Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1496

Search results for: healthcare associated infections

1496 Epidemiological Profile of Healthcare Associated Infections in Intensive Care Unit

Authors: Abdessamad Dali-Ali, Houaria Beldjillali, Fouzia Agag, Asmaa Oukebdane, Ramzi Tidjani, Arslane Bettayeb, Khadidja Meddeber, Radia Dali-Yahia, Nori Midoun

Abstract:

Healthcare-associated infections are a real public health problem, especially in intensive care units. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological profile and to estimate the incidence of these infections at the intensive care unit of our teaching hospital. A prospective study was conducted, from June 2012 to December 2013. During this period, 305 patients having a duration of hospitalization equal or more than 48 hours were included in the study. In terms of the incidence of healthcare associated infections, nosocomial pneumonia occupied the first position with a cumulative incidence rate of 20.0%, followed by bacteremia (5.6%), central venous catheter infections (4%), and urinary tract infections (3%). In the case of isolated microorganisms, Gram-negative bacilli not enterobacteriaceae occupied the first place with 48.5%, followed by enterobacteria (32.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the most common germ (27.6%). Our study showed that the rate of health-care-associated infections was relatively high in the intensive care unit. A control program to reduce all infections is a priority for the Infection Control Associated Committee.

Keywords: epidemiological profile, healthcare associated infections, intensive care units, teaching hospital of Oran, Algeria

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1495 Perspectives of Healthcare Workers on Healthcare-Associated Infections and Infection Control in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Abha, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Esther Paul, Ibrahim A. M. Alzaydani, Al Hakami, Caryl Beynon

Abstract:

Research Objectives and Goal: The main aim of the current study was to explore the perspectives of healthcare workers on Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and infection control measures in a tertiary care Hospital in Abha, Saudi Arabia. As per our knowledge, this is perhaps the first qualitative study on HAI to be done in Saudi Arabia. The goal of the study was to understand the perspectives of the healthcare workers on the current protocol and guidelines for HAI and infections control measures in the hospital, the effectiveness of the current protocol for HAI and infection control measures and ways of reducing the incidence of HAI and improve infection control measures. Methods used: A qualitative research design was used to collect the data from 25 healthcare workers consisting of doctors and nurses, recruited by Snowball strategy via semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim immediately. An interview guide consisting of open-ended questions about the existing HAI and infection control practices in the healthcare facility, the awareness of the healthcare workers about HAI and the need for safe infection control measures were used to collect the data. The transcribed data were analyzed using the thematic analysis method. Results: Using thematic analysis four themes were identified.1.Knowledge of HAI and infection control 2. Infection control measures in practice 3. The gap in infection control measures and HAI 4. Required Implementations. The first theme covered the participants' knowledge on HAI, its definition, the types of HAI and the infection control measures.Most of the participants were aware of HAI and had some idea of the definition of HAI, its significance and the dangers posed by HAI, but few residents had no idea of the types of HAI. The second theme was focussed on the infection control measures in practice. Most of the participants were aware of the importance of infection control measures like hand hygiene, catheter care, and waste disposal. The nurses were responsible for most of the disinfection and sterilization measures and practiced it effectively. However, some doctors and residents had no inkling about these measures. The third theme emphasized that although most of the participants were aware of HAI and infection control measures and were in practice. There were some lacunae regarding their knowledge of the different types of HAI, Personal Protective Equipment practices, communication among the healthcare personnel and the hospital administrations and the means of waste disposal. The fourth and the final theme identified that most of the participants felt the need for implementations of changes regarding existing protocols, workshops/seminars, methods of waste disposal and sterilization and disinfection practices. Conclusion: The current qualitative study concluded that there is a need for better educational programs and hands-on training for all the healthcare personnel including the paramedical staff as well. The residents should have adequate knowledge of infection control practices to guide the nurses and should share the responsibility with the nurses in the practice of effective infection control measures

Keywords: healthcare-associated infections, infection control measures, perspectives, qualitative

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1494 Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Healthcare Workers in Dutse Metropolis, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: N. M. Sani, I. Bitrus, A. M. Sarki, N. S. Mujahid

Abstract:

Hepatitis is one of the neglected infectious diseases in sub Saharan Africa, and most of the available data is based on blood donors. Health care workers (HCWs) often get infected as a result of their close contact with patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C among this group of professionals with a view to improving the quality of care to their patients. Hepatitis B and C infections pose a major public health problem worldwide. While infection is highest in the developing world particularly Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, healthcare workers are at higher risk of acquiring blood-borne viral infections, particularly Hepatitis B and C which are mostly asymptomatic. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infections and associated risk factors among health care workers in Dutse Metropolis, Jigawa State - Nigeria. A standard rapid immuno-chromatographic technique i.e. rapid ELISA was used to screen all sera for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and Hepatitis C viral antibody (HCVAb) respectively. Strips containing coated antibodies and antigens to HBV and HCV respectively were removed from the foil. Strips were labeled according to samples. Using a separate disposable pipette, 2 drops of the sample (plasma) were added into each test strip and allowed to run across the absorbent pad. Results were read after 15 minutes. The prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in 100 healthcare workers was determined by testing the plasma collected from the clients during their normal checkup using HBsAg and HCVAb test strips. Results were subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square test. The prevalence of HBV among HCWs was 19 out of 100 (19.0%) and that of HCV was 5 out of 100 (5.0%) where in both cases, higher prevalence was observed among female nurses. It was also observed that all HCV positive cases were recorded among nurses only. The study revealed that nurses are at greater risk of contracting HBV and HCV due to their frequent contact with patients. It is therefore recommended that effective vaccination and other infection control measures be encouraged among healthcare workers.

