Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 618

Search results for: ex situ

618 Prediction of in situ Permeability for Limestone Rock Using Rock Quality Designation Index

Authors: Ahmed T. Farid, Muhammed Rizwan


Geotechnical study for evaluating soil or rock permeability is a highly important parameter. Permeability values for rock formations are more difficult for determination than soil formation as it is an effect of the rock quality and its fracture values. In this research, the prediction of in situ permeability of limestone rock formations was predicted. The limestone rock permeability was evaluated using Lugeon tests (in-situ packer permeability). Different sites which spread all over the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia were chosen to conduct our study of predicting the in-situ permeability of limestone rock. Correlations were deducted between the values of in-situ permeability of the limestone rock with the value of the rock quality designation (RQD) calculated during the execution of the boreholes of the study areas. The study was performed for different ranges of RQD values measured during drilling of the sites boreholes. The developed correlations are recommended for the onsite determination of the in-situ permeability of limestone rock only. For the other sedimentary formations of rock, more studies are needed for predicting the actual correlations related to each type.

Keywords: In situ, packer, permeability, rock, quality

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617 NFC Kenaf Core Graphene Paper: In-situ Method Application

Authors: M. A. Izzati, R. Rosazley, A. W. Fareezal, M. Z. Shazana, I. Rushdan, M. Jani


Ultrasonic probe were using to produce nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) kenaf core. NFC kenaf core and graphene was mixed using in-situ method with the 5V voltage for 24 hours. The resulting NFC graphene paper was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra and thermogavimetric analysis (TGA). The properties of NFC kenaf core graphene paper are compared with properties of pure NFC kenaf core paper.

Keywords: NFC, kenaf core, graphene, in-situ method

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616 Correlation Results Based on Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements by in-situ and Ex-Situ Measurements as Indicators of Environmental Changes Due to the Fertilizer Industry

Authors: Nurin Amalina Widityani, Adinda Syifa Azhari, Twin Aji Kusumagiani, Eleonora Agustine


Fertilizer industry activities contribute to environmental changes. Changes to the environment became one of a few problems in this era of globalization. Parameters that can be seen as criteria to identify changes in the environment can be seen from the aspects of physics, chemistry, and biology. One aspect that can be assessed quickly and efficiently to describe environmental change is the aspect of physics, one of which is the value of magnetic susceptibility (χ). The rock magnetism method can be used as a proxy indicator of environmental changes, seen from the value of magnetic susceptibility. The rock magnetism method is based on magnetic susceptibility studies to measure and classify the degree of pollutant elements that cause changes in the environment. This research was conducted in the area around the fertilizer plant, with five coring points on each track, each coring point a depth of 15 cm. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed by in-situ and ex-situ. In-situ measurements were carried out directly by using the SM30 tool by putting the tools on the soil surface at each measurement point and by that obtaining the value of the magnetic susceptibility. Meanwhile, ex-situ measurements are performed in the laboratory by using the Bartington MS2B tool’s susceptibility, which is done on a coring sample which is taken every 5 cm. In-situ measurement shows results that the value of magnetic susceptibility at the surface varies, with the lowest score on the second and fifth points with the -0.81 value and the highest value at the third point, with the score of 0,345. Ex-situ measurements can find out the variations of magnetic susceptibility values at each depth point of coring. At a depth of 0-5 cm, the value of the highest XLF = 494.8 (x10-8m³/kg) is at the third point, while the value of the lowest XLF = 187.1 (x10-8m³/kg) at first. At a depth of 6-10 cm, the highest value of the XLF was at the second point, which was 832.7 (x10-8m³/kg) while the lowest XLF is at the first point, at 211 (x10-8m³/kg). At a depth of 11-15 cm, the XLF’s highest value = 857.7 (x10-8m³/kg) is at the second point, whereas the value of the lowest XLF = 83.3 (x10-8m³/kg) is at the fifth point. Based on the in situ and exsit measurements, it can be seen that the highest magnetic susceptibility values from the surface samples are at the third point.

Keywords: magnetic susceptibility, fertilizer plant, Bartington MS2B, SM30

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615 Control of Staphylococcus aureus in Meat System by in situ and ex situ Bacteriocins from Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus spp.

