Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10302

Search results for: sport performance

10302 An Approach to Physical Performance Analysis for Judo

Authors: Stefano Frassinelli, Alessandro Niccolai, Riccardo E. Zich

Abstract:

Sport performance analysis is a technique that is becoming every year more important for athletes of every level. Many techniques have been developed to measure and analyse efficiently the performance of athletes in some sports, but in combat sports these techniques found in many times their limits, due to the high interaction between the two opponents during the competition. In this paper the problem will be framed. Moreover the physical performance measurement problem will be analysed and three different techniques to manage it will be presented. All the techniques have been used to analyse the performance of 22 high level Judo athletes.

Keywords: sport performance, physical performance, judo, performance coefficients

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10301 The Use of Substances and Sports Performance among Youth: Implications for Lagos State Sports

Authors: Osifeko Olalekan Remigious, Adesanya Adebisi Joseph, Omolade Akinmade Olatunde

Abstract:

The focus of this study was to determine the factors associated with the use of substances for sport performance of youth in Lagos state sport. Questionnaire was the instrument used for the study. Descriptive research method was used. The estimated population for the study was 2000 sport men and women. The sample size was 200 respondents for purposive sampling techniques were used. The instrument was validated in it content and constructs value. The instrument was administered with the assistance of the coaches. Same 200 copies administered were returned. The data obtained was analysed using simple percentage and chi-square (x2) for stated hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The finding reveal that sport injuries exercise induced and anaphylaxis and asthma and feeling of loss of efficacy associated with alcohol used on sport performance among the users of substances. Alcohol users are recommended to partake in sport like swimming, basketball and volleyball because they have space of time for resting while at play. Government should be fully in charge of the health of sport men and women.

Keywords: implications, Lagos state, substances, sports performance, youth

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10300 Students’ learning Effects in Physical Education between Sport Education Model with TPSR and Traditional Teaching Model with TPSR

Authors: Yi-Hsiang Pan, Chen-Hui Huang, Ching-Hsiang Chen, Wei-Ting Hsu

Abstract:

The purposes of the study were to explore the students' learning effect of physical education curriculum between merging Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) with sport education model and TPSR with traditional teaching model, which these learning effects included sport self-efficacy, sport enthusiastic, group cohesion, responsibility and game performance. The participants include 3 high school physical education teachers and 6 physical education classes, 133 participants with experience group 75 students and control group 58 students, and each teacher taught an experimental group and a control group for 16 weeks. The research methods used questionnaire investigation, interview, focus group meeting. The research instruments included personal and social responsibility questionnaire, sport enthusiastic scale, group cohesion scale, sport self-efficacy scale and game performance assessment instrument. Multivariate Analysis of covariance and Repeated measure ANOVA were used to test difference of students' learning effects between merging TPSR with sport education model and TPSR with traditional teaching model. The findings of research were: 1) The sport education model with TPSR could improve students' learning effects, including sport self-efficacy, game performance, sport enthusiastic, group cohesion and responsibility. 2) The traditional teaching model with TPSR could improve students' learning effect, including sport self-efficacy, responsibility and game performance. 3) the sport education model with TPSR could improve more learning effects than traditional teaching model with TPSR, including sport self-efficacy, sport enthusiastic,responsibility and game performance. 4) Based on qualitative data about learning experience of teachers and students, sport education model with TPSR significant improve learning motivation, group interaction and game sense. The conclusions indicated sport education model with TPSR could improve more learning effects in physical education curriculum. On other hand, the curricular projects of hybrid TPSR-Sport Education model and TPSR-Traditional Teaching model are both good curricular projects of moral character education, which may be applied in school physical education.

Keywords: character education, sport season, game performance, sport competence

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10299 Current Perspectives of Bemitil Use in Sport

Authors: S. Ivanova, K. Ivanov

Abstract:

Bemitil (2-ethylthiobenzimidazole hydrobromide) is a synthetic adaptogen and actoprotector, with wide-ranging pharmacological activities such as nootropic, antihypoxic, antioxidant, immunostimulant. The intake of Bemitil increases mental and physical performance and could be applied under either normal or extreme conditions. Until 2017 Bemitil was not considered as doping and was used by professional athletes more than 30 years because of its high efficiency and safety. The drug was included in WADA monitoring programme for 2018, and most likely it would be included in WADA Prohibited List for 2019. Usually, a substance/method is included in WADA Prohibited List if it meets any two of the following three criteria: the potential to enhance or enhances sports performance/ potential health risk to the athlete/ violates the spirit of sport. Bemitil has high performance-enhancing potential, but it is also safe- it is controversial whether it should be considered as doping.

Keywords: doping, bemitil, sport, actoprotector

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10298 The Relation between Sports Practice and the Academic Performance

Authors: Albert Perez-Bellmunt, Eila Rivera, Aida Valls, Berta Estragues, Sara Ortiz, Roberto Seijas, Pedro Alvarez

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INTRODUCTION: Physical and sports activity on a regular basis present numerous health benefits such as the prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Also, there is a relation between sport and the psychological or the cognitive process of children and young people. The objective of the present study is to know if the sports practice has any positive influence on the university academic performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The level of the physical activity of 220 students of different degrees in health science was evaluated and compared with the academic results (grades). To assess the level of physical and sports activity, the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (to calculate the sporting level in a general way) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (to estimate the physical activity carried out during the days leading up to the academic exams) were used. RESULTS: The students that realized an average level of sports activity the days before the exam obtained better grades than the rest of their classmate and the result was statistically significant. Controversially, if the sports level was analyzed in a general way, no relationship was observed between academic performance and the level of sport realized. CONCLUSION: A moderate physical activity, on the days leading up to an assessment, can be a positive factor for the university academic performance. Despite the fact that a regular sports activity improves many cognitive and physiological processes, the present study did not observe a direct relationship between sport/physical activity and academic performance.

