 11 students. The objective of the research is to discover if delinquent behavior will have a relationship with the current socio-economic status of an adolescent student having a warm relationship with their mothers. The researchers utilized three questionnaires that would measure the three variables of the study, namely: (1) 1SEC 2012: The New Philippines Socioeconomic Classification System was used to show the current socioeconomic status of the respondents, (2) Self-Reported Delinquency – Problem Behavior Frequency Scale was utilized to determine the individual's frequency in engaging to delinquent behavior, and (3) Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment Revised (IPPA-R) was used to determine the attachment style of the respondents. The researchers utilized a quantitative research design, specifically correlation research. The study concluded that there is no significant relationship between socioeconomic status and academic delinquency despite the fact that these participants had secured attachment to their mother hence this research implies that delinquency is not just a problem for students belonging in the lower socio-economic status and that even having a warm and close relationship with their mothers is not sufficient enough for these students to completely be free from engaging in delinquent acts. There must be other factors (such as peer pressure, emotional quotient, self-esteem or etc.) that are might be contributing to delinquent behaviors.

Keywords: adolescents, delinquency, high school students, secured attachment style, socioeconomic status

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
34 Guidelines for Cooperation between Police and the Media with an Approach to Prevent Juvenile Delinquency

Authors: Akbar Salimi, Mehdi Moghimi

Abstract:

Goal: Today, the cooperative and systemic work is of importance and guarantees higher efficiency. This research was done with the aim of understanding the guidelines for co-op between police and the national media in order to reduce the juvenile delinquency. Method: This research is applied in terms of goal and of a compound type, which was done through a descriptive-analytical methodology. The data were collected through field surveys and documents. The statistical population included the professors of a higher education center in the area of education affairs, where as many as 36 people were randomly selected. The data collection procedure was by way of interview and researcher made questionnaire. Findings and results: Problems caused by the national media in the area of adolescents are categorized in three levels of production, broadcasting and consumption and elimination and reduction of the problems entail a set of estimations and predictions and also some education which the police forces has the capability to operationalize them. Thus, three hypotheses were defined and by conducting t and Friedman tests, all three hypotheses were confirmed and their rating was identified.

Keywords: management, media, TV, adolscents, delinquency

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
33 Development of a Predictive Model to Prevent Financial Crisis

Authors: Tengqin Han

Abstract:

Delinquency has been a crucial factor in economics throughout the years. Commonly seen in credit card and mortgage, it played one of the crucial roles in causing the most recent financial crisis in 2008. In each case, a delinquency is a sign of the loaner being unable to pay off the debt, and thus may cause a lost of property in the end. Individually, one case of delinquency seems unimportant compared to the entire credit system. China, as an emerging economic entity, the national strength and economic strength has grown rapidly, and the gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate has remained as high as 8% in the past decades. However, potential risks exist behind the appearance of prosperity. Among the risks, the credit system is the most significant one. Due to long term and a large amount of balance of the mortgage, it is critical to monitor the risk during the performance period. In this project, about 300,000 mortgage account data are analyzed in order to develop a predictive model to predict the probability of delinquency. Through univariate analysis, the data is cleaned up, and through bivariate analysis, the variables with strong predictive power are detected. The project is divided into two parts. In the first part, the analysis data of 2005 are split into 2 parts, 60% for model development, and 40% for in-time model validation. The KS of model development is 31, and the KS for in-time validation is 31, indicating the model is stable. In addition, the model is further validation by out-of-time validation, which uses 40% of 2006 data, and KS is 33. This indicates the model is still stable and robust. In the second part, the model is improved by the addition of macroeconomic economic indexes, including GDP, consumer price index, unemployment rate, inflation rate, etc. The data of 2005 to 2010 is used for model development and validation. Compared with the base model (without microeconomic variables), KS is increased from 41 to 44, indicating that the macroeconomic variables can be used to improve the separation power of the model, and make the prediction more accurate.

Keywords: delinquency, mortgage, model development, model validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
32 Prospective Relations of Childhood Maltreatment, Temperament and Delinquency among Prisoners: Moderated Mediation Effect of Age and Education

Authors: Razia Anjum, Zaqia Bano, Chan Wai

Abstract:

Temperament has been described as a multifaceted and potentially value-laden construct in literature but there is scarcity of research work in area of forensic psychology predominantly in south Asian countries. Present exposition explored the mediated effect of temperament towards the childhood maltreatment and delinquency. Further the moderated effect of prisoner’s age and education will be examined. Variable System for Windows 1.3 version was used to analyze the data provided by 517 prisoners (407 males, 110 females) from four districts prisons situated at Pakistan. Cross sectional research design was used in this study and representative sample was approached through purposive sampling technique. Only those prisoners were the part of study who maltreated in their childhood in form of physical abuse, psychological abuse, sexual abuse or experienced the emotional neglect. After exploration the childhood adversities through ‘Child Abuse Self-Report Scale’, then the prisoner’s temperament styles were explored through ‘Adult Temperament Scale’. Later on, the investigation with particular to the delinquent behaviors was carried out. The findings suggested that the presence of four temperamental styles (choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic, and sanguine) mediated the childhood maltreatment-delinquency relationship in late adulthood but not in early adulthood. Marked exploration was the significant moderated effect of Prisoner’s age and their level of education that effect the relationship of temperament towards the childhood maltreatment and the delinquency, in this way results are consistent with views on cumulative pathways to delinquency that undergone through the effect of childhood maltreatment. Results indicated that Choleric, Melancholic temperament was the positive predictor of delinquency, whereas. The Phlegmatic and Sanguine temperament were the negative predictor of delinquency, in this way, different types of temperament left an indelible trace on delinquency that can work out by modifying the individual temperament. On the basis of results, it could be concluded that inclination towards the delinquent behaviors including theft, drug abuse, lying, noncompliance behavior, police encounter, violence, cheating, gambling, harassment, homosexuality and heterosexuality could be minimized if properly screen out the temperament. Moreover, study determined the two other significant moderated effect of age towards the involvement in delinquent behaviors and moderated effect of education towards childhood maltreatment and the temperament. Findings suggested that with marked increase in number of years in age the probability to get involve in delinquent behaviors will decrease and the result was consistent with the assumption that education can work as buffered to maximize or minimize the effect of trauma and can shape the temperament accordingly. Results are consistent with views on cumulative disadvantage with the socio-psychological faultiness of community.

Keywords: delinquent behaviors, temperament, prisoners, moderated mediation analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
31 Juvenile Justice System in India: Pre and Post Nirbhaya Case

Authors: Vaibhav Singh Parihar

Abstract:

Incidents of serious offenses being committed by children are increasing day by day thereby becoming a matter of great concern. The involvement of a 17-year-old boy in the incident that took place on 16th December 2012 (most commonly known as ‘Nirbhaya Case’)wherein a 23-year-old girl was brutally gang-raped and thrown out of the moving bus, took the entire nation by shock. Previously, the legislation dealing with juvenile delinquency in India considered a child to be juvenile if he/she was below the age of 18 years. As a consequence, the accused who was just six months short of attaining the age of 18 years was convicted for only three years. The primary objective of the study is to understand the gravity as to why the need for distinguishing a child and juvenile arose in this time and to what extent legislations are successful in this regard. It initially explains the history and evolution of juvenile legislation in India and the provisions contained in the Indian Constitution. It then goes on to explain the causes of juvenile delinquency in India. Further, the study focuses on the latest trends that have developed in juvenile delinquency, explaining how the Nirbhaya Case led to the amendments made to the Juvenile Justice Act, 2010. Also, it focuses on the Child Rights and Child Protection and the stand taken by the National Human Rights Commission and the international community. An attempt has been made to settle the debate as to whether the juvenile justice system in India is reformative or punitive. The need for amendment in the Juvenile Justice Act is also highlighted. The outcome of the study suggests that the legislation relating to juvenile delinquency have not been able to achieve the desired results. The age determination method in our system has been given paramount importance. The maximum punishment prescribed, even for heinous crimes, is only three years. Also, the reformative style of punishment is not adequate and more emphasis should be laid on penalization. Finally, the author concludes that the legislation has failed at creating a deterrent effect. It is suggested to strengthen the role of government authorities and to sensitize people in this regard to increase community participation. A non-doctrinal and analytical approach has been adopted and secondary sources of data have been relied upon by the author for conducting the research for the study.

Keywords: child, delinquency, juvenile, Nirbhaya case

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
30 Social Ties and Integration of the Offenders

Authors: C. Chaillou

Abstract:

The dominant theoretical approaches in Criminology are interested in the phenomenon of delinquency from the question of the management of the risks incurred by the population. Thus, this research advocate prevention of this phenomenon by a tracking of early disorders in children. Treatments offered to rely on medical research (genetics and biology are cited as a reference) and assuming a high naturalization of delinquent behaviour. Programs that are offered also reduce to a recovery of the deviant behaviour, and rely readily on behavioral guidelines, with an educational grant. Public policy then rely on these programs to prevent unwanted behaviour within a given population and to reduce the risk for the company. This is the case in France, with national institutes making (juvenile) violence a public health problem. We consider that other approaches, issues of sociology, are more relevant to the treatment of offenders. These approaches are moving, not on its prevention, but from its inputs and its outputs. Several modalities of entries and exits of delinquency can find and analyze in terms of process. We assume that there is a dynamic inherent in the individual and it is important to take into account the environment of the offender. These different types of processes can illuminate from the derived work of the Psychoanalytical psychopathology and lead to more effective treatment of delinquent acts. Psychoanalytic concepts have enabled us to offer a new look means to treat delinquency, placing several types of relationship with the other and relating to the clinical structure and the uniqueness of the case, we have been able to enter subjective and unconscious logics at work in delinquent acts. This research has facilitated the reduction of these types of subjective responses and proposed others, opening to a reintegration of offenders in a social link them being more favourable and in a longer term.

Keywords: delinquency, insertion, social link, unconscious

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
29 Analysis of a Movie about Juvenile Delinquency

Authors: Guliz Kolburan

Abstract:

Juvenile delinquency studies has a special place and importance in criminality researches. Young adolescents, have not reached psychological, mental and physical maturity, and they cannot understand their roles and duties in society. In this case, if such an adolescent turns into a crime machine as a gang leader, he has the least responsibility of this result. All institutions, like family, school, community and the state as a whole have duties and responsibilities in this regard. While planning the studies about prevention of juvenile delinquency, all institutions related with the development of the children, should be involved in the center of the study. So that effective goals for prevention studies can be determined only in this way. Most of youth who commit homicide feel no attachment to anybody or society except for themselves. Children who committed homicide generally developed defense mechanisms about their guilt, sadness, fear and anger. For this reason, treatment of these children should be based on the awareness of these feelings and copying with them. In the movie, events making the youth realize his own feelings and responsibilities were studied from a theoretical perspective. In this study, some of the dialogs and the scenes in the movie were analyzed and the factors cause the young gang leader to be drawn to crime were evaluated in terms of the science of psychology. The aim of this study is to analyze the process of the youth to being drawn into criminal behavior in terms of social and emotional developmental phases in a theoretical perspective via the movie produced in 2005 (94. Min.). The method of this study is discourse analysis.

Keywords: crime, child, evaluation (development), psychology

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
28 Effects of Exposure to Domestic Physical Violence on Children's Behavior: A Chinese Community-Based Sample

Authors: Cao Yuping, Li Longfei, Zhao Xingfu, Zhang Yalin

Abstract:

Purpose: This study examined the effects of exposure to domestic physical violence (DPV) on children’s behavior in a community sample. Method: Ninety-three 12-16 year-old adolescents exposed to DPV were matched with 54 adolescents with no exposure to DPV based on age, gender, family composition and parental age and education level. Participation included assessment with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) by the adolescents and their parents respectively. Results: CBCL total score and anxiety/depression, social interaction problems, attention problems, delinquency, aggression and externalizing scores were significantly higher in adolescents exposed to DPV than those in controls (all ps<0.05).The CBCL total score and scores of anxiety/depression, social interaction problems, attention problems, delinquency, aggression and externalizing behaviors of boys were significantly higher in the research group than in the controls (all ps<0.05). Delinquency scores in abused adolescents were significantly higher than in DPV witnessed (p<0.05), but no other scores of CBCL were significant different. Different subtypes of behavioral problems were associated with different types of abuse. Conclusions: DPV exposure is associated with adverse behaviors in children, especially among boys. Children witness DPV alone have similar behavioral scores as the abused children. We recommend that both abused and DPV witness adolescents in Chinese communities need treatment to mitigate the effects on maladjusted behaviors.

Keywords: domestic violence, child, behavior, community, China

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
27 The Causes and Effects of Delinquent Behaviour among Students in Juvenile Home: A Case Study of Osun State

Authors: Baleeqs, O. Adegoke, Adeola, O. Aburime

Abstract:

Juvenile delinquency is fast becoming one of the largest problems facing many societies due to many different factors ranging from parental factors to bullying at schools all which had led to different theoretical notions by different scholars. Delinquency is an illegal or immoral behaviour, especially by the young person who behaves in a way that is illegal or that society does not approve of. The purpose of the study was to investigate causes and effects of delinquent behaviours among adolescent in juvenile home in Osun State. A descriptive survey research type was employed. The random sampling technique was used to select 100 adolescents in Juvenile home in Osun State. Questionnaires were developed and given to them. The data collected from this study were analyzed using frequency counts and percentage for the demographic data in section A, while the two research hypotheses postulated for this study were tested using t-test statistics at the significance level of 0.05. Findings revealed that the greatest school effects of delinquent behaviours among adolescent in juvenile home in Osun by respondents were their aggressive behaviours. Findings revealed that there was a significant difference in the causes and effects of delinquent behaviours among adolescent in juvenile home in Osun State. It was also revealed that there was no significant difference in the causes and effects of delinquent behaviours among secondary school students in Osun based on gender. These recommendations were made in order to address the findings of this study: More number of teachers should be appointed in the observation home so that it will be possible to provide teaching to the different age group of delinquents. Developing the infrastructure facilities of short stay homes and observation home is a top priority. Proper counseling session’s interval is highly essential for these juveniles.

