Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10583

Search results for: sports performance

10583 Sports Development in Nigeria

Authors: Bakari Mohammed

Abstract:

Sports performance and achievements have been the avenue through which great nations of the world exhibit their supremacy over others through sports development strategy. Effective sports development, therefore, requires variables like sports policy, sports funding, sports programme, sports facilities and sponsorship. The extent to what these variables are met shall no doubt affects the effectiveness of any sports development. Two distinguishing features of the Nigerian sports system are its central organization and its employment for specific socio-political objectives, it is against this backdrop that this paper will x-ray the politicization of sports which parallels sports development in the enhanced role of sports and in contrast with developed nations system and management.

Keywords: sport development, sport policy, personnel, program, facilities, funding, sponsorship

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10582 The Role of Satisfaction on Performance among Afe Babalola University Team Sports

Authors: B. O. Diyaolu

Abstract:

Viability and competency during competition is the dream of every team sports so as to have a good result. But it seems factors abound which deter the performance of even a good sports team. Different individuals with different state of mind all come together to perform in team sports with different degree of satisfaction. This study investigated the role of satisfaction on performance among Afe Babalola University team sports. Descriptive survey research design was used and the population consists of all male and female athletes in the team sports that participated in the last 2019 Ekiti State Higher Institution games (ESHIGA). Total enumeration technique was used for the three team sports; football (44), basketball (24) and volleyball (24). A total of 92 participants were involved in the research. The instrument used for the study was a modified Athlete Satisfaction Scale (ASS). The questionnaire was divided into two sections. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficient of 0.71 was obtained. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 significant levels. The completed questionnaire was collated, coded, and analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentage and inferential statistics of chi-square (X2). Findings of this study revealed that satisfaction significantly influences team sports performance among Athletes of Afe Babalola University. The responsibility of satisfying athlete lies on the coaches, fans, sports administrators as well as organizers of such event, as it is not only financial reward that gives satisfaction. The performance of a team sports is quiet important and its being determined by the degree of satisfaction of each individual that make up the team. All effort must be made to satisfy athlete in order to guarantee optimum performance.

Keywords: athlete satisfaction, optimum achievement, optimum performance, sports performance and team sports

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10581 Influence of Branding and Consultancy Services on the Performance of Coaches, Athletes and Sports Managers in Nigeria

Authors: Yakubu Nkom Bityong, A. I. Kabido, K. Venkateswarlu

Abstract:

The influence of branding and consultancy services on sports development and marketing mix has been a matter of interest among coaches athletes and sports managers in Nigeria. Marketers use sports as a promotional vehicle towards attracting customers to their products and services. The use of images, names, and photographs of sports personalities to advertise beverages, cars, and a whole range of other products and services as it is clearly noticed all over the television, radio and print media has generated a lot of argument among consumers who have vested interest and are more drawn to their favorite teams and sports personalities than they are to many company products This paper examines the influence of branding and consultancy services on sports Performance of coaches, athletes and sports managers in Nigeria. From a population of 7,441 made up of coaches, athletes and sports managers, 372 respondents were sampled for the study. A self developed and standardized questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. One-tailed t-test was used to test the hypothesis. Results revealed that branding and consultancy services influence the performances of coaches, athletes and sports managers in Nigeria. It was concluded that the establishment of the National Institute of Sports (NIS) in Lagos with affiliated sports training programmes in Nigerian Universities is responsible for boosting the performance of sports personalities in Nigeria. It was recommended that National Policy on Sports should be reviewed in order to inculcate new methods and strategies towards enhancing sports development initiatives in the country while stakeholders should intensify regular training and retraining programmes for coaches, athletes and sports managers to update their knowledge and skills.

Keywords: branding, consultancy, sports performance, sports development

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10580 An Approach to Physical Performance Analysis for Judo

Authors: Stefano Frassinelli, Alessandro Niccolai, Riccardo E. Zich

Abstract:

Sport performance analysis is a technique that is becoming every year more important for athletes of every level. Many techniques have been developed to measure and analyse efficiently the performance of athletes in some sports, but in combat sports these techniques found in many times their limits, due to the high interaction between the two opponents during the competition. In this paper the problem will be framed. Moreover the physical performance measurement problem will be analysed and three different techniques to manage it will be presented. All the techniques have been used to analyse the performance of 22 high level Judo athletes.

