Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Adela Diepoltova

8 Settings of Conditions Leading to Reproducible and Robust Biofilm Formation in vitro in Evaluation of Drug Activity against Staphylococcal Biofilms

Authors: Adela Diepoltova, Klara Konecna, Ondrej Jandourek, Petr Nachtigal

Abstract:

A loss of control over antibiotic-resistant pathogens has become a global issue due to severe and often untreatable infections. This state is reflected in complicated treatment, health costs, and higher mortality. All these factors emphasize the urgent need for the discovery and development of new anti-infectives. One of the most common pathogens mentioned in the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance are bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus. These bacterial agents have developed several mechanisms against the effect of antibiotics. One of them is biofilm formation. In staphylococci, biofilms are associated with infections such as endocarditis, osteomyelitis, catheter-related bloodstream infections, etc. To author's best knowledge, no validated and standardized methodology evaluating candidate compound activity against staphylococcal biofilms exists. However, a variety of protocols for in vitro drug activity testing has been suggested, yet there are often fundamental differences. Based on our experience, a key methodological step that leads to credible results is to form a robust biofilm with appropriate attributes such as firm adherence to the substrate, a complex arrangement in layers, and the presence of extracellular polysaccharide matrix. At first, for the purpose of drug antibiofilm activity evaluation, the focus was put on various conditions (supplementation of cultivation media by human plasma/fetal bovine serum, shaking mode, the density of initial inoculum) that should lead to reproducible and robust in vitro staphylococcal biofilm formation in microtiter plate model. Three model staphylococcal reference strains were included in the study: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35983). The total biofilm biomass was quantified using the Christensen method with crystal violet, and results obtained from at least three independent experiments were statistically processed. Attention was also paid to the viability of the biofilm-forming staphylococcal cells and the presence of extracellular polysaccharide matrix. The conditions that led to robust biofilm biomass formation with attributes for biofilms mentioned above were then applied by introducing an alternative method analogous to the commercially available test system, the Calgary Biofilm Device. In this test system, biofilms are formed on pegs that are incorporated into the lid of the microtiter plate. This system provides several advantages (in situ detection and quantification of biofilm microbial cells that have retained their viability after drug exposure). Based on our preliminary studies, it was found that the attention to the peg surface and substrate on which the bacterial biofilms are formed should also be paid to. Therefore, further steps leading to the optimization were introduced. The surface of pegs was coated by human plasma, fetal bovine serum, and L-polylysine. Subsequently, the willingness of bacteria to adhere and form biofilm was monitored. In conclusion, suitable conditions were revealed, leading to the formation of reproducible, robust staphylococcal biofilms in vitro for the microtiter model and the system analogous to the Calgary biofilm device, as well. The robustness and typical slime texture could be detected visually. Likewise, an analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a complex three-dimensional arrangement of biofilm forming organisms surrounded by an extracellular polysaccharide matrix.

Keywords: anti-biofilm drug activity screening, in vitro biofilm formation, microtiter plate model, the Calgary biofilm device, staphylococcal infections, substrate modification, surface coating

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7 Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Malaysian Multi-Ethnic Discrimination Scale

Authors: Chua Bee Seok, Shamsul Amri Baharuddin, Ferlis Bahari, Jasmine Adela Mutang, Lailawati Madlan, Rosnah Ismail, Asong Joseph

Abstract:

Malaysia is a country famously known for its multiple unique cultural and ethnic diversities. Despite the diversity of culture, customs and beliefs, respectively, Malaysia still be able to stand as a harmonious country. However, if there is an attitude of stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination among ethnic, it may seriously affect the solidarity between people in Malaysia. Thus, this study focuses on constructing a scale measuring the Malaysian experience, strategy and effect of ethnic discrimination. To develop a quantitative measure on ethnic discrimination directed against Malaysian, a three-step process is proposed: Exploratory factor analysis, validity analysis, and internal consistency reliability analysis. Results, limitations, and implications of the study are discussed.