Authors: M. Naimi, M. B. Khaled


The present study consisted of an applied test in meat system to assess the effectiveness of three bio agents bacteriocinproducing strains: Lm24: Lactobacillus sakei, Lm14and Lm25: Pediococcus spp. Two tests were carried out: The ex-situ test was intended for three batches added with crude bacteriocin solutions at 12.48 AU/ml for Lm25 and 8.4 AU/ml for Lm14 and Lm24. However, the in situ one consisted of four batches; three of them inoculated with one bacteriocinogenic Lm25, Lm14, Lm24, respectively. The fourth one was used in mixture: Lm14+m24 at approximately of 107 CFU/ml. The two used tests were done in the presence of the pathogen St. aureus ATCC 6538, as a test strain at 103 CFU/ml. Another batch served as a positive or a negative control was used too. The incubation was performed at 7°C. Total viable counts, staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria, at the beginning and at selected times with interval of three days were enumerated. Physicochemical determinations (except for in situ test): pH, dry mater, sugars, fat and total protein, at the beginning and at end of the experiment, were done, according to the international norms. Our results confirmed the ex situ effectiveness. Furthermore, the batches affected negatively the total microbial load over the incubation days, and showed a significant regression in staphylococcal load at day seven, for Lm14, Lm24, and Lm25 of 0.73, 2.11, and 2.4 log units. It should be noticed that, at the last day of culture, staphylococcal load was nil for the three batches. In the in situ test, the cultures displayed less inhibitory attitude and recorded a decrease in staphylococcal load, for Lm14, Lm24, Lm25, Lm14+m24 of 0.73, 0.20, 0.86, 0.032 log units. Therefore, physicochemical analysis for Lm14, Lm24, Lm25, Lm14+m24 showed an increase in pH from 5.50 to 5.77, 6.18, 5.96, 7.22, a decrease in dry mater from 7.30% to 7.05%, 6.87%, 6.32%, 6.00%.This result reflects the decrease in fat ranging from 1.53% to 1.49%, 1.07%, 0.99%, 0.87%; and total protein from 6.18% to 5.25%, 5.56%, 5.37%, 5.5%. This study suggests that the use of selected strains as Lm25 could lead to the best results and would help in preserving and extending the shelf life of lamb meat.

Keywords: biocontrol, in situ, ex situ, meat system, St. aureus, Lactobacillus sakei, Pediococcus spp.

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614 In-situ Raman Spectroscopy of Flexible Graphene Oxide Films Containing Pt Nanoparticles in The Presense of Atomic Hydrogen

Authors: Ali Moafi, Kourosh Kalantarzadeh, Richard Kaner, Parviz Parvin, Ebrahim Asl Soleimani, Dougal McCulloch


In-situ Raman spectroscopy of flexible graphene-oxide films examined upon exposure to hydrogen gas, air, and synthetic air. The changes in D and G peaks are attributed to defects responding to atomic hydrogen spilled over from the catalytic behavior of Pt nanoparticles distributed all over the film. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images (HRTEM) as well as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were carried out to define the density of the samples.

Keywords: in situ Raman Spectroscopy, EELS, TEM, graphene oxide, graphene, atomic hydrogen

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613 Detection of Nanotoxic Material Using DNA Based QCM

Authors: Juneseok You, Chanho Park, Kuehwan Jang, Sungsoo Na


Sensing of nanotoxic materials is strongly important, as their engineering applications are growing recently and results in that nanotoxic material can harmfully influence human health and environment. In current study we report the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based, in situ and real-time sensing of nanotoxic-material by frequency shift. We propose the in situ detection of nanotoxic material of zinc oxice by using QCM functionalized with a taget-specific DNA. Since the mass of a target material is comparable to that of an atom, the mass change caused by target binding to DNA on the quartz electrode is so small that it is practically difficult to detect the ions at low concentrations. In our study, we have demonstrated the in-situ and fast detection of zinc oxide using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The detection was derived from the DNA hybridization between the DNA on the quartz electrode. The results suggest that QCM-based detection opens a new avenue for the development of a practical water-testing sensor.

Keywords: nanotoxic material, qcm, frequency, in situ sensing

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612 Innovative Textile Design Using in-situ Ag NPs incorporation into Natural Fabric Matrix

Authors: M. Rehan, H. Mashaly, H. Emam, A. Abou El-Kheir, S. Mowafi


In this work, we will study a simple highly efficient technique to impart multi functional properties to different fabric substrates by in situ Ag NPs incorporation into fabric matrix. Ag NPs as a coloration and antimicrobial agent were prepared in situ incorporation into fabric matrix (Cotton and Wool) by using trisodium citrate as reducing and stabilizing agent. The Ag NPs treated fabric (Cotton and Wool) showed different color because of localized surface Plasmon resonance (LSPR) property of Ag NPs. The formation of Ag NPs was confirmed by UV/Vis spectra for the supernatant solutions and The Ag NPs treated fabric (Cotton and Wool) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS). The dependence of color properties characterized by colorimetric, fastness and antibacterial properties evaluated by Escherichia coli using counting method and the reaction parameters were studied. The results indicate that, the in situ Ag NPs incorporation into fabric matrix approach can simultaneously impart colorant and antimicrobial properties into different fabric substrates.

