Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Canan Sercan

21 The Effect of Dopamine D2 Receptor TAQ A1 Allele on Sprinter and Endurance Athlete

Authors: Öznur Özge Özcan, Canan Sercan, Hamza Kulaksız, Mesut Karahan, Korkut Ulucan

Abstract:

Genetic structure is very important to understand the brain dopamine system which is related to athletic performance. Hopefully, there will be enough studies about athletics performance in the terms of addiction-related genetic markers in the future. In the present study, we intended to investigate the Receptor-2 Gene (DRD2) rs1800497, which is related to brain dopaminergic system. 10 sprinter and 10 endurance athletes were enrolled in the study. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction method was used for genotyping. According to results, A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2 genotypes in athletes were 0 (%0), 3 (%15) and 17 (%85). A1A1 genotype was not found and A2 allele was counted as the dominating allele in our cohort. These findings show that dopaminergic mechanism effects on sport genetic may be explained by the polygenic and multifactorial view.

Keywords: addiction, athletic performance, genotype, sport genetics

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20 The Effects of the Russian Crisis on Turkish Tourism Sector: A Case of Antalya Province, Turkey

Authors: Huseyin Cetin, Halil Akmese, Sercan Aras, Vahit Aytekin

Abstract:

Economic crisis, terrorism, global crisis and the relations between countries are the factors affecting tourism industry and tourism industry is vulnerable against these factors. In our study, there are two dimensions about Russian crisis. The crisis between Russia and Ukraine and decreased oil prices in global market have been entailed Russian economic crisis. This crisis has induced that the ruble, Russian currency, has depreciated against American dollars and consequently the purchasing power of Russian has weakened. This is the first dimension of our study. Second dimension is a political crisis between Turkey and Russia owing to the fact that the Russian Warcraft was brought down by Turkish army. The aim of this study is to explain the impact of the consequences of Russian crisis on Turkish tourism industry. The study has been limited only Antalya province.

Keywords: economic crisis, Turkey-Russian crisis, Turkey's tourism industry, tourism in Turkey

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19 Investigation of Parameters Affecting Copper Recovery from Brass Melting Dross

Authors: Sercan Basit, Muhlis N. Sarıdede

Abstract:

Metal amounts of copper based compounds in the various wastes have been recovered successfully by hydrometallurgical treatment methods in the literature. X-ray diffraction pattern of the brass melting slag demonstrates that it contains sufficient amount of recoverable copper. Recovery of copper from brass melting dross by sulfuric acid leaching and the effect of temperature and acid and oxidant concentration on recovery rate of copper have been investigated in this study. Experiments were performed in a temperature-controlled reactor in sulfuric acid solution in different molarities using solid liquid ratio of 100 g/L, with leaching time of 300 min. Temperature was changed between 25 °C and 80 °C and molarity was between 0.5 and 3M. The results obtained showed that temperature has important positive effect on recovery whereas it decreases with time. Also copper was recovered in larger amounts from brass dross in the presence of H2O2 as an oxidant according to the case that oxidant was not used.

Keywords: brass dross, copper recovery, hydrogen peroxide, leaching

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18 Gendered Perspectives on the Understanding of the Politics and the Social Life

Authors: Canan Cetin

Abstract:

This essay analyses how gendered shaped views influence on our understanding of global politics. To do so, feminism used as a framework theory, thus masculinity is discussed in order to explain the male-dominated international relations (IR) discipline and the differences of reflections on our perspective considering the politics in a broader perspective. Particularly, it is highlighted that the social and cultural structures of societies have also an impact on our views about international relations and politics. From a different perspective, it is aimed that the sociological and cultural impression of the shifted gender perspectives on the political approach of different nations and societies will be examined by drawing on a range of sources. Instead of supporting one feminist theory, this essay engages with all traditions and enriches their arguments. Specifically, the main objective of the essay is hegemonic and plural masculinity on societies. The essay sets things up theoretically by looking at the nature of masculinity – the stage is set to show how this informs our understanding of IR.

Keywords: feminism, politics, international affairs, social life

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17 A Desire for Solitude or an Escape from Solitude: A Sociological Study of One Hundred Years of Solitude with the Principles of Emile Durkheim’s Suicide through the Theme Solitude

Authors: Omur Sercan Oral

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In this paper, the individual and social conflicts are examined with a sociological perspective during the social process of Macondo described in the post-modern book of Gabriel Garcia Marquez, One Hundred Years of Solitude. More specifically, the theme of the solitude of individuals who choose to be isolated and who are isolated is studied within the context of the suicide of Emile Durkheim. As a self-reflective product of individuals in the result-based process, both economically and socially founded in the text, solitude reflects the ultimate process of separation from society. In this sense, the various and multiplying layers of the collective codes of Macondo as microcosm and their interactions with the individuals are examined in this paper under the roof of suicide in the sociological concept. The attempts to explain the reasons, shift, and its reflections on individuals are carried out to cross the lines of one discipline. In doing that, the ideas of Durkheim, Foucault, Weber, and Clausewitz, to some extent, are planted explicitly and implicitly throughout the paper.

