Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 179

Search results for: Christopher Leung

179 Spatial Practice Towards Urban Identity: The Shift, Limitation and Contemporary Value of Christopher

Authors: Botao Zhao, Hong Jiang

Abstract:

Christopher Alexander's urban design theory challenges the technical rationality of the empiricism that prevailsin the first half of the 20th century. Alexander emphasizes the wholeness of the city through progressive design, conceptual-based participation, shaping of centrality, and other principles. Based on Christopher Alexander’s comprehensive book “a new theory of urban design” and by combining with other major works, this paper puts Alexander into the history of the post-modern shift of architecture and urban planning in the middle and late 20th century and analyzes the uniqueness of Alexander’s systematization of spatial context. Despite the overemphasis on the initiative of design, Alexander's attempt to discover the “objectivity” of good space -the ability to generate people's urban identity-through an expanded concept of space, and a systematic approach to design restructures the visceral connection between urban space and human. The concept of urban identity is then decomposed into the identity of the physical setting, identity of process, and identity of meaning. Professionals need to learn from the reality and history of urban space to construct spatial“vocabulary libraries” and create the wholeness of the city, and in which process strengthen the subjectivity of the discipline simultaneously, to generate living structures in which urban identity could be ultimately cultivated.

Keywords: christopher alexander, a new theory of urban design, Urban identity, pattern language, urban design

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178 Case of A Huge Retroperitoneal Abscess Spanning from the Diaphragm to the Pelvic Brim

Authors: Christopher Leung, Tony Kim, Rebecca Lendzion, Scott Mackenzie

Abstract:

Retroperitoneal abscesses are a rare but serious condition with often delayed diagnosis, non-specific symptoms, multiple causes and high morbidity/mortality. With the advent of more readily available cross-sectional imaging, retroperitoneal abscesses are treated earlier and better outcomes are achieved. Occasionally, a retroperitoneal abscess is present as a huge retroperitoneal abscess, as evident in this 53-year-old male. With a background of chronic renal disease and left partial nephrectomy, this gentleman presented with a one-month history of left flank pain without any other symptoms, including fevers or abdominal pain. CT abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a huge retroperitoneal abscess spanning from the diaphragm, abutting the spleen, down to the iliopsoas muscle and abutting the iliac vessels at the pelvic brim. This large retroperitoneal abscess required open drainage as well as drainage by interventional radiology. A long course of intravenous antibiotics and multiple drainages was required to drain the abscess. His blood culture and fluid culture grew Proteus species suggesting a urinary source, likely from his non-functioning kidney, which had a partial nephrectomy. Such a huge retroperitoneal abscess has rarely been described in the literature. The learning point here is that the basic principle of source control and antibiotics is paramount in treating retroperitoneal abscesses regardless of the size of the abscess.

Keywords: retroperitoneal abscess, retroperitoneal mass, sepsis, genitourinary infection

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
177 Gallbladder Amyloidosis Causing Gangrenous Cholecystitis: A Case Report

Authors: Christopher Leung, Guillermo Becerril-Martinez

Abstract:

Amyloidosis is a rare systemic disease where abnormal proteins invade various organs and impede their function. Occasionally, they can manifest in a solidary organ such as the heart, lung, and nervous systems; rarely do they manifest in the gallbladder. Diagnosis often requires biopsy of the affected area and histopathology shows deposition of abnormally folded globular proteins called amyloid proteins. This case presents a 69-year-old male with a 3-month history of RUQ pain, diarrhea and non-specific symptoms of tiredness, etc. On imaging, both his US and CT abdomen showed gallbladder wall thickening and pericholecystic fluid, which may represent acute cholecystitis with hypodense lesions around the gallbladder, possibly representing liver abscesses. Given his symptoms of abdominal pain and imaging findings, this gentleman eventually had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy showing a gangrenous gallbladder with a mass on the liver bed. On histopathology, it showed amorphous hyaline eosinophilic material, which Congo-stained confirmed amyloidosis. Amyloidosis explained his non-specific symptoms, he avoided further biopsy, and he was commenced immediately on Lenalidomide. Involvement of the gallbladder is extremely rare, with less than 30 cases around the world. Half of the cases are reported as primary amyloidosis. This case adds to the current literature regarding primary gallbladder amyloidosis. Importantly, this case highlights how laparoscopic cholecystectomy can help with the diagnosis of gallbladder amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloidosis, cholecystitis, gangrenous cholecystitis, gallbladder, systemic amyloidosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
176 Mesenteric Vasculitis Causing Perforated Diverticulitis Mimicking Abdominal Sepsis

