Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1682

Search results for: prolonging sport participation

1682 Evaluating a Holistic Fitness Program Used by High Performance Athletes and Mass Participants

Authors: Peter Smolianov, Jed Smith, Lisa Chen, Steven Dion, Christopher Schoen, Jaclyn Norberg

Abstract:

This study evaluated the effectiveness of an experimental training program used to improve performance and health of competitive athletes and recreational sport participants. This holistic program integrated and advanced Eastern and Western methods of prolonging elite sports participation and enjoying lifelong fitness, particularly from China, India, Russia, and the United States. The program included outdoor, gym, and water training approaches focused on strengthening while stretching/decompressing and on full body activation-all in order to improve performance as well as treat and prevent common disorders and pains. The study observed and surveyed over 100 users of the program including recreational fitness and sports enthusiasts as well as elite athletes who competed for national teams of different countries and for Division I teams of National Collegiate Athletic Association in the United States. Different types of sport were studied, including territorial games (e.g., American football, basketball, volleyball), endurance/cyclical (athletics/track and field, swimming), and artistic (e.g., gymnastics and synchronized swimming). Results of the study showed positive effects on the participants’ performance and health, particularly for those who used the program for more than two years and especially in reducing spinal disorders and in enabling to perform new training tasks which previously caused back pain.

Keywords: lifelong fitness, injury prevention, prolonging sport participation, improving performance and health

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1681 Sport and Psychological Need Satisfaction: A Cross Sectional Study Applied to Children and Adolescents with Disabilities

Authors: Isabel Stolz, Vera Tillmann, Volker Anneken

Abstract:

The relationship between sport participation and psychological need satisfaction was examined by an analysis of interest and involvement in the sport of 937 children and adolescents with disabilities and their self-perceived need satisfaction. The Children’s intrinsic need-satisfaction Scale (CINSS) has been used to measure sport-related need satisfaction in this cross-sectional study. CINSS scores for the dimensions competence, autonomy and relatedness of the study’s participants were generally located in higher score levels. Significant relations between interest and involvement in sport and higher levels of psychological need satisfaction were found in the questioned children and adolescents. Examining the results of each need, the competence-dimension displayed a particular relevance for an increased sport-related lifestyle. The further results showed a negative correlation between children’s need satisfaction and a lack of confidence of participating in sport. A negative correlation was also found between children’s need satisfaction and experiencing difficulties in making contact with others. Despite the general interest in sport and the wish to participate in another sporting activity, the participation of the questioned children and adolescents in organized sport is comparatively low and decreases with age. Participation in sport seems to be beneficial to children and adolescents with disabilities’ psychological need satisfaction. This research highlights the positive impact of sport on psychological need satisfaction of children and adolescents with disabilities and emphasizes the demand for greater participation in organized sport for children and adolescents with disabilities.

Keywords: children and adolescents, health, physical activity, sport

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1680 The Socio-Culturals Factors Hindering Female Sport Participation, in the Centre for Biokinetics, Recreation and Sport Science, University of Venda

Authors: P. Mambanga, Goon, L. O. Amusa

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to investigate the socio-cultural factors hindering sport participation among female students in the Centre for Biokinetics, Recreation and Sport Science, University of Venda. A descriptive survey of 100 female student selected by simple random sampling was used and utilises the close ended questionnaire designed in a likert format was use for data collection. Face and content validity was employed in which the supervisor went through the instrument and correct and accept it thus checking the validity of the instrument. The test-retest approach was used to test the reliability of the instrument. Ethical considerations were ensured and confidentiality respected. Data was collected and presented in tables and results interpreted. Chi square which is a measure of non-parametric investigation was employed in order to analyse the observed and expected scores, with the probability value was set at 0.05 levels of significance on a two-tailed test of the hypotheses formulated for the study. Findings of the study established significant socio-cultural factors that hinder female sport participation among female students in the Centre for Biokinetics, Recreation and Sport Science. The study concluded that the low level participation of female students at the University of Venda might be as a result of socio-cultural factors.

