Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4138

Search results for: sensitivity and resistance to antibiotics

4138 Contribution to the Study of the Microbiological Quality of Chawarma Sold in Biskra

Authors: Sara Boulmai̇z

Abstract:

In order to study the microbiological quality of chawarma sold in Biskra, a sampling through some fastfoods of the city was done, the parameters studied are highlighted according to the criteria required by the country's trade management. Microbiological analyzes revealed different levels of contamination by microorganisms. The 10 samples were of an overall view of unsatisfactory quality, and according to the standards, no sample was satisfactory. The range of total aerobic mesophilic flora found is between 105 and 1.2 × 10 7 CFU / g, that of fecal coliforms is 104 to 2.4 × 10 5 CFU / g. The suspected pathogenic staphylococci were between 3.103 and 2.7.106 CFU / g. Salmonellae were absent in all samples, whereas sulphite-reducing anaerobes were present in a single sample. The rate of E. cloacae was between 103 and 6.104 CFU / g. As for fungi and safe mice, their rate was 103 to 107 CFU / g. The study of the sensitivity of antibiotics showed multi-resistance to all the antibiotics tested, although there is a sensitivity towards others. All strains of Staphylococcus aureus tested demonstrated resistance against erythromycin, 30% against streptomycin, and 10% against tetracycline. While the strains of E. cloacae were resistant in all strains to amoxicillin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and erythromycin, while they were sensitive to fosfomycin, sulfamethoxazole trimethoperine, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline. While against chlorophenicol and ofloxacin, the sensitivity was dominant, although there was intermediate resistance. In this study demonstrates that foodborne illnesses remain a problem that arises in addition to the increasingly observed bacterial resistance and that, after all, healthy eating is a right.

Keywords: chawarma, microbiological quality, pathogens., street food

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4137 Selection Effects on the Molecular and Abiotic Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

Authors: Abishek Rajkumar

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Antibiotic resistance can occur naturally given the selective pressure placed on antibiotics. Within a large population of bacteria, there is a significant chance that some of those bacteria can develop resistance via mutations or genetic recombination. However, a growing public health concern has arisen over the fact that antibiotic resistance has increased significantly over the past few decades. This is because humans have been over-consuming and producing antibiotics, which has ultimately accelerated the antibiotic resistance seen in these bacteria. The product of all of this is an ongoing race between scientists and the bacteria as bacteria continue to develop resistance, which creates even more demand for an antibiotic that can still terminate the newly resistant strain of bacteria. This paper will focus on a myriad of aspects of antibiotic resistance in bacteria starting with how it occurs on a molecular level and then focusing on the antibiotic concentrations and how they affect the resistance and fitness seen in bacteria.

Keywords: antibiotic, molecular, mutation, resistance

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4136 Carrot: A Possible Source of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Transmission

Authors: M. Dahiru, O. I. Enabulele

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The research wish to investigate the occurrence of multidrug- resistant Acinetobacter, in carrot and estimate the role of carrot in its transmission, in a rapidly growing urban population. Thus, 50 carrot samples were collected from Jakara wastewater irrigation farms and analyzed on MacConkey agar and screened by Microbact 24E (Oxoid) and susceptibility of isolates tested against 10 commonly used antibiotics. Acinetobacter baumannii and A. lwoffii were isolated in 22.00% and 16% of samples respectively. Resistance to ceporex and penicillin of 36.36% and 27.27% in A. baumannii, and sensitivity to ofloxacin, pefloxacin, gentimycin and co-trimoxazole, were observed. However, for A. lwoffii apart from 37.50% resistance to ceporex, it was also resistant to all other drugs tested. There was a similarity in the resistant shown by A. baumannii and A. lwoffii to fluoroquinolones drugs and β- lactame drugs families in addition to between sulfonamide and animoglycoside demonstrated by A. lwoffii. Interestingly, when resistant similarities to different antibiotics were compared for A. baumannii and A. lwoffii as a whole, significant correlation was observed at P < 0.05 to CPX to NA (46.2%), and SXT to AU (52.6%) respectively, and high multi drug resistance (MDR) of 27.27% and 62.50% by A. baumannii and A. lwoffii respectively and overall MDR of 42.11% in all isolates. The occurrence of multidrug-resistance pathogen in carrot is a serious challenge to public health care, especially in a rapidly growing urban population where subsistence agriculture contributes greatly to urban livelihood and source of vegetables.

Keywords: urban agriculture, public health, fluoroquinolone, sulfonamide, multidrug-resistance

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4135 Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Salmonella from Retail Dressed Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Wet Markets of Cavite, Philippines

Authors: Chester Joshua V. Saldana, Yolanda A. Ilagan

Abstract:

This study determines the prevalence of Salmonella from retail dressed chickens using chicken wings as samples in five wet city markets of Cavite, Philippines, compares the prevalence among the markets' samples and determines the serotypes and antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella isolates. The overall prevalence of Salmonella in five wet markets in Cavite was 13.33 percent. Samples from Bacoor yielded the highest prevalence rate of 26.6 percent, followed by Imus (23.3%), Dasmarinas (11.6%), Trece Martires (3.3%) and Tagaytay (1.6%). Seven serotypes (serogroups B, C2, C3, D1 and E1) were isolated which include Salmonella weltevreden, S. derby, S. newport, S. albany, S. typhimurium, and S. enteritidis. Salmonella weltevreden was the predominant serotype while S. typhi and S. albany were the least common. Among the 15 antibiotics tested, resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and cephalexin was exhibited by all the isolates while 5 percent showed resistance to gentamicin, 2.5 percent to streptomycin and 12.5 percent to nitrofurantoin. One isolate was resistant to four antibiotics whereas most isolates of S. enteritidis were resistant to 2 to 5 antibiotics. Four resistance patterns were recorded. This study revealed the emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotypes from chicken meat in Cavite, Philippines.