Keywords: prevalence, hepatitis, viruses, healthcare workers, infection

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1493 Significance of Occupational Safety for Healthcare Professionals

Authors: Nilgün Katrancı, Pınar Göv

Abstract:

The privatization of public services has intensified and extended the delivery of healthcare services at hospitals, which leads to an increase in health and safety risks for healthcare professionals. More efficient and effective delivery of healthcare services can be realized through the provision of occupational safety of healthcare professionals. However, healthcare professionals are exposed to more dangers, accidents, and diseases because of such reasons as present working conditions, hospital infections, lack of ergonomic design, medication, wastes, excessive work load, negligent attitudes of workers, violence, psychological risks, etc. Unsafe working conditions cause fear, injury and wearing impacts in healthcare professionals in many countries. Thus, it is emphasized that the protection of the health of healthcare professionals is important to have educated, healthy workers and adequate workforce. Occupational health and safety measures applied in health facilities are aimed at protecting workers and providing the safety of services and facilities. All activities to be undertaken at hospitals with regard to occupational safety in accordance with these goals will help to reduce costs and provide continuous services. At the same time, a safe working environment will increase worker satisfaction and motivation, sense of institutional belonging and indirectly patient safety and satisfaction. In addition, the control and correction of occupational safety activities are also as important as the implementation. Occupational health and safety practices in the facilities will also lead to positive developments for national economy and society. This study emphasizes that approaching occupational safety practices for healthcare professionals in a sensitive manner is important for enabling healthcare professionals to do more productive works in terms of physical, social and psychological aspects, maintaining the continuity of healthcare services and social and economic contributions.

Keywords: health facilities, healthcare professional, occupational health, occupational safety

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1492 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Taboo: Time to Rethink

Authors: Kalpana Gupta

Abstract:

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections that are spread primarily through sexual contact. In our daily practice, we see gonorrhea, chancroid, syphilis, and chlamydial infections that can be cured, as well as HIV, genital herpes, HPV, and hepatitis B infections that cannot be cured but can be managed with available treatments. Many people in India are infected with Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and the figures are quite high because of a lack of awareness and communication, as well as a taboo against these diseases. Numerous taboos and associated stigma shape patients’ lives and have a significant impact on health care policies, medical research, and current issues in medical ethics. Current statistics emphasize the importance of delivering sex education to this important demographic promptly. The long-standing tradition of girls marrying very young, especially in rural areas, and often too much older men, causes a slew of STIs. Stigma and HIV have a cyclical relationship; people who experience stigma and discrimination are marginalized and made more vulnerable to HIV/STDs, while those living with HIV are more vulnerable to stigma and discrimination. As urban pressures have grown, so have slums - and they have fast become ideal breeding grounds for STDs. In developed countries, strict laws have been enacted requiring people suffering from STDs to seek immediate treatment as well as contact the health department. Unfortunately, because of the stigma associated with the disease, patients in India are reluctant to reveal the source of infection. With various schemes, India is attempting to promote sex education and awareness. For example, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare developed the National Adolescent Health Programme (also known as the Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram) in partnership with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). Whereas, National AIDS Control Organisation was set up so that every person living with HIV has access to quality care and is treated with dignity and breaking all taboos. It becomes clear that research and healthcare policies will not be effective in assisting patients with STDs unless these "nonscientific" elements are taken into account.

Keywords: sexually transmitted diseases, sexually transmitted infections, taboo, stigma, HIV/STDs, sex education and awareness, treatment, quality care, medications, healthcare policies

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1491 Service Quality Improvement in Ghana's Healthcare Supply Chain

Authors: Ammatu Alhassan

Abstract:

Quality healthcare delivery is a crucial indicator in assessing the overall developmental status of a country. There are many limitations in the Ghanaian healthcare supply chain due to the lack of studies about the correlation between quality health service and the healthcare supply chain. Patients who visit various healthcare providers face unpleasant experiences such as delays in the availability of their medications. In this study, an assessment of the quality of services provided to Ghanaian outpatients who visit public healthcare providers was investigated to establish its effect on the healthcare supply chain using a conceptual model. The Donabedian’s structure, process, and outcome theory for service quality evaluation were used to analyse 20 Ghanaian hospitals. The data obtained was tested using the structural equation model (SEM). The findings from this research will help us to improve the overall quality of the Ghanaian healthcare supply chain. The model which will be developed will help us to understand better the linkage between quality healthcare and the healthcare supply chain as well as serving as a reference tool for future healthcare research in Ghana.

Keywords: Ghana, healthcare, outpatients, supply chain

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1490 Prevalence and Factors Associated with Multiple Parasitic Infections among Rural Community in Kano State Nigeria

Authors: Salwa S. Dawaki, Init Ithoi, Sa’adatu I. Yelwa

Abstract:

Introduction: Parasitic infections are major public health problems worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Two third of the world population is infected while about 3 billion are at risk of parasitic infections. It is demonstrated that most parasitic infections occur as multiple infections especially among poor and rural communities of most countries in the tropical regions. Parasitic infections are endemic in Nigeria, yet multiple infections are rarely reported. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and identify factors associating with multiple parasitic infections among rural population in Kano State Nigeria. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to August 2013 in rural Kano State, Nigeria. Three samples stool, urine, and blood were collected from each of the 551 volunteers aged between one and ninety years old recruited for the survey. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain epidemiological data. Data were analysed using appropriate descriptive, univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods. Major findings: The participants were 61.7% male, 38.3% female, and 69.0% were adults of 15 years and above. Overall, 463 (84%) were infected with parasitic infections among which 60.9% had multiple infections. A total of 15 parasitic species were recovered, and up to 8 different parasitic species were found concurrently in a single host. Plasmodium was the most common parasite followed by Blastocystis, Entamoeba species, and hookworms. It was found that presence of an infected family member (P = 0.017; OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.08, 2.13) and not wearing shoes outside home (P = 0.043; OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.01, 2.18) significantly associated with higher risk of having multiple parasitic infections among the studied population. Conclusion: Parasitic infections pose a public health challenge in the rural community of Kano. Multiple parasitic infections are highly prevalent and presence of an infected family member as well as not wearing proper foot wear outside home increases the risk of infection. Poor hygiene, unfavourable socioeconomic conditions, and culture promote survival and transmission of parasites. There is a need for implementation of integrated approach aimed at controlling or eliminating the infections with emphasis on public awareness.

