Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1230

Search results for: complicated intra-abdominal infections

1230 Clinical and Microbiologic Efficacy and Safety of Imipenem Cilastatin Relebactam in Complicated Infections: A Meta-analysis

Authors: Syeda Sahra, Abdullah Jahangir, Rachelle Hamadi, Ahmad Jahangir, Allison Glaser

Abstract:

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is on the rise. The use of redundant and inappropriate antibiotics is contributing to recurrent infections and resistance. Newer antibiotics with more robust coverage for gram-negative bacteria are in great demand for complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs), hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (H.A.B.P.), and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (V.A.B.P.). Objective: We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of a new antibiotic, Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam, compared to other broad-spectrum antibiotics for complicated infections. Search Strategy: We conducted a systemic review search on PubMed, Embase, and Central Cochrane Registry. Selection Criteria: We included randomized clinical trials (R.C.T.s) with the standard of care as comparator arm with Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam as intervention arm. Analysis: For continuous variables, the mean difference was used. For discrete variables, we used the odds ratio. For effect sizes, we used a confidence interval of 95%. A p-value of less than 0.05 was used for statistical significance. Analysis was done using a random-effects model irrespective of heterogeneity. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the I2 statistic. Results: The authors observed similar efficacy at clinical and microbiologic response levels on early follow-up and late follow-up compared to the established standard of care. The incidence of drug-related adverse events, serious adverse events, and drug discontinuation due to adverse events were comparable across both groups. Conclusion: Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam has a non-inferior safety and efficacy profile compared to peer antibiotics to treat severe bacterial infections (cUTIs, cIAIs, H.A.B.P., V.A.B.P.).

Keywords: bacterial pneumonia, complicated intra-abdominal infections, complicated urinary tract infection, Imipenem, cilastatin, relebactam

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1229 Risk Factors for Severe Typhoid Fever in Children: A French Retrospective Study about 78 Cases from 2000-2017 in Six Parisian Hospitals

Authors: Jonathan Soliman, Thomas Cavasino, Virginie Pommelet, Lahouari Amor, Pierre Mornand, Simon Escoda, Nina Droz, Soraya Matczak, Julie Toubiana, François Angoulvant, Etienne Carbonnelle, Albert Faye, Loic de Pontual, Luu-Ly Pham

Abstract:

Background: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are systemic infections caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or paratyphi (A, B, C). Children traveling to tropical areas are at risk to contract these diseases which can be complicated. Methods: Clinical, biological and bacteriological data were collected from 78 pediatric cases reported between 2000 and 2017 in six Parisian hospitals. Children aged 0 to 18 years old, with a diagnosis of typhoid or paratyphoid fever confirmed by bacteriological exams, were included. Epidemiologic, clinical, biological features and presence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria or intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (nalidixic acid resistant) were examined by univariate analysis and by logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors of severe typhoid in children. Results: 84,6% of the children were imported cases of typhoid fever (n=66/78) and 15,4% were autochthonous cases (n=12/78). 89,7% were caused by S.typhi (n=70/78) and 12,8% by S.paratyphi (n=10/78) including 2 co-infections. 19,2% were intrafamilial cases (n=15/78). Median age at diagnosis was 6,4 years-old [6 months-17,9 years]. 28,2% of the cases were complicated forms (n=22/78): digestive (n=8; 10,3%), neurological (n=7; 9%), pulmonary complications (n=4; 5,1%) and hemophagocytic syndrome (n=4; 5,1%). Only 5% of the children had prior immunization with typhoid non-conjugated vaccine (n=4/78). 28% of the cases (n=22/78) were caused by resistant bacteria. Thrombocytopenia and diagnosis delay was significantly associated with severe infection (p= 0.029 and p=0,01). Complicated forms were more common with MDR (p=0,1) and not statistically associated with a young age or sex in this study. Conclusions: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are not rare in children back from tropical areas. This multicentric pediatric study seems to show that thrombocytopenia, diagnosis delay, and multidrug resistant bacteria are associated with severe typhoid fever and complicated forms in children.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, children, Salmonella enterica typhi and paratyphi, severe typhoid

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1228 Risk Factors for High Resistance of Ciprofloxacin Against Escherichia coli in Complicated Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Liaqat Ali, Khalid Farooq, Shafieullah Khan, Nasir Orakzai, Qudratullah

Abstract:

Objectives: To determine the risk factors for high resistance of ciprofloxacin in complicated urinary tract infections. Materials and Methods: It is an analytical study that was conducted in the department of Urology (Team ‘C’) at Institute of Kidney Diseases Hayatabad Peshawar from 1st June 2012 till 31st December 2012. Total numbers of 100 patients with complicated UTI was selected in the study. Multivariate analysis and linear regression were performed for the detection of risk factors. All the data was recorded on structured Proforma and was analyzed on SPSS version 17. Results: The mean age of the patient was 55.6 years (Range 3-82 years). 62 patients were male while 38 patients were female. 66 isolates of E-Coli were found sensitive to ciprofloxacin while 34 isolates were found Resistant for ciprofloxacin. Using multivariate analysis and linear regression, an increasing age above 50 (p=0.002) History of urinary catheterization especially for bladder outflow obstruction (p=0.001) and previous multiple use of ciprofloxacin (p=0.001) and poor brand of ciprofloxacin were found to be independent risk factors for high resistance of ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: UTI is common illness across the globe with increasing trend of antimicrobial resistance for ciprofloxacin against E Coli in complicated UTI. The risk factors for emerging resistance are increasing age, urinary catheterization and multiple use and poor brand of ciprofloxacin.