Keywords: antibiotics, dressed chickens, resistance patterns, Salmonella serovars

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4134 Prevalence of Uropathogens in Diabetic Patients with Urinary Tract Infection and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern at Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammad Saifuddin, Shahjada Selim

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Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are prone to develop infection, especially urinary tract infection (UTI) in comparison with non-diabetics. Due to the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) uropathogenic strains, the choice of antimicrobial agent is sometimes difficult. This study is designed to reveal the distribution of uropathogens in Diabetic patients and corresponding sensitivity patterns and to correlate the microbiological results with various clinical parameters. A nine-month retrospective review of 100 urine culture reports of Diabetic patients from January 2015 to September 2015 from semiurbanmultispeciality hospital of Feni, Bangladesh were analyzed. Only Diabetic patients were included in this study who were clinically diagnosed as UTI patients with a corresponding urine culture showing a bacterial count of ˃105cfu/ml.Out of 100 patients with UTI, 39 (39%) were male, and 61 (61%) were female. Organisms grown in urine culture were Escherichia coli (64) followed by Klebsiella (11), Proteus (7), Staph Aureus (4), Pseudomonas (4), Acinetobacter (3), Sreptococcus(3), Enterococcus (2 ) and one each of Enterobacter and Fungi. Overall sensitivity pattern in decreasing order of various commonly used antibiotics was Meropenem (89%), Nitrofurantoin (86%), Amikacin (81%), Ceftriaxone (68%), Cefuroxime (61%), Cefixime (39%), Quinolones (28%), Amoxicillin (16%). The significance of the study lies in the determination of common pathogens in diabetic patients with UTI and the resistance pattern of antibiotics so that physicians and pharmacists get the proper information rationalizing the rational use of antibiotics.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Diabetes Mellitus, E. coli, urinary tract infection

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4133 Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile and Horizontal Gene Transfer in Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Clinical Specimens

Authors: Sadaf Ilyas, Saba Riaz

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The extensive use of antibiotics has led to increases emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Pseudomonas is a notorious opportunistic pathogen involoved in nosocomial infections and exhibit innate resistance to many antibiotics. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence, levels of antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of Pseudomonas. A total of thirty clinical strains of Pseudomonas were isolated from different clinical sites of infection. All clinical specimens were collected from Chughtais Lahore Lab. Jail road, during 8-07-2010 to 11-01-2011. Biochemical characterization was done using routine biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by Kirby-Baeur method. The plasmids were isolated from all the strains and digested with restriction enzyme PstI and EcoRI. Transfer of Multi-resistance plasmid was checked via transformation and conjugation to confirm the plasmid mediated resistance to antibiotics. The prevalence of Pseudomonas in clinical specimens was found out to be 14% of all bacterial infections. IPM has shown to be the most effective drug against Pseudomonas followed by CES, PTB and meropenem, wheareas most of the Pseudomonas strains have developed significant resistance against Penicillins and some Cephalasporins. Antibiotic resistance determinants were carried by plasmids, as they conferred resistance to transformed K1 strains. The isolates readily undergo conjugation, transferring the resistant genes to other strains, illustrating the high rates of cross infection and nosocomial infection in the immunocompromised patients.

Keywords: pseudomonas, antibiotics, drug resistance, horizontal gene transfer

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4132 Typification and Determination of Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles with E Test Methods of Anaerobic Gram Negative Bacilli Isolated from Various Clinical Specimen

Authors: Cengiz Demir, Recep Keşli, Gülşah Aşık

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Objective: This study was carried out with the purpose of defining by using the E test method and determining the antibiotic resistance profiles of Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens obtained from patients with suspected anaerobic infections and referred to Medical Microbiology Laboratory of Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Application and Research Hospital. Methods: Two hundred and seventy eight clinical specimens were examined for isolation of the anaerobic bacteria in Medical Microbiology Laboratory between the 1st November 2014 and 30th October 2015. Specimens were cultivated by using Scheadler agar that 5% defibrinated sheep blood added, and Scheadler broth. The isolated anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli were identified conventional methods and Vitek 2 (ANC ID Card, bioMerieux, France) cards. Antibiotic resistance rates against to penicillin G, clindamycin, cefoxitin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem were determined with E-test method for each isolate. Results: Of the isolated twenty-eight anaerobic gram negative bacilli fourteen were identified as the B. fragilis group, 9 were Prevotella group, and 5 were Fusobacterium group. The highest resistance rate was found against penicillin (78.5%) and resistance rates against clindamycin and cefoxitin were found as 17.8% and 21.4%, respectively. Against to the; metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem, no resistance was found. Conclusion: Since high rate resistance has been detected against to penicillin in the study penicillin should not be preferred in empirical treatment. Cefoxitin can be preferred in empirical treatment; however, carrying out the antibiotic sensitivity testing will be more proper and beneficial. No resistance was observed against carbapenem group antibiotics and metronidazole; so that reason, these antibiotics should be reserved for treatment of infectious caused by resistant strains in the future.

Keywords: anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, anaerobe, antibiotics and resistance profiles, e-test method

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4131 Seasonal Effect of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria into the Environment from Treated Sewage Effluents

Authors: S. N. Al-Bahry, S. K. Al-Musharafi, I. Y. Mahmoud

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Recycled treated sewage effluents (TSE) is used for agriculture, Public park irrigation and industrial purposes. TSE was found to play a major role in the distribution of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. Fecal coliform and enterococci counts were significantly higher during summer compared to winter seasons. Oman has low annual rainfall with annual average temperature varied between 15-45oC. The main source of potable water is from seawater desalination. Resistance of the isolates to 10 antibiotics (Amikacin, Ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamycine, minocylin, nalidixicacid, neomycin, streptomycin, Tetracycline, Tobramycin, and Trimethoprim) was tested. Both fecal coliforms and enterococci were multiple resistant to 2-10 antibiotics. However, temperature variation during summer and winter did not affect resistance of the isolates to antibiotics. The significance of this investigation may be indicator to the environmental TSE pollution.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, bacteria, environment, sewage treated effluent

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4130 Computer Based Identification of Possible Molecular Targets for Induction of Drug Resistance Reversion in Multidrug Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Authors: Oleg Reva, Ilya Korotetskiy, Marina Lankina, Murat Kulmanov, Aleksandr Ilin

