Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 155

Search results for: newspapers

155 Linguistic Devices Reflecting Violence in Border–Provinces of Southern Thailand on the Front Page of Local and National Newspapers

Authors: Chanokporn Angsuviriya

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The objective of the study is to analyse linguistic devices reflecting the violence in the south border provinces; namely Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat and Songkla on 1,344 front pages of three local newspapers; namely ChaoTai, Focus PhakTai and Samila Time and of two national newspapers, including ThaiRath and Matichon, between 2004 and 2005, and 2011 and 2012. The study shows that there are two important linguistic devices: 1) lexical choices consisting of the use of verbs describing violence, the use of quantitative words and the use of words naming someone who committed violent acts, and 2) metaphors consisting of “a violent problem is heat”, “a victim is a leaf”, and “a terrorist is a dog”. Comparing linguistic devices between two types of newspapers, national newspapers choose to use words more violently than local newspapers do. Moreover, they create more negative images of the south of Thailand by using stative verbs. In addition, in term of metaphors “a terrorist is a fox.” is only found in national newspapers. As regards naming terrorists “southern insurgents”, this noun phrase which is collectively called by national newspapers has strongly negative meaning. Moreover, “southern insurgents” have been perceived by the Thais in the whole country while “insurgents” that are not modified have been only used by local newspapers.

Keywords: linguistic devices, local newspapers, national newspapers, violence

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154 Assessing Role of Newspapers in Creating Awareness of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan

Authors: Fatima Kiran

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This study investigates the HIV/AIDS coverage in the selected newspapers. The premises of the study depend upon the fact that informing public about any social issue that effects people’s life is among one of the fundamental functions of media, such as HIV/AIDS is one of prime importance. In this study two most prime newspapers of Pakistan Daily Jang and Daily Dawn were analyzed. This paper adopted two approaches for investigation one is content analysis and another is discourse analysis. The content analysis was used to determine the frequency of HIV/AIDS content coverage. Discourse analysis was used to determine consciousness of these newspapers on covering HIV/AIDS stories with correct language and terminologies according to the given media guideline of UNICEF. Total 368 editions from 1st July 2017 to 31st December 2017 were sampled for the study. The result of the study indicates that newspapers have severely underestimated the severity of HIV/AIDS. The coverage given by newspapers is dissatisfactory. Selected newspapers used inappropriate terminologies and language in the stories which shows negligence of newspapers regarding HIV/AIDS issue.

Keywords: Pakistani newspapers, HIV/AIDS, coverage, public awareness, content analysis, discourse analysis, press consciousness

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153 A Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis of the Representation of International Women’s Day in Algerian Print Media from 2003

Authors: Taoues Aimeur

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The present study is the first comparative study of discourses surrounding women on International Women’s Day in French-language newspapers and Arabic-language newspapers in Algeria. It aims at critically examining the way women are positioned on International Women’s Day in four Algerian newspapers by focusing on the post-civil war era in Algeria (2003 till the present time). This is by applying Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis to question representations of women in the selected newspapers by revealing the gender ideologies embedded in their linguistic and visual discourses. The Francophone newspapers chosen for the present research are El Watan and Liberté. As for the Arabophone ones, El Khabar and Echorouk have been selected. The results of the study would help build an understanding of the meanings of gender that are embedded in the discourses of the selected news outlets which differ both linguistically and ideologically.

Keywords: Arabic-language newspapers, Critical Discourse Analysis, discourses, French-language newspapers, gender, International Women’s Day

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
152 Portrayal of Foreign Culture in Pakistani Newspapers

Authors: Ghulam Shabir, Masood Nadeem

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The research work has been done on the Portrayal of Foreign Culture including Film, Art, and Drama in Pakistani English newspapers (Dawn and The News). For this purpose the weekly newspapers of three months (January to March) of the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 were analyzed. Content Analysis was employed for data interpretation and to draw the inferences. It was explored that to what extent the Foreign Culture has been depicted in our print media in the form of Film, Art, and Drama in comparison to Pakistani cultural context. The qualitative analysis revealed that Pakistani English newspapers gave more coverage to Foreign Culture. Pakistani film, art, and drama related issues have been less portrayed in the form of stories, columns, pictures, and news about music, fashion, ceremonies, programs, and shows. However, most of the space has been occupied by Western and Indian pictures, and news about music, fashion, ceremonies, programs and shows on the Cultural Page of these English newspapers.