Authors: Christopher Leung, Assad Zahid

Abstract:

Mesenteric vasculitis can often mimic abdominal sepsis in a postoperative setting leading to a predicament where steroids could improve mesenteric vasculitis whilst worsening abdominal sepsis. Here this study presents a unique and rare case of perforated sigmoid diverticulitis secondary to systemic vasculitis. A 68-year-old gentleman presented with perforated sigmoid diverticulitis requiring an emergency Hartmann’s procedure. Early in his postoperative course, he had painful and asymmetrical neuropathy that, after a careful history and examination, revealed a patient with mono neuritis multiplex on a background history of longstanding rheumatoid arthritis. On day seven of his postoperative course, he had rising inflammatory markers and a CT abdomen and pelvis showing fluid around the mesentery. Whilst contamination from sigmoid perforation was somewhat congruent with these signs, a diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa, a common cause of mononeuritis multiplex, is also possible, although involvement of the large bowel in polyarteritis nodosa is extremely rare. The histopathology from the initial Hartmann’s procedure was re-examined, showing medium vessel disease vasculitis. Given his lack of fevers, absence of abdominal pain, and worsening neurology, he was given a provisional diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa and was treated successfully, not on IV antibiotics but on steroids. Large bowel involvement of polyarteritis nodosa is extremely rare and this is the first case of polyarteritis nodosa causing perforated diverticulitis. The learning point here is to obtain a good clinical picture of a patient to identify mesenteric vasculitis as compared to abdominal sepsis as the treatment of one worsens the other.

Keywords: abdominal sepsis, diverticulitis, mesenteric vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
175 Splenic Artery Aneurysms: A Rare, Insidious Cause of Abdominal Pain

Authors: Christopher Oyediran, Nicola Ubayasiri, Christopher Gough

Abstract:

Splenic artery aneurysms are often clinically occult, occasionally identified incidentally with imaging. The pathogenesis of aneurysms is complex, but certain factors are thought to contribute to their development. Given the potential fatal complications of rupture, a high index of suspicion is required to make an early diagnosis. We present a case of a 36-year-old female with a history of endometriosis and multiple sclerosis who presented to the Emergency Department with sudden onset epigastric pain and collapse. On arrival, she was pale and clammy with profound tachycardia and hypotension. An ultrasound done in the resuscitation department revealed abdominal free fluid. She was resuscitated with blood and transferred for emergent laparotomy. Laparotomy revealed massive haemoperitoneum from the spleen. She underwent emergency splenectomy and inspection of the spleen revealed a splenic artery aneurysm. She received our massive transfusion protocol followed by a short stay on ITU, making a good post-operative recovery and was discharged home a week later.

Keywords: aneurysm, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), resuscitation, laparotomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
174 Microwave-Assisted Fabrication of Visible-Light Activated BiOBr-Nanoplate Photocatalyst

Authors: Meichen Lee, Michael K. H. Leung

Abstract:

In recent years, visible-light activated photocatalysis has become a major field of intense researches for the higher efficiency of solar energy utilizations. Many attempts have been made on the modification of wide band gap semiconductors, while more and more efforts emphasize on cost-effective synthesis of visible-light activated catalysts. In this work, BiOBr nanoplates with band gap of visible-light range are synthesized through a promising microwave solvothermal method. The treatment time period and temperature dependent BiOBr nanosheets of various particle sizes are investigated through SEM. BiOBr synthesized under the condition of 160°C for 60 mins shows the most uniform particle sizes around 311 nm and the highest surface-to-volume ratio on account of its smallest average particle sizes compared with others. It exhibits the best photocatalytic behavior among all samples in RhB degradation.