Keywords: multiple infections, parasitic infections, poor hygiene, risk of infection

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1489 Security Features for Remote Healthcare System: A Feasibility Study

Authors: Tamil Chelvi Vadivelu, Nurazean Maarop, Rasimah Che Yusoff, Farhana Aini Saludin

Abstract:

Implementing a remote healthcare system needs to consider many security features. Therefore, before any deployment of the remote healthcare system, a feasibility study from the security perspective is crucial. Remote healthcare system using WBAN technology has been used in other countries for medical purposes but in Malaysia, such projects are still not yet implemented. This study was conducted qualitatively. The interview results involving five healthcare practitioners are further elaborated. The study has addressed four important security features in order to incorporate remote healthcare system using WBAN in Malaysian government hospitals.

Keywords: remote healthcare, IT security, security features, wireless sensor application

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1488 Healthcare Associated Infections in an Intensive Care Unit in Tunisia: Incidence and Risk Factors

Authors: Nabiha Bouafia, Asma Ben Cheikh, Asma Ammar, Olfa Ezzi, Mohamed Mahjoub, Khaoula Meddeb, Imed Chouchene, Hamadi Boussarsar, Mansour Njah

Abstract:

Background: Hospital acquired infections (HAI) cause significant morbidity, mortality, length of stay and hospital costs, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU), because of the debilitated immune systems of their patients and exposure to invasive devices. The aims of this study were to determine the rate and the risk factors of HAI in an ICU of a university hospital in Tunisia. Materials/Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the 8-bed adult medical ICU of a University Hospital (Sousse Tunisia) during 14 months from September 15th, 2015 to November 15th, 2016. Patients admitted for more than 48h were included. Their surveillance was stopped after the discharge from ICU or death. HAIs were defined according to standard Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Risk factors were analyzed by conditional stepwise logistic regression. The p-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: During the study, 192 patients had admitted for more than 48 hours. Their mean age was 59.3± 18.20 years and 57.1% were male. Acute respiratory failure was the main reason of admission (72%). The mean SAPS II score calculated at admission was 32.5 ± 14 (range: 6 - 78). The exposure to the mechanical ventilation (MV) and the central venous catheter were observed in 169 (88 %) and 144 (75 %) patients, respectively. Seventy-three patients (38.02%) developed 94 HAIs. The incidence density of HAIs was 41.53 per 1000 patient day. Mortality rate in patients with HAIs was 65.8 %( n= 48). Regarding the type of infection, Ventilator Associated Pneumoniae (VAP) and central venous catheter Associated Infections (CVC AI) were the most frequent with Incidence density: 14.88/1000 days of MV for VAP and 20.02/1000 CVC days for CVC AI. There were 5 Peripheral Venous Catheter Associated Infections, 2 urinary tract infections, and 21 other HAIs. Gram-negative bacteria were the most common germs identified in HAIs: Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter Baumanii (45%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.96%) were the most frequently isolated. Univariate analysis showed that transfer from another hospital department (p= 0.001), intubation (p < 10-4), tracheostomy (p < 10-4), age (p=0.028), grade of acute respiratory failure (p=0.01), duration of sedation (p < 10-4), number of CVC (p < 10-4), length of mechanical ventilation (p < 10-4) and length of stay (p < 10-4), were associated to high risk of HAIS in ICU. Multivariate analysis reveals that independent risk factors for HAIs are: transfer from another hospital department: OR=13.44, IC 95% [3.9, 44.2], p < 10-4, duration of sedation: OR= 1.18, IC 95% [1.049, 1.325], p=0.006, high number of CVC: OR=2.78, IC 95% [1.73, 4.487], p < 10-4, and length of stay in ICU: OR= 1.14, IC 95% [1.066,1.22], p < 10-4. Conclusion: Prevention of nosocomial infections in ICUs is a priority of health care systems all around the world. Yet, their control requires an understanding of epidemiological data collected in these units.

Keywords: healthcare associated infections, incidence, intensive care unit, risk factors

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1487 Application of Bundle Care to Reduce Invasive Catheter-Associated Infection in High Risk Units at a Medical Center

Authors: Hsin-Hsin Chang, Jann-Tay Wang, Wang-Huei Sheng

Abstract:

Background: Hospital-associated infections (HAIs) have significant medical and social resource consumption. In view of medical technology change rapidly and the prolonged average life expectancy, the patients' chances of receiving invasive medical devices have also increased. As well as the potential disease of the patients, the aging, and immune dysfunction makes the disease more serious, raising the risk of HAIs. In our adult intensive care units, catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) have an average of 4.6% in 2014, which is much higher than that of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). Therefore, we started the intervention of CAUTI bundle care. Methods: This 3-year intervention was conducted in adults’ intensive care units (ICUs) during January 2015 to December 2017. The implementation of CAUTI bundle care in order to reduce invasive catheter-associated infections were built on evidence-based infection control measures. Prospective surveillance was performed on all patients admitted to hospital. The four major directions are 'Leader Engagement', 'Educate Personnel', 'Executive Multidisciplinary Teamwork', 'Innovation and Improvement of Tools'. Results: During the intervention period, there were 167,024 patient-days with a total of 508 episodes of CAUTIs in the entire adult ICUs identified. The incidence of CAUTIs in adult ICU was significantly decreased in the intervention period (from 2015 to 2017), from 4.6 to 3.6 per 1000 catheter days (p=0.05). Conclusion: The necessity for the implementation of CAUTI bundle care in the health care system plays an important role in the quality and policy of infection control. Multidisciplinary teamwork, education, a comprehensive checklist and from time to time audit feedback to improve healthcare workers’ compliance are the keys to success.