Keywords: newspapers, portrayal of foreign culture, qualitative analysis, Pakistani English newspapers

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151 Communication Design in Newspapers: A Comparative Study of Graphic Resources in Portuguese and Spanish Publications

Authors: Fátima Gonçalves, Joaquim Brigas, Jorge Gonçalves

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As a way of managing the increasing volume and complexity of information that circulates in the present time, graphical representations are increasingly used, which add meaning to the information presented in communication media, through an efficient communication design. The visual culture itself, driven by technological evolution, has been redefining the forms of communication, so that contemporary visual communication represents a major impact on society. This article presents the results and respective comparative analysis of four publications in the Iberian press, focusing on the formal aspects of newspapers and the space they dedicate to the various communication elements. Two Portuguese newspapers and two Spanish newspapers were selected for this purpose. The findings indicated that the newspapers show a similarity in the use of graphic solutions, which corroborate a visual trend in communication design. The results also reveal that Spanish newspapers are more meticulous with graphic consistency. This study intended to contribute to improving knowledge of the Iberian generalist press.

Keywords: communication design, graphic resources, Iberian press, visual journalism

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
150 The Muhammad Cartoon Controversy in New Zealand Newspapers

Authors: Shah Nister Kabir

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This study examines the construction of the controversy surrounding the cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad, as it appeared in three New Zealand newspapers; the Otago Daily Times (ODT), the New Zealand Herald (NZH) and the Press. It discursively argues that these mainstream newspapers promote the Orientalist perception of a clash of civilizations between Islam and the West in their news frame, but, in most cases, the perceived clash was not apparent in editorials. This study also argues that the uniformity in news frame conflicts with editorials’ construction of the issue. Furthermore, while the construction of the issue in news frame and editorials in the Press remained similar, the other two newspapers—the ODT and NZH—both contradict their own news frame in their editorials and contradict the editorials appearing in the Press.

Keywords: clash of culture, discourse, Islam, media agenda, New Zealand, orientalism, the West

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149 A Study on the Readers' Motivation and Satisfaction on Sports Newspaper in Vietnam

Authors: Trang Huyen Nguyen, Thien Tri Huynh

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The objectives of this paper were to determine demographics of readers at Hochiminh city (HCMC), study reading motivation which affected citizens to read sports newspapers and measure readers’ satisfaction on issues related sports newspapers. Subjects of this survey were HCMC’s citizens. After collecting data, there were 568 useful feedbacks (the rate of response was 94.7%). The data analysis in the study included descriptive statistics and inferred statistics by SPSS 16.0 program for the research questions. The majority of respondents were male, from 24 to 32 years old, got the first degree and earned monthly from $US 150 to 300. Moreover, they were government officials and read newspaper from 11 to 20 times per month, bought newspapers by themselves. Finding information to predict results of sports matches was the highest motive affected readers; and the diversity information was the most pleasure that readers felt about sports newspapers. According to research findings, the board of editors could use the worthy information to make a strategic plan for newspaper on contents as well as design to meet the increasing demands of readers.

Keywords: motivation, satisfaction, readers, sports newspapers

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148 A Three Step Approach Analysis of the Portrayal of Images of Women in Three Ghanaian Newspapers: Newsone, Ebony and the Mirror

Authors: H. K. Bonsu-Owu

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Media portrayal of women in traditional stereotypical roles such as mothers, or seductress has been the norm for years. However, the changing socioeconomic and political environment and advancement of women in today’s society have given rise to questions on the appropriate portrayal of women in the media today. The purpose of the study is to analyze the portrayal of women in Ghanaian newspapers and find women’s perception on the issue. The study uses a three step approach in gathering data for analysis. Using the stratified sampling method, it analyzes front page images of women from 210 issues of the selected newspapers. Further, it administers questionnaires to 100 female students to find out how they relate to the images of women in the selected newspapers. Finally, editors of the newspapers are interviewed to find their rational for portraying women as seen on their front pages. The findings suggest that the newspapers portray women for varied reasons such as promoting sales and influencing the public agenda. Further, the female students claim that in spite of women’s vast contribution to the growth of society, the media continue to marginalize them. They add that such portrayals promote and reinforce social construct, however, refuse to see themselves through the male gaze concept. The study concludes that the stereotyped portrayal of women is likely to continue if the government, regulatory bodies, the media and society do not make a conscious effort to address this problem.

Keywords: women, newspaper, portrayal, social construct

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147 Analysis of Newspaper Advertisements of 2015 Presidential Election in Nigeria

Authors: Thanny Noeem Taiwo

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The study is an attempt to gauge the way political parties advertised their candidates and parties during the 2015 presidential election. It examined the prominence given to political advertisement by newspapers and their patrons. It also looked at the campaign issues that the candidates emphasized in their campaign and also the appeals used in the advertisements. This research work is examined against the backdrop of the Framing Theory. The agenda setting and framing effects theories are media effects theories that explain how the media affects the people, events and situations in the society. Samples comprising of three daily newspapers were selected to represent the newspapers in the Nigeria. The Punch Newspaper, the Nation and the Vanguard will be used for population of this study. These newspapers were chosen because they are widely read national dailies and also because of its affiliation with some political parties. The study revealed that low prominence was given to political messages because most of the advertisements were in the inside pages of the newspapers. The media or the print medium could be a partner in a political setting as the fourth estate of the realm. While the press was trying hard to be professional, its operations were considerably inhibited by the political adventures of the patrons of the media. There is the need for strict professionalism to the ethics of journalism in the commercialization of political messages that would eventually rub off positively on the way the media is perceived.