Keywords: microwave solvothermal process, nanoplates, solar energy, visible-light photocatalysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
172 Experimental, Computational Fluid Dynamics and Theoretical Study of Cyclone Performance Based on Inlet Velocity and Particle Loading Rate

Authors: Sakura Ganegama Bogodage, Andrew Yee Tat Leung

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This paper describes experimental, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and theoretical analysis of a cyclone performance, operated 1.0 g/m3 solid loading rate, at two different inlet velocities (5 m/s and 10 m/s). Comparing experimental results with theoretical and CFD simulation results, it is pronounced that the influence of solid in processing flow is significant than expected. Experimental studies based on gas- solid flows of cyclone separators are complicated as they required advanced sensitive measuring techniques, especially flow characteristics. Thus, CFD modelling and theoretical analysis are economical in analyzing cyclone separator performance but detailed clarifications of the application of these in cyclone separator performance evaluation is not yet discussed. The present study shows the limitations of influencing parameters of CFD and theoretical considerations, comparing experimental results and flow characteristics from CFD modelling.

Keywords: cyclone performance, inlet velocity, pressure drop, solid loading rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
171 Greywater Water Reuse in South Africa

Authors: Onyeka Nkwonta, Christopher Iheukwumere

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It is a waste to irrigate with great quantities of drinking water when plants thrive on used water containing small bits of compost. Unlike a lot of ecological stopgap measures, greywater reuse is a part of the fundamental solution to many ecological problems and will probably remain essentially unchanged in the distant future. Water is abused and wasted by both the wealthy and the poor. Education about water conservation is also needed. This study gives an outline of the sources of grey water in our home and provides a process of creating awareness on the importance of re-using grey water in our home, in order to achieve the 7th aim of the millennium development goals by 2015, which is ensuring environmental sustainability.

Keywords: tickling filter, education, grey water, environmental sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
170 Beyond Possibilities: Re-Reading Republican Ankara

Authors: Zelal Çınar

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This paper aims to expose the effects of the ideological program of Turkish Republic on city planning, through the first plan of Ankara. As the new capital, Ankara was planned to be the ‘showcase’ of modern Turkey. It was to represent all new ideologies and the country’s cultural similarities with the west. At the same time it was to underline the national identity and independence of Turkish republic. To this end, a new plan for the capital was designed by German city planner Carl Christopher Lörcher. Diametrically opposed with the existing fabric of the city, this plan was built on the basis of papers and plans, on ideological aims. On the contrary, this paper argues that the city is a machine of possibilities, rather than a clear, materialized system.

Keywords: architecture, ideology, modernization, urban planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
169 Heavy Metals Concentration in Sediments Along the Ports, Samoa

Authors: T. Imo, F. Latū, S. Aloi, J. Leung-Wai, V. Vaurasi, P. Amosa, M. A. Sheikh

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Contamination of heavy metals in coral reefs and coastal areas is a serious ecotoxicological and environmental problem due to direct runoff from anthropogenic wastes, commercial vessels, and discharge from industrial effluents. In Samoa, the information on the ecotoxicological impact of heavy metals on sediments is limited. This study presents baseline data on the concentration and distribution of heavy metals in sediments collected along the commercial and fishing ports in Samoa. Surface sediment samples were collected within the months of August-October 2013 from the 5 sites along the 2 ports. Sieved sample fractions were used for the evaluation of sediment physicochemical parameters namely pH, conductivity, organic matter, and bicarbonates of calcium. Heavy metal (Cu, Pb) analysis was achieved by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Two heavy metals (Cu, Pb) were detected from each port with some concentration below the WHO permissible maximum concentration of environment quality standard. The results obtained from this study advocate for further studies regarding emerging threats of heavy metals on the vital marine resources which have significant importance to the livelihood of coastal societies, particularly Small Island States including Samoa.