Keywords: Ag NPs, coloration, antibacterial, wool, cotton fabric

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611 The Power of in situ Characterization Techniques in Heterogeneous Catalysis: A Case Study of Deacon Reaction

Authors: Ramzi Farra, Detre Teschner, Marc Willinger, Robert Schlögl


Introduction: The conventional approach of characterizing solid catalysts under static conditions, i.e., before and after reaction, does not provide sufficient knowledge on the physicochemical processes occurring under dynamic conditions at the molecular level. Hence, the necessity of improving new in situ characterizing techniques with the potential of being used under real catalytic reaction conditions is highly desirable. In situ Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) is a rapidly developing chemical analytical technique that enables us experimentally to assess the coverage of surface species under catalytic turnover and correlate these with the reactivity. The catalytic HCl oxidation (Deacon reaction) over bulk ceria will serve as our example. Furthermore, the in situ Transmission Electron Microscopy is a powerful technique that can contribute to the study of atmosphere and temperature induced morphological or compositional changes of a catalyst at atomic resolution. The application of such techniques (PGAA and TEM) will pave the way to a greater and deeper understanding of the dynamic nature of active catalysts. Experimental/Methodology: In situ Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) experiments were carried out to determine the Cl uptake and the degree of surface chlorination under reaction conditions by varying p(O2), p(HCl), p(Cl2), and the reaction temperature. The abundance and dynamic evolution of OH groups on working catalyst under various steady-state conditions were studied by means of in situ FTIR with a specially designed homemade transmission cell. For real in situ TEM we use a commercial in situ holder with a home built gas feeding system and gas analytics. Conclusions: Two complimentary in situ techniques, namely in situ PGAA and in situ FTIR were utilities to investigate the surface coverage of the two most abundant species (Cl and OH). The OH density and Cl uptake were followed under multiple steady-state conditions as a function of p(O2), p(HCl), p(Cl2), and temperature. These experiments have shown that, the OH density positively correlates with the reactivity whereas Cl negatively. The p(HCl) experiments give rise to increased activity accompanied by Cl-coverage increase (opposite trend to p(O2) and T). Cl2 strongly inhibits the reaction, but no measurable increase of the Cl uptake was found. After considering all previous observations we conclude that only a minority of the available adsorption sites contribute to the reactivity. In addition, the mechanism of the catalysed reaction was proposed. The chlorine-oxygen competition for the available active sites renders re-oxidation as the rate-determining step of the catalysed reaction. Further investigations using in situ TEM are planned and will be conducted in the near future. Such experiments allow us to monitor active catalysts at the atomic scale under the most realistic conditions of temperature and pressure. The talk will shed a light on the potential and limitations of in situ PGAA and in situ TEM in the study of catalyst dynamics.

Keywords: CeO2, deacon process, in situ PGAA, in situ TEM, in situ FTIR

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610 An Easy-Applicable Method for In situ Silver Nanoparticles Preparation into Wool Fibers

Authors: Salwa Mowafi, Mohamed Rehan, Hany Kafafy


In this study, three different systems including room temperature, conventional water bath heating and microwave irradiation technique will be employed in the fabrication of silver nanoparticle-wool fibers. The silver nanoparticles will be synthesized in-situ incorporated into wool fibers under redox active bio-template of wool protein which facilitates the reduction of Ag+ to nanoparticulate Ag0. Silver NPs incorporated wool fiber will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, FTIR, TGA, silver content and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The mechanism of binding Ag NPs in-situ incorporated wool fibers matrix will be discussed. The effect of silver nanoparticles on the coloration, antimicrobial, UV-protection and catalytic properties of the wool fibers will be evaluated. The overall results of this study indicate that the Ag NPs in-situ incorporated wool fibers will be applied as colorants for wool fibers with improving in its multi-functionality properties. So, this study provides a simple approach for innovative protein fibers design by applying the optical properties of Plasmonic noble metal nanoparticles.

Keywords: microwave irradiation technique, multi-functionality properties, silver nanoparticles, wool fibers

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609 Formulation Development and Evaluation Chlorpheniramine Maleate Containing Nanoparticles Loaded Thermo Sensitive in situ Gel for Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

Authors: Vipin Saini, Manish Kumar, Shailendra Bhatt, A. Pandurangan


The aim of the present study was to fabricate a thermo sensitive gel containing Chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) loaded nanoparticles following intranasal administration for effective treatment of allergic rhinitis. Chitosan based nanoparticles were prepared by precipitation method followed by the addition of developed NPs within the Poloxamer 407 and carbopol 934P based mucoadhesive thermo-reversible gel. Developed formulations were evaluated for Particle size, PDI, % entrapment efficiency and % cumulative drug permeation. NP3 formulation was found to be optimized on the basis of minimum particle size (143.9 nm), maximum entrapment efficiency (80.10±0.414 %) and highest drug permeation (90.92±0.531 %). The optimized formulation NP3 was then formulated into thermo reversible in situ gel. This intensifies the contact between nasal mucosa and the drug, increases and facilitates the drug absorption which results in increased bioavailability. G4 formulation was selected as the optimize on the basis of gelation ability and mucoadhesive strength. Histology was carried out to examine the damage caused by the optimized G4 formulation. Results revealed no visual signs of tissue damage thus indicated safe nasal delivery of nanoparticulate in situ gel formulation G4. Thus, intranasal CPM NP-loaded in situ gel was found to be a promising formulation for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