Keywords: academic performance, academic results, global physical activity questionnaire, physical activity questionnaire, sport, sport practice

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10297 Mindfulness, Reinvestment, and Rowing under Pressure: Evidence for Moderated Moderation of the Anxiety-Performance Relationship

Authors: Katherine Sparks, Christopher Ring

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This study aimed to investigate whether dispositional sport-specific mindfulness moderated the moderation effect of conscious processing on the relationship between anxiety and rowing race performance. Using a sport-specific (Rowing-Specific) Reinvestment Scale (RSRS) to measure state conscious processing, we examined the effects of trait sport-related mindfulness on the conscious processes of rowers under competitive racing pressure at a number of UK regattas. 276 rowers completed a survey post competitive race. The survey included the RSRS, mindfulness, a perceived performance rating scale, demographic and race information to identify and record the rower’s actual race performance. Results from the research demonstrated that high levels of dispositional mindfulness are associated with a superior performance under pressure. In relation to the moderating moderation effect, conscious processing amplifies the detrimental effects of anxiety on performance. However, mindfulness, mindful awareness, and mindful non-judgement all proved to attenuate this amplification effect by moderating the conscious processing moderation on the anxiety-performance relationship. Therefore, this study provides initial support for the speculation that dispositional mindfulness can help prevent the deleterious effects of rowing-specific reinvestment under pressure.

Keywords: mindful, reinvestment, under pressure, performance, rowing

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10296 Application of Multidimensional Model of Evaluating Organisational Performance in Moroccan Sport Clubs

Authors: Zineb Jibraili, Said Ouhadi, Jorge Arana

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Introduction: Organizational performance is recognized by some theorists as one-dimensional concept, and by others as multidimensional. This concept, which is already difficult to apply in traditional companies, is even harder to identify, to measure and to manage when voluntary organizations are concerned, essentially because of the complexity of that form of organizations such as sport clubs who are characterized by the multiple goals and multiple constituencies. Indeed, the new culture of professionalization and modernization around organizational performance emerges new pressures from the state, sponsors, members and other stakeholders which have required these sport organizations to become more performance oriented, or to build their capacity in order to better manage their organizational performance. The evaluation of performance can be made by evaluating the input (e.g. available resources), throughput (e.g. processing of the input) and output (e.g. goals achieved) of the organization. In non-profit organizations (NPOs), questions of performance have become increasingly important in the world of practice. To our knowledge, most of studies used the same methods to evaluate the performance in NPSOs, but no recent study has proposed a club-specific model. Based on a review of the studies that specifically addressed the organizational performance (and effectiveness) of NPSOs at operational level, the present paper aims to provide a multidimensional framework in order to understand, analyse and measure organizational performance of sport clubs. This paper combines all dimensions founded in literature and chooses the most suited of them to our model that we will develop in Moroccan sport clubs case. Method: We propose to implicate our unified model of evaluating organizational performance that takes into account all the limitations found in the literature. On a sample of Moroccan sport clubs ‘Football, Basketball, Handball and Volleyball’, for this purpose we use a qualitative study. The sample of our study comprises data from sport clubs (football, basketball, handball, volleyball) participating on the first division of the professional football league over the period from 2011 to 2016. Each football club had to meet some specific criteria in order to be included in the sample: 1. Each club must have full financial data published in their annual financial statements, audited by an independent chartered accountant. 2. Each club must have sufficient data. Regarding their sport and financial performance. 3. Each club must have participated at least once in the 1st division of the professional football league. Result: The study showed that the dimensions that constitute the model exist in the field with some small modifications. The correlations between the different dimensions are positive. Discussion: The aim of this study is to test the unified model emerged from earlier and narrower approaches for Moroccan case. Using the input-throughput-output model for the sketch of efficiency, it was possible to identify and define five dimensions of organizational effectiveness applied to this field of study.

Keywords: organisational performance, model multidimensional, evaluation organizational performance, sport clubs

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10295 Profiles of Physical Fitness and Enjoyment among Children: Associations with Sport Participation

Authors: Norjali Wazir M. R. W., Pion P., Mostaert M., De Meester A., Lenoir M., Bardid F.

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Background and study aim: Most of the people assume that someone will perform well on something they like. A tool evaluating how much an individual likes an activity can also be guidance for talent detection and to keep youngster doing what they like as a recreational sport. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between physical performances with something that they like. Material and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 558 pupils age between 8 years to 11 years were tested using test battery containing 7 physical performance tests (I Do) compared to a pictorial scale containing 7 pictures (I Like) referring to the physical performance tests. Pearson correlation was computed to investigate the relation between the actual performance and the enjoyment. Results: Moderate significant correlations between each of the respective I Do, and I Like components were found. It appears that the correlation between the endurance items is higher as compared to the other six characteristics. Rerunning the analysis for age and sex groups separately resulted in only one significant correlation across all age group, namely between the evaluations of cardiovascular endurance. Conclusions: Information on enjoyment appears to be a useful and cost-effective addition to current multidimensional test batteries in a sport. By providing a clear picture on activities the young child or athlete likes or dislikes, attrition can be increased if a child starts his ‘career’ in a sport that alludes to skills or tasks he/she likes. This enjoyment will increase the intrinsic motivation, which is beneficial for sustained sports participation as well as for avoiding dropout in promising young athletes.