Keywords: urinary tract infection, ciprofloxacin, urethral catheterization, antimicrobial resistance

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1227 Epidemiological Profile of Healthcare Associated Infections in Intensive Care Unit

Authors: Abdessamad Dali-Ali, Houaria Beldjillali, Fouzia Agag, Asmaa Oukebdane, Ramzi Tidjani, Arslane Bettayeb, Khadidja Meddeber, Radia Dali-Yahia, Nori Midoun

Abstract:

Healthcare-associated infections are a real public health problem, especially in intensive care units. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological profile and to estimate the incidence of these infections at the intensive care unit of our teaching hospital. A prospective study was conducted, from June 2012 to December 2013. During this period, 305 patients having a duration of hospitalization equal or more than 48 hours were included in the study. In terms of the incidence of healthcare associated infections, nosocomial pneumonia occupied the first position with a cumulative incidence rate of 20.0%, followed by bacteremia (5.6%), central venous catheter infections (4%), and urinary tract infections (3%). In the case of isolated microorganisms, Gram-negative bacilli not enterobacteriaceae occupied the first place with 48.5%, followed by enterobacteria (32.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the most common germ (27.6%). Our study showed that the rate of health-care-associated infections was relatively high in the intensive care unit. A control program to reduce all infections is a priority for the Infection Control Associated Committee.

Keywords: epidemiological profile, healthcare associated infections, intensive care units, teaching hospital of Oran, Algeria

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1226 The Role of Pulmonary Resection in Complicated Primary Pediatric Pulmonary Tuberculosis: An Evidence-Based Case Report

Authors: Hendra Wibowo, Suprayitno Wardoyo, Dhama Shinta

Abstract:

Introduction: Pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) incidence was increasing, with many undetected cases. In complicated TB, treatment should consist of returning pulmonary function, preventing further complications, and eliminating bacteria. Complicated TB management was still controversial, and surgery was one of the treatments that should be evaluated in accordance with its role in the treatment of complicated TB. Method: This study was an evidence-based case report. The database used for the literature search were Cochrane, Medline, Proquest, and ScienceDirect. Keywords for the search were ‘primary pulmonary tuberculosis’, ‘surgery’, ‘lung resection’, and ‘children’. Inclusion criteria were studies in English or Indonesian, with children under 18 years old as subject, and full-text articles available. The assessment was done according to Oxford Centre for evidence-based medicine 2011. Results: Six cohort studies were analyzed. Surgery was indicated for patients with complicated TB that were unresponsive towards treatment. It should be noted that the experiments were done before the standard WHO antituberculosis therapy was applied; thus, the result may be different from the current application. Conclusion: Currently, there was no guideline on pulmonary resection. However, surgery yielded better mortality and morbidity in children with complicated pulmonary TB.

Keywords: pediatric, pulmonary, surgery, therapy, tuberculosis

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1225 Prevalence and Factors Associated with Multiple Parasitic Infections among Rural Community in Kano State Nigeria

Authors: Salwa S. Dawaki, Init Ithoi, Sa’adatu I. Yelwa

Abstract:

Introduction: Parasitic infections are major public health problems worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Two third of the world population is infected while about 3 billion are at risk of parasitic infections. It is demonstrated that most parasitic infections occur as multiple infections especially among poor and rural communities of most countries in the tropical regions. Parasitic infections are endemic in Nigeria, yet multiple infections are rarely reported. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and identify factors associating with multiple parasitic infections among rural population in Kano State Nigeria. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to August 2013 in rural Kano State, Nigeria. Three samples stool, urine, and blood were collected from each of the 551 volunteers aged between one and ninety years old recruited for the survey. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain epidemiological data. Data were analysed using appropriate descriptive, univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods. Major findings: The participants were 61.7% male, 38.3% female, and 69.0% were adults of 15 years and above. Overall, 463 (84%) were infected with parasitic infections among which 60.9% had multiple infections. A total of 15 parasitic species were recovered, and up to 8 different parasitic species were found concurrently in a single host. Plasmodium was the most common parasite followed by Blastocystis, Entamoeba species, and hookworms. It was found that presence of an infected family member (P = 0.017; OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.08, 2.13) and not wearing shoes outside home (P = 0.043; OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.01, 2.18) significantly associated with higher risk of having multiple parasitic infections among the studied population. Conclusion: Parasitic infections pose a public health challenge in the rural community of Kano. Multiple parasitic infections are highly prevalent and presence of an infected family member as well as not wearing proper foot wear outside home increases the risk of infection. Poor hygiene, unfavourable socioeconomic conditions, and culture promote survival and transmission of parasites. There is a need for implementation of integrated approach aimed at controlling or eliminating the infections with emphasis on public awareness.

Keywords: multiple infections, parasitic infections, poor hygiene, risk of infection

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1224 Complicated Sinusitis with Sphenopalatine Artery Thrombosis in a Covid-19 Patient

Authors: Sara Mahmood, Omar Ahmed, Youssef Aladham, Moustafa Abdelnaby

Abstract:

The varied complications of COVID-19 present an ongoing challenge to healthcare professionals. A rare presentation of complicated sinusitis with pre-septal cellulitis and hard palatal necrosis in a COVID-19 patient, was reported. A 52-year-old male was admitted to the hospital with typical COVID manifestations where he had two successive COVID-19 positive swabs. During his admission, he developed symptoms of right orbital complications of sinusitis along with both clinical and radiological evidence of ipsilateral hard palatal necrosis. Imaging confirmed a diagnosis of right pan-sinusitis complicated with right pre-septal infection and hard palatal bony defect on the same side. Intra-operatively, the sphenopalatine artery was found to be thrombosed. This case focuses on the possible association between these manifestations and the known thromboembolic complications of COVID-19. Ongoing management of such complicated rare cases should be through a multidisciplinary team.

