Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6898

Search results for: track and field

6898 Performance of an Optical Readout Gas Chamber for Charged Particle Track

Authors: Jing Hu, Xiaoping Ouyang


We develop an optical readout gas chamber based on avalanche-induced scintillation for energetic charged particles track. The gas chamber is equipped with a Single Anode Wires (SAW) structure to produce intensive electric field when the measured particles are of low yield or even single. In the presence of an intensive electric field around the single anode, primary electrons, resulting from the incident charged particles when depositing the energy along the track, accelerate to the anode effectively and rapidly. For scintillation gasses, this avalanche of electrons induces multiplying photons comparing with the primary scintillation excited directly from particle energy loss. The electric field distribution for different shape of the SAW structure is analyzed, and finally, an optimal one is used to study the optical readout performance. Using CF4 gas and its mixture with the noble gas, the results indicate that the optical readout characteristics of the chamber are attractive for imaging. Moreover, images of particles track including single particle track from 5.485MeV alpha particles are successfully acquired. The track resolution is quite well for the reason that the electrons undergo less diffusion in the intensive electric field. With the simple and ingenious design, the optical readout gas chamber has a high sensitivity. Since neutrons can be converted to charged particles when scattering, this optical readout gas chamber can be applied to neutron measurement for dark matter, fusion research, and others.

Keywords: optical readout, gas chamber, charged particle track, avalanche-induced scintillation, neutron measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
6897 Field Investigating the Effects of Lateral Support Elements on Lateral Resistance of Ballasted Tracks with Sharp Curves

Authors: Milad Alizadeh Galdiani, Jabbar Ali Zakeri


Lateral movement of CWR ballasted track occurs in sharp curves because of the lack of adequate lateral resistance. Several strategies have been proposed and used for increase the lateral resistance of ballasted tracks, but still there are some problems in tracks with small radius curves. In this paper, a new method has been presented for increase the lateral resistance. This method is using the lateral supports as numerical and field studies. In this paper, the field and laboratory tests have been conducted by using the single tie pressure test (STPT) and track panel loading test (LTPT). Then, their results were compared with the numerical results. The results of numerical and field tests showed that the lateral stiffness of ballasted tracks significantly increased when there were lateral supports in ballasted tracks. Also, the track structure had a bilinear behavior.

Keywords: ballasted railway, Lateral resistance, railway buckling, field and numerical studies

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
6896 Morphology of Indian Female Athletes of Different Track and Field Events

Authors: Anju Luthra, Rajender Lal, Dhananjoy Shaw


Participation in games and sports in the contemporary times has become more competing with the developed scientific knowledge, skills and methods, along with the equipment and applied research in the field. In spite of India being a large country having vast resources and potential, its performance in the world of sports on the whole needs sincere attention for better achievements. Beside numerous factors responsible for the dismal performance of a sportsperson, the physique and body composition, including the size, shape and form are known to play a significant role. The present investigation was undertaken to study the specific morphological characteristics of Indian female Track and Field athletes. A total of 300 athletes were randomly selected as sample for the purpose of the study from the six events having 50 athletes in each event including 100m., 400m., Shot Put, Discus Throw, Long Jump and High Jump. The study included body weight, body fat percentage, lean body weight, endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy as variables. The data were computed statistically by using Mean, Standard Deviation and Analysis of Variance. The post-hoc analysis was conducted where the F-ratio was found to be significant at .05 level. The study concluded that there is a significant difference with regard to the selected variables among the Indian female athletes of different track and field events.

Keywords: Indian female athletes, body composition, morphology, somatotypes, track and field

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
6895 US Track And Field System: Examining Micro-Level Practices against a Global Model for Integrated Development of Mass and Elite Sport

Authors: Peter Smolianov, Steven Dion, Christopher Schoen, Jaclyn Norberg, Nicholas Stone, Soufiane Rafi


This study assessed the micro-level elements of track and field development in the US against a model for integrating high-performance sport with mass participation. This investigation is important for the country’s international sport performance, which declined relative to other countries and wellbeing, which in its turn deteriorated as over half of the US population became overweight. A questionnaire was designed for the following elements of the model: talent identification and development as well as advanced athlete support. Survey questions were validated by 12 experts, including academics, executives from sport governing bodies, coaches, and administrators. To determine the areas for improvement, the questionnaires were completed by 102 US track and field coaches representing the country’s regions and coaching levels. Possible advancements were further identified through semi-structured discussions with 10 US track and field administrators. The study found that talent search and development is a critically important area for improvement: 49 percent of respondents had overall negative perceptions, and only 16 percent were positive regarding these US track and field practices. Both quantitative survey results and open responses revealed that the key reason for the inadequate athlete development was a shortage of well-educated and properly paid coaches: 77 percent of respondents indicated that coach expertise is never or rarely high across all participant ages and levels. More than 40 percent of the respondents were uncertain of or not familiar with world’s best talent identification and development practices, particularly methods of introducing children to track and field from outside the sport’s participation base. Millions more could be attracted to the sport by adopting best international practices. First, physical education should be offered a minimum three times a week in all school grades, and track and field together with other healthy sports, should be taught at school to all children. Second, multi-sport events, including track and field disciplines, should be organized for everyone within and among all schools, cities and regions. Three, Australian and Eastern European methods of talent search at schools should be utilized and tailored to the US conditions. Four, comprehensive long term athlete development guidelines should be used for the advancement of the American Development Model, particularly track and field tests and guidelines as part of both school education and high-performance athlete development for every age group from six to over 70 years old. These world’s best practices are to improve the country’s international performance while increasing national sport participation and positively influencing public health.