Keywords: bundle care, hospital-associated infections, leader engagement, multidisciplinary team work

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1486 Increasing Adherence to Preventative Care Bundles for Healthcare-Associated Infections: The Impact of Nurse Education

Authors: Lauren G. Coggins

Abstract:

Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) and central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAI), contributing to prolonged lengths of stay, greater costs of patient care, and increased patient mortality. Evidence-based preventative care bundles exist to establish consistent, safe patient-care practices throughout an entire organization, helping to ensure the collective application of care strategies that aim to improve patient outcomes and minimize complications. The cardiac intensive care unit at a nationally ranked teaching and research hospital in the United States exceeded its annual CAUTI and CLABSI targets in the fiscal year 2019, prompting examination into the unit’s infection prevention efforts that included preventative care bundles for both HAIs. Adherence to the CAUTI and CLABSI preventative care bundles was evaluated through frequent audits conducted over three months, using standards and resources from The Joint Commission, a globally recognized leader in quality improvement in healthcare and patient care safety. The bundle elements with the lowest scores were identified as the most commonly missed elements. Three elements from both bundles, six elements in total, served as key content areas for the educational interventions targeted to bedside nurses. The CAUTI elements included appropriate urinary catheter order, appropriate continuation criteria, and urinary catheter care. The CLABSI elements included primary tubing compliance, needleless connector compliance, and dressing change compliance. An integrated, multi-platform education campaign featured content on each CAUTI and CLABSI preventative care bundle in its entirety, with additional reinforcement focused on the lowest scoring elements. One-on-one educational materials included an informational pamphlet, badge buddy, a presentation to reinforce nursing care standards, and real-time application through case studies and electronic health record demonstrations. A digital hub was developed on the hospital’s Intranet for quick access to unit resources, and a bulletin board helped track the number of days since the last CAUTI and CLABSI incident. Audits continued to be conducted throughout the education campaign, and staff were given real-time feedback to address any gaps in adherence. Nearly every nurse in the cardiac intensive care unit received all educational materials, and adherence to all six key bundle elements increased after the implementation of educational interventions. Recommendations from this implementation include providing consistent, comprehensive education across multiple teaching tools and regular audits to track adherence. The multi-platform education campaign brought focus to the evidence-based CAUTI and CLABSI bundles, which in turn will help to reduce CAUTI and CLABSI rates in clinical practice.

Keywords: education, healthcare-associated infections, infection, nursing, prevention

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1485 Rising Individual Responsibility in Healthcare: A Case Study of China

Authors: Ziyu Liu, Martin Buijsen

Abstract:

Although great achievements have been made since the beginning of the Chinese healthcare system reform in 1978, there still remain unresolved problems. Currently, the two leading social issues are accessibility and affordability of healthcare. Facing those challenges, Chinese government initiated the third round of healthcare system reform, accompanied by an array of measures. The newly launched strategies show a tendency to deliver healthcare as welfare goods, achieving equality through an ex-post perspective instead of an ex-ante view. However, if the reform efforts rely solely on the notion of “welfare”, the wrong idea of the government as the only duty-bearer in healthcare will arise. Several major threats, such as high costs as a result of inefficiencies and free riding then become imminent. Therefore, on the basis of Dworkin’s theory, this paper argues that individual responsibility should be introduced when constructing a sustainable healthcare system. And it should be equally highlighted as the duties of government. Furthermore, the notion of individual responsibility is believed to be necessary for promoting the justice of a healthcare system.

Keywords: Chinese healthcare system reform, individual responsibility, right to healthcare, social justice

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1484 The Value of Serum Procalcitonin in Patients with Acute Musculoskeletal Infections

Authors: Mustafa Al-Yaseen, Haider Mohammed Mahdi, Haider Ali Al–Zahid, Nazar S. Haddad

Abstract:

Background: Early diagnosis of musculoskeletal infections is of vital importance to avoid devastating complications. There is no single laboratory marker which is sensitive and specific in diagnosing these infections accurately. White blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein are not specific as they can also be elevated in conditions other than bacterial infections. Materials Culture and sensitivity is not a true gold standard due to its varied positivity rates. Serum Procalcitonin is one of the new laboratory markers for pyogenic infections. The objective of this study is to assess the value of PCT in the diagnosis of soft tissue, bone, and joint infections. Patients and Methods: Patients of all age groups (seventy-four patients) with a diagnosis of musculoskeletal infection are prospectively included in this study. All patients were subjected to White blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and serum Procalcitonin measurements. A healthy non infected outpatient group (twenty-two patients) taken as a control group and underwent the same evaluation steps as the study group. Results: The study group showed mean Procalcitonin levels of 1.3 ng/ml. Procalcitonin, at 0.5 ng/ml, was (42.6%) sensitive and (95.5%) specific in diagnosing of musculoskeletal infections with (positive predictive value of 87.5% and negative predictive value of 48.3%) and (positive likelihood ratio of 9.3 and negative likelihood ratio of 0.6). Conclusion: Serum Procalcitonin, at a cut – off of 0.5 ng/ml, is a specific but not sensitive marker in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal infections, and it can be used effectively to rule in the diagnosis of infection but not to rule out it.

Keywords: procalcitonin, infection, labratory markers, musculoskeletal

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1483 The Number of Corona Virus Infections in 2020

Authors: Yasaswi Vengalasetti, Jacob Eisenach, Jay Bhattacharya

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Seroprevalence studies can provide an estimation of the Infection Fatality Rate (IFR), the probability of death given infection. Measuring the seroprevalence and reported deaths of an area within a given time frame an IFR can be estimated. With this IFR calculation, we can then observe COVID-19 death figures in different countries around the world and estimate the number of cases since the onset of the pandemic. There is a large range for estimated COVID-19 infections across different countries. This ranged from 0.659 million infections in Hong Kong to 277 million infections in India. The largest estimated share of the population infected is 63% in Peru and the lowest is 3% in Norway. For younger populations, COVID-19 is most fatal in South America; for older populations, it is most fatal in North America. The Asian regions stand out with significantly lower IFRs in older populations: at 80 years old, COVID-19 is about three times as fatal than in South Asia and about twelve times as fatal than in East Asia. The weighted average for the share of the population infected, the sum of infections divided by the sum of populations across all countries, is 23%.