Keywords: female students, sport participation, University of Venda, biokinetic

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1679 What Children Do and Do Not Like about Taking Part in Sport: Using Focus Groups to Investigate Thoughts and Feelings of Children with Hearing Loss

Authors: S. Somerset, D. J. Hoare, P. Leighton

Abstract:

Limited participation in physical activity and sport has been linked to poorer mental and physical health in children. Studies have shown that children who participate in sports benefit from improved social skills, self-confidence, communication skills and a better quality of life. Children who participate in sport are also more likely to continue their participation into their adult life. Deaf or hard of hearing children should have the same opportunities to participate in sport and receive the benefits as their hearing peers. Anecdotal evidence suggests this isn’t always the case. This is concerning given there are 45,000 children in the UK with permanent hearing loss. The aim of this study was to understand what encourages or discourages deaf or hard of hearing children to take part in sports. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the University of Nottingham School of Medicine ethics committee. We conducted eight focus groups with deaf or hard of hearing children aged 10 to 15 years. A total of 45 children (19 male, 26 female) recruited from local schools and sports clubs took part. Information was gathered on the children’s thoughts and feelings about participation in sport. This included whether they played sports and who with, whether they did or did not like sport, and why they got involved in sport. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Several key themes were identified as being associated with levels of sports participation. These included friendships, family and communication. Deaf or hard of hearing children with active siblings had participated in more sports. Communication was a common theme throughout regardless of the type of hearing-assistive technology a child used. Children found communication easier during sport if they were allowed to use their technology and had particular difficulty during sports such as swimming. Children expressed a desire not to have to identify themselves at a club as having a hearing loss. This affected their confidence when participating in sport. Not surprisingly, children who are deaf or hard of hearing are more likely to participate in sport if they have a good support network of parents, coaches and friends. The key barriers to participation for these children are communication, lack of visual information, lack of opportunity and a lack of awareness. By addressing these issues more deaf and hard of hearing children will take part in sport and will continue their participation.

Keywords: barrier, children, deaf, participation, hard of hearing, sport

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1678 Psychological Variables of Sport Participation and Involvement among Student-Athletes of Tertiary Institutions in South-West, Nigeria

Authors: Mayowa Adeyeye

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the psychological variables motivating sport participation and involvement among student-athletes of tertiary institutions in south-west Nigeria. One thousand three hundred and fifty (N-1350) student-athletes were randomly selected in all sports from nine tertiary institutions in south-west Nigeria. These tertiary institutions include University of Lagos, Lagos State University, Obafemi Awolowo University, Osun State University, University of Ibadan, University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Federal University of Technology Akungba, University of Ilorin, and Kwara State University. The descriptive survey research method was adopted while a self developed validated likert type questionnaire named Sport Participation Scale (SPS) was used to elicit opinion from respondents. The test-retest reliability value obtained for the instrument, using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient was 0.96. Out of the one thousand three hundred and fifty (N-1350) questionnaire administered, only one thousand two hundred and five (N-1286) were correctly filled, coded and analysed using inferential statistics of Chi-Square (X2) while all the tested hypotheses were set at .05 alpha level. Based on the findings of this study, the result revealed that several psychological factors influence student athletes to continue participation in sport, which includes love for the game, famous athletes as role model and family support. However, the analysis further revealed that the stipends the student-athletes get from their universities have no influence on their participation and involvement in sport.

Keywords: sport participation, involvement, student-athletes, role model, family, peer

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1677 Training Burnout and Leisure Participation of Athletes in College

Authors: An-Hsu Chen

Abstract:

The study intends to explore how the athletic trainings (12 hours per day, four days per week) have impacts on athlete burnout and their leisure participations. The connection between athlete burnout and leisure participation of collegiate athletes is also discussed. Athlete burnout and leisure participation questionnaire were administrated and 186 valid responses were collected. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Results suggest that athlete burnout among collegiate athletes with different specialties are significant distinct. Participants who train more days per week are more likely to participate in entertainment activities while those who have higher training hours per day tend to avoid knowledge-based activities. The research also finds there is a significant positive correlation between athlete burnout and leisure participation of collegiate athletes while sport devaluation is negatively correlated with sport activities in leisure participation. Hence, adjust and well-arrange training quality and quantity may help to avoid over-trainings. Away trainings, uploading training volumes, and group leisure activities are suggested to be arranged properly to allow athletes cope with the burnout and stress caused by long-term trainings and periodical competitions.

Keywords: emotional and physical exhaustion, leisure activities, sport devaluation, training hours

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1676 Influence of Social, Economic, Political and Legal Environment of Sport Organizations on Sport Development in Zone Ten (10) of National Zonal Sport Offices in Nigeria