Keywords: aAdvertisement, election, framing, newspaper

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146 Assessment of Nigerian Newspapers' Reportage of Violence against Children: Case Study of Daily Sun and Punch National Newspapers

Authors: Adline Nkwam-Uwaoma, Mishack Ndukwu

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Traditionally, child rearing in Nigeria closely reflects the ‘spare the rod and spoil the child’ maxim and as such spanking, flogging, slapping, beating and even starving a child as a form of punishment for wrongdoing and as a method of behaviour modification are common. These are not necessarily considered as maltreatment or abuse of the child. Despite the adoption and implementation of the child rights act in Nigeria, violence against children seems to be on a steady increase. Stories of sexual molestation, rape, child labour, infliction of physical injuries and use of children for rituals by parents, guardians or other members of the society abound. Violence against children is considered as those acts by other persons especially adults that undermine and threaten the healthy life and existence of children or those that violet their rights as humans. In Nigeria newspapers are a major source of News, second only to radio and television in coverage, currency and content. National dailies are newspapers with daily publications and national spread or coverage. This study analysed the frequency, length, prominence level, direction and sources of information reported on violence against children in the selected national daily newspapers. It then provided information on the role of the newspapers in Nigeria in the fight against child violence and public awareness of the impact of violence against children on the development of the nation and the attempts to curtail such violence. The composite week sampling technique in which the four weeks of the month are reduced to one and a sample is randomly selected from each day of the week was used. As such 168 editions of Daily Sun and Punch newspapers published from January to December of 2016 were selected. Data were collected using code sheet and analyzed via content analysis. The result showed that the frequency of the newspapers’ reportage of violence against children in Nigeria was low. Again, it was found that the length or space given to reports on violence against children was inadequate, the direction of the few reports on violence against children was in favour of the course or fight against child violence, and these newspapers gave no prominence to reports on violence against children. Finally, it was found that a major source of News about violence against children was through journalism; government and individual sources provided only minimal information.

Keywords: children, newspapers' reportage, Nigeria, violence

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145 New Media Impact on Newspaper Readership

Authors: Umar Lawal Maradun

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Newspapers are very important sources of information and are trusted by majority of populations in America, Latin America, Europe and many parts of the world. In the mid-1950s newspapers were at the forefront of providing people with information. However, in the 1970s television took over, while in the 1980s cable satellites became popular and in the 1990s the Internet and World Wide Web became major sources of media content and also major threats to the print media form. This paper looks at how newspaper readership has been affected by new media technology, especially the Internet. It uses empirical data by reviewing available literature within the context of change that is likely to threaten conventional media. It discovers that there is a growing decline in newspaper readership as a result of widespread use of the Internet. The decline in readership has been discovered to be a global phenomenon. The paper suggests strategies for the survival and revenue generation for print-based newspapers.

Keywords: Internet, media, newspaper, press

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144 A Corpus-Based Discourse Analysis of the Disappearance of MH370 in Malaysia and United Kingdom Newspapers: A Pilot Study

Authors: Theng Theng Ong

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This pilot study adopts a corpus-based discourse analysis to explore the construction of Malaysia airline tragedy MH370 in the selected Malaysian and United Kingdom (UK) newspapers. Fairclough’s three-dimensional model is adopted in the study to support the corpus-based analysis. The analysis aims to determine the ways in which Malaysian Airline tragedy MH370 is linguistically defined and constructed in terms of keywords and collocation. The study also seeks to identify the types of discourse that are presented in the news articles. In addition, the differences or similarities in terms of keywords, topics or issues covered by the selected Malaysian and UK news media are examined.

Keywords: corpus, CDA, newspapers, airline tragedies

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143 Criminal Exhibit the Feminine Violent Victim within Thai Newspaper

Authors: Supaporn Wimonchailerk

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This research aims to critical analyze the feminine violent within Thai daily newspaper. This study was qualitative base; content analysis from two popular newspapers (Thairath and Dailynews) two qualitative newspapers (Thaipost and Mathichon). Purposive sampling was used to select eleven specialize news reporters to do in-depth interview. The result found that, popular newspapers, Thairath and dailynews have presented feminine violent news in their paper more than Thaipost and Mathichon the qualitative newspaper. Beside, majority of sample present the feminine violent within news under the code of ethic, The National Press Council of Thailand. Interesting, the age of feminine violent victim was the information that has been focused most. The popular newspaper have illustrated crime scene photo on their first-page while qualitative newspaper used only headline to present the same news.