Keywords: COVID-19, sinusitis, sphenopalatine artery, thrombosis

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1223 The Value of Serum Procalcitonin in Patients with Acute Musculoskeletal Infections

Authors: Mustafa Al-Yaseen, Haider Mohammed Mahdi, Haider Ali Al–Zahid, Nazar S. Haddad

Abstract:

Background: Early diagnosis of musculoskeletal infections is of vital importance to avoid devastating complications. There is no single laboratory marker which is sensitive and specific in diagnosing these infections accurately. White blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein are not specific as they can also be elevated in conditions other than bacterial infections. Materials Culture and sensitivity is not a true gold standard due to its varied positivity rates. Serum Procalcitonin is one of the new laboratory markers for pyogenic infections. The objective of this study is to assess the value of PCT in the diagnosis of soft tissue, bone, and joint infections. Patients and Methods: Patients of all age groups (seventy-four patients) with a diagnosis of musculoskeletal infection are prospectively included in this study. All patients were subjected to White blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and serum Procalcitonin measurements. A healthy non infected outpatient group (twenty-two patients) taken as a control group and underwent the same evaluation steps as the study group. Results: The study group showed mean Procalcitonin levels of 1.3 ng/ml. Procalcitonin, at 0.5 ng/ml, was (42.6%) sensitive and (95.5%) specific in diagnosing of musculoskeletal infections with (positive predictive value of 87.5% and negative predictive value of 48.3%) and (positive likelihood ratio of 9.3 and negative likelihood ratio of 0.6). Conclusion: Serum Procalcitonin, at a cut – off of 0.5 ng/ml, is a specific but not sensitive marker in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal infections, and it can be used effectively to rule in the diagnosis of infection but not to rule out it.

Keywords: procalcitonin, infection, labratory markers, musculoskeletal

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1222 The Number of Corona Virus Infections in 2020

Authors: Yasaswi Vengalasetti, Jacob Eisenach, Jay Bhattacharya

Abstract:

Seroprevalence studies can provide an estimation of the Infection Fatality Rate (IFR), the probability of death given infection. Measuring the seroprevalence and reported deaths of an area within a given time frame an IFR can be estimated. With this IFR calculation, we can then observe COVID-19 death figures in different countries around the world and estimate the number of cases since the onset of the pandemic. There is a large range for estimated COVID-19 infections across different countries. This ranged from 0.659 million infections in Hong Kong to 277 million infections in India. The largest estimated share of the population infected is 63% in Peru and the lowest is 3% in Norway. For younger populations, COVID-19 is most fatal in South America; for older populations, it is most fatal in North America. The Asian regions stand out with significantly lower IFRs in older populations: at 80 years old, COVID-19 is about three times as fatal than in South Asia and about twelve times as fatal than in East Asia. The weighted average for the share of the population infected, the sum of infections divided by the sum of populations across all countries, is 23%.

Keywords: epidemiology, seroprevalence, covid-19, infection fatality rate

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1221 Study of Germs Responsible of Nosocomial Infections in Hospital of Guelma

Authors: Wissem Abdaoui, Ilhem Mokhtari, Adel Gouri, Benouareth Djamel Eddine

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Contracted in a health facility, hospital-acquired infections are a major public health problem in recent years. The increase of nosocomial infections is partly related to diagnostic and therapeutic advances in medicine. The aim of our study was to isolate and diagnose some types of bacteria that are circulating in the hospital by performing different samples at two medical services: Pulmonary and Infectious Diseases. The antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed for bacterial isolates. The results have shown that there is a predominance of enterobacteria followed by the staphylococcus with its two species epidermidis ans saprophyticus. The study of the antibiogramme identified that some of these bacteria have a resistant profile against all the tested antibiotics. The fight against nosocomial infections is difficult because it must act on several factors: quality of care, safety of the hospital environment, hygiene, wearing gloves etc. are all areas that should be of heightened vigilance and preventive measures.

Keywords: nosocomial infection, isolation, identification, sensitivity and resistance to antibiotics

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1220 Retrospective Evaluation of Vector-borne Infections in Cats Living in Germany (2012-2019)

Authors: I. Schäfer, B. Kohn, M. Volkmann, E. Müller

Abstract:

Introduction: Blood-feeding arthropods transmit parasitic, bacterial, or viral pathogens to domestic animals and wildlife. Vector-borne infections are gaining significance due to the increase of travel, import of domestic animals from abroad, and the changing climate in Europe. Aims of the study: The main objective of this retrospective study was to assess the prevalence of vector-borne infections in cats in which a ‘Feline Travel Profile’ had been conducted. Material and Methods: This retrospective study included test results from cats for which a ‘Feline Travel Profile’ established by LABOKLIN had been requested by veterinarians between April 2012 and December 2019. This profile contains direct detection methods via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Hepatozoon spp. and Dirofilaria spp. as well as indirect detection methods via immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for Ehrlichia spp. and Leishmania spp. This profile was expanded to include an IFAT for Rickettsia spp. from July 2015 onwards. The prevalence of the different vector-borne infectious agents was calculated. Results: A total of 602 cats were tested using the ‘Feline Travel Profile’. Positive test results were as follows: Rickettsia spp. IFAT 54/442 (12.2%), Ehrlichia spp. IFAT 68/602 (11.3%), Leishmania spp. IFAT 21/602 (3.5%), Hepatozoon spp. PCR 51/595 (8.6%), and Dirofilaria spp. PCR 1/595 cats (0.2%). Co-infections with more than one pathogen could be detected in 22/602 cats. Conclusions: 170/602 cats (28.2%) were tested positive for at least one vector-borne pathogen. Infections with multiple pathogens could be detected in 3.7% of the cats. The data emphasizes the importance of considering vector-borne infections as potential differential diagnoses in cats.