Keywords: sport performance, physical performance, judo, performance coefficients

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10579 Effects of Merging Personal and Social Responsibility with Sports Education Model on Students' Game Performance and Responsibility

Authors: Yi-Hsiang Pan, Chen-Hui Huang, Wei-Ting Hsu

Abstract:

The purposes of the study were to understand these topics as follows: 1. To explore the effect of merging teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) with sports education model on students' game performance and responsibility. 2. To explore the effect of sports education model on students' game performance and responsibility. 3. To compare the difference between "merging TPSR with sports education model" and "sports education model" on students' game performance and responsibility. The participants include three high school physical education teachers and six physical education classes. Every teacher teaches an experimental group and a control group. The participants had 121 students, including 65 students in the experimental group and 56 students in the control group. The research methods had game performance assessment, questionnaire investigation, interview, focus group meeting. The research instruments include personal and social responsibility questionnaire and game performance assessment instrument. Paired t-test test and MANCOVA were used to test the difference between "merging TPSR with sports education model" and "sports education model" on students' learning performance. 1) "Merging TPSR with sports education model" showed significant improvements in students' game performance, and responsibilities with self-direction, helping others, cooperation. 2) "Sports education model" also had significant improvements in students' game performance, and responsibilities with effort, self-direction, helping others. 3.) There was no significant difference in game performance and responsibilities between "merging TPSR with sports education model" and "sports education model". 4)."Merging TPSR with sports education model" significantly improve learning atmosphere and peer relationships, it may be developed in the physical education curriculum. The conclusions were as follows: Both "Merging TPSR with sports education model" and "sports education model" can help improve students' responsibility and game performance. However, "Merging TPSR with sports education model" can reduce the competitive atmosphere in highly intensive games between students. The curricular projects of hybrid TPSR-Sport Education model is a good approach for moral character education.

Keywords: curriculum and teaching model, sports self-efficacy, sport enthusiastic, character education

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10578 Gender Stereotype, Leadership Behavior and Job Performance of Sports Council Personnel in Lagos State

Authors: R. A. Moronfolu, I. M. Ndaks, O. E. Ifekoya

Abstract:

This study investigated Gender Stereotypes in Leadership Behaviour and its consequent effect on Job Performance of Sports Council Personnel in Lagos State. The descriptive research method was adapted in conducting the study, while eighty sports personnel of Lagos State sports council, Lagos, Nigeria were drawn as respondents using the stratified random sampling technique. A self-structured questionnaire titled “ Gender- Leader Performance Questionnaire (GLPQ) ”was used for data collection. The GLPQ was face validated by three experts in sports management and was subjected to a pilot test using the test retest method for reliability. A total of eighty copies of the validated GLPQ were administered on selected respondents and retrieved on the spot. The descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages were used in describing the demographic data collected, while the inferential statistics of Chi-square (X2) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used in drawing inferences at a level of significance of 0.05. It was observed that gender stereotypes and behaviours of leaders in Lagos State Sports Council, significantly differ. In addition, gender stereotypes and leadership behavior were observed to significantly influence the job performance of sports council personnel in Lagos State.

Keywords: gender, leadership, stereotype, performance

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10577 Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Fluid Experience in Practical Shooting and Its Relationship with Sports Performance

Authors: Nelson Lay, Felipe Vallejo

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to determine the psychometric properties of a questionnaire to measure Fluid Experience in the practical sport shooting. Also, associate this variable with the performance levels of a group of athletes who are competitors in the discipline. The study included the participation of 18 shooters belonging to sports shooting clubs. Initially semi-structured interviews were conducted to observe the manifestation of the dimensions of the Fluid Experience. Based on these interviews, a self-report sheet was elaborated (feedback sheet). Then, through a correlational design, the association between the elaborated Fluid Experience Psychometric Questionnaire, the score assigned to the responses of the feedback sheet and the scores of the round of shots made by the participants was evaluated. The data were collected, on two different occasions, which implied a variation in the score of the Fluid Experience Questionnaire for each subject in both executions. The results showed a positive association between variations in sports performance and those of the Fluid Experience level.

Keywords: flow psychology, sports psychology, states of conscience, sports performance

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10576 Sporting Events among the Disabled between Excellence and Ideal in Motor Performance: Analytical Descriptive Study in Some Paralympic Sports

Authors: Guebli Abdelkader, Reguieg Madani, Belkadi Adel, Sbaa Bouabdellah

Abstract:

The identification of mechanical variables in the motor performance trajectory has a prominent role in improving skill performance, error-exceeding, it contributes seriously to solving some problems of learning and training. The study aims to highlight the indicators of motor performance for Paralympic athletes during the practicing sports between modelling and between excellence in motor performance, this by taking into account the distinction of athlete practicing with special behavioral skills for the Paralympic athletes. In the study, we relied on the analysis of some previous research of biomechanical performance indicators during some of the events sports (shooting activities in the Paralympic athletics, shooting skill in the wheelchair basketball). The results of the study highlight the distinction of disabled practitioners of sporting events identified in motor performance during practice, by overcoming some physics indicators in human movement, as a lower center of body weight, increase in offset distance, such resistance which requires them to redouble their efforts. However, the results of the study highlighted the strength of the correlation between biomechanical variables of motor performance and the digital level achievement similar to the other practitioners normal.