Keywords: high performance, mass participation, sport development, track and field, USA

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
6894 Impact of the Operation and Infrastructure Parameters to the Railway Track Capacity

Authors: Martin Kendra, Jaroslav Mašek, Juraj Čamaj, Matej Babin


The railway transport is considered as a one of the most environmentally friendly mode of transport. With future prediction of increasing of freight transport there are lines facing problems with demanded capacity. Increase of the track capacity could be achieved by infrastructure constructive adjustments. The contribution shows how the travel time can be minimized and the track capacity increased by changing some of the basic infrastructure and operation parameters, for example, the minimal curve radius of the track, the number of tracks, or the usable track length at stations. Calculation of the necessary parameter changes is based on the fundamental physical laws applied to the train movement, and calculation of the occupation time is dependent on the changes of controlling the traffic between the stations.

Keywords: curve radius, maximum curve speed, track mass capacity, reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
6893 Ground Track Assessment Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography Application

Authors: Noryani Natasha Yahaya, Anas Ibrahim, Juraidah Ahmad, Azura Ahmad, Mohd Ikmal Fazlan Rosli, Zailan Ramli, Muhd Sidek Muhd Norhasri


The subgrade formation is an important element of the railway structure which holds overall track stability. Conventional track maintenance involves many substructure component replacements, as well as track re-ballasting on a regular basis is partially contributed to the embankment's long-term settlement problem. For subgrade long-term stability analysis, the geophysical method is commonly being used to diagnose those hidden sources/mechanisms of track deterioration problems that the normal visual method is unable to detect. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is one of the applicable geophysical tools that are helpful in railway subgrade inspection/track monitoring due to its flexibility and reliability of the analysis. The ERT was conducted at KM 23.0 of Pinang Tunggal track to investigate the subgrade of railway track through the characterization/mapping on track formation profiling which was directly generated using 2D analysis of Res2dinv software. The profiles will allow examination of the presence and spatial extent of a significant subgrade layer and screening of any poor contact of soil boundary. Based on the finding, there is a mix/interpretation/intermixing of an interlayer between the sub-ballast and the sand. Although the embankment track considered here is at no immediate risk of settlement effect or any failure, the regular monitoring of track’s location will allow early correction maintenance if necessary. The developed data of track formation clearly shows the similarity of the side view with the assessed track. The data visualization in the 2D section of the track embankment agreed well with the initial assumption based on the main element structure general side view.

Keywords: ground track, assessment, resistivity, geophysical railway, method

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6892 Design of a Robot with a Transformable Track System in Tackling Motion Barrier

Authors: Kai-Yi Cho, Fa-Shian Chang, Lih-Tyng Hwang, Chih-Feng Liu, Jeng-Nan Lee, Shun-Min Wang, Jhu-Wei Ji


This paper presents a ground robot which has the tracked transformative structures of the motion mechanism. The robot has a good ability to adapt to the terrain, due to the front end of the track can be deformed, it can more easily pass the more complex area, such as to climb stairs and ramp areas. Usually in the disaster area, where the terrain is generally broken and complicated, there will be many slopes, broken walls, rubble, and obstacles, then if you want the robot through this area, you need to have a good off-road performance for possible complex terrain, this robot with the transformative tracked mechanism has a strong adaptability, it can overcome the limitation of the terrains to be a good rescue robot. Also, the robot has a good flexibility in the shape of contact with the ground; that can adapt the varied terrain by the deformable track, thus able to pass the different terrains, that was verified through the experiments on a test-platform and a field test. The prototype of the robot system has been developed, and experiments are carried out to verify the validity of the proposed design.