Authors: Ejeh Benjamin Ijuo

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of social, economic, political, and legal environment of sport organizations on sport development in zone ten (10) national zonal sport offices in Nigeria (Plateau, Nasarawa, Benue and F.C.T Abuja). To achieve this purpose, a structured 26 item questionnaire (ISEPLESOQ) designed by the researcher was used for this study. Related literature to this study was reviewed. 311 copies of questionnaire were administered to randomly selected respondents. Out of this number, 306 was dully completed and returned representing 98.4%. The respondents included: Athletes, games masters/ mistresses, coaches in state sport councils, zonal sport coordinators, team managers, directors of state sports council. Four research questions were answered using the mean and standard deviation, while the inferential statistics of chi-square(x2) test of goodness of fit was used to test the four hypotheses at 0.05 alpha levels. The findings of this study revealed that the social, economic, political and legal environment of sport organizations significantly influenced sport development in zone ten (10) national zonal sport offices in Nigeria. It was also established that the general environment of sport organizations influences people’s participation in sport, funding and sponsorship of sports, sitting of equipment and facilities at different locations, selection of athletes. It was therefore, recommended among other things that government should privatize and commercialized sport programmes to enable corporate organizations and individuals participation. Lt was further suggested that the federal government should harness her social, economic, political and legal environment to improve sport development in Nigeria.

Keywords: sport organization, sport development, sport environment, zonal sport offices

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1675 Students' Perception of Their Reliable Alliance through Participation in Intramural Sports in Colleges of Education in Nigeria

Authors: Waziri Habsatu Dahiru

Abstract:

This research investigated students’ perception of their reliable alliance through participation in intramural sports in Colleges of Education in Nigeria. One research question and one null hypothesis were set to achieve this objective. Nine hundred (900) copies of structured questionnaire were distributed to 15 Colleges of Education based on stratified random sampling. One sample t test was used to determine positive perception of significant reliable alliance benefits. An alpha level of 0.05 was used to either retain or reject the hypothesis postulated. It was found that, students in Colleges of Education in Nigeria do not have significant positive perception of the reliable alliance benefits through their participation in intramural sport. However, the students perceived that participation in intramural sports help in increases trust and respect for peer groups and encouraging strong attachment with team members. The researcher recommended among others that awareness programs such as workshops and seminars on students' perception of the benefits of participation in intramural sport should be regularly organized in order to boost intellectual growth, personality development, social responsibility, and appreciation of diversity.

Keywords: benefits, intramural sports, reliable alliance, colleges of education

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1674 From Manipulation to Citizen Control: A Case Study Revealing the Level of Participation in the Citizen Participatory Audit

Authors: Mark Jason E. Arca, Jay Vee R. Linatoc, Rex Francis N. Lupango, Michael Joe A. Ramirez

Abstract:

Participation promises an avenue for citizens to take part in governance, but it does not necessarily mean effective participation. The proper integration of participants in the decision-making process should be properly addressed to ensure effectiveness. This study explores the integration of the participants in the decision-making process to reveal the level of participation in the Solid Waste Management audit done by the Citizen Participatory Audit (CPA), a program under the supervision of the Commission on Audit. Specifically, this study will use the experience of participation to identify emerging themes that will help reveal the level of participation through the integrated ladder of participation. The researchers used key informant interviews to gather necessary data from the actors of the program. The findings revealed that the level of participation present in the CPA is at the Placation level, a level below the program’s targeted level of participation. The study also allowed the researchers to reveal facilitating factors in the program that contributed to a better understanding of the practice of participation.

Keywords: citizen participation, culture of participation, ladder of participation, level of participation

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1673 Barriers to Participation in Sport for Children without Disability: A Systematic Review

Authors: S. Somerset, D. J. Hoare

Abstract:

Participation in sport is linked to better mental and physical health in children and adults. Studies have shown children who participate in sports benefit from improved social skills, self-confidence, communication skills and a better quality of life. Children who participate in sports from a young age are also more likely to continue to have active lifestyles during adulthood. This is an important consideration with a nation where physical activity levels are declining and the incidences of obesity are rising. Getting children active and keeping them active can provide long term health benefits to the individual but also a potential reduction in health costs in the future. This systematic review aims to identify the barriers to participation in sport for children aged up to 18 years and encompasses both qualitative and quantitative studies. The bibliographic databases, EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL and SportDiscus were searched. Additional hand searches were carried out on review articles found in the searches to identify any studies that may have been missed. Studies involving children up to 18 years without additional needs focusing on barriers to participation in sport were included. Randomised control trials, policy guidelines, studies with sport as an intervention, studies focusing on the female athlete triad, tobacco abuse, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, pre exercise testing, and cardiovascular disease were excluded. Abstract review, full paper review and quality appraisal were conducted by two researchers. A consensus meeting took place to resolve any differences at the abstract, full text and data extraction / quality appraisal stages. The CASP qualitative studies appraisal tool and the CASP cohort studies tool (excluding question 3 and 4 which refer to interventions) were used for quality appraisal in this review. The review identified several salient barriers to participation in sport for children. These barriers ranged from the uniform worn during school physical education lessons to the weather during participation in sport. The most commonly identified barriers in the review include parental support, time allocation, location of the activity and the cost of the activity. Therefore, it would be beneficial for a greater provision to be made within the school environment for children to participate sport. This can reduce the cost and time commitment required from parents to encourage participation. This would help to increase activity levels of children, which ultimately can only be a good thing.