Keywords: sports, the disabled, motor performance, Paralympic

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10575 Emotional Intelligence and Sports Coaches

Authors: Stephens Oluyemi Adetunji, Nel Norma Margaret, Krogs Sozein

Abstract:

There has been a shift in the role of sports from being a form of entertainment and relaxation to becoming a huge business concern and high money spinning venture. This shift has placed a greater demand on sport coaches as regards expectations for high performance from investors as well as other stake holders. The responsibility of sports coaches in ensuring high performance of sports men and women has become increasingly more demanding from both spectators and sports organisers. Coaches are leaders who should possess soft skills such as emotional intelligence aside from employing skills and drills to ensure high performance of athletes. This study is, therefore, designed to determine the emotional intelligence of sports coaches in South Africa. An assessment of the emotional intelligence of sports coaches would enable the researchers to identify those who have low emotional intelligence and to design an intervention program that could improve their emotional intelligence. This study will adopt the pragmatic world view of research using the mixed methods research design of the quantitative and qualitative approach. The non-probability sampling technique will be used to select fifty sports coaches for the quantitative study while fifteen sports coaches will be purposively selected for the qualitative study. One research question which seeks to ascertain the level of emotional intelligence of sports coaches will be raised to guide this study. In addition, two research hypotheses stating that there will be no significant difference in the level of emotional intelligence of sports coaches on the basis of gender and type of sports will be formulated and statistically analysed at 0.05 level of significance. For the quantitative study, an emotional intelligence test will be used to measure the emotional intelligence of sport coaches. Focus group interviews and open ended questions will be used to obtain the qualitative data. Quantitative data obtained will be statistically analysed using the SPSS version 22.0 while the qualitative data will be analysed using atlas ti. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations will be made.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, high performance, sports coaches, South Africa

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10574 The Relation between Sports Practice and the Academic Performance

Authors: Albert Perez-Bellmunt, Eila Rivera, Aida Valls, Berta Estragues, Sara Ortiz, Roberto Seijas, Pedro Alvarez

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: Physical and sports activity on a regular basis present numerous health benefits such as the prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Also, there is a relation between sport and the psychological or the cognitive process of children and young people. The objective of the present study is to know if the sports practice has any positive influence on the university academic performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The level of the physical activity of 220 students of different degrees in health science was evaluated and compared with the academic results (grades). To assess the level of physical and sports activity, the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (to calculate the sporting level in a general way) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (to estimate the physical activity carried out during the days leading up to the academic exams) were used. RESULTS: The students that realized an average level of sports activity the days before the exam obtained better grades than the rest of their classmate and the result was statistically significant. Controversially, if the sports level was analyzed in a general way, no relationship was observed between academic performance and the level of sport realized. CONCLUSION: A moderate physical activity, on the days leading up to an assessment, can be a positive factor for the university academic performance. Despite the fact that a regular sports activity improves many cognitive and physiological processes, the present study did not observe a direct relationship between sport/physical activity and academic performance.

Keywords: academic performance, academic results, global physical activity questionnaire, physical activity questionnaire, sport, sport practice

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10573 Influence of Sports Participation on Academic Performance among Afe Babalola University Student-Athletes

Authors: B. O. Diyaolu

Abstract:

The web created by sport in academics has made it difficult for it to be separated from adolescent educational development. The enthusiasm expressed towards sport by students in higher institutions is quite enormous. Primarily, academic performance should be the pride of all students but whether sports affect the academic performance of student-athletes remain an unknown fact. This study investigated the influence of sports participation on academic performance among Afe Babalola University student-athletes. Ex post facto research design was used. Two groups of students were used for the study; Student-athlete (SA) and Regular Students (RS). Purposive sampling technique was used to select 224 student-athletes, only those that are regular in the university sports team training were considered and their records (i.e. name, department, level, matriculation number, and phone number) were collected through the assistance of their coaches. For the regular students, purposive sampling technique was used to select 224 participants, only those that have no interest in sports were considered and their records were retrieved from the college registration officer. The first and second semester examination results of the two groups were compared in 10 general study courses without their knowledge, using descriptive statistics of frequency counts, mean, and standard deviation. Out of the 10 compared courses, 7 courses result showed no significant difference between students-athlete and regular students while student-athletes perform better in 3 practically oriented courses. Sports role in academics is quite significant. Exposure to sports can help build the confidence that athletes need especially when it comes to practical courses. Student-athletes can perform better in academics if the environment is friendly and not intimidating. Lecturers and coaches need to work together in order to build a well cultured and intelligent graduate.