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Molecular docking approaches are widely used for design of new antibiotics and modeling of antibacterial activities of numerous ligands which bind specifically to active centers of indispensable enzymes and/or key signaling proteins of pathogens. Widespread drug resistance among pathogenic microorganisms calls for development of new antibiotics specifically targeting important metabolic and information pathways. A generally recognized problem is that almost all molecular targets have been identified already and it is getting more and more difficult to design innovative antibacterial compounds to combat the drug resistance. A promising way to overcome the drug resistance problem is an induction of reversion of drug resistance by supplementary medicines to improve the efficacy of the conventional antibiotics. In contrast to well established computer-based drug design, modeling of drug resistance reversion still is in its infancy. In this work, we proposed an approach to identification of compensatory genetic variants reducing the fitness cost associated with the acquisition of drug resistance by pathogenic bacteria. The approach was based on an analysis of the population genetic of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and on results of experimental modeling of the drug resistance reversion induced by a new anti-tuberculosis drug FS-1. The latter drug is an iodine-containing nanomolecular complex that passed clinical trials and was admitted as a new medicine against MDR-TB in Kazakhstan. Isolates of M. tuberculosis obtained on different stages of the clinical trials and also from laboratory animals infected with MDR-TB strain were characterized by antibiotic resistance, and their genomes were sequenced by the paired-end Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology. A steady increase in sensitivity to conventional anti-tuberculosis antibiotics in series of isolated treated with FS-1 was registered despite the fact that the canonical drug resistance mutations identified in the genomes of these isolates remained intact. It was hypothesized that the drug resistance phenotype in M. tuberculosis requires an adjustment of activities of many genes to compensate the fitness cost of the drug resistance mutations. FS-1 cased an aggravation of the fitness cost and removal of the drug-resistant variants of M. tuberculosis from the population. This process caused a significant increase in genetic heterogeneity of the Mtb population that was not observed in the positive and negative controls (infected laboratory animals left untreated and treated solely with the antibiotics). A large-scale search for linkage disequilibrium associations between the drug resistance mutations and genetic variants in other genomic loci allowed identification of target proteins, which could be influenced by supplementary drugs to increase the fitness cost of the drug resistance and deprive the drug-resistant bacterial variants of their competitiveness in the population. The approach will be used to improve the efficacy of FS-1 and also for computer-based design of new drugs to combat drug-resistant infections.

Keywords: complete genome sequencing, computational modeling, drug resistance reversion, Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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4129 Achieving Appropriate Use of Antibiotics through Pharmacists’ Intervention at Practice Point: An Indian Study Report

Authors: Parimalakrishnan Sundararjan, Madheswaran Murugan, Dhanya Dharman, Yatindra Kumar, Sudhir Singh Gangwar, Guru Prasad Mohanta

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Antibiotic resistance AR is a global issue, India started to redress the issues of antibiotic resistance late and it plans to have: active surveillance of microbial resistance and promote appropriate use of antibiotics. The present study attempted to achieve appropriate use of antibiotics through pharmacists’ intervention at practice point. In a quasi-experimental prospective cohort study, the cases with bacteremia from four hospitals were identified during 2015 and 2016 for intervention. The pharmacists centered intervention: active screening of each prescription and comparing with the selection of antibiotics with susceptibility of the bacteria. Wherever irrationality noticed, it was brought to the notice of the treating physician for making changes. There were two groups: intervention group and control group without intervention. The active screening and intervention in 915 patients has reduced therapeutic regimen time in patients with bacteremia. The intervention group showed the decreased duration of hospital stay 3.4 days from 5.1 days. Further, multivariate modeling of patients who were in control group showed that patients in the intervention group had a significant decrease in both duration of hospital stay and infection-related mortality. Unlike developed countries, pharmacists are not active partners in patient care in India. This unique attempt of pharmacist’ invention was planned in consultation with hospital authorities which proved beneficial in terms of reducing the duration of treatment, hospital stay, and infection-related mortality. This establishes the need for a collaborative decision making among the health workforce in patient care at least for promoting rational use of antibiotics, an attempt to combat resistance.

Keywords: antibiotics resistance, intervention, bacteremia, multivariate modeling

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4128 Preliminary Evaluation of the Probiotic Potential of Leuconostoc mesonteroides Strain Isolated from Goat's Milk

Authors: Benyoucef Amel, Benmechernene Zineb, Kihal Mebrouk

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One strain (V1) of Leuconostoc mesonteroides was isolated from goat’s milk collected from El Bayadh which is located in the west of Algeria and was characterized by phenotypic and biochemical methods. This strain was tested for their antimicrobial activity against indicator bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, Listeria innocua ATCC 33090, Listeria ivanovii ATCC 19119) and was evaluated for certain properties relevant to probiotic including acid resistance (pH 2 ; 3and 4), bile tolerance at 0.5%, 1% and 2%, pepsin resistance 3mg/ml at pH 2 and 3, hemolytic activity and antibiotics sensitivity. Our results revealed the strain V1 showed antagonistic activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria innocua and Listeria ivanovii, due to a production of proteinous nature substances. The strain was resistant to pH 3 and 4, bile salts at 0.5%, 1% and 2% and pepsin at pH 3; and was γ-hemolytic and susceptible to four antibiotics: Chloramphenicol, pristinamycin, Clindamycin and Lincomycin. These results may be considered the strain V1 as suitable probiotic candidate.

Keywords: antimicrobial, goat‘s milk, Leuconostoc, probiotic

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4127 Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Isolated from the Respiratory Tract Samples, Obtained from the Different Intensive Care Units

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulşah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

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Objective: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) can cause health-care associated infections, such as bacteremia, urinary tract and wound infections, endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia, particularly in intensive care unit patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate A. baumannii production in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage and susceptibilities for antibiotics in a 24 months period. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from respiratory tract speciments were evaluated retrospectively. The strains were isolated from the different intensive care units patients. A. baumannii strains were identified by both the conventional methods and aoutomated identification system -VITEK 2 (bio-Merieux, Marcy l’etoile, France). Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI criteria. Results: All the ninety isolates included in the study were from respiratory tract specimens. While of all the isolated 90 Acinetobacter baumannii strains were found to be resistant (100%), against ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam, resistance rates against other tested antibiotics found as follows; meropenem 77, 86%, imipenem 75, 83%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-STX) 69, 76,6%, gentamicin 51, 56,6% and amikacin 48, 53,3%. Colistin was found as the most effective antibiotic against Acinetobacter baumannii, and there were not found any resistant (0%) strain against colistin. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the no resistance was found in Acinetobacter baumannii against to colistin. High rates of resistance to carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) and other tested antibiotics (ceftiaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacine, piperacilline-tazobactam, TMP-STX gentamicin and amikacin) also have remarkable resistance rates. There was a significant relationship between demographic features of patients such as age, undergoing mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay with resistance rates. High resistance rates against antibiotics require implementation of the infection control program and rational use of antibiotics. In the present study, while there were not found colistin resistance, panresistance were found against to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam.