Keywords: barrier, children, participation, sport

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1672 An Investigation into the Social Factors that Influence Sport Participation: A Case of Gymnastics in the Western Cape

Authors: W. C. Lucas, S. Titus, M. E. M. Young

Abstract:

Gymnastics is the umbrella term that represents seven different and unique disciplines of gymnastics. Men and women of all ages and abilities practice this sport, and participation in gymnastics can develop both gross and fine motor skills, strength, flexibility, coordination and balance. There are various social factors, such as a family’s socioeconomic status or accessibility to sports facilities that may play a role in affecting levels of participation. The aim of this study is to investigate the social factors that have an influence on gymnastics participation in the Western Cape. To this end, a qualitative approach is adopted to collect data. This study also adopts the ecological systems theory as the theoretical framework, and is used to analyze and interpret current social factors that directly or indirectly influence participation in gymnastics. The study’s objectives were to ascertain which social factors hinder participation, and which social factors promote participation, thus, coaches, parents and gymnasts participated in focus group discussions. Key informant interviews took place with experts in the field of gymnastics in the Western Cape. A thematic analysis was conducted on transcriptions from the focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Social factors investigated in this study occurred in the chronosystem, macrosystem, exosystem, mesosystem, and microsystem, and had both a direct and indirect influence on the gymnast’s continued participation. These systems are defined as the environment of the individual, in which they grow and develop. The research findings of this paper are used to draw conclusions and make specific recommendations for practice and further research. The information gathered in this study can assist all stakeholders within the field of gymnastics, such as parents, judges, coaches, gymnasts, and the supporting community which surround the participating gymnast.

Keywords: developing child, ecological systems theory, facilities, federation, gymnastics, influence, participation, social factors, socioeconomic status, sport

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1671 Drivers of E-Participation: Case of Saudi Arabia

Authors: R. Alrashedi, A. Persaud

Abstract:

This study provides insights into the readiness of users to participate in e-government activities in Saudi Arabia. A user-centric model of e-participation is developed based on a review of the literature and empirically tested. The findings are based on an online survey of a sample of 200 hundred Saudi citizens and residents living in Saudi Arabia. The study found that trust of the government, attitude towards e-participation, e-participation through the use of social media, and social influence and social identity positively influence e-participation while perceived benefits of e-government is negatively related to e-participation. This study contributes to the literature by providing empirical evidence of the drivers of e-participation. The study also provides insights that could be used by policymakers to increase the level of e-participation in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: e-government, e-participation, social media, trust, social influence and social identity

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1670 The Effect of Sexual Assault on Sport Participation Trajectories from Adolescence through Young Adulthood

Authors: Chung Gun Lee

Abstract:

Objectives: Certain life change events were shown to have strong effects on physical activity-related behavior, but more research is needed to investigate the longer-term effects of different life change events on physical activity-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of experiencing physically or non-physically forced sexual activity on sports participation from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: This study used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data. Group-based trajectory modeling was utilized to examine the effect of experiencing sexual assault on trajectories of sports participation from adolescence to young adulthood. Results: Male participants were divided into three trajectory groups (i.e., Low-stable, High-decreasing, and High-stable) and female participants were divided into two trajectory groups (i.e., Low-stable and High-decreasing). The main finding of this study is that women who experienced non-physically forced sexual activity significantly decreases sports participation throughout the trajectory in ‘High-decreasing group.’ The effect of non-physically forced sexual activity on women’s sports participation was considerably weakened and became insignificant after including psychological depression in the model as a potential mediator. Discussion: Special attention should be paid to sport participation among women victims of non-physically forced sexual activity. Further studies are needed to examine other potential mediators in addition to psychological depression when examining the effect of non-physically forced sexual activity on sport participation in women.

Keywords: adolescent, group-based trajectory modeling, sexual assault, young adult

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1669 Comparison of Women’s Political Participation in Korea and China

Authors: Minjeoung Kim

Abstract:

This paper deals with the comparison of women’s political participation in Korea and China. Korean women are participated more in higher education. As the economic development and the women's social participation can enhance the possibility of women's political participation in advanced democratic countries, in Asian countries such as Korea and China in which Confucianism prohibited women to participate in public life and the process of nation building is different from western countries, the political power takes an initiative to implement policies for women's participation in politics and for women's consciousness.

