Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: Stefano Frassinelli

28 An Approach to Physical Performance Analysis for Judo

Authors: Stefano Frassinelli, Alessandro Niccolai, Riccardo E. Zich

Abstract:

Sport performance analysis is a technique that is becoming every year more important for athletes of every level. Many techniques have been developed to measure and analyse efficiently the performance of athletes in some sports, but in combat sports these techniques found in many times their limits, due to the high interaction between the two opponents during the competition. In this paper the problem will be framed. Moreover the physical performance measurement problem will be analysed and three different techniques to manage it will be presented. All the techniques have been used to analyse the performance of 22 high level Judo athletes.

Keywords: sport performance, physical performance, judo, performance coefficients

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
27 Vibrations of Springboards: Mode Shape and Time Domain Analysis

Authors: Stefano Frassinelli, Alessandro Niccolai, Riccardo E. Zich

Abstract:

Diving is an important Olympic sport. In this sport, the effective performance of the athlete is related to his capability to interact correctly with the springboard. In fact, the elevation of the jump and the correctness of the dive are influenced by the vibrations of the board. In this paper, the vibrations of the springboard will be analyzed by means of typical tools for vibration analysis: Firstly, a modal analysis will be done on two different models of the springboard, then, these two model and another one will be analyzed with a time analysis, done integrating the equations of motion od deformable bodies. All these analyses will be compared with experimental data measured on a real springboard by means of a 6-axis accelerometer; these measurements are aimed to assess the models proposed. The acquired data will be analyzed both in frequency domain and in time domain.

Keywords: springboard analysis, modal analysis, time domain analysis, vibrations

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
26 Explantation of Osseo-Integrated Implant Using Electrosurgery and Ultrasonic Instrumentation

Authors: Stefano Andrea Denes

Abstract:

The use of dental implants to rehabilitate edentulous patients has become a well-established and effective treatment option; however, despite its high success rate, this treatment is not free of complications. The fracture of implant body is a rare cause of failure but when it does occur it can present technical challenges. In this article, we report the complete removal of a fractured osseointegrated implant using electrosurgery and ultrasonic instrumentation. The postoperative course was uneventful, no bleeding, infection, or hematoma formation was observed.

Keywords: dental implant, oral surgery, electrosurgery, piezosurgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
25 The Buccal Fat Pad for Closure of Oroantral Communication

Authors: Stefano A. Denes, Riccardo Tieghi, Giovanni Elia

Abstract:

The buccal fat pad is a well-established tool in oral and maxillofacial surgery and its use has proved of value for the closure of oroantral communications. Oroantral communication may be a common complication after sequestrectomy in "Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws". We report a clinical case of a 70-year-old female patient in bisphosphonate therapy presented with right maxillary sinusitis and oroantral communication after implants insertion. The buccal fat pad was used to close the defect. The case had an uneventful postoperative healing without dehiscence, infection and necrosis. We postulate that the primary closure of the site with buccal fat pad may ensure a sufficient blood supply and adequate protection for an effective bone-healing response to occur.

Keywords: buccal fat pad, oroantral communication, oral surgery, dehiscence

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
24 Market Acceptance of Irradiated Food in the City of Piracicaba, Brazil

Authors: Vanessa de Cillos Silva, Fabrício José Piacente, Sônia Maria De Stefano Piedade, Valter Arthur

Abstract:

The increasing concern in relation to safety and hygiene of food consumption makes it so that food conservation is studied. Food radiation is a technique used for conservation, but many consumers associate this technique with dangers such as environmental contamination and development of diseases. This research had the objective of evaluating the acceptance of radiated products by the consumer market in the city of Piracicaba/SP-Brasil. The methodology adopted was the application of a questionnaire in the city’s supermarkets. After the application, the data was tabulated and analyzed. It was observed that the majority of interviewees would not eat irradiated food. The unfamiliarity and questions about the safety of irradiated food were the main causes of your rejection.

Keywords: irradiation, questionnaire, storage, market acceptance

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
23 Investigation on the stability of rock slopes subjected to tension cracks via limit analysis

Authors: Weigao. Wu, Stefano. Utili

Abstract:

Based on the kinematic approach of limit analysis, a full set of upper bound solutions for the stability of homogeneous rock slopes subjected to tension cracks are obtained. The generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion is employed to describe the non-linear strength envelope of rocks. In this paper, critical failure mechanisms are determined for cracks of known depth but unspecified location, cracks of known location but unknown depth, and cracks of unspecified location and depth. It is shown that there is a nearly up to 50% drop in terms of the stability factors for the rock slopes intersected by a tension crack compared with intact ones. Tables and charts of solutions in dimensionless forms are presented for ease of use by practitioners.