Keywords: academic performance, regular students, sports participation, student-athlete, university sports team

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10572 Subjective Well-Being, Emotional Regulation and Motivational Orientation of Competition Athletes

Authors: Cristina Costa-Lobo, Priscila Martins, Silvia Amado Cordeiro, Ana Campina

Abstract:

Behavior directed toward high levels of sports performance and excellence implies task-focused processes, processes of cognitive and emotional regulation. This research aims to understand if subjective well-being, emotional regulation, and motivational orientation influence the performance of competitive athletes. The sample of this study is a non-probabilistic convenience sample, consisting of 50 male athletes, aged 14 to 15 years, who belong to training teams integrated in the pedagogical department of a sports club in the North of Portugal. In terms of performance, the distinction between team A and team B is due to the championships in which the respective athletes participate. Team A participates in national championships where the levels of demand and challenge are more pronounced and the team B only participates in championships at the district level. Was verified the internal consistency of the subjective happiness scale, the emotional regulation scale, and the motivational orientation questionnaire. SPSS, version 22.0, was used in the data treatment. When comparing the dimensions of emotional regulation with performance, it can be seen that athletes with lower sports scores have higher levels of emotional control and emotional self-awareness. As far as situational responsiveness is concerned, only the emotional self-control dimension and the emotional self-awareness dimension show an influence on the income, although, contrary to what would be expected, they appear to be associated with lower incomes. When comparing the motivational orientation with the athletic performance, it is verified that the athletes with the highest performance present an ego-oriented motivation, evidencing the athletes with a lower performance athletic tendency towards the task orientation. Only the ego-oriented dimension seems to be associated with high sport performance. The motivational orientation for the ego and the dimensions emotional control and emotional self-awareness are presented in this study as having influence on sports performance. Following these studies that have shown concern with the characterization of the best athletes and the promotion of higher sports performances, this work contributes to the signaling of psychological variables associated with high sports income.

Keywords: subjective well-being, emotional regulation, motivational orientation, sports performance

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10571 Strategic Management Model for High Performance Sports Centers

Authors: Jose Ramon Sanabria Navarro, Yahilina Silveira Perez, Valentin Molina Moreno, Digna Dionisia Perez Bravo

Abstract:

The general objective of this research is to conceive a model of strategic direction for Latin American high-performance sports centers for the improvement of their results. The sample is 62 managers, 187 trainers, 2930 athletes and 62 expert researchers from centers in Cuba, Venezuela, Ecuador, Colombia and Argentina, for 3241. The measurement instrument includes 12 key variables in the process of management strategies which are consolidated with the factorial analysis and the ANOVA of a factor through the SPSS 24.0. The reliability of the scale obtained an alpha higher than 0.7 in each sample. In this sense, a model is obtained that taxes the deficiencies detected in the diagnosis, based on the needs of the members of these organizations, considering criteria and theories of the strategic direction in the improvement of the organizational results. The validation of the model for high performance sports centers of the countries analyzed aims to develop joint strategies to generate synergies in their operational mode, which leads to enhance the sports organization.

Keywords: sports organization, information management, decision making, control

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10570 History Impact of Cuba's Sports Results on Panamerican Games

Authors: Jose Ramon Sanabria Navarro, Yahilina Silveira Perez

Abstract:

The Pan American Games are one of the best regional sports integration events for the Americas, thousands of athletes from different countries are integrated based on obtaining satisfactory sports results and bringing the glory of the national identity of the sport to their country. There are countries that despite the small number of inhabitants have obtained very satisfactory results such as Cuba. Objective: To analyze the impact of Cuba's sports results in the Pan American Games. The methodology was based on the postulates of the materialist dialectic since the investigated reality was studied from historicity, systematicity and in its systemic character. The population and sample consisted of 41 countries of the American continent, and the 15 events carried out to date were analyzed. The impact of Cuba is very relevant because it is the country that has the second place by country in terms of number of medals, is among the first in terms of medals per inhabitants and in general sense of all the indicators treated assumes the fourth place integral. What is the current status of Cuba's sports results in Pan American Games? Having as a general objective, analyze the impact of Cuba's sports results in the Pan American Games. The hypotheses that will lead this research have the following methodological and interaction order: H1: Cuba's performance in Pan American Sports Games positively impacts the amount of medals obtained. H2: The amount of medals from Cuba in Pan American Sports Games positively impacts the general podium for countries of these regional events. H3: The amount of medals obtained by Cuba in Pan American Sports Games positively impacts the number of inhabitants. H4: The amount of medals obtained by Cuba positively impacts the overall result of the countries. H5: Cuba's performance in the Panamerican Sports Games positively impacts the overall results of these regional events. In general, it is possible to demonstrate the impact of Cuba's sports performance in Pan American Games and the organizational sports structure that has allowed the country to obtain them is evidenced.