Keywords: korea, china, women, political participation

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1668 Understanding Barriers to Sports Participation as a Means of Achieving Sustainable Development in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education

Authors: Osifeko Olalekan Remigious, Osifeko Christiana Osikorede, Folarin Bolanle Eunice, Olugbenga Adebola Shodiya

Abstract:

During these difficult economic times, nations are looking for ways to improve their finances, preserve the environment as well as the socio-political climate and educational institutions, which are needed to increase their economy and preserve their sustainable development. Sport is one of the ways through which sustainable development can be achieved. The purpose of this study was to examine and understanding barriers to participation in sport. A total of 1,025 students were purposively selected from five schools (School of Arts and Social Sciences, School of Languages, School of Education, School of Sciences and School of Vocational and Technical Education) in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education (MOCPED). A questionnaire, with a tested reliability coefficient of 0.71, was used for data collection. The collected data were subjected to the descriptive survey research design. The findings showed that sports facilities, funding and lecture schedules were significant barriers to sports participation. It was recommended that sports facilities be provided by the Lagos State government.

Keywords: sports, sustainable development, Participation, State government, barriers

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1667 Developing a Systemic Approach for Understanding the Factors Influencing Participation in Recreational Angling

Authors: Daniel Phillip Svozil, Eileen Petrie, Kristy Robson, Lee Baumgartner, Max Finlayson

Abstract:

Recreational angling is recognized for its potential to improve health and wellbeing which has translated into policy initiatives to increase participation in the sport. However, these benefits have been examined mostly among voluntary participants. Thus, there is an assumption that recreational angling is perceived equally and that these benefits may be evident even to non-anglers. This paper reviews the published benefits to health and wellbeing of recreational angling and proposes an approach to systemically analyze interactions among the perceptions, socio-economic barriers, and knowledge of these benefits among people at different levels of participation (including non-participants). The outcomes of this study will assist in identifying the feasibility of recreational angling for improving health and wellbeing outcomes among participants (i.e., fishing may not be for everyone) and designing interventions that address the perceptions and socio-economic barriers among individuals that may benefit from participation in recreational angling.

Keywords: angling, health, wellbeing, connecting with nature

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1666 Levels of Self-Efficiency and Participation Restrictions in Individuals Y and Z Generations

Authors: Sumeyye Belhan, Esma Ozkan, Mahmut Yaran

Abstract:

It is aimed to examine the self-efficacy and participation restrictions of the generations of Y and Z in the study. The participants were assessed with the Self-Efficacy Scale and the Participation Scale. There were 23 female and 17 male with a mean age of 29,17 ± 4,14 on the Y generation and 15 female and 25 male with a mean age of 13 ± 3,78 on the Z generation. The mean self-efficacy scores of the Y generation was 63.65 ± 11.01; and 65.80 ± 9.12 in the Z generation. There was no statistically significant difference between self-efficacy averages of Y and Z individuals (p > 0,05). The mean score indicating the participation limitations of the individuals on the Y generation was 11.28 ± 10.55; and 53,70 ± 18,05 in participants with Z generation. It was determined that there was a statistically significant difference between the participation restriction of Y and Z individuals (p < 0,001). The high level of participation restrictions on the Z generation suggests that these individuals are influenced by the situations such as family (financial resources, get permission) and school environment (exams, friends, adolescence period). This is reason it is believed that the planning and development of occupational therapy interventions would be beneficial to increase the participation of individuals in this population.

Keywords: environment, participation restriction, self efficiency, Y and Z generations

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1665 The Study of the Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship in Sport

Authors: Habib Honari

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is an investigation of the factors affecting entrepreneurship in sport from the point of view of experts in this field. This study is a descriptive analytic one and was conducted as a survey and statistical sample consisted of 64 subjects including top managers and sport management professors at physical education organization. Data is collected by research designed questionnaire. Its reliability (α=.95) is obtained after its validity confirmation (by professors). In this article the most important factors affecting sport entrepreneurship, both as an interdisciplinary field in the world, are studied. Initially, infrastructures are identified for entrepreneurial opportunities in sports and related problems become known so that identifying factors for social, cultural, and economical development to entrepreneurs will be a smooth path, because sport entrepreneurship, given its effective roles in business development, welfare, health development, and participation in various aspects of society, can also play a crucial role in the development of the country. Finally, some solutions for developing entrepreneurial sport are introduced.

Keywords: sport entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial opportunities, entrepreneurial barriers, interdisciplinary

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1664 An Interaction Model of Communication Skills and Participation in Social Work among Youth

Authors: Mohd Yusri Ibrahim

Abstract:

Youth participation in social work is essential in social and community development. Although many studies have been conducted to identify the determinant of youth involvement, few studies were discussed interaction between communication skills and youth participation in volunteerism. This article will discuss a cross-sectional study that was conducted to identify the relationship between communication skills and youth participation in social work. The results were successfully developed an interaction model of communication skills as predictor to participation criteria among youth. Finally, the article was suggested several ways to encourage youth participation in community by developing their communication skill in various stages.