Keywords: Hoek-Brown failure criterion, limit analysis, rock slope, tension cracks

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
22 Machine Learning Methods for Flood Hazard Mapping

Authors: Stefano Zappacosta, Cristiano Bove, Maria Carmela Marinelli, Paola di Lauro, Katarina Spasenovic, Lorenzo Ostano, Giuseppe Aiello, Marco Pietrosanto

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel neural network approach for assessing flood hazard mapping. The core of the model is a machine learning component fed by frequency ratios, namely statistical correlations between flood event occurrences and a selected number of topographic properties. The proposed hybrid model can be used to classify four different increasing levels of hazard. The classification capability was compared with the flood hazard mapping River Basin Plans (PAI) designed by the Italian Institute for Environmental Research and Defence, ISPRA (Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale). The study area of Piemonte, an Italian region, has been considered without loss of generality. The frequency ratios may be used as a standalone block to model the flood hazard mapping. Nevertheless, the mixture with a neural network improves the classification power of several percentage points, and may be proposed as a basic tool to model the flood hazard map in a wider scope.

Keywords: flood modeling, hazard map, neural networks, hydrogeological risk, flood risk assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
21 In Search of Zero Beta Assets: Evidence from the Sukuk Market

Authors: Andrea Paltrinieri, Alberto Dreassi, Stefano Miani, Alex Sclip

Abstract:

The financial crises caused a collapse in prices of most asset classes, raising the attention on alternative investments such as Sukuk, a smaller, fast growing but often misunderstood market. We study diversification benefits of Sukuk, their correlation with other asset classes and the effects of their inclusion in investment portfolios of institutional and retail investors, through a comprehensive comparison of their risk/return profiles during and after the financial crisis. We find a beneficial performance adjusted for the specific volatility together with a lower correlation especially during the financial crisis. The distribution of Sukuk returns is positively skewed and leptokurtic, with a risk/return profile similarly to high yield bonds. Overall, our results suggest that Sukuk present diversification opportunities, a significant volatility-adjusted performance and lower correlations especially during the financial crisis. Our findings are relevant for a number of institutional investors. Long term investors, such as life insurers would benefit from Sukuk’s protective features during financial crisis yet keeping return and growth opportunities, whereas banks would gain due to their role of placers, advisors, market makers or underwriters.

Keywords: sukuk, zero beta asset, asset allocation, sukuk market

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
20 Advanced Seismic Retrofit of a School Building by a DFP Base Isolation Solution

Authors: Stefano Sorace, Gloria Terenzi

Abstract:

The study of a base isolation seismic retrofit solution for a reinforced concrete school building is presented in this paper. The building was assumed as a benchmark structure for a Research Project financed by the Italian Department of Civil Protection, and is representative of several similar public edifices designed with earlier Technical Standards editions, in Italy as well as in other earthquake-prone European countries. The structural characteristics of the building, and a synthesis of the investigation campaigns developed on it, are initially presented. The mechanical parameters, dimensions, locations and installation details of the base isolation system, incorporating double friction pendulum sliding bearings as protective devices, are then illustrated, along with the performance assessment analyses carried out in original and rehabilitated conditions according to a full non-linear dynamic approach. The results of the analyses show a remarkable enhancement of the seismic response capacities of the structure in base-isolated configuration. This allows reaching the high performance levels postulated in the rehabilitation design with notably lower costs and architectural intrusion as compared to traditional retrofit interventions designed for the same objectives.