Keywords: acinetobacter baumannii, antibiotic resistance, multi drug resistance, intensive care unit

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4126 A Prospective Study on the Pattern of Antibiotics Use and Prevalence of Multidrug Resistant Escherichia Coli in Poultry Chickens and Its Correlation with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Stelvin Sebastian, Andriya Annie Tom, Joyalanna Babu, Merin Joshy

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Introduction: The worldwide increase in the use of antibiotics in poultry and livestock industry to treat and prevent bacterial diseases and as growth promoters in feeds has led to the problem of development of antibiotic resistance both in animals and human population. Aim: To study the pattern of antibiotic use and prevalence of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in poultry chickens in selected farms in Muvattupuzha and to compare the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria from poultry environment to UTI patients. Methodology: Two farms from each of 6 localities in Muvattupuzha were selected. A questionnaire on the pattern of antibiotic use and various farming practices were surveyed from farms. From each farm, 60samples of fresh fecal matter, litter from inside, litter from the outside shed, agricultural soil and control soil were collected, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of E. coli was done. Antibiogram of UTI patients was collected from the secondary care hospital included in the study, and those were compared with resistance patterns of poultry samples. Results: From survey response antibiotics such as ofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, colistin, ceftriaxone, neomycin, cephalexin, and oxytetracycline were used for treatment and prevention of infections in poultry. 31of 48 samples (51.66%) showed E. coli growth. 7 of 15 antibiotics (46.6%) showed resistance. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, meropenem, tetracycline showed 100% resistance to all samples. Statistical analysis confirmed similar resistance pattern in the poultry environment and UTI patients for antibiotics such as ampicillin, amoxicillin, amikacin, and ofloxacin. Conclusion: E. coli were resistant not only to extended-spectrum beta-lactams but also to carbapenems, which may be disseminated to the environment where litter was used as manure. This may due to irrational use of antibiotics in chicken or from their use in poultry feed as growth promoters. The study concludes the presence of multidrug-resistant E.coli in poultry and its spread to environment and humans, which may cause potentially serious implications for human health.

Keywords: multidrug resistance, escherichia coli, urinary tract infection, poultry

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4125 Insulin Resistance in Children and Adolescents in Relation to Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Body Fat Weight

Authors: E. Vlachopapadopoulou, E. Dikaiakou, E. Anagnostou, I. Panagiotopoulos, E. Kaloumenou, M. Kafetzi, A. Fotinou, S. Michalacos

Abstract:

Aim: To investigate the relation and impact of Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC) and Body Fat Weight (BFW) on insulin resistance (MATSUDA INDEX < 2.5) in children and adolescents. Methods: Data from 95 overweight and obese children (47 boys and 48 girls) with mean age 10.7 ± 2.2 years were analyzed. ROC analysis was used to investigate the predictive ability of BMI, WC and BFW for insulin resistance and find the optimal cut-offs. The overall performance of the ROC analysis was quantified by computing area under the curve (AUC). Results: ROC curve analysis indicated that the optimal-cut off of WC for the prediction of insulin resistance was 97 cm with sensitivity equal to 75% and specificity equal to 73.1%. AUC was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.63-0.92, p=0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of obesity for the discrimination of participants with insulin resistance from those without insulin resistance were equal to 58.3% and 75%, respectively (AUC=0.67). BFW had a borderline predictive ability for insulin resistance (AUC=0.58, 95% CI: 0.43-0.74, p=0.101). The predictive ability of WC was equivalent with the correspondence predictive ability of BMI (p=0.891). Obese subjects had 4.2 times greater odds for having insulin resistance (95% CI: 1.71-10.30, p < 0.001), while subjects with WC more than 97 had 8.1 times greater odds for having insulin resistance (95% CI: 2.14-30.86, p=0.002). Conclusion: BMI and WC are important clinical factors that have significant clinical relation with insulin resistance in children and adolescents. The cut off of 97 cm for WC can identify children with greater likelihood for insulin resistance.

Keywords: body fat weight, body mass index, insulin resistance, obese children, waist circumference

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4124 Drug Sensitivity Pattern of Organisms Causing Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

Authors: Fatma M. Benrabha

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine the type and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic microorganisms causing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which could lead to better therapeutic decisions and consequently avoidance of appearance of resistance to specific antibiotics. Most frequently isolated agents were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28.5%; followed by Staphylococcus aureus 18.2%; proteus mirabilis 13.9%; Providencia stuartti 6.7%; Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Aspergillus sp., candida sp., 4.2% each; and other microorganisms were represented in 3-0.2%. Drug sensitivities pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that ciprofloxacin was active against the majority of isolates (93.9%) followed by ceftazidime 86.2%, amikacin 76.2% and gentamicin 40.8%. However, Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin 72.7%, erythromycin 28.6%, cephalothin 18.2%, cloxacillin 8.3% and ciprofloxacin was active against 96.2% of isolates. The resistance pattern of proteus mirabilis were 55.6% to ampicillin, 47.1% to carbencillin, 29.4% to cephalothin, 14.3% to gentamicin and 4.8% to amikacin while 100% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is the best drug of choice in treatment of CSOM caused by the common microorganisms.

Keywords: otitis media, chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), microorganism, drug sensitivity

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4123 Drug Sensitivity Pattern of Organisms Causing Suppurative Otitis Media

Authors: Nagat M. Saeed, Mabruka S. Elashheb, Fatma M. Ben Rabaha, Aisha M Edrah

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The aim of the study was to determine the type and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic microorganisms causing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which could lead to better therapeutic decisions and consequently avoidance of appearance of resistance to specific antibiotics. Most frequently isolated agents were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28.5%; followed by Staphylococcus aureus 18.2%; proteus mirabilis 13.9%; Providencia stuartti 6.7%; Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Aspergillus sp., candida sp., 4.2% each; and other microorganisms were represented in 3-0.2%. Drug sensitivities pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that ciprofloxacin was active against the majority of isolates (93.9%) followed by ceftazidime 86.2%, amikacin 76.2% and gentamicin 40.8%. However, Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin 72.7%, erythromycin 28.6%, cephalothin 18.2%, cloxacillin 8.3% and ciprofloxacin was active against 96.2% of isolates. The resistance pattern of proteus mirabilis was 55.6% to ampicillin, 47.1% to carbencillin, 29.4% to cephalothin, 14.3% to gentamicin and 4.8% to amikacin while 100% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is the best drug of choice in the treatment of CSOM caused by the common microorganisms.