Keywords: ethic, feminine, journalism, newspaper, violent victim

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142 Ideology-Induced Contexts in the Conceptualization of 'the Islamic State' in Political Cartoons

Authors: Rim Baroudi

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The notion of the context-induced metaphors refers to the role of different contextual aspects (socio-cultural, linguistic, bodily-physical, and ideological) in affecting metaphor production. This has not been investigated in visual discourse. This paper intends to extend the focus of this research interest to study context-induced metaphors in newspapers’ cartoons. It seeks to account for different contextual variables influencing the production of metaphors in cartoons placing special focus on the ideological variable. The aim is to demonstrate how different contextual aspects are conditioned by the ideological variable. The study applied critical metaphor approach to analyse contextual variables shaping the conceptualization of ‘the Islamic State’ in the cartoons of 3 newspapers (Al-Ryadh newspaper, Tehran Times, and The New York Times). Findings have revealed the decisive role of the ideological context in conditioning and priming the rest of contextual variables in the conceptualisation of ‘the Islamic State’ in political cartoons of the three newspapers. These findings bear special importance to the study of bodily-physical and socio-cultural variables inducing and shaping political cognition in political cartoons in a way consistent with the ideological framework within which newspapers operate.

Keywords: context-induced metaphors, ideological context, the Islamic State, political cartoons

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141 Lock in, Lock Out: A Double Lens Analysis of Local Media Paywall Strategies and User Response

Authors: Mona Solvoll, Ragnhild Kr. Olsen

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Background and significance of the study: Newspapers are going through radical changes with increased competition, eroding readerships and declining advertising resulting in plummeting overall revenues. This has lead to a quest for new business models, focusing on monetizing content. This research paper investigates both how local online newspapers have introduced user payment and how the audience has received these changes. Given the role of local media in keeping their communities informed and those in power accountable, their potential impact on civic engagement and cultural integration in local communities, the business model innovations of local media deserves far more research interest. Empirically, the findings are interesting for local journalists, local media managers as well as local advertisers. Basic methodologies: The study is based on interviews with commercial leaders in 20 Norwegian local newspapers in addition to a national survey data from 1600 respondents among local media users. The interviews were conducted in the second half of 2015, while the survey was conducted in September 2016. Theoretically, the study draws on the business model framework. Findings: The analysis indicates that paywalls aim more at reducing digital cannibalisation of print revenue than about creating new digital income. The newspapers are mostly concerned with retaining “old” print subscribers and transform them into digital subscribers. However, this strategy may come at a high price for newspapers if their defensive print strategy drives away younger digital readership and hamper their recruitment potential for new audiences as some previous studies have indicated. Analysis of young reader news habits indicates that attracting the younger audience to traditional local news providers is particularly challenging and that they are more prone to seek alternative news sources than the older audience is. Conclusion: The paywall strategy applied by the local newspapers may be well fitted to stabilise print subscription figures and facilitate more tailored and better services for already existing customers, but far less suited for attracting new ones. The paywall is a short-sighted strategy, which drives away younger readers and paves the road for substitute offerings, particularly Facebook.

Keywords: business model, newspapers, paywall, user payment

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
140 A Newspapers Expectations Indicator from Web Scraping

Authors: Pilar Rey del Castillo

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This document describes the building of an average indicator of the general sentiments about the future exposed in the newspapers in Spain. The raw data are collected through the scraping of the Digital Periodical and Newspaper Library website. Basic tools of natural language processing are later applied to the collected information to evaluate the sentiment strength of each word in the texts using a polarized dictionary. The last step consists of summarizing these sentiments to produce daily indices. The results are a first insight into the applicability of these techniques to produce periodic sentiment indicators.

Keywords: natural language processing, periodic indicator, sentiment analysis, web scraping

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139 Hate Speech in Selected Nigerian Newspapers

Authors: Laurel Chikwado Madumere, Kevin O. Ugorji

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A speech is said to be full of hate when it appropriates disparaging and vituperative locutions and/or appellations, which are riddled with prejudices and misconceptions about an antagonizing party on the grounds of gender, race, political orientation, religious affiliations, tribe, etc. Due largely to the dichotomies and polarities that exist in Nigeria across political ideological spectrum, tribal affiliations, and gender contradistinctions, there are possibilities for the existence of socioeconomic, religious and political conditions that would induce, provoke and catalyze hate speeches in Nigeria’s mainstream media. Therefore the aim of this paper is to investigate, using select daily newspapers in Nigeria, the extent and complexity of those likely hate speeches that emanate from the pluralism in Nigeria and to set in to relief, the discrepancies and contrariety in the interpretation of those hate words. To achieve the above, the paper shall be qualitative in orientation as it shall be using the Speech Act Theory of J. L. Austin and J. R. Searle to interpret and evaluate the hate speeches in the select Nigerian daily newspapers. Also this paper shall help to elucidate the conditions that generate hate, and inform the government and NGOs how best to approach those conditions and put an end to the possible violence and extremism that emanate from extreme cases of hate.