Keywords: seismic retrofit, seismic assessment, r/c structures, school buildings, base isolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
19 Direct Visualization of Shear Induced Structures in Wormlike Micellar Solutions by Microfluidics and Advanced Microscopy

Authors: Carla Caiazza, Valentina Preziosi, Giovanna Tomaiuolo, Denis O'Sullivan, Vincenzo Guida, Stefano Guido

Abstract:

In the last decades, wormlike micellar solutions have been extensively used to tune the rheological behavior of home care and personal care products. This and other successful applications underlie the growing attention that both basic and applied research are devoting to these systems, and to their unique rheological and flow properties. One of the key research topics is the occurrence of flow instabilities at high shear rates (such as shear banding), with the possibility of appearance of flow induced structures. In this scenario, microfluidics is a powerful tool to get a deeper insight into the flow behavior of a wormlike micellar solution, as the high confinement of a microfluidic device facilitates the onset of the flow instabilities; furthermore, thanks to its small dimensions, it can be coupled with optical microscopy, allowing a direct visualization of flow structuring phenomena. Here, the flow of a widely used wormlike micellar solution through a glass capillary has been studied, by coupling the microfluidic device with μPIV techniques. The direct visualization of flow-induced structures and the flow visualization analysis highlight a relationship between solution structuring and the onset of discontinuities in the velocity profile.

Keywords: flow instabilities, flow-induced structures, μPIV, wormlike micelles

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
18 Oxygenation in Turbulent Flows over Block Ramps

Authors: Thendiyath Roshni, Stefano Pagliara

Abstract:

Block ramps (BR) or rock chutes are eco-friendly natural river restoration structures. BR are made of ramp of rocks and flows over BR develop turbulence and helps in the entrainment of ambient air. These act as natural aerators in river flow and therefore leads to oxygenation of water. As many of the hydraulic structures in rivers, hinders the natural path for aquatic habitat. However, flows over BR ascertains a natural rocky flow and ensures safe and natural movement for aquatic habitat. Hence, BR is considered as a better alternative for drop structures. As water quality is concerned, turbulent and aerated flows over BR or macro-roughness conditions improves aeration and thereby oxygenation. Hence, the objective of this paper is to study the oxygenation in the turbulent flows over BR. Experimental data were taken for a slope (S) of 27.5% for three discharges (Q = 9, 15 and 21 lps) conditions. Air concentration were measured with the help of air concentration probe for three different discharges in the uniform flow region. Oxygen concentration is deduced from the air concentration as ambient air is entrained in the flows over BR. Air concentration profiles and oxygen profiles are plotted in the uniform flow region for three discharges and found that air concentration and oxygen concentration does not show any remarkable variation in properties in the longitudinal profile in uniform flow region. An empirical relation is developed for finding the average oxygen concentration (Oₘ) for S = 27.5% in the uniform flow region for 9 < Q < 21 lps. The results show that as the discharge increases over BR, there is a reduction of oxygen concentration in the uniform flow region.

Keywords: aeration, block ramps, oxygenation, turbulent flows

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
17 Corrosion Mitigation in Gas Facilities Piping Through the Use of FBE Coated Pipes and Corrosion Resistant Alloy Girth Welds

Authors: Fadi Chammas, Saad Alkhaldi, Tariq Alghamdi, Stefano Alexandirs

Abstract:

The operating conditions and corrosive nature of the process fluid in the Haradh and Hawiyah areas are subjecting facility piping to undesirable corrosion phenomena. Therefore, production headers inside remote headers have been internally cladded with high alloy material to mitigate the corrosion damage mechanism. Corrosion mitigation in the jump-over lines, constructed between the existing flowlines and the newly constructed facilities to provide operational flexibility, is proposed. This corrosion mitigation system includes the application of fusion bond epoxy (FBE) coating on the internal surface of the pipe and depositing corrosion-resistant alloy (CRA) weld layers at pipe and fittings ends to protect the carbon steel material. In addition, high alloy CRA weld material is used to deposit the girth weld between the 90-degree elbows and mating internally coated segments. A rigorous testing and qualification protocol was established prior to actual adoption at the Haradh and Hawiyah Field Gas Compression Program, currently being executed by Saudi Aramco. The proposed mitigation system, aimed at applying the cladding at the ends of the internally FBE coated pipes/elbows, will resolve field joint coating challenges, eliminate the use of approximately (1700) breakout flanges, and prevent the potential hydrocarbon leaks.