Keywords: otitis media, chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), microorganisms, drug sensitivity

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4122 In vitro Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Bovine Mastitis Bacteria in Ethiopia

Authors: Befekadu Urga Wakayo

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Introduction: Bacterial infections represent major human and animal health problems in Ethiopia. In the face of poor antibiotic regulatory mechanisms, development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to commonly used drugs has become a growing health and livelihood threat in the country. Monitoring and control of AMR demand close coloration between human and veterinary services as well as other relevant stakeholders. However, risk of AMR transfer from animal to human population’s remains poorly explored in Ethiopia. This systematic research literature review attempted to give an overview on AMR challenges of bovine mastitis bacteria in Ethiopia. Methodology: A web based research literature search and analysis strategy was used. Databases are considered including; PubMed, Google Scholar, Ethiopian Veterinary Association (EVA) and Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP). The key search terms and phrases were; Ethiopia, dairy, cattle, mastitis, bacteria isolation, antibiotic sensitivity and antimicrobial resistance. Ultimately, 15 research reports were used for the current analysis. Data extraction was performed using a structured Microsoft Excel format. Frequency AMR prevalence (%) was registered directly or calculated from reported values. Statistical analysis was performed on SPSS – 16. Variables were summarized by giving frequencies (n or %), Mean ± SE and demonstrative box plots. One way ANOVA and independent t test were used to evaluate variations in AMR prevalence estimates (Ln transformed). Statistical significance was determined at p < 0.050). Results: AMR in bovine mastitis bacteria was investigated in a total of 592 in vitro antibiotic sensitivity trials involving 12 different mastitis bacteria (including 1126 Gram positive and 77 Gram negative isolates) and 14 antibiotics. Bovine mastitis bacteria exhibited AMR to most of the antibiotics tested. Gentamycin had the lowest average AMR in both Gram positive (2%) and negative (1.8%) bacteria. Gram negative mastitis bacteria showed higher mean in vitro resistance levels to; Erythromycin (72.6%), Tetracycline (56.65%), Amoxicillin (49.6%), Ampicillin (47.6%), Clindamycin (47.2%) and Penicillin (40.6%). Among Gram positive mastitis bacteria higher mean in vitro resistance was observed in; Ampicillin (32.8%), Amoxicillin (32.6%), Penicillin (24.9%), Streptomycin (20.2%), Penicillinase Resistant Penicillin’s (15.4%) and Tetracycline (14.9%). More specifically, S. aurues exhibited high mean AMR against Penicillin (76.3%) and Ampicillin (70.3%) followed by Amoxicillin (45%), Streptomycin (40.6%), Tetracycline (24.5%) and Clindamycin (23.5%). E. coli showed high mean AMR to Erythromycin (78.7%), Tetracycline (51.5%), Ampicillin (49.25%), Amoxicillin (43.3%), Clindamycin (38.4%) and Penicillin (33.8%). Streptococcus spp. demonstrated higher (p =0.005) mean AMR against Kanamycin (> 20%) and full sensitivity (100%) to Clindamycin. Overall, mean Tetracycline (p = 0.013), Gentamycin (p = 0.001), Polymixin (p = 0.034), Erythromycin (p = 0.011) and Ampicillin (p = 0.009) resistance increased from the 2010’s than the 2000’s. Conclusion; the review indicated a rising AMR challenge among bovine mastitis bacteria in Ethiopia. Corresponding, public health implications demand a deeper, integrated investigation.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, dairy cattle, Ethiopia, Mastitis bacteria

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4121 Study of Germs Responsible of Nosocomial Infections in Hospital of Guelma

Authors: Wissem Abdaoui, Ilhem Mokhtari, Adel Gouri, Benouareth Djamel Eddine

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Contracted in a health facility, hospital-acquired infections are a major public health problem in recent years. The increase of nosocomial infections is partly related to diagnostic and therapeutic advances in medicine. The aim of our study was to isolate and diagnose some types of bacteria that are circulating in the hospital by performing different samples at two medical services: Pulmonary and Infectious Diseases. The antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed for bacterial isolates. The results have shown that there is a predominance of enterobacteria followed by the staphylococcus with its two species epidermidis ans saprophyticus. The study of the antibiogramme identified that some of these bacteria have a resistant profile against all the tested antibiotics. The fight against nosocomial infections is difficult because it must act on several factors: quality of care, safety of the hospital environment, hygiene, wearing gloves etc. are all areas that should be of heightened vigilance and preventive measures.

Keywords: nosocomial infection, isolation, identification, sensitivity and resistance to antibiotics

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4120 Efficacy Enhancement of Hydrophobic Antibiotics Employing Rhamnolipid as Biosurfactant

Authors: Abdurrahim A. Elouzi, Abdurrauf M. Gusbi, Ali M. Elgerbi

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Antibiotic resistance has become a global public-health problem, thus it is imperative that new antibiotics continue to be developed. Major problems are being experienced in human medicine from antibiotic resistant bacteria. Moreover, no new chemical class of antibiotics has been introduced into medicine in the past two decades. The aim of the current study presents experimental results that evaluate the capability of bio surfactant rhamnolipid on enhancing the efficacy of hydrophobic antibiotics. Serial dilutions of azithromycin and clarithromycin were prepared. A bacterial suspension (approximately 5 X 105 CFU) from an overnight culture in MSM was inoculated into 20 ml sterile test tube each containing a serial 10-fold dilution of the test antibiotic(s) in broth with or without 200 mgL-1 rhamnolipid. The tubes were incubated for 24 h with vigorous shaking at 37°C. Antimicrobial activity in multiple antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria pathogens and gram-positive bacteria were assessed using optical density technique. The results clearly demonstrated that the presence of rhamnolipid significantly improved the efficiency of both antibiotics. We hypothesized that the addition of rhamnolipid at low concentration, causes release of LPS which results in an increase in cell surface hydrophobicity. This allows increased association of cells with hydrophobic antibiotics resulting in increased cytotoxicity rates.

Keywords: hydrophobic antibiotics, biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, azithromycin, clarithromycin

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
4119 β-Lactamase Inhibitory Effects of Anchusa azurea Extracts

Authors: Naoual Boussoualim, Hayat Trabsa, Iman Krache, Lekhmici Arrar, Abderrahmane Baghiani

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Resistance to antibiotics has emerged following their widespread use; the important mechanism of beta-lactam resistance in bacteria is the production of beta-lactamase. In order to find new bioactive beta-lactamase inhibitors, this study investigated the inhibition effect of the extracts of Anchusa azurea (AA) on a beta-lactamase from Bacillus cereus. The extracts exerted inhibitory effects on beta-lactamase in a dose-dependent manner, the results showed that the crude extract (BrE) and the ethyl acetate extract (AcE) of Anchusa azurea showed a very high inhibitory activity at a concentration of 10 mg, the percentage of inhibition was between 58% and 68%. Not all extracts were as potent as the original inhibitors such as clavulanic acid, the isolation and the structural elucidation of the active constituents in these extracts will provide useful means in the development of beta -lactamase inhibitors.