Keywords: coastal environment, heavy metals, pollution, sediments

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168 The Feasibility of Online, Interactive Workshops to Facilitate Anatomy Education during the UK COVID-19 Lockdowns

Authors: Prabhvir Singh Marway, Kai Lok Chan, Maria-Ruxandra Jinga, Rachel Bok Ying Lee, Matthew Bok Kit Lee, Krishan Nandapalan, Sze Yi Beh, Harry Carr, Christopher Kui

Abstract:

We piloted a structured series of online workshops on the 3D segmentation of anatomical structures from CT scans. 33 participants were recruited from four UK universities for two-day workshops between 2020 and 2021. Open-source software (3D-Slicer) was used. We hypothesized that active participation via real-time screen-sharing and voice-communication via Discord would enable improved engagement and learning, despite national lockdowns. Written feedback indicated positive learning experiences, with subjective measures of anatomical understanding and software confidence improving.

Keywords: medical education, workshop, segmentation, anatomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
167 A Natural Killer T Cell Subset That Protects against Airway Hyperreactivity

Authors: Ya-Ting Chuang, Krystle Leung, Ya-Jen Chang, Rosemarie H. DeKruyff, Paul B. Savage, Richard Cruse, Christophe Benoit, Dirk Elewaut, Nicole Baumgarth, Dale T. Umetsu

Abstract:

We examined characteristics of a Natural Killer T (NKT) cell subpopulation that developed during influenza infection in neonatal mice, and that suppressed the subsequent development of allergic asthma in a mouse model. This NKT cell subset expressed CD38 but not CD4, produced IFN-γ, but not IL-17, IL-4 or IL-13, and inhibited the development of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) through contact-dependent suppressive activity against helper CD4 T cells. The NKT subset expanded in the lungs of neonatal mice after infection with influenza, but also after treatment of neonatal mice with a Th1-biasing α-GalCer glycolipid analogue, Nu-α-GalCer. These results suggest that early/neonatal exposure to infection or to antigenic challenge can affect subsequent lung immunity by altering the profile of cells residing in the lung and that some subsets of NKT cells can have direct inhibitory activity against CD4+ T cells in allergic asthma. Importantly, our results also suggest a potential therapy for young children that might provide protection against the development of asthma.

Keywords: NKT subset, asthma, airway hyperreactivity, hygiene hypothesis, influenza

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
166 A Review of Test Protocols for Assessing Coating Performance of Water Ballast Tank Coatings

Authors: Emmanuel A. Oriaifo, Noel Perera, Alan Guy, Pak. S. Leung, Kian T. Tan

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Concerns on corrosion and effective coating protection of double hull tankers and bulk carriers in service have been raised especially in water ballast tanks (WBTs). Test protocols/methodologies specifically that which is incorporated in the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), Performance Standard for Protective Coatings for Dedicated Sea Water ballast tanks (PSPC) are being used to assess and evaluate the performance of the coatings for type approval prior to their application in WBTs. However, some of the type approved coatings may be applied as very thick films to less than ideally prepared steel substrates in the WBT. As such films experience hygrothermal cycling from operating and environmental conditions, they become embrittled which may ultimately result in cracking. This embrittlement of the coatings is identified as an undesirable feature in the PSPC but is not mentioned in the test protocols within it. There is therefore renewed industrial research aimed at understanding this issue in order to eliminate cracking and achieve the intended coating lifespan of 15 years in good condition. This paper will critically review test protocols currently used for assessing and evaluating coating performance, particularly the IMO PSPC.

Keywords: corrosion test, hygrothermal cycling, coating test protocols, water ballast tanks

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
165 Full-Wave Analysis of Magnetic Meta-Surfaces for Microwave Component Applications

Authors: Christopher Hardly Joseph, Nicola Pelagalli, Davide Mencarelli, Luca Pierantoni

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In this contribution, we report the electromagnetic response of a split ring resonator (SRR) based magnetic metamaterial unit cell in free space nature by means of a full-wave electromagnetic simulation. The effective parameters of these designed structures have been analyzed. The structures have been specifically designed to work at high frequency considering the development of many microwave and lower mm-wave devices. In addition to that, the application of the designed metamaterial structures is also proposed, namely metamaterial loaded planar transmission lines, potentially useful to optimize size and quality factor of circuit components and radiating elements.