Keywords: pipelines, corrosion, cost-saving, project completion

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
16 Incorporation of Growth Factors onto Hydrogels via Peptide Mediated Binding for Development of Vascular Networks

Authors: Katie Kilgour, Brendan Turner, Carly Catella, Michael Daniele, Stefano Menegatti

Abstract:

In vivo, the extracellular matrix (ECM) provides biochemical and mechanical properties that are instructional to resident cells to form complex tissues with characteristics to develop and support vascular networks. In vitro, the development of vascular networks can be guided by biochemical patterning of substrates via spatial distribution and display of peptides and growth factors to prompt cell adhesion, differentiation, and proliferation. We have developed a technique utilizing peptide ligands that specifically bind vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), erythropoietin (EPO), or angiopoietin-1 (ANG1) to spatiotemporally distribute growth factors to cells. This allows for the controlled release of each growth factor, ultimately enhancing the formation of a vascular network. Our engineered tissue constructs (ETCs) are fabricated out of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA), which is an ideal substrate for tailored stiffness and bio-functionality, and covalently patterned with growth factor specific peptides. These peptides mimic growth factor receptors, facilitating the non-covalent binding of the growth factors to the ETC, allowing for facile uptake by the cells. We have demonstrated in the absence of cells the binding affinity of VEGF, EPO, and ANG1 to their respective peptides and the ability for each to be patterned onto a GelMA substrate. The ability to organize growth factors on an ETC provides different functionality to develop organized vascular networks. Our results demonstrated a method to incorporate biochemical cues into ETCs that enable spatial and temporal control of growth factors. Future efforts will investigate the cellular response by evaluating gene expression, quantifying angiogenic activity, and measuring the speed of growth factor consumption.

Keywords: growth factor, hydrogel, peptide, angiogenesis, vascular, patterning

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
15 Optimum Turbomachine Preliminary Selection for Power Regeneration in Vapor Compression Cool Production Plants

Authors: Sayyed Benyamin Alavi, Giovanni Cerri, Leila Chennaoui, Ambra Giovannelli, Stefano Mazzoni

Abstract:

Primary energy consumption and emissions of pollutants (including CO2) sustainability call to search methodologies to lower power absorption for unit of a given product. Cool production plants based on vapour compression are widely used for many applications: air conditioning, food conservation, domestic refrigerators and freezers, special industrial processes, etc. In the field of cool production, the amount of Yearly Consumed Primary Energy is enormous, thus, saving some percentage of it, leads to big worldwide impact in the energy consumption and related energy sustainability. Among various techniques to reduce power required by a Vapour Compression Cool Production Plant (VCCPP), the technique based on Power Regeneration by means of Internal Direct Cycle (IDC) will be considered in this paper. Power produced by IDC reduces power need for unit of produced Cool Power by the VCCPP. The paper contains basic concepts that lead to develop IDCs and the proposed options to use the IDC Power. Among various selections for using turbo machines, Best Economically Available Technologies (BEATs) have been explored. Based on vehicle engine turbochargers, they have been taken into consideration for this application. According to BEAT Database and similarity rules, the best turbo machine selection leads to the minimum nominal power required by VCCPP Main Compressor. Results obtained installing the prototype in “ad hoc” designed test bench will be discussed and compared with the expected performance. Forecasts for the upgrading VCCPP, various applications will be given and discussed. 4-6% saving is expected for air conditioning cooling plants and 15-22% is expected for cryogenic plants.

Keywords: Refrigeration Plant, Vapour Pressure Amplifier, Compressor, Expander, Turbine, Turbomachinery Selection, Power Saving

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
14 Seismic Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Structures by Highly Dissipative Technologies

Authors: Stefano Sorace, Gloria Terenzi, Giulia Mazzieri, Iacopo Costoli

Abstract:

The prolonged earthquake sequence that struck several urban agglomerations and villages in Central Italy, starting from 24 August 2016 through January 2017, highlighted once again the seismic vulnerability of pre-normative reinforced concrete (R/C) structures. At the same time, considerable damages were surveyed in recently retrofitted R/C buildings too, one of which also by means of a dissipative bracing system. The solution adopted for the latter did not expressly take into account the performance of non-structural elements, and namely of infills and partitions, confirming the importance of their dynamic interaction with the structural skeleton. Based on this consideration, an alternative supplemental damping-based retrofit solution for this representative building, i.e., a school with an R/C structure situated in the municipality of Norcia, is examined in this paper. It consists of the incorporation of dissipative braces equipped with pressurized silicone fluid viscous (FV) dampers, instead of the BRAD system installed in the building, the delayed activation of which -caused by the high stiffness of the constituting metallic dampers- determined the observed non-structural damages. Indeed, the alternative solution proposed herein, characterized by dissipaters with mainly damping mechanical properties, guarantees an earlier activation of the protective system. A careful assessment analysis, preliminarily carried out to simulate and check the case study building performance in originally BRAD-retrofitted conditions, confirms that the interstorey drift demand related to the Norcia earthquake's mainshock and aftershocks is beyond the response capacity of infills. The verification analyses developed on the R/C structure, including the FV-damped braces, highlight their higher performance, giving rise to a completely undamaged response both of structural and non-structural elements up to the basic design earthquake normative level of seismic action.