Keywords: Cuba, history of sport, sports games, regional events, sport

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10569 Attitude towards Doping of High-Performance Athletes in a Sports Institute of the City of Medellin, Colombia

Authors: Yuban Sebastian Cuartas-Agudelo, Sandra Marcela López-Hincapié, Vivianna Alexandra Garrido-Altamar, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez-Gázquez, Camilo Ruiz-Mejía, Lina María Martínez-Sánchez, Gloria Inés Martínez-Domínguez, Luis Eduardo Contreras, Felipe Eduardo Marino-Isaza

Abstract:

Introduction: Doping is a prohibited practice in competitive sports with potential adverse effects; therefore, it is crucial to describe the attitudes of athletes towards this behavior and to determine which o these increase the susceptibility to carry out this practice. Objective: To determine the attitude of high-performance athletes towards doping in a sports institute in the city of Medellin, Colombia. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study during 2016, with a sample taken to convenience consisting of athletes over 18 years old enrolled in a sports institute of the city of Medellin (Colombia). The athletes filled by themselves the Petroczi and Aidman questionnaire: Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) adapted to the Spanish language by Morente-Sánchez et al. This scale has 17 items with likert answer options, with a score ranging from 1 to 6, with a higher score indicating a stronger tendency towards doping practices. Results: 112 athletes were included with an average age of 21.6 years old, a 60% of them were male and the most frequent sports were karate 17%, judo 12.5% and athletics 9.8%. The average score of the questionnaire was 35.5 points of a 102 possible points. The lowest score was obtained in the following items: Is Doping necessary 1,4 and Doping isn’t cheating, everyone does it 1,5. Conclusion: In our population, there is a low tendency towards doping practices.

Keywords: sports, doping in sports, athletic performance, attitude

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10568 A Study on Eliteathletes and Coaches' Attitude towards Sport Psychologyi the Areas of Sports

Authors: Mahdi PourAsghar, Abbas Mas'udzadeh, Abdulhakim Tirgari, Saeed Dabiri Roushan, Hooman Rashidi, Fariba Salehi

Abstract:

Objective: One of the major objectives in sports areas is to achieve maximum athletic performance. Physical and psychological preparations are the basic factors for achieving maximum performance in athletes. Unfortunately, in the field of physical preparation, we can see maximum attention and planning of trainers and sports officials. But despite the importance of psychological preparation of athletes and its serious and profound effect on athletic performance, the results of sports competitions show that less attention is paid to this topic, and it is less under the control of counselors and psychologists in different areas of our sport. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the attitude of athletes and coaches to sport psychology. Materials and methods: A descriptive study with a sample size of 234 elite athletes and 216 skilled coaches was conducted in different areas of sports, in Sari, Mazandaran in 2015.The instrument was a questionnaire consisting of two parts of demographic data and Martin questionnaire, assessing the attitude to sport psychology. The data from this study were analyzed using Spss version 18, descriptive statistics tests, and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, positive attitudes of participants in need and confidence towards sport psychology consultation in athletes and coaches group were 55/1 and 56/5 percent, respectively. The positive attitude of female athletes in belief to psychology consultation was more than male athletes. Athletes with higher education had more positive attitude towards the presence of psychologists and psychiatrists in fields of sports. Conclusion: According to the findings based on the need to the psychology consultation in different areas of sports, it is recommended that through training of specialists in the field of sport psychology and review of sports programs in different fields of sports, the presence of these counselors to maintain the psychological preparation of athletes to achieve maximum athletic performance and reduce anxiety and stress be used.

Keywords: Keywords: Athletes, Eliteathletes, Coaches, Attitude, Sport psychology.

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10567 The Use of Substances and Sports Performance among Youth: Implications for Lagos State Sports

Authors: Osifeko Olalekan Remigious, Adesanya Adebisi Joseph, Omolade Akinmade Olatunde

Abstract:

The focus of this study was to determine the factors associated with the use of substances for sport performance of youth in Lagos state sport. Questionnaire was the instrument used for the study. Descriptive research method was used. The estimated population for the study was 2000 sport men and women. The sample size was 200 respondents for purposive sampling techniques were used. The instrument was validated in it content and constructs value. The instrument was administered with the assistance of the coaches. Same 200 copies administered were returned. The data obtained was analysed using simple percentage and chi-square (x2) for stated hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The finding reveal that sport injuries exercise induced and anaphylaxis and asthma and feeling of loss of efficacy associated with alcohol used on sport performance among the users of substances. Alcohol users are recommended to partake in sport like swimming, basketball and volleyball because they have space of time for resting while at play. Government should be fully in charge of the health of sport men and women.

Keywords: implications, Lagos state, substances, sports performance, youth

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10566 New Approach in Sports Management of Great Sports Events

Authors: Taieb Kherafa Noureddine

Abstract:

The paper presents a new approach regarding the management in sports that is based on the principles of reengineering. Applying that modern and pure management system, called reengineering, in sports activity, we hope to get better and better results, in order to increase both the health state and the performances of trained athletes. The paper also presents the similarities between BPR (Business Process Reengineering) and sports managements, as well as the proposed solution for a proper implementation of such model of management. The five components of the basic BPR model are presented, together with their features for sports management.

