Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 623

Search results for: staphylococcal infections

623 Settings of Conditions Leading to Reproducible and Robust Biofilm Formation in vitro in Evaluation of Drug Activity against Staphylococcal Biofilms

Authors: Adela Diepoltova, Klara Konecna, Ondrej Jandourek, Petr Nachtigal

Abstract:

A loss of control over antibiotic-resistant pathogens has become a global issue due to severe and often untreatable infections. This state is reflected in complicated treatment, health costs, and higher mortality. All these factors emphasize the urgent need for the discovery and development of new anti-infectives. One of the most common pathogens mentioned in the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance are bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus. These bacterial agents have developed several mechanisms against the effect of antibiotics. One of them is biofilm formation. In staphylococci, biofilms are associated with infections such as endocarditis, osteomyelitis, catheter-related bloodstream infections, etc. To author's best knowledge, no validated and standardized methodology evaluating candidate compound activity against staphylococcal biofilms exists. However, a variety of protocols for in vitro drug activity testing has been suggested, yet there are often fundamental differences. Based on our experience, a key methodological step that leads to credible results is to form a robust biofilm with appropriate attributes such as firm adherence to the substrate, a complex arrangement in layers, and the presence of extracellular polysaccharide matrix. At first, for the purpose of drug antibiofilm activity evaluation, the focus was put on various conditions (supplementation of cultivation media by human plasma/fetal bovine serum, shaking mode, the density of initial inoculum) that should lead to reproducible and robust in vitro staphylococcal biofilm formation in microtiter plate model. Three model staphylococcal reference strains were included in the study: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35983). The total biofilm biomass was quantified using the Christensen method with crystal violet, and results obtained from at least three independent experiments were statistically processed. Attention was also paid to the viability of the biofilm-forming staphylococcal cells and the presence of extracellular polysaccharide matrix. The conditions that led to robust biofilm biomass formation with attributes for biofilms mentioned above were then applied by introducing an alternative method analogous to the commercially available test system, the Calgary Biofilm Device. In this test system, biofilms are formed on pegs that are incorporated into the lid of the microtiter plate. This system provides several advantages (in situ detection and quantification of biofilm microbial cells that have retained their viability after drug exposure). Based on our preliminary studies, it was found that the attention to the peg surface and substrate on which the bacterial biofilms are formed should also be paid to. Therefore, further steps leading to the optimization were introduced. The surface of pegs was coated by human plasma, fetal bovine serum, and L-polylysine. Subsequently, the willingness of bacteria to adhere and form biofilm was monitored. In conclusion, suitable conditions were revealed, leading to the formation of reproducible, robust staphylococcal biofilms in vitro for the microtiter model and the system analogous to the Calgary biofilm device, as well. The robustness and typical slime texture could be detected visually. Likewise, an analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a complex three-dimensional arrangement of biofilm forming organisms surrounded by an extracellular polysaccharide matrix.

Keywords: anti-biofilm drug activity screening, in vitro biofilm formation, microtiter plate model, the Calgary biofilm device, staphylococcal infections, substrate modification, surface coating

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622 Molecular Detection of Staphylococcus aureus in the Pork Chain Supply and the Potential Anti-Staphylococcal Activity of Natural Compounds

Authors: Valeria Velasco, Ana M. Bonilla, José L. Vergara, Alcides Lofa, Jorge Campos, Pedro Rojas-García

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Staphylococcus aureus is both commensal bacterium and opportunistic pathogen that can cause different diseases in humans and can rapidly develop antimicrobial resistance. Since this bacterium has the ability to colonize the nares and skin of humans and animals, there is a risk of contamination of food in different steps of the food chain supply. Emerging strains have been detected in food-producing animals and meat, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and oxacillin susceptibility of S. aureus in the pork chain supply in Chile and to suggest some natural antimicrobials for control. A total of 487 samples were collected from pigs (n=332), carcasses (n=85), and retail pork meat (n=70). Presumptive S. aureus colonies were isolated by selective enrichment and culture media. The confirmation was carried out by biochemical testing (Api® Staph) and molecular technique PCR (detection of nuc and mecA genes, associated with S. aureus and methicillin resistance, respectively). The oxacillin (β-lactam antibiotic that replaced methicillin) susceptibility was assessed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the Epsilometer test (Etest). A preliminary assay was carried out to test thymol, carvacrol, oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L.), Maqui or Chilean wineberry extract (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) as anti-staphylococcal agents using the disc diffusion method at different concentrations. The overall prevalence of S. aureus in the pork chain supply reached 33.9%. A higher prevalence of S. aureus was determined in carcasses (56.5%) than in pigs (28.3%) and pork meat (32.9%) (P ≤ 0.05). The prevalence of S. aureus in pigs sampled at farms (40.6%) was higher than in pigs sampled at slaughterhouses (23.3%) (P ≤ 0.05). The contamination of no packaged meat with S. aureus (43.1%) was higher than in packaged meat (5.3%) (P ≤ 0.05). The mecA gene was not detected in S. aureus strains isolated in this study. Two S. aureus strains exhibited oxacillin resistance (MIC ≥ 4µg/mL). Anti-staphylococcal activity was detected in solutions of thymol, carvacrol, and oregano essential oil at all concentrations tested. No anti-staphylococcal activity was detected in Maqui extract. Finally, S. aureus is present in the pork chain supply in Chile. Although the mecA gene was not detected, oxacillin resistance was found in S. aureus and could be attributed to another resistance mechanism. Thymol, carvacrol, and oregano essential oil could be used as anti-staphylococcal agents at low concentrations. Research project Fondecyt No. 11140379.

Keywords: antimicrobials, mecA gen, nuc gen, oxacillin susceptibility, pork meat

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621 Epidemiological Profile of Healthcare Associated Infections in Intensive Care Unit

Authors: Abdessamad Dali-Ali, Houaria Beldjillali, Fouzia Agag, Asmaa Oukebdane, Ramzi Tidjani, Arslane Bettayeb, Khadidja Meddeber, Radia Dali-Yahia, Nori Midoun

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Healthcare-associated infections are a real public health problem, especially in intensive care units. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological profile and to estimate the incidence of these infections at the intensive care unit of our teaching hospital. A prospective study was conducted, from June 2012 to December 2013. During this period, 305 patients having a duration of hospitalization equal or more than 48 hours were included in the study. In terms of the incidence of healthcare associated infections, nosocomial pneumonia occupied the first position with a cumulative incidence rate of 20.0%, followed by bacteremia (5.6%), central venous catheter infections (4%), and urinary tract infections (3%). In the case of isolated microorganisms, Gram-negative bacilli not enterobacteriaceae occupied the first place with 48.5%, followed by enterobacteria (32.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the most common germ (27.6%). Our study showed that the rate of health-care-associated infections was relatively high in the intensive care unit. A control program to reduce all infections is a priority for the Infection Control Associated Committee.