Keywords: tracked robot, rescue robot, transformation mechanism, deformable track, hull design

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
6891 Fighting Competition Stress by Focusing the Psychological Training on the Vigor-Activity Mood States

Authors: Majid Al-Busafi, Alexe Cristina Ioana, Alexe Dan Iulian


The specific competition and pre-competition stress in professional track and field determined an increasing engagement, from a biological and psychological point of view, of the middle distance and long distance runners, to obtain the top performances that would get them to win in a competition. Under these conditions, if the psychological stress is not properly managed, the negative effects can lead to a total drop in self-confidence, and can affect the value, the talent, and the self-trust, which generates an even higher stress. One of the means at our disposal is the psychological training, specially adapted to the athlete's individual characteristics, to the characteristics of the athletic event, or of the competition. This paper aims to highlight certain original aspects regarding the effects of a specific psychological training program on the mood states characterized by psychological activation, vigor, vitality. The subjects were represented by 12 professional middle distance and long distance runners, subjected to an applicative intervention to which they have participated voluntarily, over the course of 6 months (a competition season). The results indicated that The application of a psychological training program, adapted to the track and field competition system, over a period of time characterized by high competition stress, can determine an increase in the states of vigor and psychological activation, at the same time diminishing those moods that have negative effects on the performance, in the middle distance and long distance running events. This conclusion confirms the hypothesis of this research.

Keywords: competition stress, psychological training, track and field, vigor-activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
6890 Geological and Geotechnical Investigation of a Landslide Prone Slope Along Koraput- Rayagada Railway Track Odisha, India: A Case Study

Authors: S. P. Pradhan, Amulya Ratna Roul


A number of landslides are occurring during the rainy season along Rayagada-Koraput Railway track for past three years. The track was constructed about 20 years ago. However, the protection measures are not able to control the recurring slope failures now. It leads to a loss to Indian Railway and its passengers ultimately leading to wastage of time and money. The slopes along Rayagada-Koraput track include both rock and soil slopes. The rock types include mainly Khondalite and Charnockite whereas soil slopes are mainly composed of laterite ranging from less weathered to highly weathered laterite. The field studies were carried out in one of the critical slope. Field study was followed by the kinematic analysis to assess the type of failure. Slake Durability test, Uniaxial Compression test, specific gravity test and triaxial test were done on rock samples to calculate and assess properties such as weathering index, unconfined compressive strength, density, cohesion, and friction angle. Following all the laboratory tests, rock mass rating was calculated. Further, from Kinematic analysis and Rock Mass Ratingbasic, Slope Mass Rating was proposed for each slope. The properties obtained were used to do the slope stability simulations using finite element method based modelling. After all the results, suitable protection measures, to prevent the loss due to slope failure, were suggested using the relation between Slope Mass Rating and protection measures.

Keywords: landslides, slope stability, rock mass rating, slope mass rating, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
6889 A Mathematical Framework for Expanding a Railway’s Theoretical Capacity

Authors: Robert L. Burdett, Bayan Bevrani


Analytical techniques for measuring and planning railway capacity expansion activities have been considered in this article. A preliminary mathematical framework involving track duplication and section sub divisions is proposed for this task. In railways, these features have a great effect on network performance and for this reason they have been considered. Additional motivations have also arisen from the limitations of prior models that have not included them.

Keywords: capacity analysis, capacity expansion, railways, track sub division, track duplication

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
6888 Nonlinear Estimation Model for Rail Track Deterioration

Authors: M. Karimpour, L. Hitihamillage, N. Elkhoury, S. Moridpour, R. Hesami


Rail transport authorities around the world have been facing a significant challenge when predicting rail infrastructure maintenance work for a long period of time. Generally, maintenance monitoring and prediction is conducted manually. With the restrictions in economy, the rail transport authorities are in pursuit of improved modern methods, which can provide precise prediction of rail maintenance time and location. The expectation from such a method is to develop models to minimize the human error that is strongly related to manual prediction. Such models will help them in understanding how the track degradation occurs overtime under the change in different conditions (e.g. rail load, rail type, rail profile). They need a well-structured technique to identify the precise time that rail tracks fail in order to minimize the maintenance cost/time and secure the vehicles. The rail track characteristics that have been collected over the years will be used in developing rail track degradation prediction models. Since these data have been collected in large volumes and the data collection is done both electronically and manually, it is possible to have some errors. Sometimes these errors make it impossible to use them in prediction model development. This is one of the major drawbacks in rail track degradation prediction. An accurate model can play a key role in the estimation of the long-term behavior of rail tracks. Accurate models increase the track safety and decrease the cost of maintenance in long term. In this research, a short review of rail track degradation prediction models has been discussed before estimating rail track degradation for the curve sections of Melbourne tram track system using Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model.

Keywords: ANFIS, MGT, prediction modeling, rail track degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
6887 Tram Track Deterioration Modeling

Authors: Mohammad Yousefikia, Sara Moridpour, Ehsan Mazloumi


Perceiving track geometry deterioration decisively influences the optimization of track maintenance operations. The effective management of this deterioration and increasingly utilized system with limited financial resources is a significant challenge. This paper provides a review of degradation models relevant for railroad tracks. Furthermore, due to the lack of long term information on the condition development of tram infrastructures, presents the methodology which will be used to derive degradation models from the data of Melbourne tram network.