Keywords: I Do, I Like, physical performance, enjoyment

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10294 A Study on Eliteathletes and Coaches' Attitude towards Sport Psychologyi the Areas of Sports

Authors: Mahdi PourAsghar, Abbas Mas'udzadeh, Abdulhakim Tirgari, Saeed Dabiri Roushan, Hooman Rashidi, Fariba Salehi

Abstract:

Objective: One of the major objectives in sports areas is to achieve maximum athletic performance. Physical and psychological preparations are the basic factors for achieving maximum performance in athletes. Unfortunately, in the field of physical preparation, we can see maximum attention and planning of trainers and sports officials. But despite the importance of psychological preparation of athletes and its serious and profound effect on athletic performance, the results of sports competitions show that less attention is paid to this topic, and it is less under the control of counselors and psychologists in different areas of our sport. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the attitude of athletes and coaches to sport psychology. Materials and methods: A descriptive study with a sample size of 234 elite athletes and 216 skilled coaches was conducted in different areas of sports, in Sari, Mazandaran in 2015.The instrument was a questionnaire consisting of two parts of demographic data and Martin questionnaire, assessing the attitude to sport psychology. The data from this study were analyzed using Spss version 18, descriptive statistics tests, and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, positive attitudes of participants in need and confidence towards sport psychology consultation in athletes and coaches group were 55/1 and 56/5 percent, respectively. The positive attitude of female athletes in belief to psychology consultation was more than male athletes. Athletes with higher education had more positive attitude towards the presence of psychologists and psychiatrists in fields of sports. Conclusion: According to the findings based on the need to the psychology consultation in different areas of sports, it is recommended that through training of specialists in the field of sport psychology and review of sports programs in different fields of sports, the presence of these counselors to maintain the psychological preparation of athletes to achieve maximum athletic performance and reduce anxiety and stress be used.

Keywords: Keywords: Athletes, Eliteathletes, Coaches, Attitude, Sport psychology.

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10293 Comparative Analysis of Competitive State Anxiety among Team Sport and Individual Sport Athletes in Iran

Authors: Hossein Soltani, Zahra Hojati, Seyed Reza Attarzadeh Hossini

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Anxiety levels before and during competition are not clear due to conflicting findings; various athletes have reported different levels of anxiety from much too low. With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, and the lack of a comprehensive theory in this field made the author to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. The sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (taekwondo, karate, and wrestling) and 60 athletes in team sports (volleyball, basketball, futsal). All participants in this study were regularly competing at the super leagues and regional level. The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. This inventory was distributed among the subjects about 30 minutes before the first competition. Finally, using one-way ANOVA data was analyzed. The results indicated that the mean score of cognitive and somatic anxiety among individual sport athletes was higher than that of team sport athletes (P<0.05). Self-confidence levels of individual sports athletes was higher than that of team sports athletes but the difference was not significant (P >0.05). It seems the being part of a team alleviates some of the pressure experienced by those who compete alone. Conclusion: Individual sport athletes may be more exposed to evaluation and more engaged in their own skills and abilities than team sport athletes given that responsibility for performance is not distributed across several performers.

Keywords: competitive state anxiety, cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, team sports, individual sports

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10292 The Effect of Dopamine D2 Receptor TAQ A1 Allele on Sprinter and Endurance Athlete

Authors: Öznur Özge Özcan, Canan Sercan, Hamza Kulaksız, Mesut Karahan, Korkut Ulucan

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Genetic structure is very important to understand the brain dopamine system which is related to athletic performance. Hopefully, there will be enough studies about athletics performance in the terms of addiction-related genetic markers in the future. In the present study, we intended to investigate the Receptor-2 Gene (DRD2) rs1800497, which is related to brain dopaminergic system. 10 sprinter and 10 endurance athletes were enrolled in the study. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction method was used for genotyping. According to results, A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2 genotypes in athletes were 0 (%0), 3 (%15) and 17 (%85). A1A1 genotype was not found and A2 allele was counted as the dominating allele in our cohort. These findings show that dopaminergic mechanism effects on sport genetic may be explained by the polygenic and multifactorial view.

Keywords: addiction, athletic performance, genotype, sport genetics

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10291 Evaluating a Holistic Fitness Program Used by High Performance Athletes and Mass Participants

Authors: Peter Smolianov, Jed Smith, Lisa Chen, Steven Dion, Christopher Schoen, Jaclyn Norberg

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This study evaluated the effectiveness of an experimental training program used to improve performance and health of competitive athletes and recreational sport participants. This holistic program integrated and advanced Eastern and Western methods of prolonging elite sports participation and enjoying lifelong fitness, particularly from China, India, Russia, and the United States. The program included outdoor, gym, and water training approaches focused on strengthening while stretching/decompressing and on full body activation-all in order to improve performance as well as treat and prevent common disorders and pains. The study observed and surveyed over 100 users of the program including recreational fitness and sports enthusiasts as well as elite athletes who competed for national teams of different countries and for Division I teams of National Collegiate Athletic Association in the United States. Different types of sport were studied, including territorial games (e.g., American football, basketball, volleyball), endurance/cyclical (athletics/track and field, swimming), and artistic (e.g., gymnastics and synchronized swimming). Results of the study showed positive effects on the participants’ performance and health, particularly for those who used the program for more than two years and especially in reducing spinal disorders and in enabling to perform new training tasks which previously caused back pain.