Keywords: epidemiological profile, healthcare associated infections, intensive care units, teaching hospital of Oran, Algeria

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620 Control of Staphylococcus aureus in Meat System by in situ and ex situ Bacteriocins from Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus spp.

Authors: M. Naimi, M. B. Khaled

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The present study consisted of an applied test in meat system to assess the effectiveness of three bio agents bacteriocinproducing strains: Lm24: Lactobacillus sakei, Lm14and Lm25: Pediococcus spp. Two tests were carried out: The ex-situ test was intended for three batches added with crude bacteriocin solutions at 12.48 AU/ml for Lm25 and 8.4 AU/ml for Lm14 and Lm24. However, the in situ one consisted of four batches; three of them inoculated with one bacteriocinogenic Lm25, Lm14, Lm24, respectively. The fourth one was used in mixture: Lm14+m24 at approximately of 107 CFU/ml. The two used tests were done in the presence of the pathogen St. aureus ATCC 6538, as a test strain at 103 CFU/ml. Another batch served as a positive or a negative control was used too. The incubation was performed at 7°C. Total viable counts, staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria, at the beginning and at selected times with interval of three days were enumerated. Physicochemical determinations (except for in situ test): pH, dry mater, sugars, fat and total protein, at the beginning and at end of the experiment, were done, according to the international norms. Our results confirmed the ex situ effectiveness. Furthermore, the batches affected negatively the total microbial load over the incubation days, and showed a significant regression in staphylococcal load at day seven, for Lm14, Lm24, and Lm25 of 0.73, 2.11, and 2.4 log units. It should be noticed that, at the last day of culture, staphylococcal load was nil for the three batches. In the in situ test, the cultures displayed less inhibitory attitude and recorded a decrease in staphylococcal load, for Lm14, Lm24, Lm25, Lm14+m24 of 0.73, 0.20, 0.86, 0.032 log units. Therefore, physicochemical analysis for Lm14, Lm24, Lm25, Lm14+m24 showed an increase in pH from 5.50 to 5.77, 6.18, 5.96, 7.22, a decrease in dry mater from 7.30% to 7.05%, 6.87%, 6.32%, 6.00%.This result reflects the decrease in fat ranging from 1.53% to 1.49%, 1.07%, 0.99%, 0.87%; and total protein from 6.18% to 5.25%, 5.56%, 5.37%, 5.5%. This study suggests that the use of selected strains as Lm25 could lead to the best results and would help in preserving and extending the shelf life of lamb meat.

Keywords: biocontrol, in situ, ex situ, meat system, St. aureus, Lactobacillus sakei, Pediococcus spp.

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619 Prevalence and Factors Associated with Multiple Parasitic Infections among Rural Community in Kano State Nigeria

Authors: Salwa S. Dawaki, Init Ithoi, Sa’adatu I. Yelwa

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Introduction: Parasitic infections are major public health problems worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Two third of the world population is infected while about 3 billion are at risk of parasitic infections. It is demonstrated that most parasitic infections occur as multiple infections especially among poor and rural communities of most countries in the tropical regions. Parasitic infections are endemic in Nigeria, yet multiple infections are rarely reported. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and identify factors associating with multiple parasitic infections among rural population in Kano State Nigeria. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to August 2013 in rural Kano State, Nigeria. Three samples stool, urine, and blood were collected from each of the 551 volunteers aged between one and ninety years old recruited for the survey. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain epidemiological data. Data were analysed using appropriate descriptive, univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods. Major findings: The participants were 61.7% male, 38.3% female, and 69.0% were adults of 15 years and above. Overall, 463 (84%) were infected with parasitic infections among which 60.9% had multiple infections. A total of 15 parasitic species were recovered, and up to 8 different parasitic species were found concurrently in a single host. Plasmodium was the most common parasite followed by Blastocystis, Entamoeba species, and hookworms. It was found that presence of an infected family member (P = 0.017; OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.08, 2.13) and not wearing shoes outside home (P = 0.043; OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.01, 2.18) significantly associated with higher risk of having multiple parasitic infections among the studied population. Conclusion: Parasitic infections pose a public health challenge in the rural community of Kano. Multiple parasitic infections are highly prevalent and presence of an infected family member as well as not wearing proper foot wear outside home increases the risk of infection. Poor hygiene, unfavourable socioeconomic conditions, and culture promote survival and transmission of parasites. There is a need for implementation of integrated approach aimed at controlling or eliminating the infections with emphasis on public awareness.

Keywords: multiple infections, parasitic infections, poor hygiene, risk of infection

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618 Investigation of Linezolid, 127I-Linezolid and 131I-Linezolid Effects on Slime Layer of Staphylococcus with Nuclear Methods

Authors: Hasan Demiroğlu, Uğur Avcıbaşı, Serhan Sakarya, Perihan Ünak

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Implanted devices are progressively practiced in innovative medicine to relieve pain or improve a compromised function. Implant-associated infections represent an emerging complication, caused by organisms which adhere to the implant surface and grow embedded in a protective extracellular polymeric matrix, known as a biofilm. In addition, the microorganisms within biofilms enter a stationary growth phase and become phenotypically resistant to most antimicrobials, frequently causing treatment failure. In such cases, surgical removal of the implant is often required, causing high morbidity and substantial healthcare costs. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen causing implant-associated infections. Successful treatment of these infections includes early surgical intervention and antimicrobial treatment with bactericidal drugs that also act on the surface-adhering microorganisms. Linezolid is a promising anti-microbial with ant-staphylococcal activity, used for the treatment of MRSA infections. Linezolid is a synthetic antimicrobial and member of oxazolidinoni group, with a bacteriostatic or bactericidal dose-dependent antimicrobial mechanism against gram-positive bacteria. Intensive use of antibiotics, have emerged multi-resistant organisms over the years and major problems have begun to be experienced in the treatment of infections occurred with them. While new drugs have been developed worldwide, on the other hand infections formed with microorganisms which gained resistance against these drugs were reported and the scale of the problem increases gradually. Scientific studies about the production of bacterial biofilm increased in recent years. For this purpose, we investigated the activity of Lin, Lin radiolabeled with 131I (131I-Lin) and cold iodinated Lin (127I-Lin) against clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus DSM 4910 in biofilm. In the first stage, radio and cold labeling studies were performed. Quality-control studies of Lin and iodo (radio and cold) Lin derivatives were carried out by using TLC (Thin Layer Radiochromatography) and HPLC (High Pressure Liquid Chromatography). In this context, it was found that the binding yield was obtained to be about 86±2 % for 131I-Lin. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Lin, 127I-Lin and 131I-Lin for Staphylococcus aureus DSM 4910 strain were found to be 1µg/mL. In time-kill studies of Lin, 127I-Lin and 131I-Lin were producing ≥ 3 log10 decreases in viable counts (cfu/ml) within 6 h at 2 and 4 fold of MIC respectively. No viable bacteria were observed within the 24 h of the experiments. Biofilm eradication of S. aureus started with 64 µg/mL of Lin, 127I-Lin and 131I-Lin, and OD630 was 0.507±0.0.092, 0.589±0.058 and 0.266±0.047, respectively. The media control of biofilm producing Staphylococcus was 1.675±0,01 (OD630). 131I and 127I did not have any effects on biofilms. Lin and 127I-Lin were found less effectively than 131I-Lin at killing cells in biofilm and biofilm eradication. Our results demonstrate that the 131I-Lin have potent anti-biofilm activity against S. aureus compare to Lin, 127I-Lin and media control. This is suggested that, 131I may have harmful effect on biofilm structure.