Keywords: chitosan, nanoparticles, in situ gel, chlorpheniramine maleate, poloxamer 407

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608 Evaluation of Iranian Standard for Assessment of Liquefaction Potential of Cohesionless Soils Based on SPT

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayad, Azam Kouhpeyma


In-situ testing is preferred to evaluate the liquefaction potential in cohesionless soils due to high disturbance during sampling. Although new in-situ methods with high accuracy have been developed, standard penetration test, the simplest and the oldest in-situ test, is still used due to the profusion of the recorded data. This paper reviews the Iranian standard of evaluating liquefaction potential in soils (codes 525) and compares the liquefaction assessment methods based on SPT results on cohesionless soil in this standard with the international standards. To this, methods for assessing liquefaction potential which are presented by Cetin et al. (2004), Boulanger and Idriss (2014) are compared with what is presented in standard 525. It is found that although the procedure used in Iranian standard of evaluating the potential of liquefaction has not been updated according to the new findings, it is a conservative procedure.

Keywords: cohesionless soil, liquefaction, SPT, standard 525

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607 In-situ Oxygen Enrichment for UCG

Authors: Adesola O. Orimoloye, Edward Gobina


Membrane separation technology is still considered as an emerging technology in the mining sector and does not yet have the widespread acceptance that it has in other industrial sectors. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), wherein coal is converted to gas in-situ, is a safer alternative to mining method that retains all pollutants underground making the process environmentally friendly. In-situ combustion of coal for power generation allows access to more of the physical global coal resource than would be included in current economically recoverable reserve estimates. Where mining is no longer taking place, for economic or geological reasons, controlled gasification permits exploitation of the deposit (again a reaction of coal to form a synthesis gas) of coal seams in situ. The oxygen supply stage is one of the most expensive parts of any gasification project but the use of membranes is a potentially attractive approach for producing oxygen-enriched air. In this study, a variety of cost-effective membrane materials that gives an optimal amount of oxygen concentrations in the range of interest was designed and tested at diverse operating conditions. Oxygen-enriched atmosphere improves the combustion temperature but a decline is observed if oxygen concentration exceeds optimum. Experimental result also reveals the preparatory method, apparatus and performance of the fabricated membrane.

Keywords: membranes, oxygen-enrichment, gasification, coal

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606 In-situ Oxygen Enrichment for Underground Coal Gasification

Authors: Adesola O. Orimoloye, Edward Gobina


Membrane separation technology is still considered as an emerging technology in the mining sector and does not yet have the widespread acceptance that it has in other industrial sectors. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), wherein coal is converted to gas in-situ, is a safer alternative to mining method that retains all pollutants underground making the process environmentally friendly. In-situ combustion of coal for power generation allows access to more of the physical global coal resource than would be included in current economically recoverable reserve estimates. Where mining is no longer taking place, for economic or geological reasons, controlled gasification permits exploitation of the deposit (again a reaction of coal to form a synthesis gas) of coal seams in situ. The oxygen supply stage is one of the most expensive parts of any gasification project but the use of membranes is a potentially attractive approach for producing oxygen-enriched air. In this study, a variety of cost-effective membrane materials that gives an optimal amount of oxygen concentrations in the range of interest was designed and tested at diverse operating conditions. Oxygen-enriched atmosphere improves the combustion temperature but a decline is observed if oxygen concentration exceeds optimum. Experimental result also reveals the preparatory method, apparatus and performance of the fabricated membrane.

Keywords: membranes, oxygen-enrichment, gasification, coal

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
605 Solar Power Satellites: Reconsideration Based on Novel Approaches

Authors: Alex Ellery


Solar power satellites (SPS), despite their promise as a clean energy source, have been relegated out of consideration due to their enormous cost and technological challenge. It has been suggested that for solar power satellites to become economically feasible, launch costs must decrease from their current $20,000/kg to < $200/kg. Even with the advent of single-stage-to-orbit launchers which propose launch costs dropping to $2,000/kg, this will not be realized. Yet, the advantages of solar power satellites are many. Here, I present a novel approach to reduce the specific cost of solar power satellites to ~$1/kg by leveraging two enabling technologies – in-situ resource utilization and 3D printing. The power of such technologies will open up enormous possibilities for providing additional options for combating climate change whilst meeting demands for global energy. From the constraints imposed by in-situ resource utilization, a novel approach to solar energy conversion in SPS may be realized.