Keywords: deterioration modeling, asset management, railway, tram

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
6886 Optimal Maintenance Clustering for Rail Track Components Subject to Possession Capacity Constraints

Authors: Cuong D. Dao, Rob J.I. Basten, Andreas Hartmann


This paper studies the optimal maintenance planning of preventive maintenance and renewal activities for components in a single railway track when the available time for maintenance is limited. The rail-track system consists of several types of components, such as rail, ballast, and switches with different preventive maintenance and renewal intervals. To perform maintenance or renewal on the track, a train free period for maintenance, called a possession, is required. Since a major possession directly affects the regular train schedule, maintenance and renewal activities are clustered as much as possible. In a highly dense and utilized railway network, the possession time on the track is critical since the demand for train operations is very high and a long possession has a severe impact on the regular train schedule. We present an optimization model and investigate the maintenance schedules with and without the possession capacity constraint. In addition, we also integrate the social-economic cost related to the effects of the maintenance time to the variable possession cost into the optimization model. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the model.

Keywords: rail-track components, maintenance, optimal clustering, possession capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
6885 A Semi-Implicit Phase Field Model for Droplet Evolution

Authors: M. H. Kazemi, D. Salac


A semi-implicit phase field method for droplet evolution is proposed. Using the phase field Cahn-Hilliard equation, we are able to track the interface in multiphase flow. The idea of a semi-implicit finite difference scheme is reviewed and employed to solve two nonlinear equations, including the Navier-Stokes and the Cahn-Hilliard equations. The use of a semi-implicit method allows us to have larger time steps compared to explicit schemes. The governing equations are coupled and then solved by a GMRES solver (generalized minimal residual method) using modified Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. To show the validity of the method, we apply the method to the simulation of a rising droplet, a leaky dielectric drop and the coalescence of drops. The numerical solutions to the phase field model match well with existing solutions over a defined range of variables.

Keywords: coalescence, leaky dielectric, numerical method, phase field, rising droplet, semi-implicit method

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
6884 The Role of KontraS as Track-6 on Multi Track Diplomacy for Conflict Resolution: Case Study Human Rights Crisis in Myanmar in 2015

Authors: Hardi Alunaza, Mauidhotu Rofiq


This research is attempted to describe the role of KontraS as track-6 on multi track diplomacy for conflict resolution in Myanmar in 2015. The researcher took the specific interest on multi track diplomacy and transnational advocacy concepts to analyze the phenomena. Furthermore, this essay is using the descriptive method with a qualitative approach. The data collection technique is literature study consisting of books, journals, and including data from the reliable website in supporting the explanation of this research. The result of this research is divided into two important points in explaining the role of KontraS in cases of human rights crisis in Myanmar. First, KontraS as human rights NGO in Indonesia was able to advocate against human rights violence that occurred in other countries by encouraging Indonesian Government to take part in the resolution of human rights issues affecting the Rohingya people in Burma. Also, KontraS take advantages of transnational advocacy networks as a form of politics and accountabilities responsibility of Non-Governmental Organization against human rights crisis in other countries.

Keywords: conflict resolution, human rights crisis, multi track diplomacy, transnational advocacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
6883 Gains and Drawbacks in the Delivery of Senior High School Sports Track Program: The Lived Experiences of Physical Education Teachers

Authors: Steffany Anne Poblador, Ruben Jr. Tagare


The Philippine Education System is now undergoing transition as a result of the implementation of Republic Act 10533, commonly referred to as the Enhanced Basic Education Act. Since its implementation in 2013, researchers have been examining the initial impact of this transition; however, investigations into the gains and drawbacks of the Philippine Senior High School Sports Track Program based on teachers’ assessment were scarcely adequate. As a result, this research used a Qualitative Phenomenology Research Design to elicit information on the gains and drawbacks faced by these instructors. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and extensive field observation were conducted with participants from selected schools in Cotabato Province. During the triangulation of the data, five (5) significant themes for gains and six (6) concerns from the research participants emerged. The findings were then used to provide recommendations for a more effective implementation of the Sports Track Program in the Philippine Senior High School program.

Keywords: teachers’ gains and drawbacks, Philippine K to 12 problems, K to 12 transition years, favorable experiences, phenomenology

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
6882 Mining Educational Data to Support Students’ Major Selection

Authors: Kunyanuth Kularbphettong, Cholticha Tongsiri


This paper aims to create the model for student in choosing an emphasized track of student majoring in computer science at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The objective of this research is to develop the suggested system using data mining technique to analyze knowledge and conduct decision rules. Such relationships can be used to demonstrate the reasonableness of student choosing a track as well as to support his/her decision and the system is verified by experts in the field. The sampling is from student of computer science based on the system and the questionnaire to see the satisfaction. The system result is found to be satisfactory by both experts and student as well.