Keywords: CPW, Microwave Components, Negative Permeability, Split Ring Resonator (SRR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
164 Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel Blend on Particulate-Phase Exhaust Emissions from a Light Duty Diesel Vehicle

Authors: B. Wang, W. H. Or, S.C. Lee, Y.C. Leung, B. Organ

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This study presents an investigation of diesel vehicle particulate-phase emissions with neat ultralow sulphur diesel (B0, ULSD) and 5% waste cooking oil-based biodiesel blend (B5) in Hong Kong. A Euro VI light duty diesel vehicle was tested under transient (New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)), steady-state and idling on a chassis dynamometer. Chemical analyses including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), as well as 30 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 10 oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) were conducted. The OC fuel-based emission factors (EFs) for B0 ranged from 2.86 ± 0.33 to 7.19 ± 1.51 mg/kg, and those for B5 ranged from 4.31 ± 0.64 to 15.36 ± 3.77 mg/kg, respectively. The EFs of EC were low for both fuel blends (0.25 mg/kg or below). With B5, the EFs of total PAHs were decreased as compared to B0. Specifically, B5 reduced total PAH emissions by 50.2%, 30.7%, and 15.2% over NEDC, steady-state and idling, respectively. It was found that when B5 was used, PAHs and oxy-PAHs with lower molecular weight (2 to 3 rings) were reduced whereas PAHs/oxy-PAHs with medium or high molecular weight (4 to 7 rings) were increased. Our study suggests the necessity of taking atmospheric and health factors into account for biodiesel application as an alternative motor fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel, OC/EC, PAHs, vehicular emission

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163 Effect of Sand Particle Distribution in Oil and Gas Pipeline Erosion

Authors: Christopher Deekia Nwimae, Nigel Simms, Liyun Lao

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Erosion in pipe bends caused by particles is a major obstacle in the oil and gas fields and might cause the breakdown of production equipment. This work studied the effects imposed by flow velocity and impact of solid particles diameter in an elbow; erosion rate was verified with experimental data using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. Two-way coupled Euler-Lagrange and discrete phase model was employed to calculate the air/solid particle flow in an elbow. One erosion model and three-particle rebound models were used to predict the erosion rate on the 90° elbows. The generic erosion model was used in the CFD-based erosion model, and after comparing it with experimental data, results showed agreement with the CFD-based predictions as observed.

Keywords: erosion, prediction, elbow, computational fluid dynamics

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162 Social Media Use and Exercise Behaviors

Authors: Justin M. Swanson, Anna Nelson, Daniel Handysides, Patti Herring, Christopher Hill

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Not only may social media use have a psychological impact, but increased use may be tied to decreases in physical activity and influencing sedentary behaviors. Social media can be used to share physically active lifestyles and possibly influence others to participate. In contrast, social media use may have adverse effects by decreasing participation in exercise. This study used a qualitative design to examine the relationship between social media use and exercise patterns. Participants were asked questions about their social media habits and how it might impact their physical activity behaviors. Self-reported exercise seemed to increase after viewing others engage in relatable activities or viewing someone that has overcame challenges. To increase the likelihood of engaging in exercise, exercise related posts should be low in difficulty, require few materials, or displayed progress from the individual posting.

Keywords: social media, exercise, physical activity, adults

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
161 Feasibility Study of Distributed Lightless Intersection Control with Level 1 Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Bo Yang, Christopher Monterola

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Urban intersection control without the use of the traffic light has the potential to vastly improve the efficiency of the urban traffic flow. For most proposals in the literature, such lightless intersection control depends on the mass market commercialization of highly intelligent autonomous vehicles (AV), which limits the prospects of near future implementation. We present an efficient lightless intersection traffic control scheme that only requires Level 1 AV as defined by NHTSA. The technological barriers of such lightless intersection control are thus very low. Our algorithm can also accommodate a mixture of AVs and conventional vehicles. We also carry out large scale numerical analysis to illustrate the feasibility, safety and robustness, comfort level, and control efficiency of our intersection control scheme.