Keywords: iodine-131, linezolid, radiolabeling, slime layer, Staphylococcus

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617 Hyper-Immunoglobulin E (Hyper-Ige) Syndrome In Skin Of Color: A Retrospective Single-Centre Observational Study

Authors: Rohit Kothari, Muneer Mohamed, Vivekanandh K., Sunmeet Sandhu, Preema Sinha, Anuj Bhatnagar

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Introduction: Hyper-IgE syndrome is a rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterised by triad of severe atopic dermatitis, recurrent pulmonary infections, and recurrent staphylococcal skin infections. The diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion, typical clinical features, and not mere rise in serum-IgE levels, which may be seen in multiple conditions. Genetic studies are not always possible in a resource poor setting. This study highlights various presentations of Hyper-IgE syndrome in skin of color children. Case-series: Our study had six children of Hyper-IgE syndrome aged twomonths to tenyears. All had onset in first ten months of life except one with a late-onset at two years. All had recurrent eczematoid rash, which responded poorly to conventional treatment, secondary infection, multiple episodes of hospitalisation for pulmonary infection, and raised serum IgE levels. One case had occasional vesicles, bullae, and crusted plaques over both the extremities. Genetic study was possible in only one of them who was found to have pathogenic homozygous deletions of exon-15 to 18 in DOCK8 gene following which he underwent bone marrow transplant (BMT), however, succumbed to lower respiratory tract infection two months after BMT and rest of them received multiple courses of antibiotics, oral/ topical steroids, and cyclosporine intermittently with variable response. Discussion: Our study highlights various characteristics, presentation, and management of this rare syndrome in children. Knowledge of these manifestations in skin of color will facilitate early identification and contribute to optimal care of the patients as representative data on the same is limited in literature.

Keywords: absolute eosinophil count, atopic dermatitis, eczematous rash, hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome, pulmonary infection, serum IgE, skin of color

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616 The Value of Serum Procalcitonin in Patients with Acute Musculoskeletal Infections

Authors: Mustafa Al-Yaseen, Haider Mohammed Mahdi, Haider Ali Al–Zahid, Nazar S. Haddad

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Background: Early diagnosis of musculoskeletal infections is of vital importance to avoid devastating complications. There is no single laboratory marker which is sensitive and specific in diagnosing these infections accurately. White blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein are not specific as they can also be elevated in conditions other than bacterial infections. Materials Culture and sensitivity is not a true gold standard due to its varied positivity rates. Serum Procalcitonin is one of the new laboratory markers for pyogenic infections. The objective of this study is to assess the value of PCT in the diagnosis of soft tissue, bone, and joint infections. Patients and Methods: Patients of all age groups (seventy-four patients) with a diagnosis of musculoskeletal infection are prospectively included in this study. All patients were subjected to White blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and serum Procalcitonin measurements. A healthy non infected outpatient group (twenty-two patients) taken as a control group and underwent the same evaluation steps as the study group. Results: The study group showed mean Procalcitonin levels of 1.3 ng/ml. Procalcitonin, at 0.5 ng/ml, was (42.6%) sensitive and (95.5%) specific in diagnosing of musculoskeletal infections with (positive predictive value of 87.5% and negative predictive value of 48.3%) and (positive likelihood ratio of 9.3 and negative likelihood ratio of 0.6). Conclusion: Serum Procalcitonin, at a cut – off of 0.5 ng/ml, is a specific but not sensitive marker in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal infections, and it can be used effectively to rule in the diagnosis of infection but not to rule out it.

Keywords: procalcitonin, infection, labratory markers, musculoskeletal

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615 The Number of Corona Virus Infections in 2020

Authors: Yasaswi Vengalasetti, Jacob Eisenach, Jay Bhattacharya

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Seroprevalence studies can provide an estimation of the Infection Fatality Rate (IFR), the probability of death given infection. Measuring the seroprevalence and reported deaths of an area within a given time frame an IFR can be estimated. With this IFR calculation, we can then observe COVID-19 death figures in different countries around the world and estimate the number of cases since the onset of the pandemic. There is a large range for estimated COVID-19 infections across different countries. This ranged from 0.659 million infections in Hong Kong to 277 million infections in India. The largest estimated share of the population infected is 63% in Peru and the lowest is 3% in Norway. For younger populations, COVID-19 is most fatal in South America; for older populations, it is most fatal in North America. The Asian regions stand out with significantly lower IFRs in older populations: at 80 years old, COVID-19 is about three times as fatal than in South Asia and about twelve times as fatal than in East Asia. The weighted average for the share of the population infected, the sum of infections divided by the sum of populations across all countries, is 23%.

Keywords: epidemiology, seroprevalence, covid-19, infection fatality rate

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614 Study of Germs Responsible of Nosocomial Infections in Hospital of Guelma

Authors: Wissem Abdaoui, Ilhem Mokhtari, Adel Gouri, Benouareth Djamel Eddine

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Contracted in a health facility, hospital-acquired infections are a major public health problem in recent years. The increase of nosocomial infections is partly related to diagnostic and therapeutic advances in medicine. The aim of our study was to isolate and diagnose some types of bacteria that are circulating in the hospital by performing different samples at two medical services: Pulmonary and Infectious Diseases. The antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed for bacterial isolates. The results have shown that there is a predominance of enterobacteria followed by the staphylococcus with its two species epidermidis ans saprophyticus. The study of the antibiogramme identified that some of these bacteria have a resistant profile against all the tested antibiotics. The fight against nosocomial infections is difficult because it must act on several factors: quality of care, safety of the hospital environment, hygiene, wearing gloves etc. are all areas that should be of heightened vigilance and preventive measures.