Keywords: business process reengineering, great sports events, sports management, training activities

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10565 Effects of Acacia Honey Drink Ingestion during Rehydration after Exercise Compared to Sports Drink on Physiological Parameters and Subsequent Running Performance in the Heat

Authors: Foong Kiew Ooi, Aidi Naim Mohamad Samsani, Chee Keong Chen, Mohamed Saat Ismail

Abstract:

Introduction: Prolonged exercise in a hot and humid environment can result in glycogen depletion and associated with loss of body fluid. Carbohydrate contained in sports beverages is beneficial for improving sports performance and preventing dehydration. Carbohydrate contained in honey is believed can be served as an alternative form of carbohydrate for enhancing sports performance. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of honey drink compared to sports drink as a recovery aid for running performance and physiological parameters in the heat. Method: Ten male recreational athletes (age: 22.2 ± 2.0 years, VO2max: 51.5 ± 3.7 ml.kg-1.min-1) participated in this randomized cross-over study. On each trial, participants were required to run for 1 hour in the glycogen depletion phase (Run-1), followed by a rehydration phase for 2 hours and subsequently a 20 minutes time trial performance (Run-2). During Run-1, subjects were required to run on the treadmill in the heat (31°C) with 70% relative humidity at 70 % of their VO2max. During rehydration phase, participants drank either honey drink or sports drink, or plain water with amount equivalent to 150% of body weight loss in dispersed interval (60 %, 50 % and 40 %) at 0 min, 30 min and 60 min respectively. Subsequently, time trial was performed by the participants in 20 minutes and the longest distance covered was recorded. Physiological parameters were analysed using two-way ANOVA with repeated measure and time trial performance was analysed using one-way ANOVA. Results: Result showed that Acacia honey elicited a better time trial performance with significantly longer distance compared to water trial (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between Acacia honey and sport drink trials (P > 0.05). Acacia honey and sports drink trials elicited 249 m (8.24 %) and 211 m (6.79 %) longer in distance compared to the water trial respectively. For physiological parameters, plasma glucose, plasma insulin and plasma free fatty acids in Acacia honey and sports drink trials were significantly higher compared to the water trial respectively during rehydration phase and time trial running performance phase. There were no significant differences in body weight changes, oxygen uptake, hematocrit, plasma volume changes and plasma cortisol in all the trials. Conclusion: Acacia honey elicited greatest beneficial effects on sports performance among the drinks, thus it has potential to be used for rehydration in athletes who train and compete in hot environment.

Keywords: honey drink, rehydration, sports performance, plasma glucose, plasma insulin, plasma cortisol

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10564 Performance Analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks in Areas for Sports Activities and Environmental Preservation

Authors: Teles de Sales Bezerra, Saulo Aislan da Silva Eleuterio, José Anderson Rodrigues de Souza, Ítalo de Pontes Oliveira

Abstract:

This paper presents a analysis of performance the Received Strength Signal Indicator (RSSI) to Wireless Sensor Networks, with a finality of investigate a behavior of ZigBee devices operating into real environments. The test of performance was realize using two Series 1 ZigBee Module and two modules of development Arduino Uno R3, evaluating in this form a measurements of RSSI into environments like places of sports, preservation forests and water reservoir.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, RSSI, Arduino, environments

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10563 Object Trajectory Extraction by Using Mean of Motion Vectors Form Compressed Video Bitstream

Authors: Ching-Ting Hsu, Wei-Hua Ho, Yi-Chun Chang

Abstract:

Video object tracking is one of the popular research topics in computer graphics area. The trajectory can be applied in security, traffic control, even the sports training. The trajectory for sports training can be utilized to analyze the athlete’s performance without traditional sensors. There are many relevant works which utilize mean shift algorithm with background subtraction. This kind of the schemes should select a kernel function which may affect the accuracy and performance. In this paper, we consider the motion information in the pre-coded bitstream. The proposed algorithm extracts the trajectory by composing the motion vectors from the pre-coded bitstream. We gather the motion vectors from the overlap area of the object and calculate mean of the overlapped motion vectors. We implement and simulate our proposed algorithm in H.264 video codec. The performance is better than relevant works and keeps the accuracy of the object trajectory. The experimental results show that the proposed trajectory extraction can extract trajectory form the pre-coded bitstream in high accuracy and achieve higher performance other relevant works.

Keywords: H.264, video bitstream, video object tracking, sports training

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10562 Sports for the Children with Autism

Authors: Mohamed A. Abdelnaby

Abstract:

Relevance of the research: A few people known about Autism and also about Sports for Autism. Children with Autism have difficult experience with sport that makes many problems during the sports activities. There are several areas of motor skills development essential for participating daily life and several sports activities. The object of the research is describe the program for the sports activities for children with Autism, and the aim is to improving their movement skills, motor skills and social skills. Research methods and organization: Twenty-five children with Autism perceived barriers to sports activities participation, and functioning. All the program inside the Pegasus Dreamland Sports Club and all the facilities available for the research. Results and discussion: Standard, children were reported to meet or exceeded general PA occurrence guidelines, belonged to active participated in a variety of sports activities. We identified several barriers to optimal sports activities for their children. Conclusions: Children with Autism can achieve optimal sports activities. Exposure to a variety of sports activities opportunities and experiences aids in identifying the model activity for each individual child.