Keywords: youth, participation, communication skill, social work

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1663 Public Participation and Decision-Making towards Planning Legislation: A Case for GCC Countries

Authors: Saad Saeed Althiabi

Abstract:

There is great progress in formulating and executing legislative policies in GCC, however, the public participation in formulating and in major decision making still remains weak. Drawing attention on the international law of public participation in construction and natural resource management, this paper aims in creating a feasible legislative framework for extensive public participation in the industries such as construction and oil and gas decision-making that GCC can implement. This paper would address the conflicts associated with the management and creation of legislation and ensuring public participation for the creation of a practical framework. A feasible legislative framework must take into account the various factors that shape the effectiveness of participation and the elements that promote the objectives of participation. It is premised on the ground that viewing to international prescriptions might help to reveal gaps in domestic laws, as well as alternatives to overcome them.

Keywords: legislative policies, public participation, planning legislation, GCC countries, international law

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1662 Citizen Participation in Smart Cities: Singapore and Tokyo

Authors: Thomas Benson

Abstract:

Smart cities have been heralded as multi-faceted entities which utilise information and communication technologies to enhance citizen participation. The purpose of this paper is to outline authoritative definitions of smart cities and citizen participation and investigate smart city citizen-centrism rhetoric by examining urban governance and citizen participation processes. Drawing on extant literature and official city government documents and websites, Singapore (Singapore) and Tokyo (Japan) are chosen as comparable smart city case studies. For the smart city to be truly realised, this paper concludes that smart cities must do more to incorporate genuine citizen participation mechanisms.

Keywords: citizen participation, smart cities, urban governance, Singapore, Tokyo

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1661 Teachers Influence on Encouraging Physical Activity and Recreation in Township Schools in the City of Tshwane

Authors: Rapuane Eric Jan Pule

Abstract:

Sport participation plays a significant role in learners’ well-being and lifestyle. Learners spend most of their time in the school environment, where they are monitored, guided and advised by teachers. Teachers have a good relationship with the learners, therefore they can play a major role in promoting and influencing learners to participate in physical activities, both competitive and recreational purposes. Their influence and involvement could assist in increasing the number learners' involvement in physical activities, sport and recreation at Township schools. The national sport and recreation plan in South Africa, recommends that promotion of sport and physical activities at primary and secondary schools should play an important role in helping learners commit to a live-long participation in sport, recreational and physical activities. Schoolteachers could play an influential role in ensuring that learners spent their leisure time productively through physical and recreational activities. However, the role and the influence of teachers in promoting physical and recreational activities have been previously overlooked in the literature. Part of this study focuses on the in-depth challenges encountered by primary and secondary school teachers at Township schools in promoting and influencing learners’ involvement in sport, recreation and physical activities. 109 primary and secondary teachers at Township schools agreed to participate in the study through the provision of informed consent. The participants consisted of 49 primary school teachers and 60 secondary school teachers. Quantitative approach was followed using validated structured questionnaire comprising 12 close-ended items were used. Findings indicated that teachers' can play a significant role in influencing and encouraging learners to participate in sport, recreation or physical activities. Teachers view physical activity as an important developmental component for learners. Primary school teachers believe that they have a significant role to play in encouraging and promoting physical activities, sport and recreation, as compared to the secondary school teachers. Both group of teachers at primary and secondary schools, believe that infrastructure development, financial support, and extra incentives could motivate them to promote physical, recreational and sporting activities at schools. Teachers also acknowledge that schools are facing challenges in implementing and coordinating physical activities and recreational programmes as required by the Department of sport and recreation South Africa. It is recommended that the Department of Basic Education and Sport and Recreation South Africa revise their policies regarding the role of teachers in promoting and administering physical and recreational activities at schools.

Keywords: township, physical activities, sport and recreation participation, learners, teachers, primary and secondary schools, physical education

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1660 Media Usage, Citizenship Norms, and Political Participation of Transition to Democracy in Indonesia

Authors: Najmuddin Najmuddin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to determine whether media usage and change of citizenship norms influence political participation. The focus of this study is to examine citizenship norms in the context of the development of information, and communication technology and how it will impact political participation in the context of Indonesia's transition to democracy. The study use survey method. The main theoretical framework is media and political participation. The results of this study reveal that gender, age and educational background of the respondents did not influence significantly media usage and citizenship norms. The Results also show that educational background is not a factor that distinguishes media usage but it becomes differentiating factor in citizenship norms. The results further show that the media usage has a significant correlation with citizenship norms and citizenship norms has a significant relationship with political participation. In addition, media usage and citizenship norms impact significantly to political participation. The sub-dimensions of citizenship norms (compliance, duty, and engaged citizen) provides a significant contribution to the sub-dimensions of political participation (traditional political participation, modern political participation, civic political participation). Based on the findings it can be concluded that the political euphoria in the era of transition to democracy has changed pattern media usage and citizenship norms of among the young generation.