Keywords: lifelong fitness, injury prevention, prolonging sport participation, improving performance and health

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10290 The Beneficial Effects of Hydrotherapy for Recovery from Team Sport – A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Trevor R. Higgins

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To speed/enhance recovery from sport, cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT) have become common practice within the high-level team sport. Initially, research into CWI and CWT protocols and recovery was sparse; athletes relied solely upon an anecdotal support. However, an increase into recovery research has occurred. A number of reviews have subsequently been conducted to clarify scientific evidence. However, as the nature of physiological stress and training status of participants will impact on results, an opportunity existed to narrow the focus to a more exacting review evaluating hydrotherapy for recovery in a team sport. A Boolean logic [AND] keyword search of databases was conducted: SPORTDiscus; AMED; CINAHL; MEDLINE. Data was extracted and the standardized mean differences were calculated with 95% CI. The analysis of pooled data was conducted using a random-effect model, with Heterogeneity assessed using I2. 23 peer reviewed papers (n=606) met the criteria. Meta-analyses results indicated CWI was likely beneficial for recovery at 24h (Countermovement Jump (CMJ): p= 0.05, CI -0.004 to 0.578; All-out sprint: p=0.02, -0.056 to 0.801; DOMS: p=0.08, CI -0.092 to 1.936) and at 72h (accumulated sprinting: p=0.07, CI -0.062 to 1.209; DOMS: p=0.09, CI -0.121 to 1.555) following team sport. Whereas CWT was likely beneficial for recovery at 1h (CMJ: p= 0.07, CI -0.004 to 0.863) and at 48h (fatigue: p=0.04, CI 0.013 to 0.942) following team sport. Athlete’s perceptions of muscle soreness and fatigue are enhanced with CWI and/or CWT, however even though CWI and CWT were beneficial in attenuating decrements in neuromuscular performance 24 hours following team sport, indications are those benefits were no longer Sydney evident 48 hours following team sport.

Keywords: cold water immersion, contrast water therapy, recovery, team sport

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10289 Physical Exertion and Fatigue: A Breakthrough in Choking Sphere

Authors: R. Maher, D. Marchant, F. Fazel

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Choking in sport has been defined as ‘an acute performance breakdown’, and is generally explained through a range of contributory antecedents, factors, and explanatory theories. The influence of mental antecedents on an athlete’s performance under pressure has been widely examined through numerous studies. Researchers have only recently begun to investigate the influence of physical effort and associated residual fatigue as a potential contributor to choking in sport. Consequently, the initial aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which both physical exertion and pressure affect free-throw shooting performance. It was hypothesized that the free-throw shooting scores would decline under manipulated conditions. Design and Methods: Using a within-subjects design, 50 student-athletes were assigned to four manipulated conditions: (a) higher pressure-running, (b) higher pressure-no running, (c) lower pressure-running, and (d) lower pressure-no running. The physical exertion was manipulated by including a 56 meter shuttle-run in two of the running conditions. The pressure was manipulated with the presence of an audience, video-recording, performance contingent rewards, and weighting successful shots in the higher pressure conditions. A repeated measure analysis of variance was used to analyse the data. Results: The free-throw performance significantly deteriorated under manipulated physical exertion F (1, 49) = 10.13, p = .003, ηp 2 = .17 and pressure conditions F (1, 49) = 5.25, p = .02, ηp 2 = .09. The lowest free-throw scores were observed in the higher pressure-running condition, whereas the highest free-throw scores were reported in the lower pressure-no running condition. Conclusions: Physical exertion and the associated residual fatigue were contributors to choking. The results of the present study herald a new concept in choking research and yield a practical platform for use by athletes, coaches, and sport psychologists to better manage the psychological and physiological aspects of performance under pressure.

Keywords: anxiety, basketball, choking, fatigue, free-throw shooting, physical exertion

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10288 US Track And Field System: Examining Micro-Level Practices against a Global Model for Integrated Development of Mass and Elite Sport

Authors: Peter Smolianov, Steven Dion, Christopher Schoen, Jaclyn Norberg, Nicholas Stone, Soufiane Rafi

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This study assessed the micro-level elements of track and field development in the US against a model for integrating high-performance sport with mass participation. This investigation is important for the country’s international sport performance, which declined relative to other countries and wellbeing, which in its turn deteriorated as over half of the US population became overweight. A questionnaire was designed for the following elements of the model: talent identification and development as well as advanced athlete support. Survey questions were validated by 12 experts, including academics, executives from sport governing bodies, coaches, and administrators. To determine the areas for improvement, the questionnaires were completed by 102 US track and field coaches representing the country’s regions and coaching levels. Possible advancements were further identified through semi-structured discussions with 10 US track and field administrators. The study found that talent search and development is a critically important area for improvement: 49 percent of respondents had overall negative perceptions, and only 16 percent were positive regarding these US track and field practices. Both quantitative survey results and open responses revealed that the key reason for the inadequate athlete development was a shortage of well-educated and properly paid coaches: 77 percent of respondents indicated that coach expertise is never or rarely high across all participant ages and levels. More than 40 percent of the respondents were uncertain of or not familiar with world’s best talent identification and development practices, particularly methods of introducing children to track and field from outside the sport’s participation base. Millions more could be attracted to the sport by adopting best international practices. First, physical education should be offered a minimum three times a week in all school grades, and track and field together with other healthy sports, should be taught at school to all children. Second, multi-sport events, including track and field disciplines, should be organized for everyone within and among all schools, cities and regions. Three, Australian and Eastern European methods of talent search at schools should be utilized and tailored to the US conditions. Four, comprehensive long term athlete development guidelines should be used for the advancement of the American Development Model, particularly track and field tests and guidelines as part of both school education and high-performance athlete development for every age group from six to over 70 years old. These world’s best practices are to improve the country’s international performance while increasing national sport participation and positively influencing public health.