Keywords: arthopod-transmitted infections, feline vector-borne infections, Germany, laboratory diagnostics

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1219 Lower Limb Oedema in Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

Authors: Mihai-Ionut Firescu, Mark A. P. Carson

Abstract:

We present a case of inferior vena cava agenesis (IVCA) associated with bilateral deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in a patient with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). In adult patients with BWS presenting with bilateral lower limb oedema, specific aetiological factors should be considered. These include cardiomyopathy and intraabdominal tumours. Congenital malformations of the IVC, through causing relative venous stasis, can lead to lower limb oedema either directly or indirectly by favouring lower limb venous thromboembolism; however, they are yet to be reported as an associated feature of BWS. Given its life-threatening potential, the prompt initiation of treatment for bilateral DVT is paramount. In BWS patients, however, this can prove more complicated. Due to overgrowth, the above-average birth weight can continue throughout childhood. In this case, the patient’s weight reached 170 kg, impacting on anticoagulation choice, as direct oral anticoagulants have a limited evidence base in patients with a body mass above 120 kg. Furthermore, the presence of IVCA leads to a long-term increased venous thrombosis risk. Therefore, patients with IVCA and bilateral DVT warrant specialist consideration and may benefit from multidisciplinary team management, with hematology and vascular surgery input. Conclusion: Here, we showcased a rare cause for bilateral lower limb oedema, respectively bilateral deep venous thrombosis complicating IVCA in a patient with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The importance of this case lies in its novelty, as the association between IVC agenesis and BWS has not yet been described. Furthermore, the treatment of DVT in such situations requires special consideration, taking into account the patient’s weight and the presence of a significant, predisposing vascular abnormality.

Keywords: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, bilateral deep venous thrombosis, inferior vena cava agenesis, venous thromboembolism

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1218 A Study on the Prevalence and Microbiological Profile of Nosocomial Infections in the ICU of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee

Abstract:

This study was done to determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections in the ICU and to identify the common microorganisms causing these infections and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. Nosocomial infection or hospital-acquired infection is a localized or a systemic condition resulting from an adverse reaction to the presence of infectious agents. Nosocomial infections are not present or incubating when the patient is admitted to hospital or other health care facility. They are caused by pathogens that easily spread through the body. Many hospitalized patients have compromised immune systems, so they are less able to fight off infections. These infections occur worldwide, both in the developed and developing the world. They are a significant burden to patients and public health. They are a major cause of death and increased morbidity in hospitalized patients, which is a matter of serious concern today. This study was done during the period of one year (2012-2013) in the ICU of the tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Prevalence of nosocomial infection was determined; site of infection and the pattern of microorganisms were identified along with the assessment of antibiotic susceptibility profile. Patients who developed an infection after 48 hours of admission to the ICU were included in the study. A total of 324 ICU patients were analyzed, of these 79 patients were found to have developed a nosocomial infection (24.3% prevalence). Urinary tract infection was found to be more predominant followed by respiratory tract infection and soft tissue infection. The most frequently isolated microorganism was E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by other organisms respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility test of these isolates was done against commonly used antibiotics. Patients admitted to the ICU are especially susceptible to nosocomial infections. Despite adequate antimicrobial treatment, nosocomial ICU infections can significantly affect ICU stay and can cause an increase in patient’s morbidity and mortality. Adherence to infection protocol, proper monitoring and the judicious use of antibiotics are important in preventing such infections on a regular basis.

Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility, intensive care unit, nosocomial infection, nosocomial pathogen

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1217 Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) by PCR Technique in Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) in Babylon City

Authors: Amal Raqib Shameran, Ghanim Aboud Al-Mola

Abstract:

Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the major pathogens of respiratory tract infections (RTI) among infants and children in the world. They are classified in family Paramyxoviridae and sub-family Pneumovirinae. The current work aimed to detect the role of RSV in the lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in Hilla, Iraq. The samples were collected from 50 children who were admitted to hospital suffering from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). 50 nasal and pharyngeal swabs were taken from patients at the period from January 2010 till April 2011, hospitalized in Hilla Maternity and Children Hospital. The results showed that the proportion of children infected with hRSV accounted for 24% 12/50 with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) when they tested by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

Keywords: respiratory syncytial virus, respiratory tract infections, infants, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

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1216 Epidemiological Profile of Hospital Acquired Infections Caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in Intensive Care Unit

Authors: A. Dali-Ali, F. Agag, H. Beldjilali, A. Oukebdane, K. Meddeber, R. Dali-Yahia, N. Midoun

Abstract:

The ability of Acinetobacter baumannii to develop multiple resistances towards to the majority of antibiotics explains the therapeutic difficulties encountered in severe infections. Furthermore, its persistence in the humid or dry environment promotes cross-contamination in intensive care units. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological and bacterial resistance profiles of hospital-acquired infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in the intensive care unit of our teaching hospital. During the study period (June 3, 2012 to December 31, 2013), 305 patients having duration of hospitalization equal or more than 48 hours were included in the study. Among these, 36 had developed, at least, one health-care associated infection caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. The rate of infected patients was equal to 11.8% (36/305). The rate of cumulative incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia was the highest (9.2%) followed by central venous catheter infection (1.3%). Analysis of the various antibiotic resistance profile shows that 93.8% of the strains were resistant to imipenem. The nosocomial infection control committee set up a special program not only to reduce the high rates of incidence of these infections but also to descrease the rate of imipenem resistance.

Keywords: Acinetobacer baumannii, epidemiological profile, hospital acquired infections, intensive care unit

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1215 Youthful Population Sexual Activity in Malawi: A Health Scenario

Authors: A. Sathiya Susuman, N. Wilson

Abstract:

Background: The sexual behaviour of youths is believed to play an important role in the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Method: The data from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2010 and a sample of 16,217 youth’s age 15 to 24 years (with each household 27.2% female and 72.8% male) was the basis for analysis. Bivariate and logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: The result shows married youth were not interested in condom use (94.2%, p<0.05). Those who were living together were 69 times (OR=1.69, 95% CI, 1.26–2.26) more likely to be involved in early sexual activity compared to those who were not living together. Conclusion: This scientific paper will help other researchers, policy makers, and planners to create strategies to encourage these youths to make use of contraception.