Keywords: test development, Malaysian multi-ethnic discrimination scale, exploratory factor analysis, validity, multi-ethnic, reliability, psychometrics

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6 Recycling Motivations and Barriers in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia

Authors: Jasmine Adela Mutang, Rosnah Ismail, Chua Bee Seok, Ferlis Bahari, Lailawati Madlan, Walton Wider, Rickless Das

Abstract:

Waste projection is increasing and most landfills in Malaysia are running out of space. Due to that, waste management is now becoming a major challenge. The most sustainable solution is by practicing sustainable practices such as recycling. Since 1993 the government has launched several recycling campaigns and implemented the National Recycling Policy. However, public participation is still very low. Only 10.5% of solid waste was recycled up to now which is far below than of in developed countries. Nevertheless the government is optimistic that the target of 22% recycling by 2020 will be achieved if there is a positive flow pattern in sustainable practices in particular recycling behavior among Malaysian. Understanding public motivations towards recycling domestic waste are important to improve current recycling rate. Thus this study attempts to identify what are the possible motivations and hindrances for the public to recycle. Open-ended questions format were administered to 484 people in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Two specific questions we asked to explore their general determinants and barriers in practicing recycling: “What motivates you to recycle?” and “What are the barriers you encountered in doing recycling activities?” Thematic analysis was conducted on the open-ended questions in which themes were created with the raw comments. It was found that the underlying recycling motivations are awareness’ towards the environment, benefits to the society and individual, and social influence. Non participations are influence by attitudes, commitment, facilities, knowledge, inconvenience, and enforcement.

Keywords: recycling motivation, recycling barrier, sustainable, household waste

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5 pH-Responsive Carrier Based on Polymer Particle

Authors: Florin G. Borcan, Ramona C. Albulescu, Adela Chirita-Emandi

Abstract:

pH-responsive drug delivery systems are gaining more importance because these systems deliver the drug at a specific time in regards to pathophysiological necessity, resulting in improved patient therapeutic efficacy and compliance. Polyurethane materials are well-known for industrial applications (elastomers and foams used in different insulations and automotive), but they are versatile biocompatible materials with many applications in medicine, as artificial skin for the premature neonate, membrane in the hybrid artificial pancreas, prosthetic heart valves, etc. This study aimed to obtain the physico-chemical characterization of a drug delivery system based on polyurethane microparticles. The synthesis is based on a polyaddition reaction between an aqueous phase (mixture of polyethylene-glycol M=200, 1,4-butanediol and Tween® 20) and an organic phase (lysin-diisocyanate in acetone) combined with simultaneous emulsification. Different active agents (omeprazole, amoxicillin, metoclopramide) were used to verify the release profile of the macromolecular particles in different pH mediums. Zetasizer measurements were performed using an instrument based on two modules: a Vasco size analyzer and a Wallis Zeta potential analyzer (Cordouan Technol., France) in samples that were kept in various solutions with different pH and the maximum absorbance in UV-Vis spectra were collected on a UVi Line 9,400 Spectrophotometer (SI Analytics, Germany). The results of this investigation have revealed that these particles are proper for a prolonged release in gastric medium where they can assure an almost constant concentration of the active agents for 1-2 weeks, while they can be disassembled faster in a medium with neutral pHs, such as the intestinal fluid.