Keywords: Durkheim’s concept of suicide, solitude theme in Marquez, collective consciousness, isolation from society, subjectivity

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16 Co-Pyrolysis of Olive Pomace with Plastic Wastes and Characterization of Pyrolysis Products

Authors: Merve Sogancioglu, Esra Yel, Ferda Tartar, Nihan Canan Iskender

Abstract:

Waste polyethylene (PE) is classified as waste low density polyethylene (LDPE) and waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) according to their densities. Pyrolysis of plastic waste may have an important role in dealing with the enormous amounts of plastic waste produced all over the world, by decreasing their negative impact on the environment. This waste may be converted into economically valuable hydrocarbons, which can be used both as fuels and as feed stock in the petrochemical industry. End product yields and properties depend on the plastic waste composition. Pyrolytic biochar is one of the most important products of waste plastics pyrolysis. In this study, HDPE and LDPE plastic wastes were co-pyrolyzed together with waste olive pomace. Pyrolysis runs were performed at temperature 700°C with heating rates of 5°C/min. Higher pyrolysis oil and gas yields were observed by the using waste olive pomace. The biochar yields of HDPE- olive pomace and LDPEolive pomace were 6.37% and 7.26% respectively for 50% olive pomace doses. The calorific value of HDPE-olive pomace and LDPE-olive pomace of pyrolysis oil were 8350 and 8495 kCal.

Keywords: biochar, co-pyrolysis, waste plastic, waste olive pomace

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15 Disidentification of Historical City Centers: A Comparative Study of the Old and New Settlements of Mardin, Turkey

Authors: Fatma Kürüm Varolgüneş, Fatih Canan

Abstract:

Mardin is one of the unique cities in Turkey with its rich cultural and historical heritage. Mardin’s traditional dwellings have been affected both by natural data such as climate and topography and by cultural data like lifestyle and belief. However, in the new settlements, housing is formed with modern approaches and unsuitable forms clashing with Mardin’s culture and environment. While the city is expanding, traditional textures are ignored. Thus, traditional settlements are losing their identity and are vanishing because of the rapid change and transformation. The main aim of this paper is to determine the physical and social data needed to define the characteristic features of Mardin’s old and new settlements. In this context, based on social and cultural data, old and new settlement formations of Mardin have been investigated from various aspects. During this research, the following methods have been utilized: observations, interviews, public surveys, literature review, as well as site examination via maps, photographs and questionnaire methodology. In conclusion, this paper focuses on how changes in the physical forms of cities affect the typology and the identity of cities, as in the case of Mardin.

Keywords: urban and local identity, historical city center, traditional settlements, Mardin

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14 Fecundity of Blue Swimming Crab, Portunus segnis (Forskal, 1775)' in Yumurtalık Cove, Iskenderun Bay, Northeastern Mediterranean, Adana, Turkey

Authors: Canan Türeli̇, İrem Nur Yeşi̇lyurt

Abstract:

Blue swimming crab, Portunus segnis (Forskal, 1775) entered to the Mediterranean with Suez Canal. It is economically important species and consumed as food in Turkey. At this study, fecundity of P. segnis was investigated in Yumurtalık Cove, Turkey. Samples were collected monthly from July 2014 to June 2015 (except February), using bottom trawl into three different depth strata; 0-10 m, 10-20 m and 20-50 m. Sand crab samples were caught all studied months. 110 Males, 70 juvenile and 140 female; 44 of them ovigerous, totally 320 samples were collected during the study period. The size of all samples varied from 38.1 to 163.17 mm carapace width and from 3.46 to 324.36 g weight. All the ovigerous crabs were caught at 0-10 m depth between July to November and in April and May, the highest number of them was observed in August and September. Mean carapace width and weight of ovigerous crabs were calculated respectively, 130.36 ± 12.82 mm (101.39-154.03), 191.02 ± 59.00 g (88.26-324.36). Mean fecundity determined 1.186.185 ± 819.510 (1.393.79-4.513.034) eggs. More fecundity and reproduction biology studies are necessary for monitoring the P. segnis population structure in Northeastern Mediterranean of Turkey.