Keywords: Anchusa azurea, natural product, resistance, antibiotics, beta-lactamase, inhibitors

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
4118 A Retrospective Study on the Spectrum of Infection and Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee

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People with diabetes mellitus are more susceptible to developing infections, as high blood sugar levels can weaken the patient's immune system defences. People with diabetes are more adversely affected when they get an infection than someone without the disease, because you have weakened immune defences in diabetes. People who have minimally elevated blood sugar levels experience worse outcomes with infections. Diabetic patients in hospitals do not necessarily have a higher mortality rate due to infections, but they do face longer hospitalisation and recovery times. A study was done in a tertiary care unit in eastern India. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus infection were recruited in the study. A total of 520 cases of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were recorded out of which 200 infectious cases was included in the study. All subjects underwent detailed history & clinical examination. Microbiological samples were collected from respective site of the infection for microbial culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. Out of the 200 infectious cases urinary tract infection(UTI) was found in majority of the cases followed by diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), respiratory tract infection(RTI) and sepsis. It was observed that Escherichia coli was the most commonest pathogen isolated from UTI cases and Staphylococcus aureus was predominant in foot ulcers followed by other organisms. Klebsiella pneumonia was the major organism isolated from RTI and Enterobacter aerogenes was commonly observed in patients with sepsis. Isolated bacteria showed differential sensitivity pattern against commonly used antibiotics. The majority of the isolates were resistant to several antibiotics that are usually prescribed on an empirical basis. These observations are important, especially for patient management and the development of antibiotic treatment guidelines. It is recommended that diabetic patients receive pneumococcal and influenza vaccine annually to reduce morbidity and mortality. Appropriate usage of antibiotics based on local antibiogram pattern can certainly help the clinician in reducing the burden of infections.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, diabetic foot ulcer, respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
4117 A Program of Data Analysis on the Possible State of the Antibiotic Resistance in Bangladesh Environment in 2019

Authors: S. D. Kadir

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Background: Antibiotics have always been at the centrum of the revolution of modern microbiology. Micro-organisms and its pathogenicity, resistant organisms, inappropriate or over usage of various types of antibiotic agents are fuelled multidrug-resistant pathogenic organisms. Our present time review report mainly focuses on the therapeutic condition of antibiotic resistance and the possible roots behind the development of antibiotic resistance in Bangladesh in 2019. Methodology: The systemic review has progressed through a series of research analyses on various manuscripts published on Google Scholar, PubMed, Research Gate, and collected relevant information from established popular healthcare and diagnostic center and its subdivisions all over Bangladesh. Our research analysis on the possible assurance of antibiotic resistance been ensured by the selective medical reports and on random assay on the extent of individual antibiotic in 2019. Results: 5 research articles, 50 medical report summary, and around 5 patients have been interviewed while going through the estimation process. We have prioritized research articles where the research analysis been performed by the appropriate use of the Kirby-Bauer method. Kirby-Bauer technique is preferred as it provides greater efficiency, ensures lower performance expenditure, and supplies greater convenience and simplification in the application. In most of the reviews, clinical and laboratory standards institute guidelines were strictly followed. Most of our reports indicate significant resistance shown by the Beta-lactam drugs. Specifically by the derivatives of Penicillin's, Cephalosporin's (rare use of the first generation Cephalosporin and overuse of the second and third generation of Cephalosporin and misuse of the fourth generation of Cephalosporin), which are responsible for almost 67 percent of the bacterial resistance. Moreover, approximately 20 percent of the resistance was due to the fact of drug pumping from the bacterial cell by tetracycline and sulphonamides and their derivatives. Conclusion: 90 percent of the approximate antibiotic resistance is due to the usage of relative and true broad-spectrum antibiotics. The environment has been created by the following circumstances where; the excessive usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics had led to a condition where the disruption of native bacteria and a series of anti-microbial resistance causing a disturbance of the surrounding environments in medium, leading to a state of super-infection.

Keywords: antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, Kirby Bauer method, microbiology

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4116 Infrared Spectroscopy in Tandem with Machine Learning for Simultaneous Rapid Identification of Bacteria Isolated Directly from Patients' Urine Samples and Determination of Their Susceptibility to Antibiotics

Authors: Mahmoud Huleihel, George Abu-Aqil, Manal Suleiman, Klaris Riesenberg, Itshak Lapidot, Ahmad Salman

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Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are considered to be the most common bacterial infections worldwide, which are caused mainly by Escherichia (E.) coli (about 80%). Klebsiella pneumoniae (about 10%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (about 6%). Although antibiotics are considered as the most effective treatment for bacterial infectious diseases, unfortunately, most of the bacteria already have developed resistance to the majority of the commonly available antibiotics. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the infecting bacteria and to determine its susceptibility to antibiotics for prescribing effective treatment. Classical methods are time consuming, require ~48 hours for determining bacterial susceptibility. Thus, it is highly urgent to develop a new method that can significantly reduce the time required for determining both infecting bacterium at the species level and diagnose its susceptibility to antibiotics. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is well known as a sensitive and rapid method, which can detect minor molecular changes in bacterial genome associated with the development of resistance to antibiotics. The main goal of this study is to examine the potential of FTIR spectroscopy, in tandem with machine learning algorithms, to identify the infected bacteria at the species level and to determine E. coli susceptibility to different antibiotics directly from patients' urine in about 30minutes. For this goal, 1600 different E. coli isolates were isolated for different patients' urine sample, measured by FTIR, and analyzed using different machine learning algorithm like Random Forest, XGBoost, and CNN. We achieved 98% success in isolate level identification and 89% accuracy in susceptibility determination.