Keywords: behaviour, delinquency, juvenile, random sampling, statistical techniques, survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
26 Justice and the Juvenile: Changing Trends and Developments

Authors: Shikhar Shrivastava, Varun Khare

Abstract:

Background: We are confronted by a society that is becoming more complex, more mobile, and more dysfunctional. Teen pregnancy, suicide, elopement, and the perusal of dangerous drugs have become commonplace. In addition, children do not settle their disputes as they once did. Guns and knives are quotidian. Therefore, it has been an exigent to have a "Juvenile Code" that would provide specific substantive and procedural rules for juveniles in the justice system. However, until the twentieth century, there was little difference between how the justice system treated adults and children. Age was considered only in terms of appropriate punishment and juveniles were eligible for the same punishment as adults. Findings: The increased prevalence and legislative support for specialized courts, Juvenile Justice Boards, including juvenile drug, mental health and truancy court programs, as well as diversion programs and evidence-based approaches into the fabric of juvenile justice are just a few examples of recent advances. In India, various measures were taken to prosecute young offenders who committed violent crimes as adults. But it was argued that equating juveniles with adult criminals was neither scientifically correct nor normatively defensible. It would defeat the very purpose of the justice system. Methodology and Conclusion: This paper attempts to bring forth the results of analytical and descriptive research that examined changing trends in juvenile justice legislation. It covers the investigative and inspective practices of police, the various administrative agencies who have roles in implementing the legislation, the courts, and the detention centers. In this paper we shall discuss about how the juvenile justice system is the dumping ground for many of a youths’ problem. The changing notions of justice, from retributive to restorative and rehabilitative shall be discussed. A comparative study of the Juvenile act in India and that of the U.S has been discussed. Specific social institutions and forces that explain juvenile delinquency are identified. In addition, various influences on juvenile delinquency are noted, such as families, schools, peer groups and communities. The text concludes by addressing socialization, deterrence, imprisonments, alternatives, restitution and preventions.

Keywords: juvenile, justice system, retributive, rehabilitative, delinquency

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
25 Sociodemographic Approach to Juveniles Directed to Delinquent Behaviour in Zonguldak

Authors: Riza Yilmaz, Samet Kiyak, Sezin Nur Yilmaz, Yasemin Yilmaz

Abstract:

Child delinquency has been increasing in our country as well as in many countries of the world. Child intelligence, abilities, family's social environment and life conditions are the factors which affect the child delinquency. The reports of 73 cases ages of 12-15 which were sent to the University of Bulent Ecevit, School of Medicine, Forensic Medicine Department between January 2011-September 2015, in order to evaluate medically, children pushed to crime by the judicial authorities are examined in terms of age, gender, educational background, place of residence, reasons for being sent, whether it’s a repeating crime or not, type of intelligence test, results revealed by forensic medicine and department of mental and neurological disorders. When children pushed to crime examined in terms of their crimes, the most common type of crime was identified as theft (n = 24). The crimes with 19 physical attacks and 12 sexual abuse were seen. Following that other 12 crimes were determined as damage to property, hemp crop, insult, incitement to crime, forgery of private documents, illegal excavation, threatening, involuntary manslaughter. The alleged crimes in 6 cases were more than one. The children pushed to crime are one of the major social problems of many countries. In this sense, it is not only the responsibility of government agencies to protect children pushed to crime, also, the civil society organizations should take place in this struggle.

Keywords: delinquent behaviour, forensic medicine, crime, punishment

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
24 Central American Security Issue: Civil War Legacy and Contemporary Challenges

Authors: Olga Andrianova, Lazar Jeifets

Abstract:

The security issue has always been one of the most sensitive and significant in Latin American context, especially focused on Central American region. Despite the fact that the time of the civil wars has ended, violence, delinquency, insecurity, discrimination still exist and keep relevance in the 21st century. This article is dedicated to consider this kind of problems, to find out the main causes and to propose solution approaches.