Keywords: sexually transmitted infections (STIs), reproductive tract infections (RTIs), condom use, sexual partners, early sexual debut, youths

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1214 Salon-Associated Infections: Customer’s Knowledge and Practice Measures

Authors: Esraa Elaraby, Dania Abu Zahra, Ghidaa Maswadah, Osama Amira, Mohamed Alshoura, Nihar Dash

Abstract:

Background: Human being uses salon for a variety of purposes, from trimming of hair and shaving to a range of beauty treatments such as manicure and pedicure. Salon activities involve use of several instruments including scissors, scalpels and razors, materials such as soaps, solutions, creams and gels on human skin and body. Besides, salon customers also use chair, bed and many other common shared utensils and appliances. These salons related activities create a suitable environment for the transmission of several diseases and pathogens including hepatitis B and C, scabies, tuberculosis, staphylococcus and MRSA etc. The transmission of these pathogens can be prevented by maintenance of adequate hygiene and standard preventive measures. Aim: To assess the customer’s level of knowledge about salon-acquired infections and practices taken to prevent their transmission. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 participants across the Emirates. Moreover, self-administered questionnaires (in English and Arabic) were distributed through convenience sampling methods between February and April 2017. Results: The study included 500 participants of which 250 were females. The mean age of the study population was 33 years (SD=4.77). The participants were from several nationalities including 325 Arabs (Non-GCC) (66.2%), 108 Non-Arabs (22%), and 59 Arabs (GCC) (11.8%). The majority of the participants 421 (84.4%) had required knowledge about salon-associated infections with a mean knowledge score of 6/10 (60%). However, when it comes down to preventive practices, only 73 of the 500 participants (14.6%) did carry their own equipment. Thus, there was insufficient correlation between the level of knowledge and preventive practices (p=0.139) of salon-associated infections. Conclusion: People’s knowledge about the salon-associated infections among UAE residents was good, but only a small number practically took the required preventative measures towards this issue. Therefore, a public awareness program is recommended to enhance the deficiencies in knowledge and practices to prevent salon-acquired infections among the users. Up to our knowledge, this is the first study of this kind in the UAE targeting the salon customers about this important issue.

Keywords: awareness, knowledge, practices, salon-associated infections

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1213 Immunity Boosting and Balanced Diet Prevents Viral Infections with Special Emphasis on COVID-19

Authors: K. R. Padma, K. R. Don

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Background and aims: A balanced nutritional diet is essential in maintaining immunity and for deterrence as well as desisting of viral infections. Nevertheless, currently, very less information is available online regarding nutrition consumption during the period of coronavirus infection, i.e. (COVID-19). In our systematic review article, we portrayed and aimed to evaluate evidence from various previous clinical trials, which was based on nutritional interventions for viral diseases and given a concise overview. Methods: A systematic search was carried out employing 3 key medical databases: PubMed®, Web of Science®, and SciVerse Scopus®. Studies were performed and evaluated suitable if clinical trials in humans, appropriate immunological parameters on viral and respiratory infections, need to perform. Basic Clinical trials on nutritional vitamins, minerals, nutraceuticals as well as probiotics were included. Results: We have explored 10 review articles and extracted data for our study. A total of > 2000 participants were included and excluded several other trace elements as well as various vitamins, but in inclusion criteria mainly concentrated on those who have shown propitious immune-modulatory effects against viral respiratory infections. Conclusions: We have encapsulated the potential health benefits of some minerals, vitamins, as well as certain designer foods, nutraceuticals, and probiotics in viral infections. Based on this nutritional interventional strategy available from our present data, it could be promising to abstain and reduce the COVID-19 infection replication and boost our immunity to fight against the virus.

Keywords: COVID-19, immunity, vitamins, nutritional intervention strategy

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1212 Inequalities in Gastrointestinal Infections between UK Ethnic Groups: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis

Authors: Iram Zahair, Tanith Rose, Oyinlola Oyebode, Stephen Clayton, Iman Ghosh, Michelle Maden, Ben Barr

Abstract:

Background: Gastrointestinal infections exert a significant public health burden on UK healthcare services and the community. However, there are conflicting findings on where ethnic inequalities are likely to persist. This systematic review aimed to identify studies that ascertain differences in the incidence and prevalence of gastrointestinal infections within and between UK ethnic groups and explore possible explanations for heterogeneity observed within the literature. Methods: Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance, a systematic review methodology was used. Medline, Web of Science, CINAHL Plus, and grey literature were searched from 1980 to 2021 for studies reporting an association between ethnicity and gastrointestinal infections in UK population samples. Two reviewers independently screened the articles and conducted quality appraisals; data extraction was undertaken by one reviewer and verified by two reviewers (PROSPERO CRD 42021240714). A narrative synthesis was undertaken to synthesise the study findings. Results: The searches identified 8134 studies; 13 met the inclusion criteria. 12 out of 13 studies found a difference in the prevalence of gastrointestinal infections between different ethnic groups. UK ethnic minorities, predominantly men and children of Asian ethnicity, had an increased risk of infection than the white British majority in 12 studies; the Pakistani ethnic group had a higher risk of infection in three out of 13 studies. Studies reported that age and sex confounded the relationship between ethnicity and gastrointestinal infections. At the same time, the country of birth, socioeconomic status, and geographical location of ethnic groups mediated this association and significantly explained the heterogeneity observed across the studies. Harvest plots supported the textual synthesis. Conclusion: This systematic review elucidates the lack of extensive UK quantitative evidence examining the association between ethnicity and gastrointestinal infections. Insights into gastrointestinal infections and ethnicity's association can help address policy actions to mitigate the inequalities identified within and between UK ethnic groups.