Keywords: data mining technique, the decision support system, knowledge and decision rules, education

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
6881 Intelligent Swarm-Finding in Formation Control of Multi-Robots to Track a Moving Target

Authors: Anh Duc Dang, Joachim Horn


This paper presents a new approach to control robots, which can quickly find their swarm while tracking a moving target through the obstacles of the environment. In this approach, an artificial potential field is generated between each free-robot and the virtual attractive point of the swarm. This artificial potential field will lead free-robots to their swarm. The swarm-finding of these free-robots dose not influence the general motion of their swarm and nor other robots. When one singular robot approaches the swarm then its swarm-search will finish, and it will further participate with its swarm to reach the position of the target. The connections between member-robots with their neighbours are controlled by the artificial attractive/repulsive force field between them to avoid collisions and keep the constant distances between them in ordered formation. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been verified in simulations.

Keywords: formation control, potential field method, obstacle avoidance, swarm intelligence, multi-agent systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
6880 Urinary Volatile Organic Compound Testing in Fast-Track Patients with Suspected Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Godwin Dennison, C. E. Boulind, O. Gould, B. de Lacy Costello, J. Allison, P. White, P. Ewings, A. Wicaksono, N. J. Curtis, A. Pullyblank, D. Jayne, J. A. Covington, N. Ratcliffe, N. K. Francis


Background: Colorectal symptoms are common but only infrequently represent serious pathology, including colorectal cancer (CRC). A large number of invasive tests are presently performed for reassurance. We investigated the feasibility of urinary volatile organic compound (VOC) testing as a potential triage tool in patients fast-tracked for assessment for possible CRC. Methods: A prospective, multi-centre, observational feasibility study was performed across three sites. Patients referred on NHS fast-track pathways for potential CRC provided a urine sample which underwent Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS) and Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) analysis. Patients underwent colonoscopy and/or CT colonography and were grouped as either CRC, adenomatous polyp(s), or controls to explore the diagnostic accuracy of VOC output data supported by an artificial neural network (ANN) model. Results: 558 patients participated with 23 (4.1%) CRC diagnosed. 59% of colonoscopies and 86% of CT colonographies showed no abnormalities. Urinary VOC testing was feasible, acceptable to patients, and applicable within the clinical fast track pathway. GC-MS showed the highest clinical utility for CRC and polyp detection vs. controls (sensitivity=0.878, specificity=0.882, AUROC=0.884). Conclusion: Urinary VOC testing and analysis are feasible within NHS fast-track CRC pathways. Clinically meaningful differences between patients with cancer, polyps, or no pathology were identified therefore suggesting VOC analysis may have future utility as a triage tool. Acknowledgment: Funding: NIHR Research for Patient Benefit grant (ref: PB-PG-0416-20022).

Keywords: colorectal cancer, volatile organic compound, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry

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6879 TRAC: A Software Based New Track Circuit for Traffic Regulation

Authors: Jérôme de Reffye, Marc Antoni


Following the development of the ERTMS system, we think it is interesting to develop another software-based track circuit system which would fit secondary railway lines with an easy-to-work implementation and a low sensitivity to rail-wheel impedance variations. We called this track circuit 'Track Railway by Automatic Circuits.' To be internationally implemented, this system must not have any mechanical component and must be compatible with existing track circuit systems. For example, the system is independent from the French 'Joints Isolants Collés' that isolate track sections from one another, and it is equally independent from component used in Germany called 'Counting Axles,' in French 'compteur d’essieux.' This track circuit is fully interoperable. Such universality is obtained by replacing the train detection mechanical system with a space-time filtering of train position. The various track sections are defined by the frequency of a continuous signal. The set of frequencies related to the track sections is a set of orthogonal functions in a Hilbert Space. Thus the failure probability of track sections separation is precisely calculated on the basis of signal-to-noise ratio. SNR is a function of the level of traction current conducted by rails. This is the reason why we developed a very powerful algorithm to reject noise and jamming to obtain an SNR compatible with the precision required for the track circuit and SIL 4 level. The SIL 4 level is thus reachable by an adjustment of the set of orthogonal functions. Our major contributions to railway engineering signalling science are i) Train space localization is precisely defined by a calibration system. The operation bypasses the GSM-R radio system of the ERTMS system. Moreover, the track circuit is naturally protected against radio-type jammers. After the calibration operation, the track circuit is autonomous. ii) A mathematical topology adapted to train space localization by following the train through a linear time filtering of the received signal. Track sections are numerically defined and can be modified with a software update. The system was numerically simulated, and results were beyond our expectations. We achieved a precision of one meter. Rail-ground and rail-wheel impedance sensitivity analysis gave excellent results. Results are now complete and ready to be published. This work was initialised as a research project of the French Railways developed by the Pi-Ramses Company under SNCF contract and required five years to obtain the results. This track circuit is already at Level 3 of the ERTMS system, and it will be much cheaper to implement and to work. The traffic regulation is based on variable length track sections. As the traffic growths, the maximum speed is reduced, and the track section lengths are decreasing. It is possible if the elementary track section is correctly defined for the minimum speed and if every track section is able to emit with variable frequencies.