Keywords: Central America, insecurity, instability, post-war countries, violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
23 Central American Security Issue: Civil Wars Legacy and Contemporary Challenges

Authors: Olga Andrianova, Lazar Jeifets

Abstract:

The security issue has always been one of the most sensitive and significant in Latin American context, especially focused on Central American region. Despite the fact that the time of the civil wars has ended, violence, delinquency, insecurity, discrimination still exist and keep relevance in the 21st century. This article is dedicated to consider this kind of problems, to find out the main causes and to propose solution approaches.

Keywords: Central America, insecurity, instability, violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
22 Evaluating the Impact of Early Maternal Incarceration on Male Delinquent Behavior during Emerging Adulthood through the Mediating Mechanism of Mastery

Authors: Richard Abel

Abstract:

In the United States, increased incarceration rates have caused many adolescents to feel the strain of parental absence. This absence is then manifest through adolescent feelings of parental rejection. Additionally, upon reentry maternal incarceration may be related to adolescents experienced perceived excessive disciple. It is possible parents engage in this manner of discipline attempting to prevent the child from taking the same path to incarceration as the parent. According to General Strain Theory, adolescents encountering strain are likely to experience negative emotions. The emotion that is most likely to lead to delinquency is anger through reduced inhibitions and motivation to act. Additionally, males are more likely to engage in delinquent behavior, regardless of experiencing strain. This is not the case for every male who experiences maternal incarceration, parental rejection, excessive discipline, or anger. There are protective factors that enable agency within individuals. One such protective factor is mastery, or the perception that one is in control of his or her own future. The model proposed in this research suggests maternal incarceration is associated with increased parental rejection and excessive discipline in males. Males experiencing parental rejection and excessive discipline are likely to experience increased anger, which is then associated with increases in delinquent behavior. This model explores whether agency, in the form of mastery, mediates the relationship between strains and negative emotions, or between negative emotions and delinquent behavior. The Kaplan Longitudinal and Multigenerational Study (KLAMS) dataset is uniquely situated to analyze this model providing longitudinal data collected from both parents and their offspring. Maternal incarceration is constructed using parental responses such that the mother was incarcerated after the child’s birth, and any incarceration that happened prior to birth is excluded. The remaining variables of the study are all constructed from varying waves of the adolescent survey. Parental rejection, along with control variables for age, race, parental socioeconomic status, neighborhood effects, delinquent peers, and prior delinquent behavior are all constructed using Wave I data. To increase causal inference, the negative emotion of anger and the mediating variable of mastery are measured during Wave II. Lastly, delinquent behavior is measured at Wave III. Results of the analysis show expected relationships such that adolescent males encountering maternal incarceration show increased perception of parental rejection and excessive discipline. Additionally, there is a positive relationship between parental rejection and excessive discipline at Wave I and feelings of anger at Wave II for males. For males experiencing either of these strains in Wave I, feelings of anger in Wave II are found to be associated with increased delinquent behavior in Wave III. Mastery was found to mediate the relationship between both parental rejection and excessive discipline and anger, but no such mediation occurs in the relationship between anger and delinquency, regardless of the strain being experienced. These findings suggest adolescent males who feel they are in control of their own lives are less likely to experience negative emotions produced by the occurrence of strain, thereby decreasing male engagement in delinquent behavior later in life.

Keywords: delinquency, mastery, maternal incarceration, strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
21 Where the Girls Are: Gender Trends in Juvenile Crime

Authors: Revital Sela-Shayovitz

Abstract:

There is growing evidence that female rates of criminal nonlethal violent offending have increased during the 1990s. However, the debate regarding whether the gender gap in violence is closing is ongoing. This paper examines the trends in juvenile violent offending in Israel between the years 1996 and 2012. The findings indicate that female-to-male offending rate ratios have increased over time for simple assaults, aggravated assault, and knife crime. Moreover, the closing of the gender gap among youth (ages 12 to 14 years), principally results from the increase in female rates of offending, which is greater than the rise in male rates of offending. These findings are discussed in the context of existing research on the gender gap in the perpetration of violence with reference to future directions in research.

Keywords: gender violence, youth violence, crime rates, juvenile delinquency, crime policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
20 Violent Videogame Playing and Its Relations to Antisocial Behaviors

Authors: Martin Jelínek, Petr Květon

Abstract:

The presented study focuses on relations between violent videogames playing and various types of antisocial behavior, namely bullying (verbal, indirect, and physical), physical aggression and delinquency. Relevant relationships were also examined with respect to gender. Violent videogames exposure (VGV) was measured by respondents’ most favored games and self-evaluation of its level of violence and frequency of playing. Antisocial behaviors were assessed by self-report questionnaires. The research sample consisted of 333 (166 males, 167 females) primary and secondary school students at the age between 10 and 19 years (m=14.98, sd=1.77). It was found that violent videogames playing is associated with physical aggression (rho=0.288, 95% CI [0.169;0.400]) and bullying (rho=0.369, 95% CI [0.254;0.476]). By means of gender, these relations were slightly weaker in males (VGV - physical aggression: rho=0.104, 95% CI [-0.061;0.264], VGV – bullying: rho=.200, 95% CI [0.032;0.356]) than in females (VGV - physical aggression: rho=0.257, 95% CI [0.089;0.411], VGV – bullying: rho=0.279, 95% CI [0.110;0.432]).