Keywords: ethnic and racial populations, public health, public health policy, systematic review

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1211 Analysis and Design of Irregular Large Cantilever Structure of Statue

Authors: Pan Rui, Ma Jun, Zhao Caiqi, Wang Guangda

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With the development of the tourism and religion,more and more large statue structures are adopted to build all over the world.For instance,the GuanYin statue with three plane reaches 108 meters high in HaiNan province in China.These statue structures belong to typical high-rise Building. However,the geometry sculpt of statues are complicated .The irregular shape makes these structures more complicated in force analysis than those normal standard tall buildings.In this paper,the Liu Bang Statue which is located at XuZhou in China.

Keywords: large statue structure, special-shaped steel, GuanYin statue, China

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1210 Prevalence of Cytomegalovirus-DNA in the Patients’ Serum with HIV using Real time PCR

Authors: Mohammadreza Aghasadeghi, Mojtaba Hamidi-fard, Seyed Amir Sadeghi, Ashkan Noorbakhsh

Abstract:

Introduction: HIV is known as one of the most important pathogens and mortality in all human societies, but unfortunately no definitive cure has been found for it. Due to its weakened immune system, this virus causes a variety of primary and secondary opportunistic infections. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most relevant opportunistic virus seen in HIV-positive people that cause various infections in HIV-positive people. This virus causes various infections in HIV-positive people, such as retinal infection (CMVR), gastro-intestinal infections, diarrhea, severe weight loss, and cerebrospinal fluid problems. These various infections make it important to evaluate the prevalence of CMV in HIV-positive people to diagnose it quickly and in a timely manner. This infection in HIV-positive people reduces life expectancy and causes serious harm to patients. However, a simple test in HIV-positive people can prevent the virus from progressing. Material and Methods: In this study, we collected 200 blood samples (including 147 men and 53 women) from HIV-positive individuals and examined the frequency of CMV-DNA in these cases by real-time PCR method. In the next step, the data was analyzed by SPSS software and then we obtained the relationship between age, sex and the frequency of CMV in HIV-positive individuals. Results: The total frequency of CMV DNA was about 59%, which is a relatively high prevalence due to the age range of the subjects. The frequency in men was 61.2% and 52.8% in women. This frequency was also higher in males than females. We also observed more frequency in two age groups of 16 to 30 years and 31 to 45 years. Discussion: Due to the high prevalence of CMV in HIV-positive individuals and causing serious problems in this group of people, this study was shown that both the patients and the community should pay more attention to this issue. Ministry of Health as a stakeholder organization can make CMV DNA testing mandatory as soon as a person was HIV positive.

Keywords: CMV, HIV, AIDS, real-time PCR, SPSS

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1209 Rapid Detection of the Etiology of Infection as Bacterial or Viral Using Infrared Spectroscopy of White Blood Cells

Authors: Uraib Sharaha, Guy Beck, Joseph Kapelushnik, Adam H. Agbaria, Itshak Lapidot, Shaul Mordechai, Ahmad Salman, Mahmoud Huleihel

Abstract:

Infectious diseases cause a significant burden on the public health and the economic stability of societies all over the world for several centuries. A reliable detection of the causative agent of infection is not possible based on clinical features, since some of these infections have similar symptoms, including fever, sneezing, inflammation, vomiting, diarrhea, and fatigue. Moreover, physicians usually encounter difficulties in distinguishing between viral and bacterial infections based on symptoms. Therefore, there is an ongoing need for sensitive, specific, and rapid methods for identification of the etiology of the infection. This intricate issue perplex doctors and researchers since it has serious repercussions. In this study, we evaluated the potential of the mid-infrared spectroscopic method for rapid and reliable identification of bacterial and viral infections based on simple peripheral blood samples. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is considered a successful diagnostic method in the biological and medical fields. Many studies confirmed the great potential of the combination of FTIR spectroscopy and machine learning as a powerful diagnostic tool in medicine since it is a very sensitive method, which can detect and monitor the molecular and biochemical changes in biological samples. We believed that this method would play a major role in improving the health situation, raising the level of health in the community, and reducing the economic burdens in the health sector resulting from the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. We collected peripheral blood samples from young 364 patients, of which 93 were controls, 126 had bacterial infections, and 145 had viral infections, with ages lower than18 years old, limited to those who were diagnosed with fever-producing illness. Our preliminary results showed that it is possible to determine the infectious agent with high success rates of 82% for sensitivity and 80% for specificity, based on the WBC data.

Keywords: infectious diseases, (FTIR) spectroscopy, viral infections, bacterial infections.

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1208 Distinguishing between Bacterial and Viral Infections Based on Peripheral Human Blood Tests Using Infrared Microscopy and Multivariate Analysis

Authors: H. Agbaria, A. Salman, M. Huleihel, G. Beck, D. H. Rich, S. Mordechai, J. Kapelushnik

Abstract:

Viral and bacterial infections are responsible for variety of diseases. These infections have similar symptoms like fever, sneezing, inflammation, vomiting, diarrhea and fatigue. Thus, physicians may encounter difficulties in distinguishing between viral and bacterial infections based on these symptoms. Bacterial infections differ from viral infections in many other important respects regarding the response to various medications and the structure of the organisms. In many cases, it is difficult to know the origin of the infection. The physician orders a blood, urine test, or 'culture test' of tissue to diagnose the infection type when it is necessary. Using these methods, the time that elapses between the receipt of patient material and the presentation of the test results to the clinician is typically too long ( > 24 hours). This time is crucial in many cases for saving the life of the patient and for planning the right medical treatment. Thus, rapid identification of bacterial and viral infections in the lab is of great importance for effective treatment especially in cases of emergency. Blood was collected from 50 patients with confirmed viral infection and 50 with confirmed bacterial infection. White blood cells (WBCs) and plasma were isolated and deposited on a zinc selenide slide, dried and measured under a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope to obtain their infrared absorption spectra. The acquired spectra of WBCs and plasma were analyzed in order to differentiate between the two types of infections. In this study, the potential of FTIR microscopy in tandem with multivariate analysis was evaluated for the identification of the agent that causes the human infection. The method was used to identify the infectious agent type as either bacterial or viral, based on an analysis of the blood components [i.e., white blood cells (WBC) and plasma] using their infrared vibrational spectra. The time required for the analysis and evaluation after obtaining the blood sample was less than one hour. In the analysis, minute spectral differences in several bands of the FTIR spectra of WBCs were observed between groups of samples with viral and bacterial infections. By employing the techniques of feature extraction with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), a sensitivity of ~92 % and a specificity of ~86 % for an infection type diagnosis was achieved. The present preliminary study suggests that FTIR spectroscopy of WBCs is a potentially feasible and efficient tool for the diagnosis of the infection type.

Keywords: viral infection, bacterial infection, linear discriminant analysis, plasma, white blood cells, infrared spectroscopy

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1207 Hope as a Predictor for Complicated Grief and Anxiety: A Bayesian Structural Equational Modeling Study

Authors: Bo Yan, Amy Y. M. Chow

Abstract:

Bereavement is recognized as a universal challenging experience. It is important to gather research evidence on protective factors in bereavement. Hope is considered as one of the protective factors in previous coping studies. The present study aims to add knowledge by investigating hope at the first month after death to predict psychological symptoms altogether including complicated grief (CG), anxiety, and depressive symptoms at the seventh month. The data were collected via one-on-one interview survey in a longitudinal project with Hong Kong hospice users (sample size 105). Most participants were at their middle age (49-year-old on average), female (72%), with no religious affiliation (58%). Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling (BSEM) analysis was conducted on the longitudinal dataset. The BSEM findings show that hope at the first month of bereavement negatively predicts both CG and anxiety symptoms at the seventh month but not for depressive symptoms. Age and gender are controlled in the model. The overall model fit is good. The current study findings suggest assessing hope at the first month of bereavement. Hope at the first month after the loss is identified as an excellent predictor for complicated grief and anxiety symptoms at the seventh month. The result from this sample is clear, so it encourages cross-cultural research on replicated modeling and development of further clinical application. Particularly, practical consideration for early intervention to increase the level of hope has the potential to reduce the psychological symptoms and thus to improve the bereaved persons’ wellbeing in the long run.

Keywords: anxiety, complicated grief, depressive symptoms, hope, structural equational modeling

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1206 Streptococcus anginosus Infections; Clinical and Bacteriologic Characteristics: A 6-Year Retrospective Study of Adult Patients in Qatar

Authors: Adila Shaukat, Hussam Al Soub, Muna Al Maslamani, Abdullatif Al Khal

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Background: The aim of this study was to assess clinical presentation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus (S.) anginosus group infections in Hamad General Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in the state of Qatar, which is a multinational community. The S. anginosus group is a subgroup of viridans streptococci that consist of 3 different species: S. anginosus, S. constellatus, and S. intermedius. Although a part of the human bacteria flora, they have potential to cause suppurative infections. Method: We studied a total of 101 patients with S. anginosus group infections from January 2006 until March 2012 by reviewing medical records and identification of organisms by VITEK 2 and MALDI-TOF. Results: The most common sites of infection were skin and soft tissue, intra-abdominal, and bacteremia (28.7%, 24.8%, and 22.7%, respectively). Abscess formation was seen in approximately 30% of patients. Streptococcus constellatus was the most common isolated species (40%) followed by S. anginosus(30%) and S. intermedius(7%). In 23% of specimens, the species was unidentified. The most common type of specimen for organism isolation was blood followed by pus and tissue (50%, 22%, and 8%, respectively). Streptococcus constellatus was more frequently associated with abdominal and skin and soft tissue infections than the other 2 species, whereas S. anginosus was isolated more frequently from blood. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ceftriaxone, and vancomycin. Susceptibility to erythromycin and clindamycin was also good, reaching 91% and 95%, respectively. Forty percent of patients needed surgical drainage along with antibiotic therapy. Conclusions: Identification of S. anginosus group to species level is helpful in clinical practice because different species exhibit different pathogenic potentials.

Keywords: abscess, bacterial infection, bacteremia, Streptococcus anginosus

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1205 MR Imaging Spectrum of Intracranial Infections: An Experience of 100 Cases in a Tertiary Hospital in Northern India

Authors: Avik Banerjee, Kavita Saggar

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Infections of the nervous system and adjacent structures are often life-threatening conditions. Despite the recent advances in neuroimaging evaluation, the diagnosis of unclear infectious CNS disease remains a challenge. Our aim is to evaluate the typical and atypical neuro-imaging features of the various routinely encountered CNS infected patients so as to form guidelines for their imaging recognition and differentiation from tumoral, vascular and other entities that warrant a different line of therapy.

Keywords: central nervous system (CNS), Cerebro Spinal Fluid (Csf), Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (CJD), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)

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1204 Health Promotion Program on Prevention of Zoonotic Diseases among Aborigines in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Siti Fatimah Kader Maideen, Abdul Rashid, Nur Indah Ahmad

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Introduction: Indigenous people have an increased risk of contracting zoonotic infections due to their practices. Similarly, the aborigines in Peninsular Malaysia, the Orang Asli, have a higher risk too. This study aimed to empower the Jahai children on the prevention of zoonotic infections by implementing a health promotion intervention program. Methods: A non-experimental pre and post-test interventional study was conducted among the indigenous primary school children aged between nine and 12 years in Perak, Malaysia. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the pre-and post-knowledge and attitudes towards zoonotic infections and hand hygiene practice. This is followed by three sessions of the health promotion program. Ethical approval was obtained prior to the data collection. Data were analysed using SPSS software. Results: The knowledge on whether diseases can spread from animals to humans, transmission via saliva and faeces, types of organisms that can infect, and signs and symptoms increased significantly between pre and post. Significant improvements were observed in the attitude and practices too. Conclusion: The intervention program demonstrated improvement in the knowledge, attitude, and practice among the children. The continuous program needs to be conducted for a sustainable outcome.