Keywords: high performance, mass participation, sport development, track and field, USA

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10287 Effects of Merging Personal and Social Responsibility with Sports Education Model on Students' Game Performance and Responsibility

Authors: Yi-Hsiang Pan, Chen-Hui Huang, Wei-Ting Hsu

Abstract:

The purposes of the study were to understand these topics as follows: 1. To explore the effect of merging teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) with sports education model on students' game performance and responsibility. 2. To explore the effect of sports education model on students' game performance and responsibility. 3. To compare the difference between "merging TPSR with sports education model" and "sports education model" on students' game performance and responsibility. The participants include three high school physical education teachers and six physical education classes. Every teacher teaches an experimental group and a control group. The participants had 121 students, including 65 students in the experimental group and 56 students in the control group. The research methods had game performance assessment, questionnaire investigation, interview, focus group meeting. The research instruments include personal and social responsibility questionnaire and game performance assessment instrument. Paired t-test test and MANCOVA were used to test the difference between "merging TPSR with sports education model" and "sports education model" on students' learning performance. 1) "Merging TPSR with sports education model" showed significant improvements in students' game performance, and responsibilities with self-direction, helping others, cooperation. 2) "Sports education model" also had significant improvements in students' game performance, and responsibilities with effort, self-direction, helping others. 3.) There was no significant difference in game performance and responsibilities between "merging TPSR with sports education model" and "sports education model". 4)."Merging TPSR with sports education model" significantly improve learning atmosphere and peer relationships, it may be developed in the physical education curriculum. The conclusions were as follows: Both "Merging TPSR with sports education model" and "sports education model" can help improve students' responsibility and game performance. However, "Merging TPSR with sports education model" can reduce the competitive atmosphere in highly intensive games between students. The curricular projects of hybrid TPSR-Sport Education model is a good approach for moral character education.

Keywords: curriculum and teaching model, sports self-efficacy, sport enthusiastic, character education

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10286 Competencies and Training Needs for School Sport Managers in the North West Province, South Africa

Authors: Elriena Eksteen, Yolandi Willemse, Dawie D. J. Malan, Suria Ellis

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It is important to understand which competencies are needed for managerial and administrative effectiveness of school sport managers with regard to the design, delivery and direction of school sport programmes. The purpose of this study was to determine the competencies and training needs for secondary school sport managers in the North West Province. Data were gathered from 79 school sport managers in the North West Province by means of a validated self-compiled questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and a dependent t-test were used to compare which competencies school sport managers perceive as important in their work with the competencies they actually perform. Functional competencies and core competencies were both found to be important for managing school sport effectively. There were statistically significant differences between the perceived importance of competencies and the frequency with which competencies were actually performed. Respondents attached greater importance to functional and core competencies than the proportion of time spent actually performing them. Furthermore, results indicated the need to train teachers in managing sport finance, sport facilities and human resources, as well as presenting workshops in public relations, sport marketing and sport organisation.

Keywords: competencies, functional competencies, core competencies, school sport manager, training needs

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10285 Assessment and Evaluation of Football Performance

Authors: Bulus Kpame, Mukhtar Mohammed Alhaji, Garba Jibril

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In any team sport, the most important variables that should be used to measure performance are physical condition, and technical and tactical performance. In a complex game like football, it is extremely difficult to measure the relative importance of each of these variables. However, physical fitness itself has been shown to consist of several components, like endurance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination and speed. Each of these components has been shown to consist of several subcomponents. This paper attempts to describe a test battery to assess and evaluate physical performance in football players. This battery comprises a functional, structured training session of about 2.5hrs. it consists of quality rating of the warm-up procedure, tests of flexibility, football skills, power, speed, and endurance. Acceptable values for performance in each of the tests are also presented under each test. It is hoped that this battery of tests will be helpful to the coach in determining the effect of a specific training program. It would also be helpful to train physician and trainer, to monitor progress during rehabilitation after sustaining any injury.

Keywords: assessment, evaluation, performance, programs

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10284 An Examination of Crisis Communication in Sport: Lessons from Sport Organizations Responding to Coronavirus Disease Outbreak

Authors: Geumchan Hwang

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Professional sport leagues in Europe and North America are shut down due to novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Football leagues in Europe (e.g., La Liga, English Premier League, Bundesliga, Serie A, and Ligue 1) and big four professional sport leagues in North America (e.g., National Football League, Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, and National Hockey League) are indefinitely suspended or delayed. COVID-19 outbreak has a growing negative impact on economics of sport leagues. For example, loss of revenue in Europe’s top five leagues due to the COVID-19 pandemic was estimated at € 4 billion and loss of revenue in the NBA was estimated at $650 million as of March 2020. In the unprecedented difficult situation, sport teams and leagues try to communicate with sport fans through diverse media platforms. In sport, however, very few studies have been done regarding how sport organizations effectively communicate with sport fans during pandemics, such as COVID-19 outbreak. Understanding sport organizations’ crisis communication is important to develop effective crisis management strategies for sport organizations. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to examine how sport organizations communicate with sport fans via online platforms in COVID-19 outbreak and how sport fans evaluate their communication strategies. 9 official sport league sites (i.e., five major football leagues in Europe and four major sport leagues in North America) and COVID-19 news articles published between January and June in 2020 will be analyzed in terms of coronavirus information, teams and players’ live update, fan interaction, fan support, and community engagement. In addition, comments posted on social media sites (i.e., Facebook and Twitter) of major sport leagues will be also analyzed to examine how sport fans perceive online messages provided by sport leagues as an effective communication strategy. To measure the effectiveness of crisis communication performance, five components (i.e., prompt, compassionate, honest, informative, and interactive) of crisis communication will be collected from leagues’ official websites information and social media posts. Upon completing data collection, content analysis method will be used to evaluate effectiveness of crisis communication among 9 professional sport leagues. The results of the study will provide athletic directors, administrators, and public relations managers in sport organizations with practical information regarding how athlete celebrities and sport organizations should interact with their fans in pandemic situations. In particular, this study will contribute to developing specific crisis management plan for sport organizations. For instance, football teams and leagues in Europe will be able to create standard manuals to minimize damages caused by disease outbreak, such as COVID-19 outbreak.