Keywords: aggression, bullying, gender, violent video games

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
19 Human Rights and Juvenile Justice System: A Case Study of Warangal District, Telangana State, India

Authors: Vijaya Chandra Tenneti

Abstract:

The juvenile justice delivery system in India suffers from many lacunae at the operational level and ignores many dimensions of human rights guaranteed to the juvenile delinquents. The present study begins with the hypothesis that the existing justice delivery system seemingly ignores the basic tenets of the fair trial and systemic support to the delinquent juveniles in integrating them into the mainstream of society. As per the designed methodology, data has been collected from the unit of the present study, and other stakeholders, namely, Juvenile Justice Board, Observation Homes etc., of Warangal district of Telangana state, India. The study shows that there is the overemphasis on procedural laws. The juvenile integration programs are not effective. The administrators lack training. Juveniles lack formal education. The study indicates the incidents of juvenile crimes is on the rise and that the majority of the juvenile delinquents hold a low socio-economic profile. Another significant observation of the study is that the juvenile justice system lacks a holistic and human rights-centric approach.

Keywords: delinquency, human rights, juvenile justice, rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
18 Identify the Factors Affecting Employment and Prioritize in the Economic Sector Jobs of Increased Employment MADM approach of using SAW and TOPSIS and POSET: Ministry of Cooperatives, Do Varamin City Social Welfare

Authors: Mina Rahmani Pour

Abstract:

Negative consequences of unemployment are: increasing age at marriage, addiction, depression, drug trafficking, divorce, immigration, elite, frustration, delinquency, theft, murder, etc., has led to addressing the issue of employment by economic planners, public authorities, chief executive economic conditions in different countries and different time is important. All countries are faced with the problem of unemployment. By identifying the influential factors of occupational employment and employing strengths in the basic steps can be taken to reduce unemployment. In this study, the most significant factors affecting employment has identified 12 variables based on interviews conducted Choose Vtasyrafzaysh engaged in three main business is discussed. DRGAM next question the 8 expert ministry to respond to it is distributed and for weight Horns AZFN Shannon entropy and the ranking criteria of the (SAW, TOPSIS) used. According to the results of the above methods are not compatible with each other, to reach a general consensus on the rating criteria of the technique of integrating (POSET) involving average, Borda, copeland is used. Ultimately, there is no difference between the employments in the economic sector jobs of increased employment.

Keywords: employment, effective techniques, SAW, TOPSIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
17 Juvenile Justice in Maryland: The Evidence Based Approach to Youth with History of Victimization and Trauma

Authors: Gabriela Wasileski, Debra L. Stanley

Abstract:

Maryland efforts to decrease the juvenile criminality and recidivism shifts towards evidence based sentencing. While in theory the evidence based sentencing has an impact on the reduction of juvenile delinquency and drug abuse; the assessment of juveniles’ risk and needs usually lacks crucial information about juvenile’s prior victimization. The Maryland Comprehensive Assessment and Service Planning (MCASP) Initiative is the primary tool for developing and delivering a treatment service plan for juveniles at risk. Even though it consists of evidence-based screening and assessment instruments very little is currently known regarding the effectiveness and the impact of the assessment in general. In keeping with Maryland’s priority to develop successful evidence-based recidivism reduction programs, this study examined results of assessments based on MCASP using a representative sample of the juveniles at risk and their assessment results. Specifically, it examined: (1) the results of the assessments in an electronic database (2) areas of need that are more frequent among delinquent youth in a system/agency, (3) the overall progress of youth in an agency’s care (4) the impact of child victimization and trauma experiences reported in the assessment. The project will identify challenges regarding the use of MCASP in Maryland, and will provide a knowledge base to support future research and practices.