Keywords: blue swimming crab, fecundity, portunus segnis, Turkey

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13 Teacher Professional Development Programs on K-12 Engineering Education: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Authors: Canan Mesutoglu, Evrim Baran

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Teachers have a prominent role in facilitating the place of engineering in K-12 classrooms. This study addresses the need to understand how teacher professional development programs focusing on K-12 engineering education can be designed and delivered more effectively. A systematic review of the literature on such programs can offer possible ideas and recommendations. The purpose of this study is to systematically synthesize the peer-reviewed articles published on K-12 engineering education teacher professional development programs. The methodology that guided the study was comprised of four phases: search, selection, coding, and synthesis. The search phase included articles published in the time period between 2000 and 2016. With a comprehensive search in databases, inclusion criteria were applied. This was followed by evaluation of the quality of articles with a checklist, and finally analysis of the results. The results revealed two categories of themes. These were 1) five themes related to the overarching agenda of the PD programs, and 2) five themes related to the instructional techniques of the PD programs. Finally, core elements were generated to guide the design and delivery of teacher PD programs for K-12 engineering education. The results aimed to provide a conceptual basis for future research and practice on teacher PD programs for K-12 engineering education.

Keywords: core elements, K-12 engineering education, systematic literature review, teacher professional development programs

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12 Comparison of Microwave-Assisted and Conventional Leaching for Extraction of Copper from Chalcopyrite Concentrate

Authors: Ayfer Kilicarslan, Kubra Onol, Sercan Basit, Muhlis Nezihi Saridede

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Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) is the most common primary mineral used for the commercial production of copper. The low dissolution efficiency of chalcopyrite in sulfate media has prevented an efficient industrial leaching of this mineral in sulfate media. Ferric ions, bacteria, oxygen and other oxidants have been used as oxidizing agents in the leaching of chalcopyrite in sulfate and chloride media under atmospheric or pressure leaching conditions. Two leaching methods were studied to evaluate chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) dissolution in acid media. First, the conventional oxidative acid leaching method was carried out using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) as oxidant at atmospheric pressure. Second, microwave-assisted acid leaching was performed using the microwave accelerated reaction system (MARS) for same reaction media. Parameters affecting the copper extraction such as leaching time, leaching temperature, concentration of H2SO4 and concentration of K2Cr2O7 were investigated. The results of conventional acid leaching experiments were compared to the microwave leaching method. It was found that the copper extraction obtained under high temperature and high concentrations of oxidant with microwave leaching is higher than those obtained conventionally. 81% copper extraction was obtained by the conventional oxidative acid leaching method in 180 min, with the concentration of 0.3 mol/L K2Cr2O7 in 0.5M H2SO4 at 50 ºC, while 93.5% copper extraction was obtained in 60 min with microwave leaching method under same conditions.

Keywords: extraction, copper, microwave-assisted leaching, chalcopyrite, potassium dichromate

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11 Determination of Physicochemical Properties, Bioaccessibility of Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Mineral Enriched Linden Herbal Tea Beverage

Authors: Senem Suna, Canan Ece Tamer, Ömer Utku Çopur

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In this research, dried linden (Tilia argentea) leaves and blossoms were used as a raw material for mineral enriched herbal tea beverage production. For this aim, %1 dried linden was infused with boiling water (100 °C) for 5 minutes. After cooling, sucrose, citric acid, ascorbic acid, natural lemon flavor and natural mineral water were added. Beverage samples were plate filtered, filled into 200-mL glass bottles, capped then pasteurized at 98 °C for 15 minutes. Water soluble dry matter, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, pH, minerals (Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na), color (L*, a*, b*), turbidity, bioaccessible phenolics and antioxidant capacity were analyzed. Water soluble dry matter, titratable acidity, and ascorbic were determined as 7.66±0.28 g/100 g, 0.13±0.00 g/100 mL, and 19.42±0.62 mg/100 mL, respectively. pH was measured as 3.69. Fe, Ca, Mg, K and Na contents of the beverage were determined as 0.12±0.00, 115.48±0.05, 34.72±0.14, 48.67±0.43 and 85.72±1.01 mg/L, respectively. Color was measured as 13.63±0.05, -4.33±0.05, and 3.06±0.05 for L*, a*, and b* values. Turbidity was determined as 0.69±0.07 NTU. Bioaccessible phenolics were determined as 312.82±5.91 mg GAE/100 mL. Antioxidant capacities of chemical (MetOH:H2O:HCl) and physiological extracts (in vitro digestive enzymatic extraction) with DPPH (27.59±0.53 and 0.17±0.02 μmol trolox/mL), FRAP (21.01±0.97 and 13.27±0.19 μmol trolox/mL) and CUPRAC (44.71±9.42 and 2.80±0.64 μmol trolox/mL) methods were also evaluated. As a result, enrichment with natural mineral water was proposed for the development of functional and nutritional values together with a good potential for commercialization.