Keywords: clean energy sources, in-situ resource utilisation, solar power satellites, thermionic emission

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604 In-Situ LDH Formation of Sodium Aluminate Activated Slag

Authors: Tao Liu, Qingliang Yu, H. J. H. Brouwers


Among the reaction products in the alkali-activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (AAS), the layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have a remarkable capacity of chloride and heavy metal ions absorption. The promotion of LDH phases in the AAS matrix can increase chloride resistance. The objective of this study is that use the different dosages of sodium aluminate to activate slag, consequently promoting the formation of in-situ LDH. The hydration kinetics of the sodium aluminate activated slag (SAAS) was tested by the isothermal calorimetry. Meanwhile, the reaction products were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The sodium hydroxide-activated slag is selected as the reference. The results of XRD, TGA, and FTIR showed that the formation of LDH in SAAS was increased by the aluminate dosages.

Keywords: ground granulated blast furnace slag, sodium aluminate activated slag, in-situ LDH formation, chloride absorption

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603 Parameters Identification of Granular Soils around PMT Test by Inverse Analysis

Authors: Younes Abed


The successful application of in-situ testing of soils heavily depends on development of interpretation methods of tests. The pressuremeter test simulates the expansion of a cylindrical cavity and because it has well defined boundary conditions, it is more unable to rigorous theoretical analysis (i. e. cavity expansion theory) then most other in-situ tests. In this article, and in order to make the identification process more convenient, we propose a relatively simple procedure which involves the numerical identification of some mechanical parameters of a granular soil, especially, the elastic modulus and the friction angle from a pressuremeter curve. The procedure, applied here to identify the parameters of generalised prager model associated to the Drucker & Prager criterion from a pressuremeter curve, is based on an inverse analysis approach, which consists of minimizing the function representing the difference between the experimental curve and the curve obtained by integrating the model along the loading path in in-situ testing. The numerical process implemented here is based on the established finite element program. We present a validation of the proposed approach by a database of tests on expansion of cylindrical cavity. This database consists of four types of tests; thick cylinder tests carried out on the Hostun RF sand, pressuremeter tests carried out on the Hostun sand, in-situ pressuremeter tests carried out at the site of Fos with marine self-boring pressuremeter and in-situ pressuremeter tests realized on the site of Labenne with Menard pressuremeter.

Keywords: granular soils, cavity expansion, pressuremeter test, finite element method, identification procedure

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602 Influence of Silica Surface Hydrophilicity on Adsorbed Water and Isopropanol Studied by in-situ NMR

Authors: Hyung T. Kwak, Jun Gao, Yao An, Alfred Kleinhammes, Yue Wu


Surface wettability is a crucial factor in oil recovery. In oil industry, the rock wettability involves the interplay between water, oil, and solid surface. Therefore, studying the interplay between adsorptions of water and hydrocarbon molecules on solid surface would be very informative for understanding rock wettability. Here we use the in-situ Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) gas isotherm technique to study competitive adsorptions of water and isopropanol, an intermediate step from hydrocarbons. This in-situ NMR technique obtains information on thermodynamic properties such as the isotherm, molecular dynamics via spin relaxation measurements, and adsorption kinetics such as how fast the system can reach thermal equilibrium after changes of vapor pressures. Using surfaces of silica glass beads, which can be modified from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, we obtained information on the influence of surface hydrophilicity on the state of surface water via obtained thermodynamic and dynamic properties.

Keywords: Wettability, NMR, Gas Isotherm, Hydrophilicity, adsorption

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601 Moroccan Mountains: Forest Ecosystems and Biodiversity Conservation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Sghir Taleb


Forest ecosystems in Morocco are subject increasingly to natural and human pressures. Conscious of this problem, Morocco set a strategy that focuses on programs of in-situ and ex-situ biodiversity conservation. This study is the result of a synthesis of various existing studies on biodiversity and forest ecosystems. It gives an overview of Moroccan mountain forest ecosystems and flora diversity. It also focuses on the efforts made by Morocco to conserve and sustainably manage biodiversity.

Keywords: mountain, ecosystems, conservation, Morocco

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600 In-Situ Synthesis of Zinc-Containing MCM-41 and Investigation of Its Capacity for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide from Crude Oil

Authors: Nastaran Hazrati, Ali Akbar Miran Beigi, Majid Abdouss, Amir Vahid


Hydrogen sulfide is the most toxic gas of crude oil. Adsorption is an energy-efficient process used to remove undesirable compounds such as H2S in gas or liquid streams by passing the stream through a media bed composed of an adsorbent. In this study, H2S of Iran crude oil was separated via cold stripping then zinc incorporated MCM-41 was synthesized via an in-situ method. ZnO functionalized mesoporous silica samples were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption and TEM. The obtained results of adsorption of H2S showed superior ability of all the materials and with an increase in ZnO amount adsorption was increased.