Keywords: lysin-diisocyanate, nanostructures, polyurethane, Zetasizer

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4 Effect of 8 Weeks of Intervention on Physical Fitness, Hepatokines, and Insulin Resistance in Obese Subjects

Authors: Adela Penesova, Zofia Radikova, Boris Bajer, Andrea Havranova, Miroslav Vlcek

Abstract:

Background: The aim of our study was to compare the effect of intensified lifestyle intervention on insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 after 8 weeks of lifestyle intervention. Methods: A group of 43 obese patients (13M/30F; 43.0±12.4 years; BMI (body mass index) 31.2±6.3 kg/m2 participated in a weight loss interventional program (NCT02325804) following an 8-week hypocaloric diet (-30% energy expenditure) and physical activity 150 minutes/week. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity indices according to Matsuda and Cederholm were calculated (ISImat and ISIced). Plasma ALT, AST, Fetuin-A, FGF 21, and physical fitness were measured. Results: The average reduction of body weight was 6.8±4.9 kg (0-15 kg; p=0.0006), accompanied with a significant reduction of body fat amount of fat mass (p=0.03), and waist circumference (p=0.02). Insulin sensitivity has been improved (IR HOMA 2.71±3.90 vs 1.24±0.83; p=0.01; ISIMat 6.64±4.38 vs 8.93±5.36 p ≤ 0.001). Total, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides decreased (p=0.05, p=0.04, p=0.04, respectively). Physical fitness significantly improved after intervention (as measure VO2 max (maximal oxygen uptake) (p ≤ 0.001). ALT decreased significantly (0.44±0.26 vs post 0.33±0.18 ukat/l, p=0.004); however, AST not (pre 0.40±0.15 vs 0.35±0.09 ukat/l, p=0.07). Hepatokine Fetuin-A significantly decreased after intervention (43.1±10.8 vs 32.6±8.6 ng/ml, p < 0.001); however, FGF 21 levels tended to decrease (146±152 vs 132±164 pg/ml, p=0.07). Conclusion: 8-weeks of diet and physical activity intervention program in obese otherwise healthy subjects led to an improvement of insulin resistance parameters and liver marker profiles, as well as increased physical fitness. This study was supported by grants APVV 15-0228; VEGA 2/0161/16.

Keywords: obesity, diet, exercice, insulin sensitivity

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3 Development and Validation of Employee Trust Scale: Factor Structure, Reliability and Validity

Authors: Chua Bee Seok, Getrude Cosmas, Jasmine Adela Mutang, Shazia Iqbal Hashmi

Abstract:

The aims of this study were to determine the factor structure and psychometric properties (i.e., reliability and convergent validity) of the employees trust scale, a newly created instrument by the researchers. The employees trust scale initially contained 82 items to measure employee’s trust toward their supervisors. A sample of 818 (343 females, 449 males) employees were selected randomly from public and private organization sectors in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Their ages ranged from 19 to 67 years old with the mean of 34.55 years old. Their average tenure with their current employer was 11.2 years (s.d. = 7.5 years). The respondents were asked to complete the employees trust scale, as well as a managerial trust questionnaire from Mishra. The exploratory factor analysis on employee’s trust toward their supervisor’s extracted three factors, labeled 'trustworthiness' (32 items), 'position status' (11 items) and 'relationship' (6 items) which accounted for 62.49% of the total variance. Trustworthiness factors were re-categorized into three sub factors: competency (11 items), benevolence (8 items) and integrity (13 items). All factors and sub factors of the scales demonstrated clear reliability with internal consistency of Cronbach’s Alpha above 0.85. The convergent validity of the Scale was supported by an expected pattern of correlations (positive and significant correlation) between the score of all factors and sub factors of the scale and the score on the managerial trust questionnaire which measured the same construct. The convergent validity of employees trust scale was further supported by the significant and positive inter correlation between the factors and sub factors of the scale. The results suggest that the employees trust scale is a reliable and valid measure. However, further studies need to be carried out in other groups of sample as to further validate the Scale.