Keywords: Juvenile Justice, assessment of risk and need, victimization and crime, recidivism

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
16 Comparison of Impulsivity Trait in Males and Females: Exploring the Sex Difference in Impulsivity

Authors: Pinhas Dannon, Aviv Weinstein

Abstract:

Impulsivity is raising major interest clinically because it is associated with various clinical conditions such as delinquency, antisocial behavior, suicide attempts, aggression, and criminal activity. The evolutionary perspective argued that impulsivity relates to self-regulation and it has predicted that female individuals should have evolved a greater ability to inhibit pre-potent responses. There is supportive evidence showing that female individuals have better performance on cognitive tasks measuring impulsivity such as delay in gratification and delayed discounting mainly in childhood. During adolescence, brain imaging studies using diffusion tensor imaging on white matter architecture indicated contrary to the evolutionary perspective hypothesis, that young adolescent male individuals may be less vulnerable than age-matched female individuals to risk- and reward- related maladaptive behaviors. In adults, the results are mixed presumably owing to hormonal effects on neuro-biological mechanisms of reward. Consequently, female individuals were less impulsive than male individuals only during fertile stages of the menstrual cycle. Finally, there is evidence the serotonin (5-HT) system is more involved in the impulsivity of men than in that of women. Overall, there seem to be sex differences in impulsivity but these differences are more pronounced in childhood and they are later subject to maturational and hormonal changes during adolescence and adulthood and their effects on the brain, cognition, and behavior.

Keywords: impulse control, male population, female population, gender differences, reward, neurocognitive tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
15 Cultural Factors Associated with Male Criminal Behavior and Inmate Population

Authors: Patricia Martinez Lanz, Patricia Hernandez Valdez

Abstract:

Over the last decade, crime has reached unprecedented levels and has caused much violent death in Mexico. To establish factors that potentially can facilitate crime, as well as the status of the emotional wellbeing presented in prison population, the present study was realized with a sample composed of 299 inmates of the Federal Center for Social Reinsertion in Oaxaca, Mexico. A questionnaire was specifically developed designed and applied to this population, evaluating sociodemographic factors and four Likert scales: substance consumption (drugs and alcohol), domestic violence and depressive symptoms. Reliability was adequate (Cronbach's Alpha= .703) and validity of the instrument showed appropriate relations between the reagents of each scale. Results showed through Chi Square analysis, statistically significant differences in the correlations between sociodemographic factors, domestic violence, addictions and depressive symptoms. Results reported that most of the inmates were between 28 and 47 years old (51.8%), had a low educational level (elementary school 42.5%), were in consensual union (42.5%), had high and severe levels of alcohol consumption (43.5% of the cases) and reported the presence of high and severe level of depression (28.9% of the cases). The results of this research are part of a national study of all Federal Centers for Social Reinsertion System in Mexico, in order to developed intervention strategies used in prison to prevent crime.

Keywords: delinquency, addictions, violence, depression, crime, criminal behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
14 Criminal Responsibility of Minors in Russia: The Age of Liability and Penalties

Authors: Natalia Selezneva

Abstract:

The level of crime depends on a number of factors, such as political and economic instability, social inequality and ineffective legislation. A special place in the overall level of crime takes juvenile delinquency. United Nations Standard Minimum developed rules for the administration of juvenile justice (The Beijing Rules), in order to ensure the rights of juvenile offenders under the various legal systems. Most countries support these recommendations, and Russia is no exception. Russia's criminal code establishes the minimum age of criminal liability; types of crimes for which the possible involvement of minors to justice; punishment; sentencing and execution of punishment for minors. However, these provisions cause heated debates in the scientific literature. The high level of juvenile crime indicates the ineffectiveness of legal regulation of criminal liability of minors. In order to ensure compliance with international standards require new and modern approaches to improve national legislation and practice of its application. Achieving this goal will be achieved through the following tasks: 1. Create sub-branches of law regulating the legal status of minors; 2. Improving the types of penalties; 3. The possibility of using alternative measures; 4. The introduction of the procedure of extrajudicial settlement of the conflict. The criminal law of each country depends on the historical, national and cultural characteristics. The development of the Russian legislation taking into account international experience is extremely essential and will be a new stage in the formation of a legal state, especially in the sphere of protection of the rights of juvenile offenders.