Keywords: MCM-41, ZnO, H2S removal, adsorption

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599 Conducting Glove Leathers Prepared through in-situ Polymerization of Pyrrole

Authors: Wegene Demisie Jima


Leather is a durable and flexible material used for various purposes including clothing, footwear, upholstery and gloves. However, the use of leather for smart product applications is a challenge since it is electrically insulating material. Here, we report a simple method to produce conducting glove leathers using an in-situ polymerization of pyrrole. The concentrations of pyrrole, ferric chloride and anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid sodium salt monohydrate were optimized to produce maximum conductivity in the treated leathers. The coating of polypyrrole in the treated leathers was probed using FT-IR, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic analysis. FTIR confirms that the formation of polypyrrole on the leather surface as well as presence of prominent N-C stretching band. X-ray diffraction analysis suggests para-crystallinity in the PPy-treated leathers.We further demonstrate that the treated leathers, with maximum conductivity of 7.4 S/cm, can be used for making conductive gloves for operating touch-screen devices apart from other smart product applications.

Keywords: electrical conductivity, in-situ polymerization, pyrrole, smart product

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598 Performance Evaluations of Lap Spliced Joint of Decked Bulb-Tee Type Modular Bridge

Authors: Sang-Yoon Lee, Jae-Joon Song


Precast decked bulb-tee girder or precast deck generally adopts in-situ connections of loop joints. Loop joint could be an effective method to connect precast concrete members where the width of joint is not wide sufficiently to allow the lap splice length of reinforcing bars. However, the regulation for the minimum bend diameter of looped rebar gives limitation not to reduce the thickness of precast concrete member; thus, in-situ connection adopting loop joint place a constraint on improving the structural efficiency of precast concrete member. Ultra high strength concrete (UHSC) is effective on reduce the development and lap splice length of reinforcing bar. In-situ connection with UHSC gives a merit to reduce connection width. This study intends to investigate the details of the longitudinal joint to be applied in the precast modular bridge using decked bulb-tee girder that has been recently developed in Korea. This paper presents the details applying UHSC and lap splices of straight reinforcement and results of tests. Several tests were performed on flexural specimens with longitudinal joints to verify the length of the lap splices and amount of transverse reinforcement, and to examine the flexural strength of the longitudinal joint.

Keywords: precast structure, decked bulb-tee girder, in-situ connection, UHSC, modular bridge

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597 Determination of in Situ Degradation Kinetics of Some Legumes Waste Unused for Human Consumption

Authors: Şevket Evci, Mehmet Akif Karsli


The aim of this study is to determine nutrient contents, in situ ruminal degradation kinetics and protein fractions of screenings bean (B), chick pea (ChP), red lentil (RL) and green lentil (GL) that is used as residue in grain legume packing industry. For this purpose, four samples of each legumes species-a total of 16 samples, collected from different parts of our country were utilized. Feedstuffs used in the experiment were incubated for 0, 2 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours in the rumen of 3 ruminally cannulated Akkaraman rams as duplicate. The nutrient contents, in situ ruminal dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) degradabilities and fractions, and escape protein contents were evaluated. The highest OM and CP contents were observed in RL (P<0.05). Chick pea had the highest ether extract (EE) content and EE values were 3.47, 6.72, 2.26, 8.66 % for RL, B, GL and ChP, respectively (P<0.05). Crude fiber (CF), ADF, and NDF contents were the highest in RL and the lowest in ChP. CF values were 24.03, 10.80, 4.09 and 3.57 % for RL, GL, B and ChP (P<0.05). Acid detergent insoluble nitrogen content of samples did not differ. Escape protein content was the highest in RL and the lowest in B (P<0.05). After 48 h incubation, the lowest OM and CP degradabilities were observed in RL. While the highest OM degradability was seen in ChP the highest CP degradability was observed in B (P<0.05). The lowest water soluble OM and CP contents were observed in RL whereas the highest potentially degradable OM and CP contents were seen in B and ChP (P<0.05). Both rate of OM and CP degradations (k-1) did not differ among samples (P>0.05). In conclusion, it was noted that feedstuffs (GL, ChP and B) used in the experiment except RL had a greater ruminal degradibilities of both OM and CP and moreover, had a higher escape protein contents, except B. It was thought that these feedstuffs can be substituted with some of common protein sources used in animal nutrition.

Keywords: in situ, nutrient contents, ruminant, subsieve

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596 Highly Stretchable, Intelligent and Conductive PEDOT/PU Nanofibers Based on Electrospinning and in situ Polymerization

Authors: Kun Qi, Yuman Zhou, Jianxin He


A facile fabrication strategy via electrospinning and followed by in situ polymerization to fabricate a highly stretchable and conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Polyurethane (PEDOT/PU) nanofibrous membrane is reported. PU nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning and then PEDOT was coated on the plasma modified PU nanofiber surface via in-situ polymerization to form flexible PEDOT/PU composite nanofibers with conductivity. The results show PEDOT is successfully synthesized on the surface of PU nanofiber and PEDOT/PU composite nanofibers possess skin-core structure. Furthermore, the experiments indicate the optimal technological parameters of the polymerization process are as follow: The concentration of EDOT monomers is 50 mmol/L, the polymerization time is 24 h and the temperature is 25℃. The PEDOT/PU nanofibers exhibit excellent electrical conductivity ( 27.4 S/cm). In addition, flexible sensor made from conductive PEDOT/PU nanofibers shows highly sensitive response towards tensile strain and also can be used to detect finger motion. The results demonstrate promising application of the as-obtained nanofibrous membrane in flexible wearable electronic fields.