Keywords: intersection control, autonomous vehicles, traffic modelling, intelligent transport system

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
160 Explaining the Changes in Contentious Politics of China: A Comparative Study of Falun Gong and 'Diaosi'

Authors: Larry Lai, Evans Leung

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Falun gong is a self-proclaimed religious group that has been under crackdown by Beijing for more than two decades. Diaosi, on the other hand, is an emerging community with members loosely connected on the internet through different online social platforms, centering around the sharing of different hobbies and interests. Diaosi community has been transformed from a potential threat to the Chinese authority for different causes to a pro-government force. This paper seeks to explain the different strategies adopted by the People's Republic of China (PRC) regime in handling these two potential threatening communities. Both communities share some obvious similarities: (1) both have massive nation-wide participation; (2) both have attempted to challenge the PRC's authority through contentious means; (3) both have high level of mobility, online or offline; and (4) both have at first been unnoticed until the threat against the PRC have taken form. But the strategies the PRC endorsed against the communities were, in many ways, different. The question is: if the strategy against Falun Gong has been an effective one, why used other strategies against Diaosi? The authors argue that the main reason for using different strategies lies in the differences between the two communities in terms of (i) the nature of the groups, and (ii) the group dynamics. Lastly, based on this analysis, the authors attempt to explore the possible strategies that the PRC would adopt against the Hong Kong cyber-world political community in light of the latest national security law in Hong Kong.

Keywords: contentious politics, Diaosi, Falun Gong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
159 Modeling and Control of a 4DoF Robotic Assistive Device for Hand Rehabilitation

Authors: Christopher Spiewak, M. R. Islam, Mohammad Arifur Rahaman, Mohammad H. Rahman, Roger Smith, Maarouf Saad

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For those who have lost the ability to move their hand, going through repetitious motions with the assistance of a therapist is the main method of recovery. We have been developed a robotic assistive device to rehabilitate the hand motions in place of the traditional therapy. The developed assistive device (RAD-HR) is comprised of four degrees of freedom enabling basic movements, hand function, and assists in supporting the hand during rehabilitation. We used a nonlinear computed torque control technique to control the RAD-HR. The accuracy of the controller was evaluated in simulations (MATLAB/Simulink environment). To see the robustness of the controller external disturbance as modelling uncertainty (±10% of joint torques) were added in each joints.

Keywords: biorobotics, rehabilitation, robotic assistive device, exoskeleton, nonlinear control

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
158 Strategic Workplace Security: The Role of Malware and the Threat of Internal Vulnerability

Authors: Modesta E. Ezema, Christopher C. Ezema, Christian C. Ugwu, Udoka F. Eze, Florence M. Babalola

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Some employees knowingly or unknowingly contribute to loss of data and also expose data to threat in the process of getting their jobs done. Many organizations today are faced with the challenges of how to secure their data as cyber criminals constantly devise new ways of attacking the organization’s secret data. However, this paper enlists the latest strategies that must be put in place in order to protect these important data from being attacked in a collaborative work place. It also introduces us to Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) and how it works. The empirical study was conducted to collect data from the employee in data centers on how data could be protected from malicious codes and cyber criminals and their responses are highly considered to help checkmate the activities of malicious code and cyber criminals in our work places.

Keywords: data, employee, malware, work place

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
157 An Adjusted Network Information Criterion for Model Selection in Statistical Neural Network Models

Authors: Christopher Godwin Udomboso, Angela Unna Chukwu, Isaac Kwame Dontwi

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In selecting a Statistical Neural Network model, the Network Information Criterion (NIC) has been observed to be sample biased, because it does not account for sample sizes. The selection of a model from a set of fitted candidate models requires objective data-driven criteria. In this paper, we derived and investigated the Adjusted Network Information Criterion (ANIC), based on Kullback’s symmetric divergence, which has been designed to be an asymptotically unbiased estimator of the expected Kullback-Leibler information of a fitted model. The analyses show that on a general note, the ANIC improves model selection in more sample sizes than does the NIC.