Keywords: media, citizenship, norms, political, participation, democracy

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1659 Managing Education through, Effective School Community Relationships/Participation for National Security

Authors: Shehu S. Janguza

Abstract:

The need for national security cannot be over Emphasis, which should be pursued by any means. Thus the need for effective management of education through effective school community Relationship/participation. In preparing and implementing only effort to promote community involvement in manning Education, it is importance to understand the whole picture of community participation, how it works, what forms are used, what benefit it can yield and what we should expect in the process of carrying out the efforts finally emphasis will be made on how effective school community relationship/participation and lead to national security.

Keywords: community participation, managing, school community, national security

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1658 The Effect of Law on Politics

Authors: Boukrida Rafiq

Abstract:

Democracy is based on the notion that all citizens have the right to participate in the managing of political affairs and that every citizens input is of equal importance. This basic assumption clearly places emphasis on public participation in maintaining a stable democracy. The level of public participation, however is highly contested with many theorists arguing that too much public participation would overwhelm and ultimately cripple democratic systems. On the other hand, others who favor high levels of participation argue that more citizen involvement leads to greater representation. Regardless of these disagreements over the utopian level of participation, there is widespread agreement amongst scholars that, at the very least, some participation is necessary to maintain democratic systems. The ways in which citizens participate vary greatly and depending on the method used, influence political decision making at varying levels. The method of political participation is a key in controlling public influence over political affairs and therefore is also an integral part of maintaining democracy, whether it be "thin" (low levels of participation) or "Robust" (high levels of participation). High levels of participation or "robust" democracy are argued by some theorists to enhance democracy through providing the opportunity for more issues to be represented during decision making. The notion of widespread participation was first advanced by classical theorists.

Keywords: assumption clearly places emphasis, ultimately cripple, influence political decision making at varying, classical theorists

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1657 US Track And Field System: Examining Micro-Level Practices against a Global Model for Integrated Development of Mass and Elite Sport

Authors: Peter Smolianov, Steven Dion, Christopher Schoen, Jaclyn Norberg, Nicholas Stone, Soufiane Rafi

Abstract:

This study assessed the micro-level elements of track and field development in the US against a model for integrating high-performance sport with mass participation. This investigation is important for the country’s international sport performance, which declined relative to other countries and wellbeing, which in its turn deteriorated as over half of the US population became overweight. A questionnaire was designed for the following elements of the model: talent identification and development as well as advanced athlete support. Survey questions were validated by 12 experts, including academics, executives from sport governing bodies, coaches, and administrators. To determine the areas for improvement, the questionnaires were completed by 102 US track and field coaches representing the country’s regions and coaching levels. Possible advancements were further identified through semi-structured discussions with 10 US track and field administrators. The study found that talent search and development is a critically important area for improvement: 49 percent of respondents had overall negative perceptions, and only 16 percent were positive regarding these US track and field practices. Both quantitative survey results and open responses revealed that the key reason for the inadequate athlete development was a shortage of well-educated and properly paid coaches: 77 percent of respondents indicated that coach expertise is never or rarely high across all participant ages and levels. More than 40 percent of the respondents were uncertain of or not familiar with world’s best talent identification and development practices, particularly methods of introducing children to track and field from outside the sport’s participation base. Millions more could be attracted to the sport by adopting best international practices. First, physical education should be offered a minimum three times a week in all school grades, and track and field together with other healthy sports, should be taught at school to all children. Second, multi-sport events, including track and field disciplines, should be organized for everyone within and among all schools, cities and regions. Three, Australian and Eastern European methods of talent search at schools should be utilized and tailored to the US conditions. Four, comprehensive long term athlete development guidelines should be used for the advancement of the American Development Model, particularly track and field tests and guidelines as part of both school education and high-performance athlete development for every age group from six to over 70 years old. These world’s best practices are to improve the country’s international performance while increasing national sport participation and positively influencing public health.

Keywords: high performance, mass participation, sport development, track and field, USA

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1656 Profiles of Physical Fitness and Enjoyment among Children: Associations with Sport Participation

Authors: Norjali Wazir M. R. W., Pion P., Mostaert M., De Meester A., Lenoir M., Bardid F.