Keywords: epidemiology, seroprevalence, covid-19, infection fatality rate

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1482 Epidemiology of Healthcare-Associated Infections among Hematology/Oncology Patients: Results of a Prospective Incidence Survey in a Tunisian University Hospital

Authors: Ezzi Olfa, Bouafia Nabiha, Ammar Asma, Ben Cheikh Asma, Mahjoub Mohamed, Bannour Wadiaa, Achour Bechir, Khelif Abderrahim, Njah Mansour

Abstract:

Background: In hematology/oncology, health care improvement has allowed increasingly aggressive management in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Nevertheless, these intensified procedures have been associated with higher risk of healthcare associated infections (HAIs). We undertook this study to estimate the burden of HAIs in the cancer patients in an onco -hematology unit in a Tunisian university hospital. Materials/Methods: A prospective, observational study, based on active surveillance for a period of 06 months from Mars through September 2016, was undertaken in the department of onco-hematology in a university hospital in Tunisia. Patients, who stayed in the unit for ≥ 48 h, were followed until hospital discharge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria (CDC) for site-specific infections were used as standard definitions for HAIs. Results: One hundred fifty patients were included in the study. The gender distribution was 33.3% for girls and 66.6% boys. They have a mean age of 23.12 years (SD = 18.36 years). The main patient’s diagnosis is: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): 48.7 %( n=73). The mean length of stay was 21 days +/- 18 days. Almost 8% of patients had an implantable port (n= 12), 34.9 % (n=52) had a lumber puncture and 42.7 % (n= 64) had a medullary puncture. Chemotherapy was instituted in 88% of patients (n=132). Eighty (53.3%) patients had neutropenia at admission. The incidence rate of HAIs was 32.66 % per patient; the incidence density was 15.73 per 1000 patient-days in the unit. Mortality rate was 9.3% (n= 14), and 50% of cases of death were caused by HAIs. The most frequent episodes of infection were: infection of skin and superficial mucosa (5.3%), pulmonary aspergillosis (4.6%), Healthcare associated pneumonia (HAP) (4%), Central venous catheter associated infection (4%), digestive infection (5%), and primary bloodstream infection (2.6%). Finally, fever of unknown origin (FUO) incidence rate was 14%. In case of skin and superficial infection (n= 8), 4 episodes were documented, and organisms implicated were Escherichia.coli, Geotricum capitatum and Proteus mirabilis. For pulmonary aspergillosis, 6 cases were diagnosed clinically and radiologically, and one was proved by positive aspergillus antigen in bronchial aspiration. Only one patient died due this infection. In HAP (6 cases), four episodes were diagnosed clinically and radiologically. No bacterial etiology was established in these cases. Two patients died due to HAP. For primary bloodstream infection (4 cases), implicated germs were Enterobacter cloacae, Geotricum capitatum, klebsiella pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conclusion: This type of prospective study is an indispensable tool for internal quality control. It is necessary to evaluate preventive measures and design control guides and strategies aimed to reduce the HAI’s rate and the morbidity and mortality associated with infection in a hematology/oncology unit.

Keywords: cohort prospective studies, healthcare associated infections, hematology oncology department, incidence

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1481 Study of Germs Responsible of Nosocomial Infections in Hospital of Guelma

Authors: Wissem Abdaoui, Ilhem Mokhtari, Adel Gouri, Benouareth Djamel Eddine

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Contracted in a health facility, hospital-acquired infections are a major public health problem in recent years. The increase of nosocomial infections is partly related to diagnostic and therapeutic advances in medicine. The aim of our study was to isolate and diagnose some types of bacteria that are circulating in the hospital by performing different samples at two medical services: Pulmonary and Infectious Diseases. The antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed for bacterial isolates. The results have shown that there is a predominance of enterobacteria followed by the staphylococcus with its two species epidermidis ans saprophyticus. The study of the antibiogramme identified that some of these bacteria have a resistant profile against all the tested antibiotics. The fight against nosocomial infections is difficult because it must act on several factors: quality of care, safety of the hospital environment, hygiene, wearing gloves etc. are all areas that should be of heightened vigilance and preventive measures.

Keywords: nosocomial infection, isolation, identification, sensitivity and resistance to antibiotics

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1480 Leadership Competences: The Case of Slovenian Healthcare

Authors: Helena Kovačič, Andrej Rus

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This study compared ratings for leadership competence of managers in the healthcare sector and professional managers in Slovenia. Managers’ competence scores were analyzed for Slovenia and compared with some other EU countries. Comparisons of correlations yielded significant differences in leader/non-leader healthcare professionals in their relational competence.

Keywords: management, competence, healthcare, Slovenia

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1479 Retrospective Evaluation of Vector-borne Infections in Cats Living in Germany (2012-2019)

Authors: I. Schäfer, B. Kohn, M. Volkmann, E. Müller

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Introduction: Blood-feeding arthropods transmit parasitic, bacterial, or viral pathogens to domestic animals and wildlife. Vector-borne infections are gaining significance due to the increase of travel, import of domestic animals from abroad, and the changing climate in Europe. Aims of the study: The main objective of this retrospective study was to assess the prevalence of vector-borne infections in cats in which a ‘Feline Travel Profile’ had been conducted. Material and Methods: This retrospective study included test results from cats for which a ‘Feline Travel Profile’ established by LABOKLIN had been requested by veterinarians between April 2012 and December 2019. This profile contains direct detection methods via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Hepatozoon spp. and Dirofilaria spp. as well as indirect detection methods via immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for Ehrlichia spp. and Leishmania spp. This profile was expanded to include an IFAT for Rickettsia spp. from July 2015 onwards. The prevalence of the different vector-borne infectious agents was calculated. Results: A total of 602 cats were tested using the ‘Feline Travel Profile’. Positive test results were as follows: Rickettsia spp. IFAT 54/442 (12.2%), Ehrlichia spp. IFAT 68/602 (11.3%), Leishmania spp. IFAT 21/602 (3.5%), Hepatozoon spp. PCR 51/595 (8.6%), and Dirofilaria spp. PCR 1/595 cats (0.2%). Co-infections with more than one pathogen could be detected in 22/602 cats. Conclusions: 170/602 cats (28.2%) were tested positive for at least one vector-borne pathogen. Infections with multiple pathogens could be detected in 3.7% of the cats. The data emphasizes the importance of considering vector-borne infections as potential differential diagnoses in cats.