Keywords: statistical neural network, network information criterion, adjusted network, information criterion, transfer function

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156 General and Sport Specific Fitness Testing Practices: Global Developments

Authors: Peter Smolianov, Jed Smith, Lisa Chen, Steven Dion, Christopher Schoen, Jaclyn Norberg

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This study compared general conditioning and sport specific fitness tests used in China, European Union (EU), Russia, and the United States. A constant content comparison method was used to identify the differences. Data from the study indicated that there were shared test components, including aerobic fitness, muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility. However, the testing components and items, as well as the cut-off values of the analyzed tests varied by country for the same gender and age. Culturally unique methods of testing and preparing for the tests were identified. Additionally, evidence revealed support for lifelong fitness and long-term sport participation through comprehensive fitness and wellness guidelines for different age groups and through new internet-based technologies.

Keywords: fitness testing, global trends, new developments, worldwide comparison

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155 Compromised Sexual Territoriality under Reflexive Cosmopolitanism: From Coffee Bean to Gay Bean in South Korea

Authors: Robert Christopher Hamilton

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This research examined the effects of reflexive cosmopolitanism on the competition for sexual territoriality. By adopting Michel De Certeau’s (1984) spatial didactic model, the article maps out the key elements at play and the dynamics explaining how gays gay place in the backdrop of rapid modernization. It found that heterosexual space and heteronormative assumptions helped to create temporal and spatial opportunities that allow for sexual performativity of gay males. Moreover, using data collected from multiple semi-controlled one-on-one interviews over 13 months, this article illustrates how spatial competition culminates in non-zero sum game outcomes and particularly to compromise of sexual territoriality while further demonstrating the need to understand the sexual coping tactics used in cultures with similar backgrounds. The findings enable researchers to better understand how gay men gay space, and how space performatively embodies gay men.

Keywords: South Korea, coffee bean, sexual territoriality, reflexive cosmopolitanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
154 Analysis of Stress and Strain in Head Based Control of Cooperative Robots through Tetraplegics

Authors: Jochen Nelles, Susanne Kohns, Julia Spies, Friederike Schmitz-Buhl, Roland Thietje, Christopher Brandl, Alexander Mertens, Christopher M. Schlick

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Industrial robots as part of highly automated manufacturing are recently developed to cooperative (light-weight) robots. This offers the opportunity of using them as assistance robots and to improve the participation in professional life of disabled or handicapped people such as tetraplegics. Robots under development are located within a cooperation area together with the working person at the same workplace. This cooperation area is an area where the robot and the working person can perform tasks at the same time. Thus, working people and robots are operating in the immediate proximity. Considering the physical restrictions and the limited mobility of tetraplegics, a hands-free robot control could be an appropriate approach for a cooperative assistance robot. To meet these requirements, the research project MeRoSy (human-robot synergy) develops methods for cooperative assistance robots based on the measurement of head movements of the working person. One research objective is to improve the participation in professional life of people with disabilities and, in particular, mobility impaired persons (e.g. wheelchair users or tetraplegics), whose participation in a self-determined working life is denied. This raises the research question, how a human-robot cooperation workplace can be designed for hands-free robot control. Here, the example of a library scenario is demonstrated. In this paper, an empirical study that focuses on the impact of head movement related stress is presented. 12 test subjects with tetraplegia participated in the study. Tetraplegia also known as quadriplegia is the worst type of spinal cord injury. In the experiment, three various basic head movements were examined. Data of the head posture were collected by a motion capture system; muscle activity was measured via surface electromyography and the subjective mental stress was assessed via a mental effort questionnaire. The muscle activity was measured for the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), the upper trapezius (UT) or trapezius pars descendens, and the splenius capitis (SPL) muscle. For this purpose, six non-invasive surface electromyography sensors were mounted on the head and neck area. An analysis of variance shows differentiated muscular strains depending on the type of head movement. Systematically investigating the influence of different basic head movements on the resulting strain is an important issue to relate the research results to other scenarios. At the end of this paper, a conclusion will be drawn and an outlook of future work will be presented.