Keywords: extremism, gender, hate speech, pluralism, prejudice, speech act theory

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138 Portrayal of Pak-US Relations in Perspective of Bin Laden Killing by the Leading American and British Newspapers: A Content Analysis of the Guardian, the Telegraph, Washington Post and the New York Times

Authors: Shahzad Ali

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This article expounds the coverage of Pak-US relations in the context of Osama Bin Laden killing in four selected leading newspapers of UK and the US viz The Telegraph, The Guardian, The New York Times and The Washington Post during the specific time period of three months, i.e., April-June, 2011. The study is scrutinized on the basis of Operation Neptune Spear. The research study is theoretically linked with the propaganda model of Herman and Chomsky and the Shoemaker and Reeve‘s theory of content effect, specifically the impact of foreign policy as a driving instrument influencing the nature and treatment of the coverage of Pak-US relations. The relations between Pakistan and USA are of great importance in the context of Bin Laden. The Pak-US relations were less aggravated and hostile in pre OBL period but post OBL period worsened these relations. It is also interesting to mention that the policies of these newspapers were dependent on the foreign policy of their countries. It was explored that the news coverage was found favorable as and when the relations Pakistan and the US or UK were cordial and smooth. And it turned into negative and unfavorable when the relations were in strain and deteriorating and endorsed various studies that the Western mainstream media tried to be more nationalistic in projecting official stance while covering foreign coverage instead of adhering to universal cannon of journalism, i.e., objectivity, fairness, and neutrality, etc. Overall 219 news items of these four selected newspapers regarding Pak-US relations in the context of pre and post OBL’s killing operation were undertaken for analysis. The ratio of negative slants was found higher as compared to the positive and neutral slants. Besides, the ratio of news items with unfavorable frames was found higher in post OBL operation in comparison of pre-era of the coverage related to Pak-US relations in the leading British and American newspapers.

Keywords: Osama Bin Laden, Pakistan, USA, UK, relations, Guardian, Washington Post, Telegraph, New York Times, Operation Neptune Spear

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137 A Discourse Analysis of Syrian Refugee Representations in Canadian News Media

Authors: Pamela Aimee Rigor

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This study aims to examine the representation of Syrian refugees resettled in Vancouver and the Lower Mainland in local community and major newspapers. While there is strong support for immigration in Canada, public opinion towards refugees and asylum seekers is a bit more varied. Concerns about the legitimacy of refugee claims are among the common concerns of Canadians, and hateful or negative narratives are still present in Canadian media discourse which affects how people view refugees. To counter the narratives, these Syrian refugees must publicly declare how grateful they are because they are resettled in Canada. The dominant media discourse is that these refugees should be grateful as they have been graciously accepted by Canada and Canadians, once again upholding the image of Canada being a generous and humanitarian nation. The study examined the representation of Syrian refugees and the Syrian refugee resettlement in Canadian newspapers from September 2015 to October 2017 – around the time Prime Minister Trudeau came into power up until the present. Using a combination of content and discourse analysis, it aimed to uncover how local community and major newspapers in Vancouver covered the Syrian refugee ‘crisis’ – more particularly, the arrival and resettlement of the refugees in the country. Using the qualitative data analysis software Nvivo 12, the newspapers were analyzed and sorted into themes. Based on the initial findings, the discourse of Canada being a humanitarian country and Canadians being generous, as well as the idea of Syrian refugees having to publicly announce how grateful they are, is still present in the local community newspapers. This seems to be done to counter the hateful narratives of citizens who might view them as people who are abusing help provided by the community or the services provided by the government. However, compared to the major and national newspapers in Canada, many these local community newspapers are very inclusive of Syrian refugee voices. Most of the News and Community articles interview Syrian refugees and ask them their personal stories of plight, survival, resettlement and starting a ‘new life’ in Canada. They are not seen as potential threats nor are they dismissed – the refugees were named and were allowed to share their personal experiences in these news articles. These community newspapers, even though their representations are far from perfect, actually address some aspects of the refugee resettlement issue and respond to their community’s needs. There are quite a number of news articles that announce community meetings and orientations about the Syrian refugee crisis, ways to help in the resettlement process, as well as community fundraising activities to help sponsor refugees or resettle newly arrived refugees. This study aims to promote awareness of how these individuals are socially constructed so we can, in turn, be aware of the certain biases and stereotypes present, and its implications on refugee laws and public response to the issue.

Keywords: forced migration and conflict, media representations, race and multiculturalism, refugee studies

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136 Head of the Class: A Study of What United States Journalism School Administrators Consider the Most Valuable Educational Tenets for Their Graduates Seeking Careers at U.S. Legacy Newspapers

Authors: Adam Pitluk

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In a time period populated by legacy newspaper readers who throw around the term “fake news” as though it has long been a part of the lexicon, journalism schools must convince would-be students that their degree is still viable and that they are not teaching a curriculum of deception. As such, journalism schools’ academic administrators tasked with creating and maintaining conversant curricula must stay ahead of legacy newspaper industry trends – both in the print and online products – and ensure that what is being taught in the classroom is both fresh and appropriate to the demands of the evolving legacy newspaper industry. This study examines the information obtained from the result of interviews of journalism academic administrators in order to identify institutional pedagogy for recent journalism school graduates interested in pursuing careers at legacy newspapers. This research also explores the existing relationship between journalism school academic administrators and legacy newspaper editors. The results indicate the value administrators put on various academy teachings, and they also highlight a perceived disconnect between journalism academic administrators and legacy newspaper hiring editors.