Keywords: track section, track circuits, space-time crossing, adaptive track section, automatic railway signalling

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
6878 Evaluation of Current Methods in Modelling and Analysis of Track with Jointed Rails

Authors: Hossein Askarinejad, Manicka Dhanasekar


In railway tracks, two adjacent rails are either welded or connected using bolted jointbars. In recent years the number of bolted rail joints is reduced by introduction of longer rail sections and by welding the rails at location of some joints. However, significant number of bolted rail joints remains in railways around the world as they are required to allow for rail thermal expansion or to provide electrical insulation in some sections of track. Regardless of the quality and integrity of the jointbar and bolt connections, the bending stiffness of jointbars is much lower than the rail generating large deflections under the train wheels. In addition, the gap or surface discontinuity on the rail running surface leads to generation of high wheel-rail impact force at the joint gap. These fundamental weaknesses have caused high rate of failure in track components at location of rail joints resulting in significant economic and safety issues in railways. The mechanical behavior of railway track at location of joints has not been fully understood due to various structural and material complexities. Although there have been some improvements in the methods for analysis of track at jointed rails in recent years, there are still uncertainties concerning the accuracy and reliability of the current methods. In this paper the current methods in analysis of track with a rail joint are critically evaluated and the new advances and recent research outcomes in this area are discussed. This research is part of a large granted project on rail joints which was defined by Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) for Rail Innovation with supports from Australian Rail Track Corporation (ARTC) and Queensland Rail (QR).

Keywords: jointed rails, railway mechanics, track dynamics, wheel-rail interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
6877 Tenure Track System and Its Impact on Grading Leniency and Student Effort: A Quasi-Experimental Approach

Authors: Shao-Hsun Keng, Hwang-Ruey Song


This paper examines the causal effect of the tenure track system on instructors’ grading practices and teaching effectiveness by taking advantage of a natural experiment in Taiwan. The results show that assistant professors subject to the tenure track policy are more likely to grade leniently and fail fewer students. The course grade is 5% higher in classes taught by assistant professors subject to the tenure system. However, the tendency to grade leniently is reversed after assistant professors subject to the tenure system are promoted to a higher rank. Our findings are consistent with the exchange theory. We also show that teaching and student efforts are adversely affected by the tenure policy, which could reduce student learning and the quality of the workforce in the long run.

Keywords: tenure track system, grading leniency, study time, grade inflation

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
6876 Evaluation of Commercial Back-analysis Package in Condition Assessment of Railways

Authors: Shadi Fathi, Moura Mehravar, Mujib Rahman


Over the years,increased demands on railways, the emergence of high-speed trains and heavy axle loads, ageing, and deterioration of the existing tracks, is imposing costly maintenance actions on the railway sector. The need for developing a fast andcost-efficient non-destructive assessment method for the structural evaluation of railway tracksis therefore critically important. The layer modulus is the main parameter used in the structural design and evaluation of the railway track substructure (foundation). Among many recently developed NDTs, Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test, widely used in pavement evaluation, has shown promising results for railway track substructure monitoring. The surface deflection data collected by FWD are used to estimate the modulus of substructure layers through the back-analysis technique. Although there are different commerciallyavailableback-analysis programs are used for pavement applications, there are onlya limited number of research-based techniques have been so far developed for railway track evaluation. In this paper, the suitability, accuracy, and reliability of the BAKFAAsoftware are investigated. The main rationale for selecting BAKFAA as it has a relatively straightforward user interfacethat is freely available and widely used in highway and airport pavement evaluation. As part of the study, a finite element (FE) model of a railway track section near Leominsterstation, Herefordshire, UK subjected to the FWD test, was developed and validated against available field data. Then, a virtual experimental database (including 218 sets of FWD testing data) was generated using theFE model and employed as the measured database for the BAKFAA software. This database was generated considering various layers’ moduli for each layer of track substructure over a predefined range. The BAKFAA predictions were compared against the cone penetration test (CPT) data (available from literature; conducted near to Leominster station same section as the FWD was performed). The results reveal that BAKFAA overestimatesthe layers’ moduli of each substructure layer. To adjust the BAKFA with the CPT data, this study introduces a correlation model to make the BAKFAA applicable in railway applications.