Keywords: arthopod-transmitted infections, feline vector-borne infections, Germany, laboratory diagnostics

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1478 Structuring and Visualizing Healthcare Claims Data Using Systems Architecture Methodology

Authors: Inas S. Khayal, Weiping Zhou, Jonathan Skinner

Abstract:

Healthcare delivery systems around the world are in crisis. The need to improve health outcomes while decreasing healthcare costs have led to an imminent call to action to transform the healthcare delivery system. While Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering have primarily focused on biological level data and biomedical technology, there is clear evidence of the importance of the delivery of care on patient outcomes. Classic singular decomposition approaches from reductionist science are not capable of explaining complex systems. Approaches and methods from systems science and systems engineering are utilized to structure healthcare delivery system data. Specifically, systems architecture is used to develop a multi-scale and multi-dimensional characterization of the healthcare delivery system, defined here as the Healthcare Delivery System Knowledge Base. This paper is the first to contribute a new method of structuring and visualizing a multi-dimensional and multi-scale healthcare delivery system using systems architecture in order to better understand healthcare delivery.

Keywords: health informatics, systems thinking, systems architecture, healthcare delivery system, data analytics

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1477 Use of Cloud Computing and Smart Devices in Healthcare

Authors: Nikunj Agarwal, M. P. Sebastian

Abstract:

Cloud computing can reduce the start-up expenses of implementing EHR (Electronic Health Records). However, many of the healthcare institutions are yet to implement cloud computing due to the associated privacy and security issues. In this paper, we analyze the challenges and opportunities of implementing cloud computing in healthcare. We also analyze data of over 5000 US hospitals that use Telemedicine applications. This analysis helps to understand the importance of smart phones over the desktop systems in different departments of the healthcare institutions. The wide usage of smartphones and cloud computing allows ubiquitous and affordable access to the health data by authorized persons, including patients and doctors. Cloud computing will prove to be beneficial to a majority of the departments in healthcare. Through this analysis, we attempt to understand the different healthcare departments that may benefit significantly from the implementation of cloud computing.

Keywords: cloud computing, smart devices, healthcare, telemedicine

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1476 Application of Cloud Based Healthcare Information System through a Smart Card in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Wasmi Woishi

Abstract:

Smart card technology is a secure and safe technology that is expanding its capabilities day by day in terms of holding important information without alteration. It is readily available, and its ease of portability makes it more efficient in terms of its usage. The smart card is in use by many industries such as financial, insurance, governmental industries, personal identification, to name a few. Smart card technology is popular for its wide familiarity, adaptability, accessibility, benefits, and portability. This research aims to find out the perception toward the application of a cloud-based healthcare system through a smart card in KSA. The research has compiled the countries using a smart card or smart healthcare card and indicated the potential benefits of implementing smart healthcare cards. 120 participants from Riyadh city were surveyed by the means of a closed-ended questionnaire. Data were analyzed through SPSS. This research extends the research body in the healthcare system. Empirical evidence regarding smart healthcare cards is scarce and hence undertaken in this study. The study provides a useful insight into collecting, storing, analyzing, manipulating, and accessibility of medical information regarding smart healthcare cards. Research findings can help achieve KSA's Vision 2030 goals in terms of the digitalization of healthcare systems in improving its efficiency and effectiveness in storing and accessing healthcare data.

Keywords: smart card technology, healthcare using smart cards, smart healthcare cards, KSA healthcare information system, cloud-based healthcare cards

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1475 A Study on the Prevalence and Microbiological Profile of Nosocomial Infections in the ICU of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee

Abstract:

This study was done to determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections in the ICU and to identify the common microorganisms causing these infections and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. Nosocomial infection or hospital-acquired infection is a localized or a systemic condition resulting from an adverse reaction to the presence of infectious agents. Nosocomial infections are not present or incubating when the patient is admitted to hospital or other health care facility. They are caused by pathogens that easily spread through the body. Many hospitalized patients have compromised immune systems, so they are less able to fight off infections. These infections occur worldwide, both in the developed and developing the world. They are a significant burden to patients and public health. They are a major cause of death and increased morbidity in hospitalized patients, which is a matter of serious concern today. This study was done during the period of one year (2012-2013) in the ICU of the tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Prevalence of nosocomial infection was determined; site of infection and the pattern of microorganisms were identified along with the assessment of antibiotic susceptibility profile. Patients who developed an infection after 48 hours of admission to the ICU were included in the study. A total of 324 ICU patients were analyzed, of these 79 patients were found to have developed a nosocomial infection (24.3% prevalence). Urinary tract infection was found to be more predominant followed by respiratory tract infection and soft tissue infection. The most frequently isolated microorganism was E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by other organisms respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility test of these isolates was done against commonly used antibiotics. Patients admitted to the ICU are especially susceptible to nosocomial infections. Despite adequate antimicrobial treatment, nosocomial ICU infections can significantly affect ICU stay and can cause an increase in patient’s morbidity and mortality. Adherence to infection protocol, proper monitoring and the judicious use of antibiotics are important in preventing such infections on a regular basis.

Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility, intensive care unit, nosocomial infection, nosocomial pathogen

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1474 The Prevalence of Blood-Borne Viral Infections among Autopsy Cases in Jordan

Authors: Emad Al-Abdallat, Faris G. Bakri, Azmi Mahafza, Rayyan Al Ali, Nidaa Ababneh, Ahmed Idhair

Abstract:

Background: Morgues are high-risk areas for the spread of infection from the cadavers to the staff during the postmortem examination. Infection can spread from corpses to workers by the airborne route, by direct contact, or from needle and sharp object injuries. Objective: Knowledge about the prevalence of these infections among autopsies is prudent to appreciate any risk of transmission and to further enforce safety measures. Method: A total of 242 autopsies were tested. Age ranged from 3 days to 94 years (median 75.5 years, mean 45.3 (21.9 ± SD)). There were 172 (71%) males. Results: The cause of death was considered natural in 137 (56.6%) cases, accidental in 89 (36.8%), homicidal in 9 (3.7%), suicidal in 4 (1.7%), and unknown in 3 (1.2%). Hepatitis B surface antigen was positive in 5 (2.1%) cases. Hepatitis C virus antibody was detected in 5 (2.1%) cases and the hepatitis C virus polymerase chain reaction was positive in 2 of them (0.8%). HIV antibody was not detected in any of the cases. Conclusions: Autopsies can be associated with exposure to blood borne viruses. Autopsies performed during the study period were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C virus antibody, and human immunodeficiency virus antibody. Positive tests were subsequently confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. There is low prevalence of infections with these viruses in our autopsy cases. However, the risk of transmission remains a threat. Healthcare workers in the forensic departments should adhere to standard precautions.

Keywords: autopsy, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Jordan

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1473 Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) by PCR Technique in Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) in Babylon City

Authors: Amal Raqib Shameran, Ghanim Aboud Al-Mola

Abstract:

Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the major pathogens of respiratory tract infections (RTI) among infants and children in the world. They are classified in family Paramyxoviridae and sub-family Pneumovirinae. The current work aimed to detect the role of RSV in the lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in Hilla, Iraq. The samples were collected from 50 children who were admitted to hospital suffering from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). 50 nasal and pharyngeal swabs were taken from patients at the period from January 2010 till April 2011, hospitalized in Hilla Maternity and Children Hospital. The results showed that the proportion of children infected with hRSV accounted for 24% 12/50 with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) when they tested by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

Keywords: respiratory syncytial virus, respiratory tract infections, infants, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

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1472 Reduction in Hospital Acquire Infections after Intervention of Hand Hygiene and Personal Protective Equipment at COVID Unit Indus Hospital Karachi

Authors: Aisha Maroof

Abstract:

Introduction: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly around the world with devastating consequences on patients, health care workers and health systems. Severe 2019 novel coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) with pneumonia is associated with high rates of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and they are at high risk to obtain the hospital acquire bloodstream infection (HAIs) such as central line associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) and laboratory confirm bloodstream infection (LCBSI). The chances of infection transmission increase when healthcare worker’s (HCWs) practice is inappropriate. Risk related to hand hygiene (HH) and personal protective equipment (PPE) as regards multidrug-resistant organism transmission: use of multiple gloving instead of HH and incorrect use of PPE can lead to a significant increase of device-related infections. As it reaches low- and middle-income countries, its effects could be even more, because it will be difficult for them to react aggressively to the pandemic. HAIs are one of the biggest medical concerns, resulting in increased mortality rates. Objective: To assess the effect of intervention on compliance of hand hygiene and PPE among HCWs reduce the rate of HAI in COVID-19 patients. Method: An interventional study was done between July to December, 2020. CLABSI, CAUTI and LCBSI data were collected from the medical record and direct observation. There were total of 50 Nurses, 18 doctors and all patients with laboratory-confirmed severe COVID-19 admitted to the hospital were included in this research study. Respiratory tract specimens were obtained after the first 48 h of ICU admission. Practices were observed after and before intervention. Education was provided based on WHO guidelines. Results: During the six months of study July to December, the rate of CLABSI, CAUTI and LCBSI pre and post intervention was reported. CLABSI rate decreasedd from 22.7 to 0, CAUTI rate was decreased from 1.6 to 0, LCBSI declined from 3.3 to 0 after implementation of intervention. Conclusion: HAIs are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Most of the device related infections occurs due to lack of correct use of PPE and hand hygiene compliance. Hand hygiene and PPE is the most important measure to protect patients, through education it can be improved the correct use of PPE and hand hygiene compliance and can reduce the bacterial infection in COVID-19 patients.

Keywords: hospital acquire infection, healthcare workers, hand hygiene, personal protective equipment

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1471 Epidemiological Profile of Hospital Acquired Infections Caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in Intensive Care Unit

Authors: A. Dali-Ali, F. Agag, H. Beldjilali, A. Oukebdane, K. Meddeber, R. Dali-Yahia, N. Midoun

Abstract:

The ability of Acinetobacter baumannii to develop multiple resistances towards to the majority of antibiotics explains the therapeutic difficulties encountered in severe infections. Furthermore, its persistence in the humid or dry environment promotes cross-contamination in intensive care units. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological and bacterial resistance profiles of hospital-acquired infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in the intensive care unit of our teaching hospital. During the study period (June 3, 2012 to December 31, 2013), 305 patients having duration of hospitalization equal or more than 48 hours were included in the study. Among these, 36 had developed, at least, one health-care associated infection caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. The rate of infected patients was equal to 11.8% (36/305). The rate of cumulative incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia was the highest (9.2%) followed by central venous catheter infection (1.3%). Analysis of the various antibiotic resistance profile shows that 93.8% of the strains were resistant to imipenem. The nosocomial infection control committee set up a special program not only to reduce the high rates of incidence of these infections but also to descrease the rate of imipenem resistance.