Keywords: academic administration, education, journalism, journalism school graduates, media management, newspapers, grounded theory

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135 Cross Analysis of Gender Discrimination in Print Media of Subcontinent via James Paul Gee Model

Authors: Luqman Shah

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The myopic gender discrimination is now a well-documented and recognized fact. However, gender is only one facet of an individual’s multiple identities. The aim of this work is to investigate gender discrimination highlighted in print media in the subcontinent with a specific focus on Pakistan and India. In this study, an approach is adopted by using the James Paul Gee model for the identification of gender discrimination. As a matter of fact, gender discrimination is not consistent in its nature and intensity across global societies and varies as social, geographical, and cultural background change. The World has been changed enormously in every aspect of life, and there are also obvious changes towards gender discrimination, prejudices, and biases, but still, the world has a long way to go to recognize women as equal as men in every sphere of life. The history of the world is full of gender-based incidents and violence. Now the time came that this issue must be seriously addressed and to eradicate this evil, which will lead to harmonize society and consequently heading towards peace and prosperity. The study was carried out by a mixed model research method. The data was extracted from the contents of five Pakistani English newspapers out of a total of 23 daily English newspapers, and likewise, five Indian daily English newspapers out of 52 those were published 2018-2019. Two news stories from each of these newspapers, in total, twenty news stories were taken as sampling for this research. Content and semiotic analysis techniques were used to analyze through James Paul Gee's seven building tasks of language. The resources of renowned e-papers are utilized, and the highlighted cases in Pakistani newspapers of Indian gender-based stories and vice versa are scrutinized as per the requirement of this research paper. For analysis of the written stretches of discourse taken from e-papers and processing of data for the focused problem, James Paul Gee 'Seven Building Tasks of Language' is used. Tabulation of findings is carried to pinpoint the issue with certainty. Findings after processing the data showed that there is a gross human rights violation on the basis of gender discrimination. The print media needs a more realistic representation of what is what not what seems to be. The study recommends the equality and parity of genders.

Keywords: gender discrimination, print media, Paul Gee model, subcontinent

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134 A Corpus-Based Study of Evaluative Language in Leading Articles in British Broadsheet and Tabloid Newspapers

Authors: Fatimah AlSaiari

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In recent years, newspapers in the United Kingdom have been no longer just a means of sharing news about what happens in the world; they are also used to influence target readers by having them become more up-to-date, well-informed, entertained, exasperated, delighted, and infuriated. To achieve these objectives and maintain influence on public opinion, journalists use a particular language in which they can convey emotions and opinions, organize their discourse, and establish solidarity with their audience. This type of language has been widely analyzed under different labels, such as evaluation, appraisal, and stance. There is a considerable amount of linguistic and non-linguistic research devoted to analyzing this type of interpersonal language in journalistic discourse, and most of these studies were carried out to challenge the traditional assumptions of the objectivity and impartiality of news reporting. However, very little research has been undertaken on evaluative language in newspaper institutional editorials, and there is hardly any systematic or exhaustive analysis of this type of language in British tabloid and broadsheet newspapers. This study will attempt to provide new insights into the nature of authorial and non-authorial evaluation in leading articles in popular and quality British newspapers, along with their targets, sources, and discourse functions. The study will also attempt to develop a framework of evaluation that can be applied to evaluative lexical items in newspaper opinion texts. The framework is both theory-driven (i.e., it builds on and modifies previous frameworks of evaluation such as appraisal theory and parameter-based approach) and data-driven (i.e., it elicits the evaluative categories from the analysis of the corpus, which helps in the development of the current framework). To achieve this aim, a corpus of 140 leading articles were selected. The findings revealed that the tabloids tended to express their stance through explicitness, dramatization, frequent reference to social actors’ emotions and beliefs, and exaggeration in negativity, while the broadsheets preferred to express their stance through mitigation ambiguity and implicitness. conceptual themes and propositions were more preferable targets for expressing stance in the broadsheets while human behavior and characters were preferable targets for the tabloids.