Keywords: linden, herbal tea beverage, bioaccessibility, antioxidant capacity

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10 The Qualification and Quality of Space Sciences and Space Engineering Education in Turkey

Authors: Hatice Canan Gungor, Ahmet Akdemir

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The fields of engineering and technological sciences are increasing in quality and quantity day by day all over the world. Countries have to follow, implement and adapt these developments in order to economical empowerments. In our era, it's possible to follow the rapidly developing technology and to produce new technologies by inquisitive, curious, numerical thinking individuals who can show several approaches to problem solving. In this case, countries should develop te result oriented and need-focused curriculums in university education. As in the whole world, there are more space studies in our country as well. Universities should undertake the task of supply the need for staff of this technological race. In this context, questions about the purpose, content and learning outcomes of the space sciences and space engineering departments in our country will be researched answers to reveal the characteristic of this section. In this study, it was determined in which universities the space engineering and the departments of basic sciences educate with formal education and the contents of this education, and the universities were compared with each other as of 2017. In our country three universities provide Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering, two universities provide Space Sciences and Technologies, two universities provide Aerospace Engineering, two universities provide Aeronautics and Astronautics Engineering education. In all universities, specialized courses are taught after basic engineering education. But the question that needs to be answered is, do the lessons benefit in practice? The answer of this question will reveal the quality of the education. This paper suggests that surveys be conducted to search for the answer to this question. It's thought to be the base for the next works.

Keywords: education, space engineering, space science, quality of systems

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9 Length/Length-Length/Weight Relationships for 2 Erythrean mantis Shrimp Species, Erugosquilla massavensis (Kossmann, 1883), and Clorida albolitura (Ahyong&Naiyanetr, 2000) from the Yumurtalik Cove, Northeastern Mediterranean of Turkey

Authors: Canan Türeli̇, İrem Nur Yeşi̇lyurt

Abstract:

A total of nine stomatopod crustaceans have been reported from the eastern Mediterranean, with the eight from the Turkey coasts and three from the Levantine coast of Turkey (Squilla massavensis (Linnaeus,1758), Erugosquilla massavensis (Kossmann, 1880), Clorida albolitura (Ahyong&Naiyanetr, 2000). E. massavensis is the most successful Red Sea immigrant, and it is now the dominant eastern Levantine stomatopod. At this research, carapace length/total length- weight relationship of 2 erythrean mantis shrimp, E. massavensis and C. albolitura was studied in Yumurtalık Cove, in the Northeastern Mediterranean of Turkey. Samples were collected monthly from July 2014 to June 2015 (except February), using bottom trawl net into three different depth strata; 0- 10 m, 10-20 m, 20-50m. E. massavensis samples were caught all studied time, except winter, in the three depth range but C. albolitura samples were caught only in July, October and May's months. A total of 572 specimens of the E. massavensis and 12 specimens of the C. albolitura were collected and analyzed. Morphometric equations for the conversions of total length and weight, carapace lengths were constructed for males, females, combined sexes for E. massavensis and C. albolitura. The b-values for total length (TL)-weight (W) in males and females for E. massavensis were 2.738 and 2.725 respectively and for carapace length (CL)-total length (TL) they were 1.041 and 0.978, relatively. The b-values (total length-weight) were determined for combined sexes of E. massavensis and C. albolitura as: 2.771, 1.852 relatively. In both species, the relative growth of weight and total length was found highly positively allometric. However, carapace length showed negative allometry in females of E. Massavensis.

Keywords: Clorida albolitura, Erugosquilla massavensis, Erythrean stomatopod, length/length-weight relationships

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8 Micro-Droplet Formation in a Microchannel under the Effect of an Electric Field: Experiment

Authors: Sercan Altundemir, Pinar Eribol, A. Kerem Uguz

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Microfluidics systems allow many-large scale laboratory applications to be miniaturized on a single device in order to reduce cost and advance fluid control. Moreover, such systems enable to generate and control droplets which have a significant role on improved analysis for many chemical and biological applications. For example, they can be employed as the model for cells in microfluidic systems. In this work, the interfacial instability of two immiscible Newtonian liquids flowing in a microchannel is investigated. When two immiscible liquids are in laminar regime, a flat interface is formed between them. If a direct current electric field is applied, the interface may deform, i.e. may become unstable and it may be ruptured and form micro-droplets. First, the effect of thickness ratio, total flow rate, viscosity ratio of the silicone oil and ethylene glycol liquid couple on the critical voltage at which the interface starts to destabilize is investigated. Then the droplet sizes are measured under the effect of these parameters at various voltages. Moreover, the effect of total flow rate on the time elapsed for the interface to be ruptured to form droplets by hitting the wall of the channel is analyzed. It is observed that an increase in the viscosity or the thickness ratio of the silicone oil to the ethylene glycol has a stabilizing effect, i.e. a higher voltage is needed while the total flow rate has no effect on it. However, it is observed that an increase in the total flow rate results in shortening of the elapsed time for the interface to hit the wall. Moreover, the droplet size decreases down to 0.1 μL with an increase in the applied voltage, the viscosity ratio or the total flow rate or a decrease in the thickness ratio. In addition to these observations, two empirical models for determining the critical electric number, i.e., the dimensionless voltage and the droplet size and another model which is a combination of both models, for determining the droplet size at the critical voltage are established.