Keywords: nosocomial infection, isolation, identification, sensitivity and resistance to antibiotics

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613 Retrospective Evaluation of Vector-borne Infections in Cats Living in Germany (2012-2019)

Authors: I. Schäfer, B. Kohn, M. Volkmann, E. Müller

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Introduction: Blood-feeding arthropods transmit parasitic, bacterial, or viral pathogens to domestic animals and wildlife. Vector-borne infections are gaining significance due to the increase of travel, import of domestic animals from abroad, and the changing climate in Europe. Aims of the study: The main objective of this retrospective study was to assess the prevalence of vector-borne infections in cats in which a ‘Feline Travel Profile’ had been conducted. Material and Methods: This retrospective study included test results from cats for which a ‘Feline Travel Profile’ established by LABOKLIN had been requested by veterinarians between April 2012 and December 2019. This profile contains direct detection methods via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Hepatozoon spp. and Dirofilaria spp. as well as indirect detection methods via immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for Ehrlichia spp. and Leishmania spp. This profile was expanded to include an IFAT for Rickettsia spp. from July 2015 onwards. The prevalence of the different vector-borne infectious agents was calculated. Results: A total of 602 cats were tested using the ‘Feline Travel Profile’. Positive test results were as follows: Rickettsia spp. IFAT 54/442 (12.2%), Ehrlichia spp. IFAT 68/602 (11.3%), Leishmania spp. IFAT 21/602 (3.5%), Hepatozoon spp. PCR 51/595 (8.6%), and Dirofilaria spp. PCR 1/595 cats (0.2%). Co-infections with more than one pathogen could be detected in 22/602 cats. Conclusions: 170/602 cats (28.2%) were tested positive for at least one vector-borne pathogen. Infections with multiple pathogens could be detected in 3.7% of the cats. The data emphasizes the importance of considering vector-borne infections as potential differential diagnoses in cats.

Keywords: arthopod-transmitted infections, feline vector-borne infections, Germany, laboratory diagnostics

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612 A Study on the Prevalence and Microbiological Profile of Nosocomial Infections in the ICU of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee

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This study was done to determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections in the ICU and to identify the common microorganisms causing these infections and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. Nosocomial infection or hospital-acquired infection is a localized or a systemic condition resulting from an adverse reaction to the presence of infectious agents. Nosocomial infections are not present or incubating when the patient is admitted to hospital or other health care facility. They are caused by pathogens that easily spread through the body. Many hospitalized patients have compromised immune systems, so they are less able to fight off infections. These infections occur worldwide, both in the developed and developing the world. They are a significant burden to patients and public health. They are a major cause of death and increased morbidity in hospitalized patients, which is a matter of serious concern today. This study was done during the period of one year (2012-2013) in the ICU of the tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Prevalence of nosocomial infection was determined; site of infection and the pattern of microorganisms were identified along with the assessment of antibiotic susceptibility profile. Patients who developed an infection after 48 hours of admission to the ICU were included in the study. A total of 324 ICU patients were analyzed, of these 79 patients were found to have developed a nosocomial infection (24.3% prevalence). Urinary tract infection was found to be more predominant followed by respiratory tract infection and soft tissue infection. The most frequently isolated microorganism was E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by other organisms respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility test of these isolates was done against commonly used antibiotics. Patients admitted to the ICU are especially susceptible to nosocomial infections. Despite adequate antimicrobial treatment, nosocomial ICU infections can significantly affect ICU stay and can cause an increase in patient’s morbidity and mortality. Adherence to infection protocol, proper monitoring and the judicious use of antibiotics are important in preventing such infections on a regular basis.

Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility, intensive care unit, nosocomial infection, nosocomial pathogen

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611 A Study on Hospital Acquired Infections Among Patients in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State in Southern Part of Nigeria

Authors: Ibeku Bernadine Ezenwanyi

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Hospital-Acquired Infections (HAI), also called ‘Nosocomial Infection’ is an infection you get while in the hospital for another reason. They are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. This study examined the epidemiology, clinical outcomes of some instruments used on patients especially catheter that was passed on them during their stay in the hospital. It was discovered that they had catheter–associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). An observational study was carried out from January to March, 2022, on 180 patients (80 males and 100 females) admitted in the surgical wards, medical wards, dialysis unit and intensive care unit (ICU) of the hospital. The patient’s urine samples were collected for urine culture and the isolation was carried out using plate count agar medium and macconkey agar. Among the 80 males, 45 had Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) mostly proteus infection and among the 100 females, 70 also had (UTI) and the most common was caused by Escherichia coli. Other strain of microorganisms such as Klebsiella, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is important to follow up patients that these devices were used on with antibiotics to make sure that these infections are not developed because the rate of these infections (UTI) are high especially in females.

Keywords: catheter, urinary tract infection, nosocomial infection, microorganisms

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610 Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) by PCR Technique in Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) in Babylon City

Authors: Amal Raqib Shameran, Ghanim Aboud Al-Mola

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Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the major pathogens of respiratory tract infections (RTI) among infants and children in the world. They are classified in family Paramyxoviridae and sub-family Pneumovirinae. The current work aimed to detect the role of RSV in the lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in Hilla, Iraq. The samples were collected from 50 children who were admitted to hospital suffering from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). 50 nasal and pharyngeal swabs were taken from patients at the period from January 2010 till April 2011, hospitalized in Hilla Maternity and Children Hospital. The results showed that the proportion of children infected with hRSV accounted for 24% 12/50 with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) when they tested by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

Keywords: respiratory syncytial virus, respiratory tract infections, infants, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

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609 Epidemiological Profile of Hospital Acquired Infections Caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in Intensive Care Unit

Authors: A. Dali-Ali, F. Agag, H. Beldjilali, A. Oukebdane, K. Meddeber, R. Dali-Yahia, N. Midoun

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The ability of Acinetobacter baumannii to develop multiple resistances towards to the majority of antibiotics explains the therapeutic difficulties encountered in severe infections. Furthermore, its persistence in the humid or dry environment promotes cross-contamination in intensive care units. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological and bacterial resistance profiles of hospital-acquired infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in the intensive care unit of our teaching hospital. During the study period (June 3, 2012 to December 31, 2013), 305 patients having duration of hospitalization equal or more than 48 hours were included in the study. Among these, 36 had developed, at least, one health-care associated infection caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. The rate of infected patients was equal to 11.8% (36/305). The rate of cumulative incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia was the highest (9.2%) followed by central venous catheter infection (1.3%). Analysis of the various antibiotic resistance profile shows that 93.8% of the strains were resistant to imipenem. The nosocomial infection control committee set up a special program not only to reduce the high rates of incidence of these infections but also to descrease the rate of imipenem resistance.