Keywords: electrospinning, polyurethane, PEDOT, conductive nanofiber, flexible senor

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595 The Genetic Diversity and Conservation Status of Natural Populus Nigra Populations in Turkey

Authors: Asiye Ciftci, Zeki Kaya


Populus nigra is one of the most economically and ecologically important forest trees in Turkey, well known for its rapid growth, good ability to vegetative propagation and the extreme uses of its wood. Due to overexploitation, loss of natural distribution area and extreme hybridization and introgression, Populus nigra is one of the most threatened tree species in Turkey and Europe. Using 20 nuclear microsatellite loci, the genetic structure of European black poplar populations along the two largest rivers of Turkey was analyzed. All tested loci were highly polymorphic, displaying 5 to 15 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity (overall Ho = 0.79) has been higher than the expected (overall He = 0.58) in each population. Low level of genetic differentiation among populations (FST= 0,03) and excess of heterozygotes for each river were found. Human-mediated dispersal, phenotypic selection, high level of gene flow and extensive circulations of clonal materials may cause those situations. The genetic data obtained from this study could provide the basis for efficient in situ and ex-situ conservation and restoration of species natural populations in its natural habitat as well as having sustainable breeding and poplar plantations in the future.

Keywords: populus, clonal, loci, ex situ

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594 Liver Regeneration of Small in situ Injury

Authors: Ziwei Song, Junjun Fan, Jeremy Teo, Yang Yu, Yukun Ma, Jie Yan, Shupei Mo, Lisa Tucker-Kellogg, Peter So, Hanry Yu


Liver is the center of detoxification and exposed to toxic metabolites all the time. It is highly regenerative after injury, with the ability to restore even after 70% partial hepatectomy. Most of the previous studies were using hepatectomy as injury models for liver regeneration study. There is limited understanding of small-scale liver injury, which can be caused by either low dose drug consumption or hepatocyte routine metabolism. Although these small in situ injuries do not cause immediate symptoms, repeated injuries will lead to aberrant wound healing in liver. Therefore, the cellular dynamics during liver regeneration is critical for our understanding of liver regeneration mechanism. We aim to study the liver regeneration of small-scale in situ liver injury in transgenic mice labeling actin (Lifeact-GFP). Previous studies have been using sample sections and biopsies of liver, which lack real-time information. In order to trace every individual hepatocyte during the regeneration process, we have developed and optimized an intravital imaging system that allows in vivo imaging of mouse liver for consecutive 5 days, allowing real-time cellular tracking and quantification of hepatocytes. We used femtosecond-laser ablation to make controlled and repeatable liver injury model, which mimics the real-life small in situ liver injury. This injury model is the first case of its kind for in vivo study on liver. We found that small-scale in situ liver injury is repaired by the coordination of hypertrophy and migration of hepatocytes. Hypertrophy is only transient at initial phase, while migration is the main driving force to complete the regeneration process. From cellular aspect, Akt/mTOR pathway is activated immediately after injury, which leads to transient hepatocyte hypertrophy. From mechano-sensing aspect, the actin cable, formed at apical surface of wound proximal hepatocytes, provides mechanical tension for hepatocyte migration. This study provides important information on both chemical and mechanical signals that promote liver regeneration of small in situ injury. We conclude that hypertrophy and migration play a dominant role at different stages of liver regeneration.

Keywords: hepatocyte, hypertrophy, intravital imaging, liver regeneration, migration

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593 In-situ Fabrication of Silver-PDMS Nanocomposite Membrane with Application in Olefine Separation

Authors: P. Tirgarbahnamiri, S. Mahravani, N. Haddadpour, F. Yaghmaie, F. Barazandeh


In this study, silver nanoparticle-Polydimethylsiloxane membrane (SNP-PDMS) was prepared with an in-situ reduction method using AgNO3 in poly (dimethylsiloxane) hardener. Optical and mechanical properties as well as functionality of these membranes were determined employing, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, strain-stress test and liquid/liquid filtration measurements. Silver nanoparticles are known to selectively absorb Olefins and may be used for separation of Alkanes from olefins. Yellow color of silver nanocomposites and transparency of blank polymer were observed employing optical microscope. λmax in 415-420 nm regions in UV-Vis spectrophotometry are related to silver nanoparticles absorbance. Based on stress-strain test results, tensile strength of silver nanoparticle PDMS (SNP-PDMS) membranes is higher than PDMS films of comparable size and thickness. Moreover, permeability of SNP-PDMS membranes were characterized using similar olefin/paraffin pair using a simple bench scale separation set- up. The silver -PDMS membranes retain their color and UV-vis characteristics for extended periods of time exceeding several months.