Keywords: COVID-19, communication, sport leagues, fans

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10283 An Unequal Game: Gender and Racial Disparities in High School Sport Participation

Authors: Liz Wang, Claire Boczkowski

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This study focuses on high school sport participation based on gender and race. As minority enrollment and female athletes increase, does their sport participation also reflect this change? This study uses the Pennsylvania “Interscholastic Athletic Opportunities Disclosure Form” from 21 predominately white high schools. Among these schools, 18 of them have significant racial differences, and 13 of them have significant gender differences for sport participation. The study offers insight to educators and students about gender and racial disparities in sport participation.

Keywords: racial diversity, gender equality, sport participation, youth athletes

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10282 Influence of Social, Economic, Political and Legal Environment of Sport Organizations on Sport Development in Zone Ten (10) of National Zonal Sport Offices in Nigeria

Authors: Ejeh Benjamin Ijuo

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of social, economic, political, and legal environment of sport organizations on sport development in zone ten (10) national zonal sport offices in Nigeria (Plateau, Nasarawa, Benue and F.C.T Abuja). To achieve this purpose, a structured 26 item questionnaire (ISEPLESOQ) designed by the researcher was used for this study. Related literature to this study was reviewed. 311 copies of questionnaire were administered to randomly selected respondents. Out of this number, 306 was dully completed and returned representing 98.4%. The respondents included: Athletes, games masters/ mistresses, coaches in state sport councils, zonal sport coordinators, team managers, directors of state sports council. Four research questions were answered using the mean and standard deviation, while the inferential statistics of chi-square(x2) test of goodness of fit was used to test the four hypotheses at 0.05 alpha levels. The findings of this study revealed that the social, economic, political and legal environment of sport organizations significantly influenced sport development in zone ten (10) national zonal sport offices in Nigeria. It was also established that the general environment of sport organizations influences people’s participation in sport, funding and sponsorship of sports, sitting of equipment and facilities at different locations, selection of athletes. It was therefore, recommended among other things that government should privatize and commercialized sport programmes to enable corporate organizations and individuals participation. Lt was further suggested that the federal government should harness her social, economic, political and legal environment to improve sport development in Nigeria.

Keywords: sport organization, sport development, sport environment, zonal sport offices

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10281 Urinary Incontinence and Performance in Elite Athletes

Authors: María Barbaño Acevedo Gómez, Elena Sonsoles Rodríguez López, Sofía Olivia Calvo Moreno, Ángel Basas García, Christophe RamíRez Parenteau

Abstract:

Introduction: Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as the involuntary leakage of urine. In persons who practice sport, its prevalence is 36.1% (95% CI 26.5% –46.8%) and varies as it seems to depend on the intensity of exercise, movements and impact on the ground. Such high impact sports are likely to generate higher intra-abdominal pressures and leading to pelvic floor muscle weakness. Although physical exercise reduces the risk of suffering from many diseases the mentality of an elite athlete is not to optimize their health, achieving their goals can put their health at risk. Furthermore, feeling or suffering from any discomfort during training seems to be normal within the elite sport demands. Objective: The main objective of the present study was to know the effects of UI in sports performance in athletes. Methods: This was an observational study conducted in 754 elite athletes. After collecting questions about pelvic floor, UI and sport-related data, participants completed the questionnaire International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-UI Short- Form (ICIQ-SF) and ISI (index of incontinence severity). Results: 48.8% of the athletes declare having losses also in rest, preseason and / or competition (χ2 [3] = 3.64; p = 0.302), being the competition period (29.1%) the most frequent where suffer from urine leakage. Of the elite athletes surveyed, 33% had UI according ICIQ-SF (mean age 23.75 ± 7.74 years). Elite athletes with UI (5.31 ± 1.07 days) dedicate significantly more days per week to training [M = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.08-0.48; t (752) = 2.78; p = 0.005] than those without UI. Regarding frequency, 59.7% lose urine once a week, 25.6% lose urine more than 3 times a week, and 14.7% daily. Based on the amount, approximately 15% claim to lose a moderate and abundant. Athletes with the highest number of urine leaks during their training, the UI affects them more in their daily life (r = 0.259; p = 0.001), they present a greater number of losses in their day to day (r = 0.341; p <0.001 ) and greater severity of UI (r = 0.341; p <0.001). Conclusions: Athletes consider that UI affects them negatively in their daily routine, 30.9% affirm having a severity between moderate and severe in their daily routine, and 29.1% loss urine in competition period. An interesting fact is that more than half of the samples collected were elite athletes who compete at the highest level (Olympic Games, World and European Championship), the dedication to sport occupies a big piece in their life. The most frequent period where athletes suffers urine leakage is in competition and there are many emotions that athletes manage to get their best performance, if we add urine losses in that moments it is possible that their performance could be affected.