Keywords: Acinetobacer baumannii, epidemiological profile, hospital acquired infections, intensive care unit

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608 Bacteriological Quality of Commercially Prepared Fermented Ogi (AKAMU) Sold in Some Parts of South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Alloysius C. Ogodo, Ositadinma C. Ugbogu, Uzochukwu G. Ekeleme

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Food poisoning and infection by bacteria are of public health significance to both developing and developed countries. Samples of ogi (akamu) prepared from white and yellow variety of maize sold in Uturu and Okigwe were analyzed together with the laboratory prepared ogi for microbial quality using the standard microbiological methods. The analyses showed that both white and yellow variety had total bacterial counts (cfu/g) of 4.0 ×107 and 3.9 x 107 for the laboratory prepared ogi while the commercial ogi had 5.2 x 107 and 4.9 x107, 4.9 x107 and 4.5 x107, 5.4 x107 and 5.0 x107 for Eke-Okigwe, Up-gate and Nkwo-Achara market respectively. The Staphylococcal counts ranged from 2.0 x 102 to 5.0 x102 and 1.0 x 102 to 4.0 x102 for the white and yellow variety from the different markets while Staphylococcal growth was not recorded on the laboratory prepared ogi. The laboratory prepared ogi had no Coliform growth while the commercially prepared ogi had counts of 0.5 x103 to 1.6 x 103 for white variety and 0.3 x 103 to 1.1 x103 for yellow variety respectively. The Lactic acid bacterial count of 3.5x106 and 3.0x106 was recorded for the laboratory ogi while the commercially prepared ogi ranged from 3.2x106 to 4.2x106 (white variety) and 3.0 x106 to 3.9 x106 (yellow). The presence of bacteria isolates from the commercial and laboratory fermented ogi showed that Lactobacillus sp, Leuconostoc sp and Citrobacter sp were present in all the samples, Micrococcus sp and Klebsiella sp were isolated from Eke-Okigwe and ABSU-up-gate markets varieties respectively, E. coli and Staphylococcus sp were present in Eke-Okigwe and Nkwo-Achara markets while Salmonella sp were isolated from the three markets. Hence, there are chances of contracting food borne diseases from commercially prepared ogi. Therefore, there is the need for sanitary measures in the production of fermented cereals so as to minimize the rate of food borne pathogens during processing and storage.

Keywords: ogi, fermentation, bacterial quality, lactic acid bacteria, maize

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607 Youthful Population Sexual Activity in Malawi: A Health Scenario

Authors: A. Sathiya Susuman, N. Wilson

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Background: The sexual behaviour of youths is believed to play an important role in the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Method: The data from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2010 and a sample of 16,217 youth’s age 15 to 24 years (with each household 27.2% female and 72.8% male) was the basis for analysis. Bivariate and logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: The result shows married youth were not interested in condom use (94.2%, p<0.05). Those who were living together were 69 times (OR=1.69, 95% CI, 1.26–2.26) more likely to be involved in early sexual activity compared to those who were not living together. Conclusion: This scientific paper will help other researchers, policy makers, and planners to create strategies to encourage these youths to make use of contraception.

Keywords: sexually transmitted infections (STIs), reproductive tract infections (RTIs), condom use, sexual partners, early sexual debut, youths

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606 Salon-Associated Infections: Customer’s Knowledge and Practice Measures

Authors: Esraa Elaraby, Dania Abu Zahra, Ghidaa Maswadah, Osama Amira, Mohamed Alshoura, Nihar Dash

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Background: Human being uses salon for a variety of purposes, from trimming of hair and shaving to a range of beauty treatments such as manicure and pedicure. Salon activities involve use of several instruments including scissors, scalpels and razors, materials such as soaps, solutions, creams and gels on human skin and body. Besides, salon customers also use chair, bed and many other common shared utensils and appliances. These salons related activities create a suitable environment for the transmission of several diseases and pathogens including hepatitis B and C, scabies, tuberculosis, staphylococcus and MRSA etc. The transmission of these pathogens can be prevented by maintenance of adequate hygiene and standard preventive measures. Aim: To assess the customer’s level of knowledge about salon-acquired infections and practices taken to prevent their transmission. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 participants across the Emirates. Moreover, self-administered questionnaires (in English and Arabic) were distributed through convenience sampling methods between February and April 2017. Results: The study included 500 participants of which 250 were females. The mean age of the study population was 33 years (SD=4.77). The participants were from several nationalities including 325 Arabs (Non-GCC) (66.2%), 108 Non-Arabs (22%), and 59 Arabs (GCC) (11.8%). The majority of the participants 421 (84.4%) had required knowledge about salon-associated infections with a mean knowledge score of 6/10 (60%). However, when it comes down to preventive practices, only 73 of the 500 participants (14.6%) did carry their own equipment. Thus, there was insufficient correlation between the level of knowledge and preventive practices (p=0.139) of salon-associated infections. Conclusion: People’s knowledge about the salon-associated infections among UAE residents was good, but only a small number practically took the required preventative measures towards this issue. Therefore, a public awareness program is recommended to enhance the deficiencies in knowledge and practices to prevent salon-acquired infections among the users. Up to our knowledge, this is the first study of this kind in the UAE targeting the salon customers about this important issue.

Keywords: awareness, knowledge, practices, salon-associated infections

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605 Immunity Boosting and Balanced Diet Prevents Viral Infections with Special Emphasis on COVID-19

Authors: K. R. Padma, K. R. Don

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Background and aims: A balanced nutritional diet is essential in maintaining immunity and for deterrence as well as desisting of viral infections. Nevertheless, currently, very less information is available online regarding nutrition consumption during the period of coronavirus infection, i.e. (COVID-19). In our systematic review article, we portrayed and aimed to evaluate evidence from various previous clinical trials, which was based on nutritional interventions for viral diseases and given a concise overview. Methods: A systematic search was carried out employing 3 key medical databases: PubMed®, Web of Science®, and SciVerse Scopus®. Studies were performed and evaluated suitable if clinical trials in humans, appropriate immunological parameters on viral and respiratory infections, need to perform. Basic Clinical trials on nutritional vitamins, minerals, nutraceuticals as well as probiotics were included. Results: We have explored 10 review articles and extracted data for our study. A total of > 2000 participants were included and excluded several other trace elements as well as various vitamins, but in inclusion criteria mainly concentrated on those who have shown propitious immune-modulatory effects against viral respiratory infections. Conclusions: We have encapsulated the potential health benefits of some minerals, vitamins, as well as certain designer foods, nutraceuticals, and probiotics in viral infections. Based on this nutritional interventional strategy available from our present data, it could be promising to abstain and reduce the COVID-19 infection replication and boost our immunity to fight against the virus.