Keywords: dissipative technologies, performance assessment analysis, concrete structures, seismic retrofit

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
13 As Evolved Mechanisms and Cultural Modeling Affect Child Gender Attribution

Authors: Stefano Federici, Alessandro Lepri, Antonella Carrera

Abstract:

Kessler and McKenna in the seventies, and recently Federici and Lepri investigated how an individual attributes gender to a person. By administering nudes of human figures, the scholars have found that the penis more than the vagina and the male sexual characteristics more than the female ones are significantly more salient in the gender attribution process. Federici and Lepri suggested that the asymmetrical salience of sexual characteristics is attributable to evolved decision-making processes for the solution of gender attribution problems to avoid the greatest danger of an (angry) adult male. The present study has observed the behaviour of 60 children, aged between 3 and 6 years, and their parents verifying whether the child gender attribution mechanisms are permeable to cultural stereotypes. The participating children were asked to make a male or a female on a tablet by combining 12 human physical characteristics (long hair, short hair, wide hips, narrow hips, breasts, flat chest, body hair, hairless body, penis, vagina, male face, and female face) and four cloths (male t-shirt, female t-shirt, pants, and skirt) by superimposing one or more of them on a sexually neutral manikin. On the tablet was installed an App, created by authors, to replicate the Kessler and McKenna and Federici and Lepri previous studies. One of the parents of each of the participating children was asked to make a male or a female using the same apparatus used by children. In addition, the participating parents were asked to complete a test, as proposed by Federici and Lepri in their previous study, to compare adult and child processes of gender attribution. The results suggested that children are affected both by evolved mechanisms as adults were (e.g., taking less time to make a male than a female, using the penis more often than the vagina), and by cultural modeling of parental and environmental gender stereotypes (e.g., the genitals were often covered with pants in case the delivery was to make a male and a skirt in the case was to make a female).

Keywords: biological sex, cognitive biases, cultural modeling, gender attribution, evolved decision-making processes

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
12 Radical Scavenging Activity of Protein Extracts from Pulse and Oleaginous Seeds

Authors: Silvia Gastaldello, Maria Grillo, Luca Tassoni, Claudio Maran, Stefano Balbo

Abstract:

Antioxidants are nowadays attractive not only for the countless benefits to the human and animal health, but also for the perspective of use as food preservative instead of synthetic chemical molecules. In this study, the radical scavenging activity of six protein extracts from pulse and oleaginous seeds was evaluated. The selected matrices are Pisum sativum (yellow pea from two different origins), Carthamus tinctorius (safflower), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Lupinus luteus cv Mister (lupin) and Glycine max (soybean), since they are economically interesting for both human and animal nutrition. The seeds were grinded and proteins extracted from 20mg powder with a specific vegetal-extraction kit. Proteins have been quantified through Bradford protocol and scavenging activity was revealed using DPPH assay, based on radical DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) absorbance decrease in the presence of antioxidants molecules. Different concentrations of the protein extract (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µg/ml) were mixed with DPPH solution (DPPH 0,004% in ethanol 70% v/v). Ascorbic acid was used as a scavenging activity standard reference, at the same six concentrations of protein extracts, while DPPH solution was used as control. Samples and standard were prepared in triplicate and incubated for 30 minutes in dark at room temperature, the absorbance was read at 517nm (ABS30). Average and standard deviation of absorbance values were calculated for each concentration of samples and standard. Statistical analysis using t-students and p-value were performed to assess the statistical significance of the scavenging activity difference between the samples (or standard) and control (ABSctrl). The percentage of antioxidant activity has been calculated using the formula [(ABSctrl-ABS30)/ABSctrl]*100. The obtained results demonstrate that all matrices showed antioxidant activity. Ascorbic acid, used as standard, exhibits a 96% scavenging activity at the concentration of 500 µg/ml. At the same conditions, sunflower, safflower and yellow peas revealed the highest antioxidant performance among the matrices analyzed, with an activity of 74%, 68% and 70% respectively (p < 0.005). Although lupin and soybean exhibit a lower antioxidant activity compared to the other matrices, they showed a percentage of 46 and 36 respectively. All these data suggest the possibility to use undervalued edible matrices as antioxidants source. However, further studies are necessary to investigate a possible synergic effect of several matrices as well as the impact of industrial processes for a large-scale approach.