Keywords: droplet formation, electrohydrodynamics, microfluidics, two-phase flow

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7 Confidence Building Strategies Adopted in an EAP Speaking Course at METU and Their Effectiveness: A Case Study

Authors: Canan Duzan

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For most language learners, mastery of the speaking skill is the proof of the mastery of the foreign language. On the other hand, the speaking skill is considered as the most difficult aspect of language learning to develop for both learners and teachers. Especially in countries like Turkey where exposure to the target language is minimum and resources and opportunities provided for language practice are scarce, teaching and learning to speak the language become a real struggle for teachers and learners alike. Data collected from students, instructors, faculty members and the business sector in needs analysis studies conducted previously at Middle East Technical University (METU) consistently revealed the need for addressing the problem of lack of confidence in speaking English. Action was taken during the design of the only EAP speaking course offered in Modern Languages Department since lack of confidence is considered to be a serious barrier for effective communication and causes learners to suffer from insecurity, uncertainty and fear. “Confidence building” served as the guiding principle in the syllabus design, nature of the tasks created for the course and the assessment procedures to help learners become more confident speakers of English. In order to see the effectiveness of the decisions made during the design phase of the course and whether students become more confident speakers upon completion of the course, a case study was carried out with 100 students at METU. A questionnaire including both Likert-Scale and open-ended items were administered to students to collect data and this data were analyzed using the SPSS program. Group interviews were also carried out to gain more insight into the effectiveness of the course in terms of building speaking confidence. This presentation will explore the specific actions taken to develop students’ confidence based on the findings of program evaluation studies and to what extent the students believe these actions to be effective in improving their confidence. The unique design of this course and strategies adopted for confidence building are highly applicable in other EAP contexts and may yield similar positive results.

Keywords: confidence, EAP, speaking, strategy

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6 The Communicational Behaviors of the Nurses Towards 'Crying Patient'

Authors: Hacer Kobya Bulut, Kıymet Yeşilçiçek Çalık, Birsel Canan Demirbağ, Hacer Erdöl, Songül Aktaş

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Introduction: As an expression of an emotion which always exists in life, crying is regarded as one of the problematic behaviors of patients by nurses. Towards such patients, nurses may exhibit emotional and behavioral reactions such as feeling helpless, anger, indifferent, defense, and opposition. However crying either meets a need, reduces the tension to cope with problems or helps patient to gain strength. Therefore, nurses must accept that crying is a normal mechanism that reduces emotional tension and should approach a crying patient accordingly. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the communicational behaviors of the nurses towards ‘crying patient’. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted with the nurses working at a university hospital in a city in the Eastern Black Sea in June-September 2015. The entire universe was tried to be reached without sampling. 90% of the population was reached and the study was completed with 309 nurses who volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected through a questionnaire which was prepared reviewing the literature by researchers. Data were evaluated in SPSS analysis program using percentages, numbers and chi-square test with the 95% confidence interval and p <0.05significance level. Findings: The findings showed that the average age of nurses was 31.52 ± 7.96, work experience was 10:09 ± 7.69 and only 22.7% had training about ‘approach to crying patient’ during their education. 97.1% of the nurses often faced with crying patients in their professional lives, 62.8% stated that they faced crying women patients. When they see crying patients, 84.8% of the nurses ‘do not want the patient to cry’, 80.9% wonder ‘why they are crying’, % 79.6 ‘feel uneasiness’,% 79.3 ‘feel sorry’ and 41.4% ‘ feel helpless’. The question ‘Why do you think the patient is crying?’ was answered by 93.5% nurses as ‘they are suffering’, by 86.1% ‘they are helpless’, 80.9% ‘they are sad’, 79.6% ‘they need help’, 54.4% ‘because they feel inadequate,’ and 44.7% ‘they fail to control their crying behavior. ‘How do you approach to your patient when she/he is crying?’ question was answered by 82.5% of nurses as ‘I would console’, 77.3% as ‘I would ask the reason’, 63.1% as ‘I would try to stop her from crying’ all of which are actually inappropriate nursing approaches. However, 92.2% of the nurses stated that ‘I do not judge the crying patient’, ‘87.1% said ‘I allocate time to crying patients’ and 85.8% said ‘ I ask patient whether they want to cry alone’. The study showed that educational background and work experience of the nurses affected the appropriate approach to crying patients (P <0.05). Conclusion: As a result of the study, it was found out that nurses do not want patients to cry, so they exhibit inappropriate approach such as consoling the patients and they have difficulty in approaching crying patients.