Keywords: COVID-19, immunity, vitamins, nutritional intervention strategy

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604 A Clinico-Bacteriological Study and Their Risk Factors for Diabetic Foot Ulcer with Multidrug-Resistant Microorganisms in Eastern India

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee

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This study was done to determine the bacteriological profile and antibiotic resistance of the isolates and to find out the potential risk factors for infection with multidrug-resistant organisms. Diabetic foot ulcer is a major medical, social, economic problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing countries like India. 25 percent of all diabetic patients develop a foot ulcer at some point in their lives which is highly susceptible to infections and that spreads rapidly, leading to overwhelming tissue destruction and subsequent amputation. Infection with multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) may increase the cost of management and may cause additional morbidity and mortality. Proper management of these infections requires appropriate antibiotic selection based on culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Early diagnosis of microbial infections is aimed to institute the appropriate antibacterial therapy initiative to avoid further complications. A total of 200 Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus patients with infection were admitted at GD Hospital and Diabetes Institute, Kolkata. 60 of them who developed ulcer during the year 2013 were included in this study. A detailed clinical history and physical examination were carried out for every subject. Specimens for microbiological studies were obtained from ulcer region. Gram-negative bacilli were tested for extended spectrum Beta-lactamase (ESBL) production by double disc diffusion method. Staphylococcal isolates were tested for susceptibility to oxacillin by screen agar method and disc diffusion. Potential risk factors for MDRO-positive samples were explored. Gram-negative aerobes were most frequently isolated, followed by gram-positive aerobes. Males were predominant in the study and majority of the patients were in the age group of 41-60 years. The presence of neuropathy was observed in 80% cases followed by peripheral vascular disease (73%). Proteus spp. (22) was the most common pathogen isolated, followed by E.coli (17). Staphylococcus aureus was predominant amongst the gram-positive isolates. S.aureus showed a high rate of resistance to antibiotic tested (63.6%). Other gram-positive isolates were found to be highly resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, 40% each. All isolates were found to be sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. ESBL production was noted in Proteus spp and E.coli. Approximately 70 % of the patients were positive for MDRO. MDRO-infected patients had poor glycemic control (HbA1c 11± 2). Infection with MDROs is common in diabetic foot ulcers and is associated with risk factors like inadequate glycemic control, the presence of neuropathy, osteomyelitis, ulcer size and increased the requirement for surgical treatment. There is a need for continuous surveillance of resistant bacteria to provide the basis for empirical therapy and reduce the risk of complications.

Keywords: diabetic foot ulcer, bacterial infection, multidrug-resistant organism, extended spectrum beta-lactamase

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603 Inequalities in Gastrointestinal Infections between UK Ethnic Groups: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis

Authors: Iram Zahair, Tanith Rose, Oyinlola Oyebode, Stephen Clayton, Iman Ghosh, Michelle Maden, Ben Barr

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Background: Gastrointestinal infections exert a significant public health burden on UK healthcare services and the community. However, there are conflicting findings on where ethnic inequalities are likely to persist. This systematic review aimed to identify studies that ascertain differences in the incidence and prevalence of gastrointestinal infections within and between UK ethnic groups and explore possible explanations for heterogeneity observed within the literature. Methods: Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance, a systematic review methodology was used. Medline, Web of Science, CINAHL Plus, and grey literature were searched from 1980 to 2021 for studies reporting an association between ethnicity and gastrointestinal infections in UK population samples. Two reviewers independently screened the articles and conducted quality appraisals; data extraction was undertaken by one reviewer and verified by two reviewers (PROSPERO CRD 42021240714). A narrative synthesis was undertaken to synthesise the study findings. Results: The searches identified 8134 studies; 13 met the inclusion criteria. 12 out of 13 studies found a difference in the prevalence of gastrointestinal infections between different ethnic groups. UK ethnic minorities, predominantly men and children of Asian ethnicity, had an increased risk of infection than the white British majority in 12 studies; the Pakistani ethnic group had a higher risk of infection in three out of 13 studies. Studies reported that age and sex confounded the relationship between ethnicity and gastrointestinal infections. At the same time, the country of birth, socioeconomic status, and geographical location of ethnic groups mediated this association and significantly explained the heterogeneity observed across the studies. Harvest plots supported the textual synthesis. Conclusion: This systematic review elucidates the lack of extensive UK quantitative evidence examining the association between ethnicity and gastrointestinal infections. Insights into gastrointestinal infections and ethnicity's association can help address policy actions to mitigate the inequalities identified within and between UK ethnic groups.

Keywords: ethnic and racial populations, public health, public health policy, systematic review

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602 Clinical and Microbiologic Efficacy and Safety of Imipenem Cilastatin Relebactam in Complicated Infections: A Meta-analysis

Authors: Syeda Sahra, Abdullah Jahangir, Rachelle Hamadi, Ahmad Jahangir, Allison Glaser

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Background: Antimicrobial resistance is on the rise. The use of redundant and inappropriate antibiotics is contributing to recurrent infections and resistance. Newer antibiotics with more robust coverage for gram-negative bacteria are in great demand for complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs), hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (H.A.B.P.), and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (V.A.B.P.). Objective: We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of a new antibiotic, Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam, compared to other broad-spectrum antibiotics for complicated infections. Search Strategy: We conducted a systemic review search on PubMed, Embase, and Central Cochrane Registry. Selection Criteria: We included randomized clinical trials (R.C.T.s) with the standard of care as comparator arm with Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam as intervention arm. Analysis: For continuous variables, the mean difference was used. For discrete variables, we used the odds ratio. For effect sizes, we used a confidence interval of 95%. A p-value of less than 0.05 was used for statistical significance. Analysis was done using a random-effects model irrespective of heterogeneity. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the I2 statistic. Results: The authors observed similar efficacy at clinical and microbiologic response levels on early follow-up and late follow-up compared to the established standard of care. The incidence of drug-related adverse events, serious adverse events, and drug discontinuation due to adverse events were comparable across both groups. Conclusion: Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam has a non-inferior safety and efficacy profile compared to peer antibiotics to treat severe bacterial infections (cUTIs, cIAIs, H.A.B.P., V.A.B.P.).