Keywords: Acinetobacer baumannii, epidemiological profile, hospital acquired infections, intensive care unit

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1470 Global Differences in Job Satisfaction of Healthcare Professionals

Authors: Jonathan H. Westover, Ruthann Cunningham, Jaron Harvey

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Purpose: Job satisfaction is one of the most critical attitudes among employees. Understanding whether employees are satisfied with their jobs and what is driving that satisfaction is important for any employer, but particularly for healthcare organizations. This study looks at the question of job satisfaction and drivers of job satisfaction among healthcare professionals at a global scale, looking for trends that generalize across 37 countries. Study: This study analyzed job satisfaction responses to the 2015 Work Orientations IV wave of the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) to understand differences in antecedents for and levels of job satisfaction among healthcare professionals. A total of 18,716 respondents from 37 countries participated in the annual survey. Findings: Respondents self-identified their occupational category based on corresponding International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08) codes. Results suggest that mean overall job satisfaction was highest among health service managers and generalist medical practitioners and lowest among environmental hygiene professionals and nursing professionals. Originality: Many studies have addressed the issue of job satisfaction in healthcare, examining small samples of specific healthcare workers. In this study, using a large international dataset, we are able to examine questions of job satisfaction across large groups of healthcare workers in different occupations within the healthcare field.

Keywords: job satisfaction, healthcare industry, global comparisons, workplace

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1469 The Effects of Racial Cohesion among White and Maori Populations on Healthcare in New Zealand

Authors: Thomas C. Nash

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New Zealand has a small, yet racially diverse, population of only 4.6 million people, consisting of a majority European immigrant population and a large indigenous Maori population. Because disparities in healthcare often exist among minority populations, it could be expected that the White and Maori populations of New Zealand would have unequal access to healthcare. In order to understand the ways these disparities may present themselves, it became important to travel to New Zealand in order to interview both Western and natural healthcare professionals, public health officials, health activists and Maori people. In observing the various mechanisms within the New Zealand healthcare system, some stand out as effective ways of alleviating the racial disparities often seen in healthcare. These include the efficiency of regional District Health Boards, the benefits of individuals making decisions regarding their treatment plans and the importance of cohesion among the Maori and White populations. In forming a conclusion around these observations, it is evident that the integration of Maori culture into contemporary New Zealand has benefited the healthcare system. This unity has generated support for non-Western medical treatments, in turn forming a healthcare system that creates low barriers to entry for non-traditional forms of healthcare. These low barriers allow individuals to allocate available healthcare resources in ways that are most beneficial for them and are consistent with their tastes and preferences, maximizing efficiency.

Keywords: alternative and complementary healthcare, low barriers to entry, Maori populations, racial cohesion

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1468 Imputing the Minimum Social Value of Public Healthcare: A General Equilibrium Model of Israel

Authors: Erez Yerushalmi, Sani Ziv

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The rising demand for healthcare services, without a corresponding rise in public supply, led to a debate on whether to increase private healthcare provision - especially in hospital services and second-tier healthcare. Proponents for increasing private healthcare highlight gains in efficiency, while opponents its risk to social welfare. None, however, provide a measure of the social value and its impact on the economy in terms of a monetary value. In this paper, we impute a minimum social value of public healthcare that corresponds to indifference between gains in efficiency, with losses to social welfare. Our approach resembles contingent valuation methods that introduce a hypothetical market for non-commodities, but is different from them because we use numerical simulation techniques to exploit certain market failure conditions. In this paper, we develop a general equilibrium model that distinguishes between public-private healthcare services and public-private financing. Furthermore, the social value is modelled as a by product of healthcare services. The model is then calibrated to our unique health focused Social Accounting Matrix of Israel, and simulates the introduction of a hypothetical health-labour market - given that it is heavily regulated in the baseline (i.e., the true situation in Israel today). For baseline parameters, we estimate the minimum social value at around 18% public healthcare financing. The intuition is that the gain in economic welfare from improved efficiency, is offset by the loss in social welfare due to a reduction in available social value. We furthermore simulate a deregulated healthcare scenario that internalizes the imputed value of social value and searches for the optimal weight of public and private healthcare provision.

Keywords: contingent valuation method (CVM), general equilibrium model, hypothetical market, private-public healthcare, social value of public healthcare

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1467 Emergence of Vancomycin Resistant and Methcillin Resistant Staphylococus aureus in Patients with Different Clinical Manifestations in Khartoum State, Sudan

Authors: Maimona A. E. Elimam, Suhair Rehan, Miskelyemen A. Elmekki, Mogahid M. Elhassan

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Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. aureus), a major cause of potentially life-threatening infections acquired in healthcare and community settings, has developed resistance to most classes of antimicrobial agents as determined by the dramatic increase. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of MRSA, and VRSA in patients with different clinical manifestations in Khartoum state. The study population (n, 426) were males and females with different age categories, suffering either from wound infections (105), ear infections (121), or UTI (101), in addition to nasal carriers of medical staff (100). Cultures, Gram staining, and other biochemical tests were performed for conventional identification. Modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was applied and DNA was extracted from MRSA and VRSA isolates and PCR was then performed for amplification of arc, mecA, VanA, and VanB genes. The results confirmed the existence of Staph. aureus in 49/426 (11.5%) cases among which MRSA were isolated from 34/49 (69.4%) when modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was applied. Ten out of these 34 MRSA were confirmed as VRSA by cultures on BHI agar containing 6μg/ml vancomycin according to NCCLS criteria. PCR revealed that out of the 34 MRSA isolates, 26 were mecA positive (76.5%) while 8 (23.5%) were arcC positive. No vanA or VanB genes were detected. Molecular method confirmed the results for MRSA through the presence of either arcC or mecA genes while it failed to approve the occurrence of VRSA since neither VanA or VanB genes were detected. Thus, VRSA may be attributed to other factors.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, Staphylococcus aureus, VRSA, MRSA, Khartoum, Sudan

Procedia PDF Downloads 367