Keywords: autism, sports activates, movement skills, motor skills

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10561 Influence of Facilities, Equipment and Nutrition on Athletes Performance at the West African Universities Games Competitions

Authors: Abdulai Afolabi Ahmed

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The research was undertaken to examine the influence of sports facilities, equipment, and nutrition on athletes' performance in West-Africa Universities Games (WAUG) with the objectives of finding the areas of success and failure. Relevant literatures were reviewed. The survey research design was adopted for the study. Availability of facilities, equipment and nutrition questionnaire (AFENQ) was administered on hundred (n-100) participants - athletes from five Nigerian Universities from South-West, Nigeria which included Federal University of Technology, Akure, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Lagos State University, Oyo, Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Awoye and Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti. Nigeria. The tests re-test reliability value obtained from the instrument using Pearson Product Moment Correlation co-efficient of 0.86 was used to analyze the result. While the questionnaire collected was subjected to influential descriptive statistics of multiple regression to analyse the data. The results of the data showed that facilities, equipment, and nutrition variables when taken together effectively predict the performance of the athletes during WAUG competitions. The implication is that sports organizers should provide sports resources for the improved performance of the athletes, and that, university managers should employ nutritionist to plan and prepare food for the university athletes before and after major competitions.

Keywords: athletes, equipment, extramural, influence, nutrition, performance

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10560 Health Hazards of Performance Enhancing Drugs

Authors: Austin Oduor Otieno

Abstract:

There is an ingrained belief that the use of performance-enhancing drugs by athletes enable them to perform better. While this has been found to be truth, it also raises ethical and health issues. This paper analyzes the health hazards associated with performance enhancing drugs. It seeks to achieve this through the analysis of different academic journals as well as publications on the relationship between doping in sports and health. It concludes that there are inherent health hazards associated with the use of performance-enhancing drugs as they affect the physical and psychological health and wellbeing of a user (athlete).

Keywords: doping, health hazards, athletes, drugs

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10559 A Comparative Study on Achievement Motivation and Sports Competition Anxiety among the Students of Different Tier of Academic Hierarchy

Authors: Nitai Biswas, Prasenjit Kapas, Arumay Jana, Asish Paul

Abstract:

Introduction: Motivation is basic drive for all kinds of action. It has direct influence on academic achievement and sports performance that builds urge to incentive values of success. In other words, it can be defined as the need for success to attain excellence. Anxiety in pre competition especially in sports formulates positive inward settings in mind to overcome the challenge. There is a tendency to perceive competitive situations as some threatening issues and to respond them with feelings of apprehension and tension. Aim: Aim of the study was to compare the achievement motivation and competition anxiety among three different classes of students. Methods and Materials: To conduct the study the researcher has taken 131 male subjects from three different classes as Extra Department, Bachelor of Physical Education-I and Master of Physical EducationII, aged 19-28 years. Achievement motivation and sports competition anxiety were measured by the questionnaire. To analyze the data mean, standard deviation for each parameter as descriptive statistics and one way analysis of variance as inferential statistics were employed. Results: From the result of the study in achievement motivation (p ≥ 0.05) and competition anxiety (p ≥ 0.05) no significant differences were found among the said three groups. Conclusion: The study concluded that all three groups had almost the same state of achievement motivation and sports competition anxiety.

Keywords: anxiety, sports psychology, sports competition anxiety, achievement motivation, academic hierarchy, E.D., B.P.Ed., M.P.Ed

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10558 Athlete Burnout and Moral Disengagement in Sports

Authors: Min Pan, An-Hsu Chen

Abstract:

Burnout has been proved to be one of the factors that hinder the development and sport performances of athletes while moral disengagement is the psychological mechanism used by athletes to elevate the guilt caused by conducting the anti-social behaviors to gain competitive advantages and in sports which have both been discussed extensively. The sports devaluation in burnout may undermine the sportsmanship of athletes therefore may serve as one of factors of moral disengagement in sports. Nonetheless, the connection between athlete burnout and moral disengagement in sports is yet established. Hence, the study aims to investigate whether there is the correlation between athlete burnout and moral disengagement in sports. Participants of this study are 120 collegiate athletes who specialize in seven different sports (e.g., fence, boxing, taekwondo, and etc.) with average training hours of 3.7 per day and 4.5 days per week. Athlete Burnout Questionnaire and Moral Disengagement in Sports – Short were administrated as the research instruments. Data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and step-wise regression. The results show, participants demonstrate mild to moderate burnout and moral disengagement in their perspective sports disciplines. Moreover, athletes specialize in different sports experience distinct burnout situations while there is no significant variation of moral disengagement in different sports. It is also found, moral disengagement in sports has significant and positive correlations with emotional and physical exhaustion as well as sports devaluation in athlete burnout. Furthermore, athlete burnout can positively predict moral disengagement in sports while sports devaluation plays an important role within. It can be concluded that, athlete burnout may contribute to their tendency of moral disengagement in sport. By relieving the burnout level may help improve their moral disengagement inclination in sports. The finding may contribute to the current literature regarding athlete burnout and moral disengagement in sports.