Keywords: bacterial pneumonia, complicated intra-abdominal infections, complicated urinary tract infection, Imipenem, cilastatin, relebactam

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601 Prevalence of Cytomegalovirus-DNA in the Patients’ Serum with HIV using Real time PCR

Authors: Mohammadreza Aghasadeghi, Mojtaba Hamidi-fard, Seyed Amir Sadeghi, Ashkan Noorbakhsh

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Introduction: HIV is known as one of the most important pathogens and mortality in all human societies, but unfortunately no definitive cure has been found for it. Due to its weakened immune system, this virus causes a variety of primary and secondary opportunistic infections. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most relevant opportunistic virus seen in HIV-positive people that cause various infections in HIV-positive people. This virus causes various infections in HIV-positive people, such as retinal infection (CMVR), gastro-intestinal infections, diarrhea, severe weight loss, and cerebrospinal fluid problems. These various infections make it important to evaluate the prevalence of CMV in HIV-positive people to diagnose it quickly and in a timely manner. This infection in HIV-positive people reduces life expectancy and causes serious harm to patients. However, a simple test in HIV-positive people can prevent the virus from progressing. Material and Methods: In this study, we collected 200 blood samples (including 147 men and 53 women) from HIV-positive individuals and examined the frequency of CMV-DNA in these cases by real-time PCR method. In the next step, the data was analyzed by SPSS software and then we obtained the relationship between age, sex and the frequency of CMV in HIV-positive individuals. Results: The total frequency of CMV DNA was about 59%, which is a relatively high prevalence due to the age range of the subjects. The frequency in men was 61.2% and 52.8% in women. This frequency was also higher in males than females. We also observed more frequency in two age groups of 16 to 30 years and 31 to 45 years. Discussion: Due to the high prevalence of CMV in HIV-positive individuals and causing serious problems in this group of people, this study was shown that both the patients and the community should pay more attention to this issue. Ministry of Health as a stakeholder organization can make CMV DNA testing mandatory as soon as a person was HIV positive.

Keywords: CMV, HIV, AIDS, real-time PCR, SPSS

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600 Rapid Detection of the Etiology of Infection as Bacterial or Viral Using Infrared Spectroscopy of White Blood Cells

Authors: Uraib Sharaha, Guy Beck, Joseph Kapelushnik, Adam H. Agbaria, Itshak Lapidot, Shaul Mordechai, Ahmad Salman, Mahmoud Huleihel

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Infectious diseases cause a significant burden on the public health and the economic stability of societies all over the world for several centuries. A reliable detection of the causative agent of infection is not possible based on clinical features, since some of these infections have similar symptoms, including fever, sneezing, inflammation, vomiting, diarrhea, and fatigue. Moreover, physicians usually encounter difficulties in distinguishing between viral and bacterial infections based on symptoms. Therefore, there is an ongoing need for sensitive, specific, and rapid methods for identification of the etiology of the infection. This intricate issue perplex doctors and researchers since it has serious repercussions. In this study, we evaluated the potential of the mid-infrared spectroscopic method for rapid and reliable identification of bacterial and viral infections based on simple peripheral blood samples. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is considered a successful diagnostic method in the biological and medical fields. Many studies confirmed the great potential of the combination of FTIR spectroscopy and machine learning as a powerful diagnostic tool in medicine since it is a very sensitive method, which can detect and monitor the molecular and biochemical changes in biological samples. We believed that this method would play a major role in improving the health situation, raising the level of health in the community, and reducing the economic burdens in the health sector resulting from the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. We collected peripheral blood samples from young 364 patients, of which 93 were controls, 126 had bacterial infections, and 145 had viral infections, with ages lower than18 years old, limited to those who were diagnosed with fever-producing illness. Our preliminary results showed that it is possible to determine the infectious agent with high success rates of 82% for sensitivity and 80% for specificity, based on the WBC data.

Keywords: infectious diseases, (FTIR) spectroscopy, viral infections, bacterial infections.

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599 Distinguishing between Bacterial and Viral Infections Based on Peripheral Human Blood Tests Using Infrared Microscopy and Multivariate Analysis

Authors: H. Agbaria, A. Salman, M. Huleihel, G. Beck, D. H. Rich, S. Mordechai, J. Kapelushnik

Abstract:

Viral and bacterial infections are responsible for variety of diseases. These infections have similar symptoms like fever, sneezing, inflammation, vomiting, diarrhea and fatigue. Thus, physicians may encounter difficulties in distinguishing between viral and bacterial infections based on these symptoms. Bacterial infections differ from viral infections in many other important respects regarding the response to various medications and the structure of the organisms. In many cases, it is difficult to know the origin of the infection. The physician orders a blood, urine test, or 'culture test' of tissue to diagnose the infection type when it is necessary. Using these methods, the time that elapses between the receipt of patient material and the presentation of the test results to the clinician is typically too long ( > 24 hours). This time is crucial in many cases for saving the life of the patient and for planning the right medical treatment. Thus, rapid identification of bacterial and viral infections in the lab is of great importance for effective treatment especially in cases of emergency. Blood was collected from 50 patients with confirmed viral infection and 50 with confirmed bacterial infection. White blood cells (WBCs) and plasma were isolated and deposited on a zinc selenide slide, dried and measured under a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope to obtain their infrared absorption spectra. The acquired spectra of WBCs and plasma were analyzed in order to differentiate between the two types of infections. In this study, the potential of FTIR microscopy in tandem with multivariate analysis was evaluated for the identification of the agent that causes the human infection. The method was used to identify the infectious agent type as either bacterial or viral, based on an analysis of the blood components [i.e., white blood cells (WBC) and plasma] using their infrared vibrational spectra. The time required for the analysis and evaluation after obtaining the blood sample was less than one hour. In the analysis, minute spectral differences in several bands of the FTIR spectra of WBCs were observed between groups of samples with viral and bacterial infections. By employing the techniques of feature extraction with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), a sensitivity of ~92 % and a specificity of ~86 % for an infection type diagnosis was achieved. The present preliminary study suggests that FTIR spectroscopy of WBCs is a potentially feasible and efficient tool for the diagnosis of the infection type.

Keywords: viral infection, bacterial infection, linear discriminant analysis, plasma, white blood cells, infrared spectroscopy

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598 Streptococcus anginosus Infections; Clinical and Bacteriologic Characteristics: A 6-Year Retrospective Study of Adult Patients in Qatar

Authors: Adila Shaukat, Hussam Al Soub, Muna Al Maslamani, Abdullatif Al Khal

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Background: The aim of this study was to assess clinical presentation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus (S.) anginosus group infections in Hamad General Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in the state of Qatar, which is a multinational community. The S. anginosus group is a subgroup of viridans streptococci that consist of 3 different species: S. anginosus, S. constellatus, and S. intermedius. Although a part of the human bacteria flora, they have potential to cause suppurative infections. Method: We studied a total of 101 patients with S. anginosus group infections from January 2006 until March 2012 by reviewing medical records and identification of organisms by VITEK 2 and MALDI-TOF. Results: The most common sites of infection were skin and soft tissue, intra-abdominal, and bacteremia (28.7%, 24.8%, and 22.7%, respectively). Abscess formation was seen in approximately 30% of patients. Streptococcus constellatus was the most common isolated species (40%) followed by S. anginosus(30%) and S. intermedius(7%). In 23% of specimens, the species was unidentified. The most common type of specimen for organism isolation was blood followed by pus and tissue (50%, 22%, and 8%, respectively). Streptococcus constellatus was more frequently associated with abdominal and skin and soft tissue infections than the other 2 species, whereas S. anginosus was isolated more frequently from blood. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ceftriaxone, and vancomycin. Susceptibility to erythromycin and clindamycin was also good, reaching 91% and 95%, respectively. Forty percent of patients needed surgical drainage along with antibiotic therapy. Conclusions: Identification of S. anginosus group to species level is helpful in clinical practice because different species exhibit different pathogenic potentials.