Keywords: appraisal theory, evaluative language, British newspapers, broadsheets & tabloids, evaluative adjectives

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
133 Indian Business-Papers in Industrial Revolution 4.0: A Paradigm Shift

Authors: Disha Batra

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The Industrial Revolution 4.0 is quite different, and a paradigm shift is underway in the media industry. With the advent of automated journalism and social media platforms, newspaper organizations have changed the way news was gathered and reported. The emergence of the fourth industrial revolution in the early 21st century has made the newspapers to adapt the changing technologies to remain relevant. This paper investigates the content of Indian business-papers in the era of the fourth industrial revolution and how these organizations have emerged in the time of convergence. The study is the content analyses of the top three Indian business dailies as per IRS (Indian Readership Survey) 2017 over a decade. The parametric analysis of the different parameters (source of information, use of illustrations, advertisements, layout, and framing, etc.) have been done in order to come across with the distinct adaptations and modifications by these dailies. The paper significantly dwells upon the thematic analysis of these newspapers in order to explore and find out the coverage given to various sub-themes of EBF (economic, business, and financial) journalism. Further, this study reveals the effect of high-speed algorithm-based trading, the aftermath of the fourth industrial revolution on the creative and investigative aspect of delivering financial stories by these respective newspapers. The study indicates a change heading towards an ongoing paradigm shift in the business newspaper industry with an adequate change in the source of information gathering along with the subtle increase in the coverage of financial news stories over the time.

Keywords: business-papers, business news, financial news, industrial revolution 4.0.

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132 The Role of Public Education in Increasing Public Awareness through Mass Media with Emphasis on Newspapers and TV: Coping with Possible Earthquake in Tehran

Authors: Naser Charkhsaz, Ashraf Sadat Mousavi, Navvab Shamspour

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This study aimed to evaluate the role of state education in increasing public awareness through mass media (with emphasis on newspapers and TV) coping with possible earthquake in Tehran. All residents aged 15 to 65 who live in the five regions of Tehran (North, South, East, West and Center) during the plan implementation were selected and studied. The required sample size in each region was calculated based on the Cochran formula (n=380). In order to collect and analyze the data, a questionnaire with reliability (82%) and a one-sample t-test has been used, respectively. The results showed that warnings related to the Tehran earthquake affected people in the pre-contemplation stage, while public education through mass media did not promote public awareness about prevention, preparedness and rehabilitation.

Keywords: media, disaster, knowledge, Iranian Red Crescent society

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131 News Publication on Facebook: Emotional Analysis of Hooks

Authors: Gemma Garcia Lopez

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The goal of this study is to perform an emotional analysis of the hooks used in Facebook by three of the most important daily newspapers in the USA. These hook texts are used to get the user's attention and invite him to read the news and linked contents. Thanks to the emotional analysis in text, made with the tool of IBM, Tone Analyzer, we discovered that more than 30% of the hooks can be classified emotionally as joy, sadness, anger or fear. This study gathered the publications made by The New York Times, USA Today and The Washington Post during a random day. The results show that the choice of words by the journalist, can expose the reader to different emotions before clicking on the content. In the three cases analyzed, the absence of emotions in some cases, and the presence of emotions in text in others, appear in very similar percentages. Therefore, beyond the objectivity and veracity of the content, a new factor could come into play: the emotional influence on the reader as a mediatic manipulation tool.

Keywords: emotional analysis of newspapers hooks, emotions on Facebook, newspaper hooks on Facebook, news publication on Facebook

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130 Mass Media "Al-Manar TV"

Authors: Ahmed Haddad

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After having drawn the conclusion of this study’s finding. We discuss the potential contributions of a cultural studies perspective to media critique and literacy. In recent years, cultural studies has emerged as a set of approaches to the study of culture and society. the Birmingham group came to focus on the interplay of epresentations and ideologies of class, gender, race, ethnicity, and nationality in cultural texts, including media culture. They were among the first to study the effects of newspapers, radio, television, film, and other popular cultural forms on audiences. They also focused on how various audiences interpreted and used media culture differently, analyzing the factors that made different audiences respond in contrasting ways to various media texts. We are found that there is strong relation ship between Al-Mana TV. The religious power of hizbullah thinks to finational support of hizbuallah Al-Manar TV use as wean,we saw that the program broadcasted include hatred and againy the lexical choicing used by Al-Manar TV IS a concre of a such hostility against Israil – good example lesxical.

Keywords: cultural studies, newspapers, religious, lesxical, media texts

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129 A Study of Inter-Media Discourse Construction on Sino-US Trade Friction Based on Network Agenda Setting Theory

Authors: Wanying Xie

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Under the background of the increasing Sino-US trade friction, the two nations pay more attention to the medias’ words. This paper mainly studies the causality, effectiveness, and influence of discourse construction between traditional media and social media. Based on the Network Agenda Setting theory, a kind of associative memory pattern in Psychology, who focuses on how media affect audiences’ cognition of issues and attributes, as well as the significance of the relation between people and matters. The date of the sample chosen in this paper ranges from March 23, 2018, to April 30, 2019. A total of 395 Tweets of Donald Trump are obtained, and 731 related reports are collected from the mainstream American newspapers including New York Times, the Washington Post and the Washington Street, by using Factiva and other databases. The sample data are processed by MAXQDA while the media discourses are analyzed by SPSS and Cite Space, with an aim to study: 1) whether the inter-media discourse construction exists; 2) which media (traditional media V.S. social media) is dominant; 3) the causality between two media. The results show: 1) the discourse construction between three American mainstream newspapers and Donald Trump's Twitter is proved in some periods; 2) the dominant position is extremely depended on the events; 3) the causality between two media is decided by many reasons. New media technology shortens the time of agenda-setting effect to one day or less. By comparing the specific relation between the three major American newspapers and Donald Trump’s Twitter, whose popularity and influence could be reflected. Hopefully, this paper could enable readers to have a more comprehensive understanding of the international media language and political environment.