Keywords: health promotion, zoonotic infections, aborigines, knowledge, practice

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1203 Study on the Presence of Protozoal Co-Infections Among Patients With Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Bulgaria

Authors: Nina Tsvetkova, Aleksandra Ivanova, Rumen Harizanov, Iskra Rainova, Nina Yancheva-Petrova, Dimitar Strashimirov, Raina Enikova, Mihaela Videnova, Eleonora Kaneva, Iskren Kaftandjiev, Viktoria Levterova, Ivan Simeonovski, Nikolay Yanev, Georgi Hinkov

Abstract:

The Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) and protozoan of the genera Acanthamoeba, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma gondii are opportunistic pathogens that can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Aim of the study was to evaluate the co-infection rate with opportunistic protozoal agents among the Bulgarian patients diagnosed with P. jirovecii pneumonia. Thirty eight pulmonary samples were collected from 38 patients (28 HIV-infected) with P. jirovecii infection. P. jirovecii DNA was detected by real-time PCR targeting the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Acanthamoeba was determined by genus-specific conventional PCR assay. Real-time PCR for detection of a Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium DNA fragment was used. Pneumocystis DNA was detected in all 38 specimens, 28 (73,7%) were from HIV-infected patients. Three (10,7%) of them were co-infected with T. gondii and 1 (3,6%) with Cryptosporidium. In the group of non-HIV-infected (n=10), Cryptosporidium DNA was detected in an infant (10%). Acanthamoeba DNA was not found in the tested samples. The current study showed a relatively low rate of co-infections of Cryptosporidium spp. / T. gondii and P. jirovecii in the Bulgarian patients studied.

Keywords: co-infection, opportunistic protozoal agents, Pneumocystis jirovecii, pulmonary infections

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1202 Impact of Tuberculosis Co-infection on Cytokine Expression in HIV-Infected Individuals

Authors: M. Nosik, I. Rymanova, N. Adamovich, S. Sevostyanihin, K. Ryzhov, Y. Kuimova, A. Kravtchenko, N. Sergeeva, A. Sobkin

Abstract:

HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) infections each speed the other's progress. HIV-infection increases the risk of TB disease. At the same time, TB infection is associated with clinical progression of HIV-infection. HIV+TB co-infected patients are also at higher risk of acquiring new opportunistic infections. An important feature of disease progression and clinical outcome is the innate and acquired immune responses. HIV and TB, however, have a spectrum of dysfunctions of the immune response. As cytokines play a crucial role in the immunopathology of both infections, it is important to study immune interactions in patients with dual infection HIV+TB. Plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ and immunoregulating cytokines IL-4, IL-10 were evaluated in 75 patients with dual infection HIV+TB, 58 patients with HIV monoinfection and 50 patients with TB monoinfection who were previously naïve for HAART. The decreased levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 were observed in patients with dual infection HIV+TB in comparison with patients who had only HIV or TB which means the profound suppression of Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion. Thus, those cytokines could possibly serve as immunological markers of progression of HIV-infection in patients with TB.

Keywords: HIV, tuberculosis (TB), HIV associated with TB, Th1/ Th2 cytokine expression

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1201 Prevalence and Drug Susceptibility Profiles of Bacterial Urinary Tract Infections Isolated among Diabetes Mellitus Patients at Bosaso Health Centers

Authors: Said Abdirasak Abidrahman, Ibrahim Mohamed

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Background: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are the commonest infections described among diabetes mellitus patients. More often, empirical antimicrobial therapy is initiated before the laboratory results are made available with minimal treatment success. The knowledge of the etiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the organisms causing urinary tract infections among diabetes mellitus patients remains scarce, despite its vitality. This study sought to determine the prevalence, bacteria species, and drug susceptibility patterns of common causes of urinary tract infections among diabetes mellitus patients attending Bosaso health centers. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving adult diabetic patients at Bosaso health centers between the months of May and July 2020. Laboratory assay of mid-stream urine samples was done to isolate bacteria causes of UTIs. These were biochemically identified using Gram stain, Kligler iron agar (KIA), Indole test, citrate, urea, coagulase, catalase, motility agar, and lysine iron agar. Their antibiotic susceptibility pattern for the isolated organisms was made for Ampicillin 10μg, Ciprofloxacin 5μg, Cotrimoxazole 25μg, Gentamycin 10μg, Ceftriaxone 10μg, and determined using the Kirby Bauer Disc Diffusion method. Results: Of 177 participants, 69 (39.0%) were males and 108 (61.0%) were females. Their mean age was 33.1 years (range; 18-67 years). Of these, 14.7% (26/177) of the samples revealed significant growth (>= 105 CFU/mL) giving a prevalence of 14.9 % (95% CI: 10.6 to 16.3). The organisms isolated were Escherichia coli -50% (N=13), Klebsiella pneumonia 30.8% (N=8), Staphylococcus aureus 15.4% (N=4), and unidentified organism 3.8% (N=1), and these were associated with such socio-demographic factors like history of catheterization and sexual activity. Antibiotic susceptibility to the commonly used agents for treating UTIs indicated higher sensitivity to Gentamicin and Ceftriaxone.

Keywords: antimicrobials, bacteria, urinary tract infections, diabetes

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