Keywords: athletes, performance, prevalence, sport, training, urinary incontinence

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10280 Sport and Psychological Need Satisfaction: A Cross Sectional Study Applied to Children and Adolescents with Disabilities

Authors: Isabel Stolz, Vera Tillmann, Volker Anneken

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The relationship between sport participation and psychological need satisfaction was examined by an analysis of interest and involvement in the sport of 937 children and adolescents with disabilities and their self-perceived need satisfaction. The Children’s intrinsic need-satisfaction Scale (CINSS) has been used to measure sport-related need satisfaction in this cross-sectional study. CINSS scores for the dimensions competence, autonomy and relatedness of the study’s participants were generally located in higher score levels. Significant relations between interest and involvement in sport and higher levels of psychological need satisfaction were found in the questioned children and adolescents. Examining the results of each need, the competence-dimension displayed a particular relevance for an increased sport-related lifestyle. The further results showed a negative correlation between children’s need satisfaction and a lack of confidence of participating in sport. A negative correlation was also found between children’s need satisfaction and experiencing difficulties in making contact with others. Despite the general interest in sport and the wish to participate in another sporting activity, the participation of the questioned children and adolescents in organized sport is comparatively low and decreases with age. Participation in sport seems to be beneficial to children and adolescents with disabilities’ psychological need satisfaction. This research highlights the positive impact of sport on psychological need satisfaction of children and adolescents with disabilities and emphasizes the demand for greater participation in organized sport for children and adolescents with disabilities.

Keywords: children and adolescents, health, physical activity, sport

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10279 The Effects of Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors on Task Cohesion and Burnout: The Role of Affect and Motivational Climate

Authors: Ali Al-Yaaribi, Maria Kavussanu

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Prosocial and antisocial behavior occurs in sport. Prosocial behavior is voluntary behavior intended to help or benefit another individual, while antisocial behavior is behavior intended to harm or disadvantage another individual. Previous sport morality research has investigated primarily antecedents of prosocial and antisocial behavior. However, the potential consequences of these behaviors remain unexplored. The aims of this study were to examine whether: (a) perceived prosocial and antisocial teammate behavior predicts task cohesion and burnout; (b) affect mediate these relationships; and (c) motivational climate moderates any of these effects. Participants were male (n = 96) and female (n = 176) teams sport players (Mage = 21.86, SD = 4.36), who completed questionnaires measuring the aforementioned variables. Mediation analysis (Hayes, 2013) indicated that prosocial teammate behavior positively predicted task cohesion and negatively predicted burnout; these effects were mediated by positive affect. Also, mastery climate moderated the positive effect of prosocial teammate behavior on task cohesion: The effect of antisocial teammate behavior on task cohesion was stronger for players who perceived a higher mastery climate created by their coaches. Performance climate moderated the negative effect of prosocial teammate behavior on burnout: This effect was only significant for players who perceived moderate or low levels of performance team climate. Antisocial teammate behavior negatively predicted task cohesion and positively predicted burnout, and these effects were mediated by negative affect. Also, performance climate moderated the positive effect of antisocial teammate behavior on burnout, such that the effect of antisocial teammate behavior on burnout was stronger for players who perceived a lower performance climate. The research findings shed some light on the potential role of prosocial and antisocial teammate behaviors as well as coach-created motivational climate on influencing players’ affect, task cohesion, and burnout. Coaches should focus on creating a mastery motivational climate and rewarding prosocial behavior while at the same time trying to deter antisocial behavior among teammates in order to enhance positive affect, task cohesion, and prevent experience of negative affect and burnout.

Keywords: mediation, moderation, morality, teams sport

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10278 Modern Problems of Russian Sport Legislation

Authors: Yurlov Sergey

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The author examines modern problems of Russian sport legislation and whether it need to be changed in order to allow all sportsmen to participate, train and have another sportsmen’s rights as Russian law mandates. The article provides an overview of Russian sport legislation problems, provides examples of foreign countries. In addition, the author suggests solutions for existing legal problems.

Keywords: amendment, legal problem, right, sport

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
10277 The Bully in the Boat: Discovering Co-Destructive Transformative Value in Olympic and Elite Rowers

Authors: Edwina Luck, Rory Mulcahy

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This paper explores a distinctive perspective of resources which are integrated to co-destroy transformative value in sport. Combining previously published transformative service research and sports literature with data from twenty in-depth interviews with elite and Olympic rowers, our study uncovers the co-destructive resources of ‘interpersonal misbehavior’ and ‘sport misbehavior’. We also identified transformative value in sport is multi-dimensional, encompassing important benefits that support well-being. This research has important implications for transformative sport service research, recommending the need to embrace a transformative service lens to value, a more holistic understanding of co-destruction, and the need to utilise multi-dimensional frameworks to ensure greater insights into sport and sports services and their impact on sportsperson’s well-being. Gaining this understanding will encourage sport managers, sporting bodies to justify resources that they integrate based upon their impact on co-destruction of value.

Keywords: elite sports, sport misbehavior, transformative sport service research, value co-destruction

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10276 Does Creatine Supplementation Improve Swimming Performance?