Keywords: criminal law, juvenile offender, punishment, the age of criminal responsibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
13 Teenagers in Conflict with Law: Exploratory Study about Psychic Suffering

Authors: Carolina Alcântara, Ileno Costa

Abstract:

This study had the objective to systemize the main psycho-social and socioeducational aspects that related with the psychic suffering of adolescents in conflict of law and freedom privation. This research wanted to verify the signals and symptoms identified trough themselves perceptions related to their condition of health/insanity. In a similar way, it was objectified to know the opinions of the ambient conditions of the institution the use of the currently available resources for Health Service and Educational Service. The methodological proposal is based on the quant-qualitative analysis of interviews half-structuralized carried through with 36 teenagers was using psychiatric medication continuously. The data had pointed the experiences of sleeplessness and nightmares, associates or not with experiences of loss of reality (hallucinations) had constituted the illness most frequent. The self-punishment behavior appeared at second place. With regard to the ambient factors, it was verified that institution had, in general way, guaranteed the physical integrity and the maintenance of the health. Amongst the current available resources of Health Service, the administration of anticonvulsivants, in association with other psychotropic drugs has been widely used. The school was viewed as important device of available in the institution. By means of the adolescent’s understanding who do not like to go to the school, they don’t disqualify the knowledge, in contrast, they wanted for knowledge, however, they were frustrated for not having their educational supplies adequately, affirming that the school is weak or they do not learn. Finally, among the possible conclusions guided for the Winnicott’s thought, it was observed that institution in analysis is a representative of the paternal function. However, to begin the self-cure process is necessary that formation of therapeutical bonds. The group of teachers is identified as the main tool of change.

Keywords: serious psychic suffering, adolescent in conflict with the law, delinquency, privation of freedom

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
12 The Conception of Implementation of Vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania

Authors: Eglė Bilevičiūtė, Vidmantas Egidijus Kurapka, Snieguolė Matulienė, Sigutė Stankevičiūtė

Abstract:

The Council of European Union (EU Council) has stressed on several occasions the need for a concerted, comprehensive and effective solution to delinquency problems in EU communities. In the context of establishing a European Forensic Science Area and the development of forensic science infrastructure in Europe, EU Council believes that forensic science can significantly contribute to the efficiency of law enforcement, crime prevention and combating crimes. Lithuanian scientists have consolidated to implement a project named “Conception of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 implementation in Lithuania” (the project is funded for the period of 1 March 2014 - 31 December 2016) with the objective to create a conception of implementation of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania by 1) evaluating the current status of Lithuania’s forensic system and opportunities for its improvement; 2) analysing achievements and knowledge in investigation of crimes listed in conclusions of EU Council on the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 including creation of a European Forensic Science Area and the development of forensic science infrastructure in Europe: trafficking in human beings, organised crime and terrorism; 3) analysing conceptions of criminalistics, which differ in different EU member states due to the variety of forensic schools, and finding means for their harmonization. Apart from the conception of implementation of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania, the project is expected to suggest provisions that will be relevant to other EU countries as well. Consequently, the presented conception of implementation of vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania could initiate a project for a common vision of European Forensic Science and contribute to the development of the EU as an area of freedom, security and justice. The article presents main ideas of the project of the conception of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 of EU Council and analyses its legal background, as well as prospects of and challenges for its implementation in Lithuania and the EU.

Keywords: EUROVIFOR, standardization, vision for European Forensic Science 2020, Lithuania

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
11 The Minimum Age of Criminal Responsibility in the Philippines: Balancing International Standards and Domestic Concerns

Authors: Harold P. Pareja

Abstract:

This paper answers the question whether the minimum age of criminal responsibility under the Republic Act No. 9344 (Juvenile Justice Act) as amended by Republic Act No. 10630 should be lowered to 15 years of age or not in the light of international standards and domestic concerns both of which will definitely elicit strong views. It also explores the specific provision on the minimum age of criminal responsibility under the Republic Act No. 9344 (Juvenile Justice Act) and traces the bases of such law by discussing its presented evidences and justifications as reflected in the records of proceedings in the law-making phase. On one hand, the paper discusses the impact of lowering the minimum age to the state of juvenile delinquencies and to the rate of rehabilitation for those CICL who have undergone the DSWD-supervised recovery programs. On the other hand, it presents its impact to the international community specifically to the Committee of the Rights of the Child and the UNICEF considering that the even the current minimum age set in RA 9344 is lower than the international standards. Document review and content analysis are the major research tools. Primary and secondary sources were used as references such as Philippine laws on juvenile justice and from the different states international think-tanks. The absence of reliable evidences on criminal capacity made the arguments in increasing the MACR in the harder position. Studies on criminal capacity vary from different countries and from practitioners in in the fields of psychology, psychiatry and forensics. Juvenile delinquency is mainly contributed by poverty and dysfunctional families. On the other hand, the science of the criminal mind specifically among children has not been established yet. Philippines have the legal obligations to be faithful to the CRC and other related international instruments for the juvenile justice and welfare system. Decreasing MACR does not only send wrong message to the international community but the Philippines is violating its own laws.

Keywords: juvenile justice, minimum age of responsibility (MAR), juvenile justice act of the Philippines, children in conflict with the law, international standards on juvenile justice

Procedia PDF Downloads 287