Keywords: nanocomposite membrane, gas separation, facilitated transport, silver nanocomposite, PDMS, in-situ reduction

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592 Comparative Studies of Modified Clay/Polyaniline Nanocomposites

Authors: Fatima Zohra Zeggai, Benjamin Carbonnier, Aïcha Hachemaoui, Ahmed Yahiaoui, Samia Mahouche-Chergui, Zakaria Salmi


A series of polyaniline (PANI)/modified Montmorillonite (MMT) Clay nanocomposite materials have been successfully prepared by In-Situ polymerization in the presence of modified MMT-Clay or Diazonium-MMT-Clay. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized and compared by various physicochemical techniques. The presence of physicochemical interaction, probably hydrogen bonding, between clay and polyaniline, which was confirmed by FTIR, UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of neat PANI and a series of the obtained nanocomposites were also studied by cyclic voltammograms.

Keywords: polyaniline, clay, nanocomposites, in-situ polymerization, polymers conductors, diazonium salt

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591 Urea Treatment of Low Dry Matter Oat Silage

Authors: Noor-ul-Ain, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Kashif Khan, Adeela Ajmal, Hamid Mustafa


The objective of this study was to evaluate the preservative and upgrading potential of urea (70g/kg DM) added to high moisture oat silage at laboratory scale trial and urea was hydrolysed 95%. Microbial activity measured by pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA) and lactate production was reduced (p<0.001) by the urea addition. The pH of oat silage (without treated) was measured 5.7 and increased up to 8.00 on average while; volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was decreased. Relative proportions of fermentation acids changed after urea addition, increasing the acetate and butyrate and decreasing the propionate and lactate proportions. The addition of urea to oat silages increased (P<0.001) water soluble and ammonium nitrogen of the forage. These nitrogen fractions represented more than 40% of total nitrogen. After urea addition, total nitrogen content of oat silages increased from 21.0 g/kg DM to 28 g/kg DM. Application of urea at a rate of 70 g/kg DM significantly increased (P<0.001) the in situ degradation of neutral-detergent fibre after 48h of rumen incubation (NDF-situ). The NDF-situ was 200 g/kg NDF higher on oat forages ensiled with urea than on oat forages ensiled without urea. Oat silages can be effectively preserved and upgraded by ensiling with 70 g urea/kg dry matter. Further studies are required to evaluate voluntary intake of this forage.

Keywords: oat, silage, urea, pH, forage

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590 Evaluation of Cast-in-Situ Pile Condition Using Pile Integrity Test

Authors: Mohammad I. Hossain, Omar F. Hamim


This paper presents a case study on a pile integrity test for assessing the integrity of piles as well as a physical dimension (e.g., cross-sectional area, length), continuity, and consistency of the pile materials. The recent boom in the socio-economic condition of Bangladesh has given rise to the building of high-rise commercial and residential infrastructures. The advantage of the pile integrity test lies in the fact that it is possible to get an approximate indication regarding the quality of the sub-structure before commencing the construction of the super-structure. This paper aims at providing a classification of cast-in-situ piles based on characteristic reflectograms obtained using the Sonic Integrity Testing program for the sub-soil condition of Narayanganj, Bangladesh. The piles have been classified as 'Pile Type-1', 'Pile Type-2', 'Pile Type-3', 'Pile type-4', 'Pile Type-5' or 'Pile Type-6' from the visual observations of reflections from the generated stress waves by striking the pile head with a handheld hammer. With respect to construction quality and integrity, piles have been further classified into three distinct categories, i.e., satisfactory, may be satisfactory, and unsatisfactory.

Keywords: cast-in-situ piles, characteristic reflectograms, pile integrity test, sonic integrity testing program

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589 Synthesis, Characterization and Impedance Analysis of Polypyrrole/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 Nanocomposites

Authors: M. G. Smitha, M. V. Murugendrappa


Perovskite manganite La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 was synthesized by Sol-gel method. Polymerization of pyrrole was carried by in-situ polymerization method. The composite of pyrrole (Py)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 composite in the presence of oxidizing agent ammonium per sulphate to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCM) composite was carried out by the same in-situ polymerization method. The PPy/LCM composites were synthesized with varying compositions like 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wt.% of LCM in Py. The surface morphologies of these composites were analyzed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The images show that LCM particles are embedded in PPy chain. The impedance measurement of PPy/LCM at different temperature ranges from 30 to 180 °C was studied using impedance analyzer. The study shows that impedance is frequency and temperature dependent and it is found to decrease with increase in frequency and temperature.

Keywords: polypyrrole, sol gel, impedance, composites

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