Authors: Catrin Morgan, Atholl Johnston

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Creatine supplementation should theoretically increase total muscle creatine and so enhance the generation of intramuscular phosphocreatine and subsequent ATP formation. The use of creatine as a potential ergogenic aid in sport has been an area of significant scientific research for a number of years. However the effect of creatine supplementation and swimming performance is a relatively new area of research and is the subject of this review. In swimming creatine supplementation could help maintain maximal power output, aid recovery and increase lean body mass. After investigating the underlying theory and science behind creatine supplementation, a literature review was conducted to identify the best evidence looking at the effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance. The search identified 27 potential studies, and of these 17 were selected for review. The studies were then categorised into single sprint performance, which involves swimming a short distance race, or repeated interval performance, which involves swimming a series of sprints with intervals of rest between them. None of the studies on the effect of creatine controlled for the multiple confounding factors associated with measurement of swimming performance. The sample size in the studies was limited and this reduced the reliability of the studies and introduced the possibility of bias. The studies reviewed provided insufficient evidence to determine if creatine supplementation is beneficial to swimming performance. However, what data there was supported the use of creatine supplementation in repeated interval swimming rather than in single sprint swimming. From a review of the studies, it was calculated on average, there was a 1.37% increase in swimming performance with the use of creatine for repeated intervals and a 0.86% increase in performance for single sprint. While this may seem minor, it should be remembered that swimming races are often won by much smaller margins. In the 2012 London Olympics the Men’s 100 metres freestyle race was won by a margin of only 0.01 of a second. Therefore any potential benefit could make a dramatic difference to the final outcome of the race. Overall more research is warranted before the benefits of creatine supplementation in swimming performance can be further clarified.

Keywords: creatine supplementation, repeated interval, single sprint, swimming performance

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10275 Influence of Sports Participation on Academic Performance among Afe Babalola University Student-Athletes

Authors: B. O. Diyaolu

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The web created by sport in academics has made it difficult for it to be separated from adolescent educational development. The enthusiasm expressed towards sport by students in higher institutions is quite enormous. Primarily, academic performance should be the pride of all students but whether sports affect the academic performance of student-athletes remain an unknown fact. This study investigated the influence of sports participation on academic performance among Afe Babalola University student-athletes. Ex post facto research design was used. Two groups of students were used for the study; Student-athlete (SA) and Regular Students (RS). Purposive sampling technique was used to select 224 student-athletes, only those that are regular in the university sports team training were considered and their records (i.e. name, department, level, matriculation number, and phone number) were collected through the assistance of their coaches. For the regular students, purposive sampling technique was used to select 224 participants, only those that have no interest in sports were considered and their records were retrieved from the college registration officer. The first and second semester examination results of the two groups were compared in 10 general study courses without their knowledge, using descriptive statistics of frequency counts, mean, and standard deviation. Out of the 10 compared courses, 7 courses result showed no significant difference between students-athlete and regular students while student-athletes perform better in 3 practically oriented courses. Sports role in academics is quite significant. Exposure to sports can help build the confidence that athletes need especially when it comes to practical courses. Student-athletes can perform better in academics if the environment is friendly and not intimidating. Lecturers and coaches need to work together in order to build a well cultured and intelligent graduate.

Keywords: academic performance, regular students, sports participation, student-athlete, university sports team

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10274 On the Perceived Awareness of Physical Education Teachers on Adoptable ICTs for PE

Authors: Tholokuhle T. Ntshakala, Seraphin D. Eyono Obono

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Nations are still finding it quite difficult to win mega sport competitions despite the major contribution of sport to society in terms of social and economic development, personal health, and in education. Even though the world of sports has been transformed into a huge global economy, it is important to note that the first step of sport is usually its introduction to children at school through physical education or PE. In other words, nations who do not win mega sport competitions also suffer from a weak and neglected PE system. This problem of the neglect of PE systems is the main motivation of this research aimed at examining the factors affecting the perceived awareness of physical education teachers on the ICT's that are adoptable for the teaching and learning of physical education. Two types of research objectives will materialize this aim: relevant theories will be identified in relation to the analysis of the perceived ICT awareness of PE teachers and subsequent models will be compiled and designed from existing literature; the empirical testing of such theories and models will also be achieved through the survey of PE teachers from the Camperdown magisterial district of the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The main hypothesis at the heart of this study is the relationship between the demographics of PE teachers, their behavior both as individuals and as social entities, and their perceived awareness of the ICTs that are adoptable for PE, as postulated by existing literature; except that this study categorizes human behavior under performance expectancy, computer attitude, and social influence. This hypothesis was partially confirmed by the survey conducted by this research in the sense that performance expectancy and teachers’ age, gender, computer usage, and class size were found to be the only factors affecting their awareness of ICT's for physical education.

Keywords: human behavior, ICT Awareness, physical education, teachers

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
10273 The Study of the Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship in Sport

Authors: Habib Honari

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The purpose of this study is an investigation of the factors affecting entrepreneurship in sport from the point of view of experts in this field. This study is a descriptive analytic one and was conducted as a survey and statistical sample consisted of 64 subjects including top managers and sport management professors at physical education organization. Data is collected by research designed questionnaire. Its reliability (α=.95) is obtained after its validity confirmation (by professors). In this article the most important factors affecting sport entrepreneurship, both as an interdisciplinary field in the world, are studied. Initially, infrastructures are identified for entrepreneurial opportunities in sports and related problems become known so that identifying factors for social, cultural, and economical development to entrepreneurs will be a smooth path, because sport entrepreneurship, given its effective roles in business development, welfare, health development, and participation in various aspects of society, can also play a crucial role in the development of the country. Finally, some solutions for developing entrepreneurial sport are introduced.

Keywords: sport entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial opportunities, entrepreneurial barriers, interdisciplinary

Procedia PDF Downloads 344