Keywords: back-analysis, bakfaa, railway track substructure, falling weight deflectometer (FWD), cone penetration test (CPT)

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
6875 Influence of Infinite Elements in Vibration Analysis of High-Speed Railway Track

Authors: Janaki Rama Raju Patchamatla, Emani Pavan Kumar


The idea of increasing the existing train speeds and introduction of the high-speed trains in India as a part of Vision-2020 is really challenging from both economic viability and technical feasibility. More than economic viability, technical feasibility has to be thoroughly checked for safe operation and execution. Trains moving at high speeds need a well-established firm and safe track thoroughly tested against vibration effects. With increased speeds of trains, the track structure and layered soil-structure interaction have to be critically assessed for vibration and displacements. Physical establishment of track, testing and experimentation is a costly and time taking process. Software-based modelling and simulation give relatively reliable, cost-effective means of testing effects of critical parameters like sleeper design and density, properties of track and sub-grade, etc. The present paper reports the applicability of infinite elements in reducing the unrealistic stress-wave reflections from so-called soil-structure interface. The influence of the infinite elements is quantified in terms of the displacement time histories of adjoining soil and the deformation pattern in general. In addition, the railhead response histories at various locations show that the numerical model is realistic without any aberrations at the boundaries. The numerical model is quite promising in its ability to simulate the critical parameters of track design.

Keywords: high speed railway track, finite element method, Infinite elements, vibration analysis, soil-structure interface

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
6874 Novel Ferroelectric Properties as Studied by Boson Mean Field Laser Radiation Induced from a Beer Bottle

Authors: Tadeus Atraskevic, Asch Dalbajobas, Mazahistas Pukuotukas


The novel ferroelectric properties appeared in the recent ten years. Many scientists consider them as non-statement science. Nevertheless, many papers are published. The Mean field theory takes an important place in the theory of ferroelectric materials which can be applied for Boson induced laser systems for ‘Star Track’ soldiers. The novel Laser, which was produced in The Vilnius Bambalio University is a ‘now-how’ among other laser systems. The laser can produce power of 30 kW during 15 seconds. Its size and compatibility distinguishes it among other devices and safety gadgets. Scientists of Bambalio University have already patented the device. The most interesting in this innovations is the process of operation. Merely it may be operated through a bottle a beer what makes the measurement so convenient, that an ordinary scientist can process all stuff without significant effort just by taking pleasure by drinking a bottle of beer. Here we would like to report on the laser system and present our unique developments.

Keywords: laser, boson, ferroelectrics, mean field theory

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6873 Optimal Tamping for Railway Tracks, Reducing Railway Maintenance Expenditures by the Use of Integer Programming

Authors: Rui Li, Min Wen, Kim Bang Salling


For the modern railways, maintenance is critical for ensuring safety, train punctuality and overall capacity utilization. The cost of railway maintenance in Europe is high, on average between 30,000 – 100,000 Euros per kilometer per year. In order to reduce such maintenance expenditures, this paper presents a mixed 0-1 linear mathematical model designed to optimize the predictive railway tamping activities for ballast track in the planning horizon of three to four years. The objective function is to minimize the tamping machine actual costs. The approach of the research is using the simple dynamic model for modelling condition-based tamping process and the solution method for finding optimal condition-based tamping schedule. Seven technical and practical aspects are taken into account to schedule tamping: (1) track degradation of the standard deviation of the longitudinal level over time; (2) track geometrical alignment; (3) track quality thresholds based on the train speed limits; (4) the dependency of the track quality recovery on the track quality after tamping operation; (5) Tamping machine operation practices (6) tamping budgets and (7) differentiating the open track from the station sections. A Danish railway track between Odense and Fredericia with 42.6 km of length is applied for a time period of three and four years in the proposed maintenance model. The generated tamping schedule is reasonable and robust. Based on the result from the Danish railway corridor, the total costs can be reduced significantly (50%) than the previous model which is based on optimizing the number of tamping. The different maintenance strategies have been discussed in the paper. The analysis from the results obtained from the model also shows a longer period of predictive tamping planning has more optimal scheduling of maintenance actions than continuous short term preventive maintenance, namely yearly condition-based planning.