Keywords: antioxidants, DPPH assay, natural matrices, vegetal proteins

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
11 A Comparative Study between Japan and the European Union on Software Vulnerability Public Policies

Authors: Stefano Fantin

Abstract:

The present analysis outcomes from the research undertaken in the course of the European-funded project EUNITY, which targets the gaps in research and development on cybersecurity and privacy between Europe and Japan. Under these auspices, the research presents a study on the policy approach of Japan, the EU and a number of Member States of the Union with regard to the handling and discovery of software vulnerabilities, with the aim of identifying methodological differences and similarities. This research builds upon a functional comparative analysis of both public policies and legal instruments from the identified jurisdictions. The result of this analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with EUNITY partners, as well as by the participation of the researcher to a recent report from the Center for EU Policy Study on software vulnerability. The European Union presents a rather fragmented legal framework on software vulnerabilities. The presence of a number of different legislations at the EU level (including Network and Information Security Directive, Critical Infrastructure Directive, Directive on the Attacks at Information Systems and the Proposal for a Cybersecurity Act) with no clear focus on such a subject makes it difficult for both national governments and end-users (software owners, researchers and private citizens) to gain a clear understanding of the Union’s approach. Additionally, the current data protection reform package (general data protection regulation), seems to create legal uncertainty around security research. To date, at the member states level, a few efforts towards transparent practices have been made, namely by the Netherlands, France, and Latvia. This research will explain what policy approach such countries have taken. Japan has started implementing a coordinated vulnerability disclosure policy in 2004. To date, two amendments can be registered on the framework (2014 and 2017). The framework is furthermore complemented by a series of instruments allowing researchers to disclose responsibly any new discovery. However, the policy has started to lose its efficiency due to a significant increase in reports made to the authority in charge. To conclude, the research conducted reveals two asymmetric policy approaches, time-wise and content-wise. The analysis therein will, therefore, conclude with a series of policy recommendations based on the lessons learned from both regions, towards a common approach to the security of European and Japanese markets, industries and citizens.

Keywords: cybersecurity, vulnerability, European Union, Japan

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
10 Planning a European Policy for Increasing Graduate Population: The Conditions That Count

Authors: Alice Civera, Mattia Cattaneo, Michele Meoli, Stefano Paleari

Abstract:

Despite the fact that more equal access to higher education has been an objective public policy for several decades, little is known about the effectiveness of alternative means for achieving such goal. Indeed, nowadays, high level of graduate population can be observed both in countries with the high and low level of fees, or high and low level of public expenditure in higher education. This paper surveys the extant literature providing some background on the economic concepts of the higher education market, and reviews key determinants of demand and supply. A theoretical model of aggregate demand and supply of higher education is derived, with the aim to facilitate the understanding of the challenges in today’s higher education systems, as well as the opportunities for development. The model is validated on some exemplary case studies describing the different relationship between the level of public investment and levels of graduate population and helps to derive general implications. In addition, using a two-stage least squares model, we build a macroeconomic model of supply and demand for European higher education. The model allows interpreting policies shifting either the supply or the demand for higher education, and allows taking into consideration contextual conditions with the aim of comparing divergent policies under a common framework. Results show that the same policy objective (i.e., increasing graduate population) can be obtained by shifting either the demand function (i.e., by strengthening student aid) or the supply function (i.e., by directly supporting higher education institutions). Under this theoretical perspective, the level of tuition fees is irrelevant, and empirically we can observe high levels of graduate population in both countries with high (i.e., the UK) or low (i.e., Germany) levels of tuition fees. In practice, this model provides a conceptual framework to help better understanding what are the external conditions that need to be considered, when planning a policy for increasing graduate population. Extrapolating a policy from results in different countries, under this perspective, is a poor solution when contingent factors are not addressed. The second implication of this conceptual framework is that policies addressing the supply or the demand function needs to address different contingencies. In other words, a government aiming at increasing graduate population needs to implement complementary policies, designing them according to the side of the market that is interested. For example, a ‘supply-driven’ intervention, through the direct financial support of higher education institutions, needs to address the issue of institutions’ moral hazard, by creating incentives to supply higher education services in efficient conditions. By contrast, a ‘demand-driven’ policy, providing student aids, need to tackle the students’ moral hazard, by creating an incentive to responsible behavior.