Keywords: approach to patient, communication, crying patient, nurse, Turkey

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5 Nanofluidic Cell for Resolution Improvement of Liquid Transmission Electron Microscopy

Authors: Deybith Venegas-Rojas, Sercan Keskin, Svenja Riekeberg, Sana Azim, Stephanie Manz, R. J. Dwayne Miller, Hoc Khiem Trieu

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Liquid Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is a growing area with a broad range of applications from physics and chemistry to material engineering and biology, in which it is possible to image in-situ unseen phenomena. For this, a nanofluidic device is used to insert the nanoflow with the sample inside the microscope in order to keep the liquid encapsulated because of the high vacuum. In the last years, Si3N4 windows have been widely used because of its mechanical stability and low imaging contrast. Nevertheless, the pressure difference between the inside fluid and the outside vacuum in the TEM generates bulging in the windows. This increases the imaged fluid volume, which decreases the signal to noise ratio (SNR), limiting the achievable spatial resolution. With the proposed device, the membrane is fortified with a microstructure capable of stand higher pressure differences, and almost removing completely the bulging. A theoretical study is presented with Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations which provide a deep understanding of the membrane mechanical conditions and proves the effectiveness of this novel concept. Bulging and von Mises Stress were studied for different membrane dimensions, geometries, materials, and thicknesses. The microfabrication of the device was made with a thin wafer coated with thin layers of SiO2 and Si3N4. After the lithography process, these layers were etched (reactive ion etching and buffered oxide etch (BOE) respectively). After that, the microstructure was etched (deep reactive ion etching). Then the back side SiO2 was etched (BOE) and the array of free-standing micro-windows was obtained. Additionally, a Pyrex wafer was patterned with windows, and inlets/outlets, and bonded (anodic bonding) to the Si side to facilitate the thin wafer handling. Later, a thin spacer is sputtered and patterned with microchannels and trenches to guide the nanoflow with the samples. This approach reduces considerably the common bulging problem of the window, improving the SNR, contrast and spatial resolution, increasing substantially the mechanical stability of the windows, allowing a larger viewing area. These developments lead to a wider range of applications of liquid TEM, expanding the spectrum of possible experiments in the field.

Keywords: liquid cell, liquid transmission electron microscopy, nanofluidics, nanofluidic cell, thin films

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4 Medical Complications in Diabetic Recipients after Kidney Transplantation

Authors: Hakan Duger, Alparslan Ersoy, Canan Ersoy

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Diabetes mellitus is the most common etiology of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Also, diabetic nephropathy is the etiology of ESRD in approximately 23% of kidney transplant recipients. A successful kidney transplant improves the quality of life and reduces the mortality risk for most patients. However, patients require close follow-up after transplantation due to medical complications. Diabetes mellitus can affect patient morbidity and mortality due to possible effects of immunosuppressive therapy on glucose metabolism. We compared the frequency of medical complications and the outcomes in diabetic and non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study conducted in 498 patients who underwent kidney transplant surgery at our center in 10-year periods. The patients were divided into two groups: diabetics (46 ± 10 year, 26 males, 16 females) and non-diabetics (39 ± 12 year, 259 males, 197 females). The medical complications, graft functions, causes of graft loss and death were obtained from medical records. Results: There was no significant difference between recipient age, duration of dialysis, body mass index, gender, donor type, donor age, dialysis type, histories of HBV, HCV and coronary artery disease between two groups. The history of hypertension in diabetics was higher (69% vs. 36%, p < 0.001). The ratios of hypertension (50.1% vs. 57.1%), pneumonia (21.9% vs. 20%), urinary infection (16.9% vs. 20%), transaminase elevation (11.5% vs. 20%), hyperpotasemia (14.7% vs. 17.1%), hyponatremia (9.7% vs. 20%), hypotension (7.1% vs. 7.9%), hypocalcemia (1.4% vs. 0%), thrombocytopenia (8.6% vs. 8.6%), hypoglycemia (0.7% vs. 0%) and neutropenia (1.8% vs. 0%) were comparable in non-diabetic and diabetic groups, respectively. The frequency of hyperglycaemia in diabetics was higher (8.6% vs. 54.3%, p < 0.001). After transplantation, primary non-function (3.4% vs. 2.6%), delayed graft function (25.1% vs. 34.2%) and acute rejection (7.3% vs. 10.5%) ratios of in non-diabetic and diabetic groups were similar, respectively. Hospitalization durations in non-diabetics and diabetics were 22.5 ± 17.5 and 18.7 ± 13 day (p=0.094). Mean serum creatinine levels in non-diabetics and diabetics were 1.54 ± 0.74 and 1.52 ± 0.62 mg/dL at 6th month. Forty patients had graft loss. The ratios of graft loss and death in non-diabetic and diabetic groups were 8.2% vs. 7.1% and 7.1% vs. 2.6% (p > 0.05). There was no significant relationship between graft and patient survivals with the development of medical complication. Conclusion: As a result, medical complications are common in the early period. Hyperglycaemia was frequently seen following transplantation due to the effects of immunosuppressant regimens. However, the frequency of other medical complications in diabetic patients did not differ from non-diabetic one. The most important cause of death is still infections. The development of medical complications during the first 6 months did not significantly affect transplant outcomes.