Keywords: employees trust scale, psychometric properties, trustworthiness, position status, relationship

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2 Improvement of Cardiometabolic after 8 Weeks of Weight Loss Intervention

Authors: Boris Bajer, Andrea Havranova, Miroslav Vlcek, Richard Imrich, Adela Penesova

Abstract:

Lifestyle interventions can prevent the deterioration of impaired glucose tolerance to manifest type 2 diabetes, and also prevent cardiovascular diseases, as it showed many studies (the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), . the China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study, etc.) Therefore the aim of our study was to compare the effect of intensified lifestyle intervention on cardiometabolic parameters. Methods: It is an ongoing randomized interventional clinical study (NCT02325804) focused on the reduction of body weight/fat. Intervention: hypocaloric diet (30% restriction of calories) and physical activity 150 minutes/week. Before and after 8 weeks of intervention all patients underwent complete medical examination (measurement of physical fitness, resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition analysis, oral glucose tolerance test, parameters of lipid metabolism, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: So far 39 patients finished the intervention. The average reduction of body weight was 6,8 + 4,9 kg (0-15 kg; p=0,0006), accompanied with significant reduction of body fat percentage (p ≤ 0,0001), amount of fat mass (p=0,03), waist circumference (p=0.02). Amount of lean mass and RMR remained unchanged. Heart rate (p=0,02), systolic and diastolic blood pressure was reduced (p=0,01 p=0,02 resp.) as well as insulin sensitivity was improved. Lipid parameters also changed - cholesterol, LDL decreased (p=0,05, p=0,04 resp.), while triglycerides showed tendency to decrease (p=0,055). Liver function improved, alanine aminotrasnferase (ALT) were reduced (p=0,01). Physical fitness significantly improved (as measure VO2 max (p=0,02). Conclusion: Results of our study are in line with previous results about the beneficial effect of intensive lifestyle changes on the reduction of cardiometabolic risk factors and improvement of liver function. Supported by grants APVV 15-0228; VEGA 2/0161/16

Keywords: obesity, weight loss, diet lipids, blood pressure, liver enzymes

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1 The Need for Innovation Management in the Context of Integrated Management Systems

Authors: Adela Mariana Vadastreanu, Adrian Bot, Andreea Maier, Dorin Maier

Abstract:

This paper approaches the need for innovation management in the context of an existing integrated management system implemented in an organization. The road to success for companies in today’s economic environment is more demanding than ever and the capacity of adapting to the rapid changes is compensatory in order to resist on the market. The managers struggle, daily, with increasingly complex problems, caused by fierce competition in the market but also from the rising demands of customers. Innovation seems to be the solution for these problems. During the last decade almost all companies have been certificated according to various management systems, like quality management system, environmental management system, health and safety management system and others; furthermore many companies have implemented an integrated management system, by integrating two or more management systems. The problem rising today is how to integrate innovation in this integrated management systems. The challenge of the problem is that the development of an innovation management system is in the early phase. In this paper we have studied the possibility of integrating some of the innovation request in an existing management system, we have identify the innovation performance request and we proposed some recommendations regarding innovation management and its implementation as a part of an integrated management system. This paper lies down the bases for developing an model of integration management systems that include innovation as a main part of it. Organizations are becoming more aware of the importance of Integrated Management Systems (IMS). Integrating two or more management systems into an integrated management system can have much advantages.This paper examines various models of management systems integration in accordance with professional references ISO 9001, ISO 18001 and OHSAS 18001, highlighting strengths and weaknesses, creating a basis for future development of integrated management systems, and their involvement in various other processes within the organization, such as innovation management. The more and more demanding economic context emphasizes the awareness of the importance of innovation for organizations. This paper highlights the importance of the innovation for an organization and also gives some practical solution in order to improve the overall success of the business through a better approach of innovation. Various standards have been developed in order to certificate organizations that they respect the requirements. Applying an integrated standards model is shown to be a more effective way then applying the standards independently. The problem that arises is that in order to adopt the integrated version of standards there have to be made some changes at the organizational level. Every change that needs to be done has an effect on its activity, and in this sense the paper tries to deal with the changes needed for adopting an integrated management system and if those changes have an influence over the performance. After the analysis of the results, we can conclude that in order to improve the performance a necessary step is the implementation of innovation in the existing integrated management system.

Keywords: innovation, integrated management systems, innovation management, quality

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