Keywords: integer programming, railway tamping, predictive maintenance model, preventive condition-based maintenance

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6872 Investigating the Dynamic Response of the Ballast

Authors: Osama Brinji, Wing Kong Chiu, Graham Tew


Understanding the stability of rail ballast is one of the most important aspects in the railways. An unstable track may cause some issues such as unnecessary vibration and ultimately loss of track quality. The track foundation plays an important role in the stabilization of the railway. The dynamic response of rail ballast in the vicinity of the rail sleeper can affect the stability of the rail track and this has not been studied in detail. A review of literature showed that most of the works focused on the area under the concrete sleeper. Although there are some theories about the shear (longitudinal) effect of the rail ballast, these have not properly been studied and hence are not well understood. The stability of a rail track will depend on the compactness of the ballast in its vicinity. This paper will try to determine the dynamic response of the ballast to identify its resonant behaviour. This preliminary research is one of several studies that examine the vibration response of the granular materials. The main aim is to use this information for future design of sleepers to ensure that any dynamic response of the sleeper will not compromise the state of compactness of the ballast. This paper will report on the dependence of damping and the natural frequency of the ballast as a function of depth and distance from the point of excitation introduced through a concrete block. The concrete block is used to simulate a sleeper and the ballast is simulated with gravel. In spite of these approximations, the results presented in the paper will show an agreement with theories and the assumptions that are used in study the mechanical behaviour of the rail ballast.

Keywords: ballast, dynamic response, sleeper, stability

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6871 An Adaptive Back-Propagation Network and Kalman Filter Based Multi-Sensor Fusion Method for Train Location System

Authors: Yu-ding Du, Qi-lian Bao, Nassim Bessaad, Lin Liu


The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is regarded as an effective approach for the purpose of replacing the large amount used track-side balises in modern train localization systems. This paper describes a method based on the data fusion of a GNSS receiver sensor and an odometer sensor that can significantly improve the positioning accuracy. A digital track map is needed as another sensor to project two-dimensional GNSS position to one-dimensional along-track distance due to the fact that the train’s position can only be constrained on the track. A model trained by BP neural network is used to estimate the trend positioning error which is related to the specific location and proximate processing of the digital track map. Considering that in some conditions the satellite signal failure will lead to the increase of GNSS positioning error, a detection step for GNSS signal is applied. An adaptive weighted fusion algorithm is presented to reduce the standard deviation of train speed measurement. Finally an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used for the fusion of the projected 1-D GNSS positioning data and the 1-D train speed data to get the estimate position. Experimental results suggest that the proposed method performs well, which can reduce positioning error notably.

Keywords: multi-sensor data fusion, train positioning, GNSS, odometer, digital track map, map matching, BP neural network, adaptive weighted fusion, Kalman filter

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6870 Semi-Automated Tracking of Vibrissal Movements in Free-Moving Rodents Captured by High-Speed Videos

Authors: Hyun June Kim, Tailong Shi, Seden Akdagli, Sam Most, Yuling Yan


Quantitative analysis of mouse whisker movement can be used to study functional recovery and regeneration of facial nerve after an injury. However, it is challenging to accurately track mouse whisker movements, and most whisker tracking methods require manual intervention, e.g. fixing the head of the mouse during a study. Here we describe a semi-automated image processing method that is applied to high-speed video recordings of free-moving mice to track whisker movements. We first track the head movement of a mouse by delineating the lower head contour frame-by-frame to locate and determine the orientation of its head. Then, a region of interest is identified for each frame, with subsequent application of the Hough transform to track individual whisker movements on each side of the head. Our approach is used to examine the functional recovery of damaged facial nerves in mice over a course of 21 days.

Keywords: mystacial macrovibrissae, whisker tracking, head tracking, facial nerve recovery

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6869 Impact of Drainage Defect on the Railway Track Surface Deflections; A Numerical Investigation

Authors: Shadi Fathi, Moura Mehravar, Mujib Rahman


The railwaytransportation network in the UK is over 100 years old and is known as one of the oldest mass transit systems in the world. This aged track network requires frequent closure for maintenance. One of the main reasons for closure is inadequate drainage due to the leakage in the buried drainage pipes. The leaking water can cause localised subgrade weakness, which subsequently can lead to major ground/substructure failure.Different condition assessment methods are available to assess the railway substructure. However, the existing condition assessment methods are not able to detect any local ground weakness/damageand provide details of the damage (e.g. size and location). To tackle this issue, a hybrid back-analysis technique based on artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) has been developed to predict the substructurelayers’ moduli and identify any soil weaknesses. At first, afinite element (FE) model of a railway track section under Falling Weight Deflection (FWD) testing was developed and validated against field trial. Then a drainage pipe and various scenarios of the local defect/ soil weakness around the buried pipe with various geometriesand physical properties were modelled. The impact of the soil local weaknesson the track surface deflection wasalso studied. The FE simulations results were used to generate a database for ANN training, and then a GA wasemployed as an optimisation tool to optimise and back-calculate layers’ moduli and soil weakness moduli (ANN’s input). The hybrid ANN-GA back-analysis technique is a computationally efficient method with no dependency on seed modulus values. The modelcan estimate substructures’ layer moduli and the presence of any localised foundation weakness.

Keywords: finite element (FE) model, drainage defect, falling weight deflectometer (FWD), hybrid ANN-GA

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