Keywords: kidney transplantation, diabetes mellitus, complication, graft function

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3 Frequency of Surgical Complications in Diabetic Patients after Kidney Transplantation

Authors: Hakan Duger, Alparslan Ersoy, Canan Ersoy

Abstract:

The improvement of surgical techniques in recent years has reduced the frequency of postoperative complications in kidney transplant recipients. Novel immunosuppressive agents have reduced rates of graft loss due to acute rejection to less than 1%. However, surgical complications may still lead graft loss and morbidity in recipients. Because of potent immunosuppression, impaired wound healing and complications are frequent after transplantation. We compared the frequency of post-operative surgical complications in diabetic and non-diabetic patients after kidney transplantation. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study conducted in consecutive patients (213 females, 285 males, median age 39 years) who underwent kidney transplant surgery at our center between December 2005 and October 2015. The patients were divided into two groups: diabetics (46 ± 10 year, 26 males, 16 females) and non-diabetics (39 ± 12 year, 259 males, 197 females). Characteristics of both groups were obtained from medical records. Results: We performed 225 living and 273 deceased donor transplantations. Renal replacement type was hemodialysis in 60.8%, peritoneal dialysis in 17.3% and preemptive in 12%. The mean body mass indexes of the recipients were 24 ± 4.6 kg/m², donor age was 48.6 ± 14.3 years, cold ischemic time was 11.3 ± 6.1 hours, surgery time was 4.9 ± 1.2 hours, and recovery time was 54±31 min. The mean hospitalization duration was 19.1 ± 13.5 days. The frequency of postoperative surgical complications was 43.8%. There was no significant difference between the ratios of post-operative surgical complications in non-diabetic (43.5%) and diabetic (47.4%) groups (p=0.648). Post-operative surgical complications were lymphocele (24.6% vs. 23.7%), delayed wound healing (13.2% vs. 7.6%), hematoma (7.8% vs.15.8 %), urinary leak (4.6% vs. 5.3%), hemorrhage (5.1% vs. 0%), hydronephrosis (2.2% vs. 0%), renal artery thrombosis (1.5% vs. 0%), renal vein thrombosis (1% vs. 2.6%), urinoma (0.7% vs. 0%), urinary obstruction (0.5% vs. 0%), ureteral stenosis (0.5% vs. 0%) and ureteral reflux (0.2% vs. 0%) in non-diabetic and diabetic groups, respectively (p > 0.05). Mean serum creatinine levels in non-diabetics and diabetics were 1.43 ± 0.81 and 1.61 ± 0.96 mg/dL at 1st month (p=0.198). At the 6th month, the mean graft and patient survival times in patients with post-operative surgical complications were significantly lower than in those who did not (162.9 ± 3.4 vs. 175.6 ± 1.5 days, p=0.008, and 171 ± 2.9 vs. 176.1 ± 1.6 days, p=0.047, respectively). However, patient survival durations of non-diabetic (173 ± 27) and diabetic (177 ± 13 day) groups were comparable (p=0.396). Conclusion: As a result, we concluded that surgical complications such as lymphocele and delayed wound healing were common and that frequency of these complications in diabetic recipients did not differ from non-diabetic one. All persons involved in the postoperative care of kidney transplant recipients be aware of the potential surgical complications for rapid diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords: kidney transplantation, diabetes mellitus, surgery, complication

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2 The Problems of Women over 65 with Incontinence Diagnosis: A Case Study in Turkey

Authors: Birsel Canan Demirbag, Kıymet Yesilcicek Calik, Hacer Kobya Bulut

Abstract:

Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the problems of women over 65 with incontinence diagnosis. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted with women over 65 with incontinence diagnosis in four Family Health Centers in a city in Eastern Black Sea region between November 1, and December 20, 2015. 203, 107, 178, 180 women over 65 were registered in these centers and 262 had incontinence diagnosis at least once and had an ongoing complaint. 177 women were volunteers for the study. During home visits and using face-to-face survey methodology, participants were given socio-demographic characteristics survey, Sandvik severity scale, Incontinence Quality of Life Scale, Urogenital Distress Inventory and a questionnaire including challenges experienced due to incontinence developed by the researcher. Data were analyzed with SPSS program using percentages, numbers, Chi-square, Man-Whitney U and t test with 95% confidence interval and a significance level p <0.05. Findings: 67 ± 1.4 was the mean age, 2.05 ± 0.04 was parity, 44.5 ± 2.12 was menopause age, 66.3% were primary school graduates, 45.7% had deceased spouse, 44.4% lived in a large family, 67.2% had their own room, 77.8% had income, 89.2% could meet self- care, 73.2% had a diagnosis of mixed incontinence, 87.5% suffered for 6-20 years % 78.2 had diuretics, antidepressants and heart medicines, 20.5% had urinary fecal cases, 80.5% had bladder training at least once, 90.1% didn’t have bladder diary calendar/control training programs, 31.1% had hysterectomy for prolapse, 97.1'i% was treated with lower urinary tract infection at least once, 66.3% saw a doctor to get drug in the last three months, 76.2 could not go out alone, 99.2 % had at least one chronic disease, 87.6 % had constipation complain, 2.9% had chronic cough., 45.1% fell due to a sudden rise for toilet. Incontinence Impact Questionnaire Average score was (QOL) 54.3 ± 21.1, Sandvik score was 12.1 ± 2.5, Urogenital Distress Inventory was 47.7 ± 9.2. Difficulties experienced due to incontinence were 99.5% feeling of unhappiness, 67.1% constant feeling of urine smell due to failing to change briefs frequently, % 87.2 move away from social life, 89.7 unable to use pad, 99.2% feeling of disturbing households / other individuals, 87.5% feel dizziness/fall due to sudden rise, 87.4% feeling of others’ imperceptions about the situation, % 94.3 insomnia, 78.2 lack of assistance, 84.7% couldn’t afford urine protection briefs. Results: With this study, it was found out that there were a lot of unsolved issues at individual and community level affecting the life quality of women with incontinence. In accordance with this common problem in women, to facilitate daily life it is obvious that regular home care training programs at institutional level in our country will be effective.