Keywords: urinary tract infections (UTIs), E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacterial, susceptibility to antibiotics, infrared microscopy, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
4115 The Biology of Persister Cells and Antibiotic Resistance

Authors: Zikora K. G. Anyaegbunam, Annabel A. Nnawuihe, Ngozi J. Anyaegbunam, Emmanuel A. Eze

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The discovery and production of new antibiotics is unavoidable in the fight against drug-resistant bacteria. However, this is only part of the problem; we have never really had medications that could completely eradicate an infection. All pathogens create a limited number of dormant persister cells that are resistant to antibiotic treatment. When the concentration of antibiotics decreases, surviving persisters repopulate the population, resulting in a recurrent chronic infection. Bacterial populations have an alternative survival strategy to withstand harsh conditions or antibiotic exposure, in addition to the well-known methods of antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. Persister cells are a limited subset of transiently antibiotic-tolerant phenotypic variations capable of surviving high-dose antibiotic therapy. Persisters that flip back to a normal phenotype can restart growth when antibiotic pressure drops, assuring the bacterial population's survival. Persister cells have been found in every major pathogen, and they play a role in antibiotic tolerance in biofilms as well as the recalcitrance of chronic infections. Persister cells has been implicated to play a role in the establishment of antibiotic resistance, according to growing research. Thusthe need to basically elucidate the biology of persisters and how they are linked to antibiotic resistance, and as well it's link to diseases.

Keywords: persister cells, phenotypic variations, repopulation, mobile genetic transfers, antibiotic resistance

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4114 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Nanofluid Containing Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Antibiotic on Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Erfan Rahimi, Hadi Bahari Far, Mojgan Shikhpour

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Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the most common nosocomial infections, especially among women. E. coli is one of the main causes of urinary tract infections and one of the most common antibiotics to fight this bacterium is ampicillin. As conventional antibiotics led to bacterial antibiotic resistance, modification of the pure drugs can address this issue. The aim of this study was to prepare nanofluids containing carbon nanotubes conjugated with ampicillin to improve drug performance and reduce antibiotic resistance. Methods: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were activated with thionyl chloride by reflux system and nanofluids containing antibiotics were prepared by ultrasonic method. The properties of the prepared nano-drug were investigated by general element analysis, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. After the treatment of the desired strain with nanofluid, microbial studies were performed to evaluate the antibacterial effects and molecular studies were carried out to measure the expression of the resistance gene AcrAB. Result: We have shown that the antimicrobial effect of ampicillin-functionalized MWCNTs at low concentrations performed better than that of the conventional drug in both resistant and ATCC strains. Also, a decrease in antibiotic resistance of bacteria treated with ampicillin-functionalized MWCNTs compared to the pure drug was observed. Also, ampicillin-functionalized MWCNTs downregulated the expression of AcrAB in treated bacteria. Conclusion: Because carbon nanotubes are capable of destroying the bacterial wall, which provides antibiotic resistance features in bacteria, their usage in the form of nanofluids can make lower dosages (about three times less) than that of the pure drug more effective. Additionally, the expression of the bacterial resistance gene AcrAB decreased, thereby reducing antibiotic resistance and improving drug performance against bacteria.

Keywords: urinary tract infection, antibiotic resistance, carbon nanotube, nanofluid

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4113 A Prospective Audit to Look into Antimicrobial Prescribing in the Clinical Setting: In a Teaching Hospital in the UK

Authors: Richa Sinha, Mohammad Irfan Javed, Sanjay Singh

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Introduction: Good antimicrobial prescribing reduces length of stay in hospital, risk of adverse events, antimicrobial resistance, and unnecessary hospital expenditure. The aim of this prospective audit was to identify any problems with antimicrobial prescribing including documentation of the relevant aspects as well as appropriateness of antibiotics use. The audit was conducted on the surgical wards in a teaching hospital in the UK. Methods: Standards included the indication, duration, choice, and prescription of antibiotic should be in line with current Regional Guidelines and should be clearly documented on the prescription chart. There should be an entry in each patients’ medical record of the diagnosis and indication for each acute antibiotic prescription issued. All prescriptions should clearly document the route, frequency and dose of antibiotic. Data collection was done for 2 weeks in the month of March 2014. A proforma including all the questions above was completed for all the patients. The results were analysed using Excel. Results: 35 patients in total were selected for the audit. 85.7% of patients had indication of antibiotic documented on the prescription chart and 68.5% of patients had indication documented in the notes. The antibiotic used was in line with hospital guidelines in 45.7% of patients, however, in a further 28.5% of patients the reason for the antibiotic prescription was microbiology approved. Therefore, in total 74.2% of patients had been prescribed appropriate antibiotics. The duration of antibiotic was documented in 68.6% of patients and the antibiotic was reviewed in 37.1% of patients. The dose, frequency and route was documented clearly in 100% of patients. Conclusion: Overall, prescribing can be improved on the surgical wards in this hospital. Only 37.1% of patients had clear documentation of a review of antibiotics. It may be that antibiotics have been reviewed but this should be clearly highlighted on the prescription chart or the notes. Failure to review antibiotics can lead to poor patient care and antimicrobial resistance and therefore it is important to address this. It is also important to address the appropriateness of antibiotics as inappropriate antibiotic prescription can lead to failure of treatment as well as antimicrobial resistance. The good points from the audit was that all patients had clear documentation of dose, route and frequency which is extremely important in the administration of antibiotics. Recommendations from this audit included to emphasize good antimicrobial prescribing at induction (twice yearly), an antimicrobial handbook for junior doctors, and re-audit in 6 months time.

Keywords: prescribing, antimicrobial, indication, duration

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
4112 Determination of Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains from Various Clinical Specimens in a University Hospital for Two Years, 2013-2015

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulsah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

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Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is an important nosocomial pathogen which causes serious hospital infections and is resistant to many commonly used antibiotics. P. aeruginosa can develop resistance during therapy and also it is very resistant to disinfectant chemicals. It may be found in respiratory support devices in hospitals. In this study, the antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from bronchial aspiration samples was evaluated retrospectively. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, a total of 318 P. aeruginosa were isolated from clinical samples obtained from various intensive care units and inpatient patients hospitalized at Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Practice and Research Hospital. Isolated bacteria identified by using both the conventional methods and automated identification system-VITEK 2 (bioMerieux, Marcy l’etoile France). Antibacterial resistance tests were performed by using Kirby-Bauer disc (Oxoid, Hampshire, England) diffusion method following the recommendations of CLSI. Results: Antibiotic resistance rates of identified 318 P. aeruginosa strains were found as follows for tested antibiotics; 32 % amikacin, 42% gentamicin, 43% imipenem, 43% meropenem, 50% ciprofloxacin, 57% levofloxacin, 38% cefepime, 63% ceftazidime, and 85% piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion: Resistance profiles change according to years and provinces for P. aeruginosa, so these findings should be considered empirical treatment choices. In this study, the highest and lowest resistance rates found against piperacillin/tazobactam % 85, and amikacin %32.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antibiotic resistance rates, intensive care unit, Pseudomonas spp.