Keywords: abscess, bacterial infection, bacteremia, Streptococcus anginosus

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597 MR Imaging Spectrum of Intracranial Infections: An Experience of 100 Cases in a Tertiary Hospital in Northern India

Authors: Avik Banerjee, Kavita Saggar

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Infections of the nervous system and adjacent structures are often life-threatening conditions. Despite the recent advances in neuroimaging evaluation, the diagnosis of unclear infectious CNS disease remains a challenge. Our aim is to evaluate the typical and atypical neuro-imaging features of the various routinely encountered CNS infected patients so as to form guidelines for their imaging recognition and differentiation from tumoral, vascular and other entities that warrant a different line of therapy.

Keywords: central nervous system (CNS), Cerebro Spinal Fluid (Csf), Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (CJD), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)

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596 Health Promotion Program on Prevention of Zoonotic Diseases among Aborigines in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Siti Fatimah Kader Maideen, Abdul Rashid, Nur Indah Ahmad

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Introduction: Indigenous people have an increased risk of contracting zoonotic infections due to their practices. Similarly, the aborigines in Peninsular Malaysia, the Orang Asli, have a higher risk too. This study aimed to empower the Jahai children on the prevention of zoonotic infections by implementing a health promotion intervention program. Methods: A non-experimental pre and post-test interventional study was conducted among the indigenous primary school children aged between nine and 12 years in Perak, Malaysia. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the pre-and post-knowledge and attitudes towards zoonotic infections and hand hygiene practice. This is followed by three sessions of the health promotion program. Ethical approval was obtained prior to the data collection. Data were analysed using SPSS software. Results: The knowledge on whether diseases can spread from animals to humans, transmission via saliva and faeces, types of organisms that can infect, and signs and symptoms increased significantly between pre and post. Significant improvements were observed in the attitude and practices too. Conclusion: The intervention program demonstrated improvement in the knowledge, attitude, and practice among the children. The continuous program needs to be conducted for a sustainable outcome.

Keywords: health promotion, zoonotic infections, aborigines, knowledge, practice

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595 Study on the Presence of Protozoal Co-Infections Among Patients With Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Bulgaria

Authors: Nina Tsvetkova, Aleksandra Ivanova, Rumen Harizanov, Iskra Rainova, Nina Yancheva-Petrova, Dimitar Strashimirov, Raina Enikova, Mihaela Videnova, Eleonora Kaneva, Iskren Kaftandjiev, Viktoria Levterova, Ivan Simeonovski, Nikolay Yanev, Georgi Hinkov

Abstract:

The Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) and protozoan of the genera Acanthamoeba, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma gondii are opportunistic pathogens that can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Aim of the study was to evaluate the co-infection rate with opportunistic protozoal agents among the Bulgarian patients diagnosed with P. jirovecii pneumonia. Thirty eight pulmonary samples were collected from 38 patients (28 HIV-infected) with P. jirovecii infection. P. jirovecii DNA was detected by real-time PCR targeting the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Acanthamoeba was determined by genus-specific conventional PCR assay. Real-time PCR for detection of a Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium DNA fragment was used. Pneumocystis DNA was detected in all 38 specimens, 28 (73,7%) were from HIV-infected patients. Three (10,7%) of them were co-infected with T. gondii and 1 (3,6%) with Cryptosporidium. In the group of non-HIV-infected (n=10), Cryptosporidium DNA was detected in an infant (10%). Acanthamoeba DNA was not found in the tested samples. The current study showed a relatively low rate of co-infections of Cryptosporidium spp. / T. gondii and P. jirovecii in the Bulgarian patients studied.

Keywords: co-infection, opportunistic protozoal agents, Pneumocystis jirovecii, pulmonary infections

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594 Antibacterial Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) and Murraya koenigii (Curry Leaves) against Multidrug Resistant S. aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus Species

Authors: Asma Naim, Warda Mushtaq

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Staphylococcus species are the most versatile and adaptive organism. They are widespread and naturally found on the skin, mucosa and nose in humans. Among these, Staphylococcus aureus is the most important species. These organisms act as opportunistic pathogens and can infect various organs of the host, causing minor skin infection to severe toxin mediated diseases, and life threatening nosocomial infections. Staphylococcus aureus has acquired resistance against β-lactam antibiotics by the production of β-lactamase, and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have also been reported with increasing frequency. MRSA strains have been associated with nosocomial as well as community acquired infections. Medicinal plants have enormous potential as antimicrobial substances and have been used in traditional medicine. Search for medicinally valuable plants with antimicrobial activity is being emphasized due to increasing antibiotic resistance in bacteria. In the present study, the antibacterial potential of Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) and Murraya koenigii (curry leaves) was evaluated. These are common household herbs used in food as enhancer of flavor and aroma. The crude aqueous infusion, decoction and ethanolic extracts of curry leaves and rosemary and essential oil of rosemary were investigated in the present study for antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus strains using well diffusion method. In the present study, 60 Multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of S. aureus (43) and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) (17) were screened against different concentrations of crude extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Murraya koenigii. Out of these 60 isolates, 43 were sensitive to the aqueous infusion of rosemary; 23 to aqueous decoction and 58 to ethanolic extract whereas, 24 isolates were sensitive to the essential oil. In the case of the curry leaves, no antibacterial activity was observed in aqueous infusion and decoction while only 14 isolates were sensitive to the ethanolic extract. The aqueous infusion of rosemary (50% concentration) exhibited a zone of inhibition of 21(±5.69) mm. against CoNS and 17(±4.77) mm. against S. aureus, the zone of inhibition of 50% concentration of aqueous decoction of rosemary was also larger against CoNS 17(±5.78) mm. then S. aureus 13(±6.91) mm. and the 50% concentrated ethanolic extract showed almost similar zone of inhibition in S. aureus 22(±3.61) mm. and CoNS 21(±7.64) mm. whereas, the essential oil of rosemary showed greater zone of inhibition against S. aureus i.e., 16(±4.67) mm. while CoNS showed 15(±6.94) mm. These results show that ethanolic extract of rosemary has significant antibacterial activity. Aqueous infusion and decoction of curry leaves revealed no significant antibacterial potential against all Staphylococcal species and ethanolic extract also showed only a weak response. Staphylococcus strains were susceptible to crude extracts and essential oil of rosemary in a dose depend manner, where the aqueous infusion showed highest zone of inhibition and ethanolic extract also demonstrated antistaphylococcal activity. These results demonstrate that rosemary possesses antistaphylococcal activity.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, curry leaves, multidrug resistant, rosemary, S. aureus

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