Keywords: discourse construction, media language, network agenda-setting theory, sino-us trade friction

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128 The Universal Cultural Associations in the Conceptual Metaphors Used in the Headlines of Arab News and Saudi Gazette Newspapers: A Critical Cognitive Study

Authors: Hind Hassan Arruwaite

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Conceptual metaphor is a cognitive semantic tool that provides access to people's conceptual systems. The correlation in the human conceptual system surpasses limited time and specific cultures. The universal associations provide universal schemas that organize people's conceptualization of the world. The study aims to explore how the cultural associations used in conceptual metaphors create commonalities and harmony between people of the world. In the research methodology, the researcher implemented Critical Metaphor Analysis, Metaphor Candidate Identification and Metaphor Identification Procedure models to deliver qualitative and descriptive findings. The semantic tension was the key criterion in identifying metaphorically used words in the headlines. The research materials are the oil trade conceptual metaphors used in the headlines of Arab News and Saudi Gazette Newspapers. The data will be uploaded to the self-constructed corpus to examine electronic lists for identifying conceptual metaphors. The study investigates the types of conceptual metaphors used in the headlines of the newspapers, the cultural associations identified in the conceptual metaphors, and whether the identified cultural associations in conceptual metaphors create universal conceptual schemas. The study aligned with previous seminal works on conceptual metaphor theory in emphasizing the distinctive power of conceptual metaphors in exposing the cultural associations that unify people's perceptions. The correlation of people conceptualization provides universal schemas that involve elements of human sensorimotor experiences. The study contributes to exposing the shared cultural associations that ensure the commonality of all humankind's thinking mechanism.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, critical metaphor analysis, conceptual metaphor theory, primary and specific metaphors, corpus-driven approach, universal associations, image schema, sensorimotor experience, oil trade

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127 Creativity in the Use of Sinhala and English in Advertisements in Sri Lanka: A Morphological Analysis

Authors: Chamindi Dilkushi Senaratne

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Sri Lanka has lived with the English language for more than 200 years. Although officially considered a link language, the phenomenal usage of English by the Sinhala-English bilingual has given rise to a mixed code with identifiable structural characteristics. The extensive use of the mixed language by the average Sri Lankan bilingual has resulted in it being used as a medium of communication by creative writers of bilingual advertisements in Sri Lanka. This study analyses the way in which English is used in bilingual advertisements in both print and electronic media in Sri Lanka. The theoretical framework for the study is based on Kachru’s analysis of the use of English by the bilingual, Muysken’s typology on code mixing theories in colonial settings and Myers-Scotton’s theory on the Matrix Language Framework Model. The study will look at a selection of Sinhala-English advertisements published in newspapers from 2015 to 2016. Only advertisements using both Sinhala and English are used for the analysis. To substantiate data collected from the newspapers, the study will select bilingual advertisements from television advertisements. The objective of the study is to analyze the mixed patterns used for creative purposes by advertisers. The results of the study will reveal the creativity used by the Sinhala –English bilingual and the morphological processes used by the creators of Sinhala-English bilingual advertisements to attract the masses.

Keywords: bilingual, code mixing, morphological processes, mixed code

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126 Social Work Profession in a Mirror of the Russian Immigrant Media in Israel

Authors: Natalia Khvorostianov, Nelly Elias

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The present study seeks to analyze representation of social work in immigrant media, focusing on the case of online newspapers established by immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel. This immigrant population is particularly interesting because social work did not exist as a profession practiced in the USSR and hence most FSU immigrants arrive in Israel without a basic knowledge of the essence of social work, the services it provides and the logic behind its treatment methods. The sample of 37 items was built through a Google search of the Russian online newspapers and portals originated in Israel by using keywords such as “social worker,” “social work services” and the like. All items were analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. Principal analytical categories used for the analysis were: Assessment of social work services (negative, positive, neutral); social workers’ professionalism and effectiveness; goals and motives underlying their activity; cross-cultural contact with immigrants and methods used in working with immigrants. On this basis, four dominant images used to portray Israeli social work services and social workers were identified: Lack of professionalism, cultural gaps between FSU immigrants and Israeli social workers, repressive character of social work services and social workers’ involvement in corruption and crime.

Keywords: FSU immigrants, immigrant media, media images, social workers

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