Keywords: assistance robot, human-robot interaction, motion capture, stress-strain-concept, surface electromyography, tetraplegia

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
153 Potentials and Influencing Factors of Dynamic Pricing in Business: Empirical Insights of European Experts

Authors: Christopher Reichstein, Ralf-Christian Härting, Martina Häußler

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With a continuously increasing speed of information exchange on the World Wide Web, retailers in the E-Commerce sector are faced with immense possibilities regarding different online purchase processes like dynamic price settings. By use of Dynamic Pricing, retailers are able to set short time price changes in order to optimize producer surplus. The empirical research illustrates the basics of Dynamic Pricing and identifies six influencing factors of Dynamic Pricing. The results of a structural equation modeling approach show five main drivers increasing the potential of dynamic price settings in the E-Commerce. Influencing factors are the knowledge of customers’ individual willingness to pay, rising sales, the possibility of customization, the data volume and the information about competitors’ pricing strategy.

Keywords: e-commerce, empirical research, experts, dynamic pricing (DP), influencing factors, potentials

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
152 Development of a Nurse Led Tranexamic Acid Administration Protocol for Trauma Patients in Rural South Africa

Authors: Christopher Wearmouth, Jacob Smith

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Administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces all-cause mortality in trauma patients when given within 3 hours of injury. Due to geographical distance and lack of emergency medical services patients often present late, following trauma, to our emergency department. Additionally, we found patients that may have benefited from TXA did not receive it, often due to lack of staff awareness, staff shortages out of hours and lack of equipment for delivering infusions. Our objective was to develop a protocol for nurse-led administration of TXA in the emergency department. We developed a protocol using physiological observations along with criteria from the South African Triage Scale to allow nursing staff to identify patients with, or at risk of, significant haemorrhage. We will monitor the use of the protocol to ensure appropriate compliance and for any adverse events reported.

Keywords: emergency department, emergency nursing, rural healthcare, tranexamic acid, trauma, triage

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
151 Solar Technology: A Review of Government-Sponsored Green Energy

Authors: Christopher Battle

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The pursuit of a sustainable future is dependent on the ability of governments from the national to municipal level. The politics of energy and the development of state-sponsored photovoltaic cell expansion can nebulize in several ways based on a state or nation's physical and human geography. This study conducts a comparative analysis of the energy and solar program of Turkey, Pennsylvania, and Philadelphia. The study aims to assess the city of Philadelphia's solar policies in contrast with both its political history and the photovoltaic programs of Turkey, a world leader in solar system development, and Pennsylvania's history of energy regulation. This comparative study found that after hundreds of bills and regulations over decades, sustainable energy development in affordable housing and new construction is the next phase of State-Sponsored Green energy for the city of Philadelphia.

Keywords: Turkey, solar power, Philadelphia, affordable energy development

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150 Jet-Stream Airsail: Study of the Shape and the Behavior of the Connecting Cable

Authors: Christopher Frank, Yoshiki Miyairi

Abstract:

A jet-stream airsail concept takes advantage of aerology in order to fly without propulsion. Weather phenomena, especially jet streams, are relatively permanent high winds blowing from west to east, located at average altitudes and latitudes in both hemispheres. To continuously extract energy from the jet-stream, the system is composed of a propelled plane and a wind turbine interconnected by a cable. This work presents the aerodynamic characteristics and the behavior of the cable that links the two subsystems and transmits energy from the turbine to the aircraft. Two ways of solving this problem are explored: numerically and analytically. After obtaining the optimal shape of the cross-section of the cable, its behavior is analyzed as a 2D problem solved numerically and analytically. Finally, a 3D extension could be considered by adding lateral forces. The results of this work can be further used in the design process of the overall system: aircraft-turbine.

Keywords: jet-stream, cable, tether, aerodynamics, aircraft, airsail, wind

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