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4111 Characterization of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Causing Exacerbation of Asthma: A Prototypical Finding from Sri Lanka

Authors: Lakmini Wijesooriya, Vicki Chalker, Jessica Day, Priyantha Perera, N. P. Sunil-Chandra

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M. pneumoniae has been identified as an etiology for exacerbation of asthma (EQA), although viruses play a major role in EOA. M. pneumoniae infection is treated empirically with macrolides, and its antibiotic sensitivity is not detected routinely. Characterization of the organism by genotyping and determination of macrolide resistance is important epidemiologically as it guides the empiric antibiotic treatment. To date, there is no such characterization of M. pneumoniae performed in Sri Lanka. The present study describes the characterization of M. pneumoniae detected from a child with EOA following a screening of 100 children with EOA. Of the hundred children with EOA, M. pneumoniae was identified only in one child by Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for identifying the community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin nucleotide sequences. The M. pneumoniae identified from this patient underwent detection of macrolide resistance via conventional PCR, amplifying and sequencing the region of the 23S rDNA gene that contains single nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance. Genotyping of the isolate was performed via nested Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) in which eight (8) housekeeping genes (ppa, pgm, gyrB, gmk, glyA, atpA, arcC, and adk) were amplified via nested PCR followed by gene sequencing and analysis. As per MLST analysis, the M. pneumoniae was identified as sequence type 14 (ST14), and no mutations that confer resistance were detected. Resistance to macrolides in M. pneumoniae is an increasing problem globally. Establishing surveillance systems is the key to informing local prescriptions. In the absence of local surveillance data, antibiotics are started empirically. If the relevant microbiological samples are not obtained before antibiotic therapy, as in most occasions in children, the course of antibiotic is completed without a microbiological diagnosis. This happens more frequently in therapy for M. pneumoniae which is treated with a macrolide in most patients. Hence, it is important to understand the macrolide sensitivity of M. pneumoniae in the setting. The M. pneumoniae detected in the present study was macrolide sensitive. Further studies are needed to examine a larger dataset in Sri Lanka to determine macrolide resistance levels to inform the use of macrolides in children with EOA. The MLST type varies in different geographical settings, and it also provides a clue to the existence of macrolide resistance. The present study enhances the database of the global distribution of different genotypes of M. pneumoniae as this is the first such characterization performed with the increased number of samples to determine macrolide resistance level in Sri Lanka. M. pneumoniae detected from a child with exacerbation of asthma in Sri Lanka was characterized as ST14 by MLST and no mutations that confer resistance were detected.

Keywords: mycoplasma pneumoniae, Sri Lanka, characterization, macrolide resistance

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4110 Diversities, Antibiogram and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Staphylococcus Species in Raw Meat from a Research Farm

Authors: Anthony Ayodeji Adegoke, Olayinka Ayobami Aiyegoro, Thor Axel Stenstrom

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A study to investigate the species diversities, antibiogram and antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylococcus species from raw meat and dairy products collected from an abattoir and a farm shop of a research institute in Irene, South Africa over a six-month period was conducted. Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to speciate the bacteria and to detect the presence and otherwise of resistance genes. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute standards. A total of twenty-six (26) antibiotics were used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility. S. xylosus was the predominant isolate with 30% total occurrence, followed by S. epidermis, S. aureus, S. saprophyticus and S. haemolyticus with 25%, 15%, 15%, and 10% abundance respectively. The isolates were resistant to ceftezidime, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, nortrafuration, ampicillin, penicillin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, doxycycline, clindamycin and lincomycin. mecA genes was detected among the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus species (MRSS) but no vancomycin resistance genes (van A and van B) were detected in these isolates. The presence of MRSS and multidrug resistant Staphylococcus species in meat affirms the need to avoid consumption of partially cooked meat currently rampant in South Africa, to avoid the spread of difficult to control pathogens in epidemiological proportion.

Keywords: Staphylococcus species, antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, food products, methicillin resistance, mecA gene

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4109 Histological and Microbiological Study about the Pneumonic Lungs of Calves Slaughtered in the Slaughterhouse of Batna

Authors: Hamza Hadj Abdallah, Brahim Belabdi

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Respiratory disease is a dominant pathology in cattle. It causes mortality and especially morbidity and irreversible damage. Although the dairy herd is affected, it is essentially the lactating herd and especially young cattle either nursing or fattening that undergo the greatest economic impact. The objective of this study is to establish a microbiological diagnosis of bovine respiratory inffections from lung presented with gross lesions at the slaughter of Batna. A total of 124 samples (pharyngeal and nasal swabs and lung fragments) from 31 seven months old calves, with lung lesions was collected to determine possible correlations between etiologic agents and lesion types. The hépatisation injury (or consolidation) was the major lesion (45.17%) preferentially localized in the right apical lobe. A diverse microbial flora (15 genera and 291 strains was isolated. The bacteria most frequently isolated are the Enterobacteriaceae (49.45%), Staphylococci (25.1%) followed by non Enterobacteriaceae bacilli represented by Pseudomonas (5.83%) and finally, Streptococcus (13.38 %). The pneumotropic bacteria (Pasteurellaaerogenes and Pasteurellapneumotropica) were isolated at a rate of 0.68%. The study of the sensitivity of some germs to antibiotics showed a sensitivity of 100% for ceftazidime. A very high sensitivity was also observed for kanamycin, Ciprofloxacin, Imepinem, Cefepime, Tobramycin and Gentamycin (between 90% and 97%). Strains of E. coli showed a sensitivity of 100% for Imepinem, while only 55.9% of the strains were sensitive to Ampicillin. The isolated Pasteurella exhibited excellent sensitivity (100%) for the antimicrobials used with the exception of Colistin and Ticarcillin-Clavulanic acid association which showed a sensitivity of 50%.This survey has demonstrated the strong spread of atypical pneumonia in cattle population (bulls) at the slaughterhouse of Batna justifying stunting and losses in cattle farms in the region.Thus, it was considered urgent to establish a profile of sensitivity of different germs to antibiotics isolated to limit this increasingly dreadful infection.

Keywords: Pasteurella, enterobacteria, bacteriology, pneumonia

Procedia PDF Downloads 151