Keywords: athlete burnout, dehumanization, moral disengagement, reduced sense of accomplishment

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10557 Sports Fans and Non-Interested Public Recognition of the Problems of Sports in Egypt through Caricature

Authors: Alaaeldin Hamdy Ahmed Mohammed

Abstract:

Introduction: This study examines sports’ fans and non-interested public perception and recognition of the problems that have negative impacts upon the Egyptian sports, particularly football, through caricatures. Eight caricature paintings were designed to express eight problems affecting the Egyptian sports and its development. These paintings were distributed on two groups of the fans and the non-interested public. Methods: The study was limited to eight caricatures representing the eight issues which are: the impact of stopping the sports activity on athletes, the effect of clubs’ disagreement, fanaticism between the members of the ultras of different clubs, the negative impact of the mingling of politics into sports, the negative role of the clubs affects the professionalism of the promising players, the conflict between the national organization responsible for sports, the breaking in of the fans to the playgrounds, the impact of the lack of planning on the national team. The Results: The results showed that both sports fans and those who are not interested in sports recognized the problems that the caricatures refer to and criticizes exaggeration although the rate was higher for the fans. These caricatures contributed also in their recognition of the danger of the negative impact of these problems on the Egyptian sports, particularly football which is the most common at the Egyptian sports fans. Discussion: This finding echoes the conclusion that caricatures are distinctive in the adults’ facial stimuli that are either systematically exaggerated recognition of them.

Keywords: caricature, fans, football, sports

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10556 Multidimensional Sports Spectators Segmentation and Social Media Marketing

Authors: B. Schmid, C. Kexel, E. Djafarova

Abstract:

Understanding consumers is elementary for practitioners in marketing. Consumers of sports events, the sports spectators, are a particularly complex consumer crowd. In order to identify and define their profiles different segmentation approaches can be found in literature, one of them being multidimensional segmentation. Multidimensional segmentation models correspond to the broad range of attitudes, behaviours, motivations and beliefs of sports spectators, other than earlier models. Moreover, in sports there are some well-researched disciplines (e.g. football or North American sports) where consumer profiles and marketing strategies are elaborate and others where no research at all can be found. For example, there is almost no research on athletics spectators. This paper explores the current state of research on sports spectators segmentation. An in-depth literature review provides the framework for a spectators segmentation in athletics. On this basis, additional potential consumer groups and implications for social media marketing will be explored. The findings are the basis for further research.

Keywords: multidimensional segmentation, social media, sports marketing, sports spectators segmentation

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10555 Learning Performance of Sports Education Model Based on Self-Regulated Learning Approach

Authors: Yi-Hsiang Pan, Ching-Hsiang Chen, Wei-Ting Hsu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to compare the learning effects of the sports education model (SEM) to those of the traditional teaching model (TTM) in physical education classes in terms of students learning motivation, action control, learning strategies, and learning performance. A quasi-experimental design was utilized in this study, and participants included two physical educators and four classes with a total of 94 students in grades 5 and 6 of elementary schools. Two classes implemented the SEM (n=47, male=24, female=23; age=11.89, SD=0.78) and two classes implemented the TTM (n=47, male=25, female=22, age=11.77; SD=0.66). Data were collected from these participants using a self-report questionnaire (including a learning motivation scale, action control scale, and learning strategy scale) and a game performance assessment instrument, and multivariate analysis of covariance was used to conduct statistical analysis. The findings of the study revealed that the SEM was significantly better than the TTM in promoting students learning motivation, action control, learning strategies, and game performance. It was concluded that the SEM could promote the mechanics of students self-regulated learning process, and thereby improve students movement performance.

Keywords: self-regulated learning theory, learning process, curriculum model, physical education

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10554 A Comprehensive Review of Yoga and Core Strength: Strengthening Core Muscles as Important Method for Injury Prevention (Lower Back Pain) and Performance Enhancement in Sports

Authors: Pintu Modak

Abstract:

The core strength is essential not only for athletes but also for everyone to perform everyday's household chores with ease and efficiency. Core strength means to strengthen the muscles deep within the abdomen which connect to the spine and pelvis which control the position and movement of the central portion of the body. Strengthening of core muscles is important for injury prevention (lower back pain) and performance enhancement in sports. The purpose of the study was to review the literature and findings on the effects of Yoga exercise as a part of sports training method and fitness programs. Fifteen papers were found to be relevant for this review. There are five simple yoga poses: Ardha Phalakasana (Low plank), Vasisthasana (side plank), Purvottanasana (inclined plane), Sarvangasana (shoulder stand), and Virabhadrasana (Warrior) are found to be very effective for strengthening core muscles. They are the most effective poses to build core strength and flexibility to the core muscles. The study suggests that sports and fitness trainers should include these yoga exercises in their programs to strengthen core muscles.

Keywords: core strength, yoga, injuries, lower back

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