Abstract:

Background and study aim: Most of the people assume that someone will perform well on something they like. A tool evaluating how much an individual likes an activity can also be guidance for talent detection and to keep youngster doing what they like as a recreational sport. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between physical performances with something that they like. Material and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 558 pupils age between 8 years to 11 years were tested using test battery containing 7 physical performance tests (I Do) compared to a pictorial scale containing 7 pictures (I Like) referring to the physical performance tests. Pearson correlation was computed to investigate the relation between the actual performance and the enjoyment. Results: Moderate significant correlations between each of the respective I Do, and I Like components were found. It appears that the correlation between the endurance items is higher as compared to the other six characteristics. Rerunning the analysis for age and sex groups separately resulted in only one significant correlation across all age group, namely between the evaluations of cardiovascular endurance. Conclusions: Information on enjoyment appears to be a useful and cost-effective addition to current multidimensional test batteries in a sport. By providing a clear picture on activities the young child or athlete likes or dislikes, attrition can be increased if a child starts his ‘career’ in a sport that alludes to skills or tasks he/she likes. This enjoyment will increase the intrinsic motivation, which is beneficial for sustained sports participation as well as for avoiding dropout in promising young athletes.

Keywords: I Do, I Like, physical performance, enjoyment

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1655 The Effect of Global Value Chain Participation on Environment

Authors: Piyaphan Changwatchai

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Global value chain is important for current world economy through foreign direct investment. Multinational enterprises' efficient location seeking for each stage of production lead to global production network and more global value chain participation of several countries. Global value chain participation has several effects on participating countries in several aspects including the environment. The effect of global value chain participation on the environment is ambiguous. As a result, this research aims to study the effect of global value chain participation on countries' CO₂ emission and methane emission by using quantitative analysis with secondary panel data of sixty countries. The analysis is divided into two types of global value chain participation, which are forward global value chain participation and backward global value chain participation. The results show that, for forward global value chain participation, GDP per capita affects two types of pollutants in downward bell curve shape. Forward global value chain participation negatively affects CO₂ emission and methane emission. As for backward global value chain participation, GDP per capita affects two types of pollutants in downward bell curve shape. Backward global value chain participation negatively affects methane emission only. However, when considering Asian countries, forward global value chain participation positively affects CO₂ emission. The recommendations of this research are that countries participating in global value chain should promote production with effective environmental management in each stage of value chain. The examples of policies are providing incentives to private sectors, including domestic producers and MNEs, for green production technology and efficient environment management and engaging in international agreements in terms of green production. Furthermore, government should regulate each stage of production in value chain toward green production, especially for Asia countries.

Keywords: CO₂ emission, environment, global value chain participation, methane emission

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1654 People Participation as Social Capital Form for Realizing Sustainable Ecotourism

Authors: I. Putu Eka N. Kencana, I. Wayan Mertha

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A variety of research’s evidence suggests that community involvement is one of the vital elements in the development of sustainable tourism. As an entity of the tourism system, local communities are considered have better understanding of their region as well as influenced positively or negatively by the tourism activities in the region. This study elaborates role of community involvement in the development of ecotourism in Kintamani Bali from two perspectives of view, namely participation in the process of initiatives development and participation in the economic benefits of tourism. As one element of social capital form, community participation on the development and management of ecotourism in Kintamani, could be expected maintain its sustainability.

Keywords: community involvement, ecotourism, participation, social capital

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1653 Trends of Change of Political Participation of Young Voters in Indonesia

Authors: Najmuddin Rasul

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The purpose of this study is to determine whether media usage and change of citizenship norms influence trends of change of political participation of young voters in Indonesia. The focus of this study is to examine citizenship norms in the context of the development of information and communication technology influence political participation in the context of Indonesia's transition to democracy. The main theoretical framework is media and political participation. For data gathering, 384 young voters between the ages of 17 to 40 years were interviewed in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia. The results of this study reveal that gender, age and educational background of respondents did not influence significantly media usage and citizenship norms. The results also show that educational background is not a factor that distinguishes media usage but it becomes differentiating factor in citizenship norms. The results further show that media usage has a significant correlation with citizenship norms and citizenship norms has a significant relationship with political participation. In addition, media usage and citizenship norm significantly influence political participation. The sub-dimensions the citizenship norms (compliance, duty, and engaged citizenship) provides a significant contribution to the sub-dimensions of political participation (traditional political participation, modern political participation, civic political participation). Based on the findings it can be concluded that the political euphoria in the era of transition to democracy has changed pattern of media usage and citizenship norms among the young generation in Indonesia.

Keywords: political participation, media, citizenship norms, democracy, young voters, Indonesia

Procedia PDF Downloads 121