Keywords: health problems, incontinence, incontinence quality of life questionnaire, old age, urinary urogenital distress inventory, Sandviken severity, women

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1 The Effects of a Hippotherapy Simulator in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study

Authors: Canan Gunay Yazici, Zubeyir Sarı, Devrim Tarakci

Abstract:

Background: Hippotherapy considered as global techniques used in rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy as it improved gait pattern, balance, postural control, balance and gross motor skills development but it encounters some problems (such as the excess of the cost of horses' care, nutrition, housing). Hippotherapy simulator is being developed in recent years to overcome these problems. These devices aim to create the effects of hippotherapy made with a real horse on patients by simulating the movements of a real horse. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of hippotherapy simulator on gross motor functions, sitting postural control and dynamic balance of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Fourteen children with CP, aged 6–15 years, seven with a diagnosis of spastic hemiplegia, five of diplegia, two of triplegia, Gross Motor Function Classification System level I-III. The Horse Riding Simulator (HRS), including four-speed program (warm-up, level 1-2-3), was used for hippotherapy simulator. Firstly, each child received Neurodevelopmental Therapy (NDT; 45min twice weekly eight weeks). Subsequently, the same children completed HRS+NDT (30min and 15min respectively, twice weekly eight weeks). Children were assessed pre-treatment, at the end of 8th and 16th week. Gross motor function, sitting postural control, dynamic sitting and standing balance were evaluated by Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88, Dimension B, D, E and Total Score), Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), Pedalo® Sensamove Balance Test and Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) respectively. Unit of Scientific Research Project of Marmara University supported our study. Results: All measured variables were a significant increase compared to baseline values after both intervention (NDT and HRS+NDT), except for dynamic sitting balance evaluated by Pedalo®. Especially HRS+NDT, increase in the measured variables was considerably higher than NDT. After NDT, the Total scores of GMFM-88 (mean baseline 62,2 ± 23,5; mean NDT: 66,6 ± 22,2; p < 0,05), TIS (10,4 ± 3,4; 12,1 ± 3; p < 0,05), PBS (37,4 ± 14,6; 39,6 ± 12,9; p < 0,05), Pedalo® sitting (91,2 ± 6,7; 92,3 ± 5,2; p > 0,05) and Pedalo® standing balance points (80,2 ± 10,8; 82,5 ± 11,5; p < 0,05) increased by 7,1%, 2%, 3,9%, 5,2% and 6 % respectively. After HRS+NDT treatment, the total scores of GMFM-88 (mean baseline: 62,2 ± 23,5; mean HRS+NDT: 71,6 ± 21,4; p < 0,05), TIS (10,4 ± 3,4; 15,6 ± 2,9; p < 0,05), PBS (37,4 ± 14,6; 42,5 ± 12; p < 0,05), Pedalo® sitting (91,2 ± 6,7; 93,8 ± 3,7; p > 0,05) and standing balance points (80,2 ± 10,8; 86,2 ± 5,6; p < 0,05) increased by 15,2%, 6%, 7,3%, 6,4%, and 11,9%, respectively, compared to the initial values. Conclusion: Neurodevelopmental therapy provided significant improvements in gross motor functions, sitting postural control, sitting and standing balance of children with CP. When the hippotherapy simulator added to the treatment program, it was observed that these functions were further developed (especially with gross motor functions and dynamic balance). As a result, this pilot study showed that the hippotherapy simulator could be a useful alternative to neurodevelopmental therapy for the improvement of gross motor function, sitting postural control and dynamic balance of children with CP.

Keywords: balance, cerebral palsy, hippotherapy, rehabilitation

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