Keywords: graduates, higher education, higher education policies, tuition fees

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
9 Investigation of a Single Feedstock Particle during Pyrolysis in Fluidized Bed Reactors via X-Ray Imaging Technique

Authors: Stefano Iannello, Massimiliano Materazzi

Abstract:

Fluidized bed reactor technologies are one of the most valuable pathways for thermochemical conversions of biogenic fuels due to their good operating flexibility. Nevertheless, there are still issues related to the mixing and separation of heterogeneous phases during operation with highly volatile feedstocks, including biomass and waste. At high temperatures, the volatile content of the feedstock is released in the form of the so-called endogenous bubbles, which generally exert a “lift” effect on the particle itself by dragging it up to the bed surface. Such phenomenon leads to high release of volatile matter into the freeboard and limited mass and heat transfer with particles of the bed inventory. The aim of this work is to get a better understanding of the behaviour of a single reacting particle in a hot fluidized bed reactor during the devolatilization stage. The analysis has been undertaken at different fluidization regimes and temperatures to closely mirror the operating conditions of waste-to-energy processes. Beechwood and polypropylene particles were used to resemble the biomass and plastic fractions present in waste materials, respectively. The non-invasive X-ray technique was coupled to particle tracking algorithms to characterize the motion of a single feedstock particle during the devolatilization with high resolution. A high-energy X-ray beam passes through the vessel where absorption occurs, depending on the distribution and amount of solids and fluids along the beam path. A high-speed video camera is synchronised to the beam and provides frame-by-frame imaging of the flow patterns of fluids and solids within the fluidized bed up to 72 fps (frames per second). A comprehensive mathematical model has been developed in order to validate the experimental results. Beech wood and polypropylene particles have shown a very different dynamic behaviour during the pyrolysis stage. When the feedstock is fed from the bottom, the plastic material tends to spend more time within the bed than the biomass. This behaviour can be attributed to the presence of the endogenous bubbles, which drag effect is more pronounced during the devolatilization of biomass, resulting in a lower residence time of the particle within the bed. At the typical operating temperatures of thermochemical conversions, the synthetic polymer softens and melts, and the bed particles attach on its outer surface, generating a wet plastic-sand agglomerate. Consequently, this additional layer of sand may hinder the rapid evolution of volatiles in the form of endogenous bubbles, and therefore the establishment of a poor drag effect acting on the feedstock itself. Information about the mixing and segregation of solid feedstock is of prime importance for the design and development of more efficient industrial-scale operations.

Keywords: fluidized bed, pyrolysis, waste feedstock, X-ray

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
8 Gender Specific Differences in Clinical Outcomes of Knee Osteoarthritis Treated with Micro-Fragmented Adipose Tissue

Authors: Tiffanie-Marie Borg, Yasmin Zeinolabediny, Nima Heidari, Ali Noorani, Mark Slevin, Angel Cullen, Stefano Olgiati, Alberto Zerbi, Alessandro Danovi, Adrian Wilson

Abstract:

Knee Osteoarthritis (OA) is a critical cause of disability globally. In recent years, there has been growing interest in non-invasive treatments, such as intra-articular injection of micro-fragmented fat (MFAT), showing great potential in treating OA. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), originating from pericytes of micro-vessels in MFAT, can differentiate into mesenchymal lineage cells such as cartilage, osteocytes, adipocytes, and osteoblasts. Secretion of growth factor and cytokines from MSCs have the capability to inhibit T cell growth, reduced pain and inflammation, and create a micro-environment that through paracrine signaling, can promote joint repair and cartilage regeneration. Here we have shown, for the first time, data supporting the hypothesis that women respond better in terms of improvements in pain and function to MFAT injection compared to men. Historically, women have been underrepresented in studies, and studies with both sexes regularly fail to analyse the results by sex. To mitigate this bias and quantify it, we describe a technique using reproducible statistical analysis and replicable results with Open Access statistical software R to calculate the magnitude of this difference. Genetic, hormonal, environmental, and age factors play a role in our observed difference between the sexes. This observational, intention-to-treat study included the complete sample of 456 patients who agreed to be scored for pain (visual analogue scale (VAS)) and function (Oxford knee score (OKS)) at baseline regardless of subsequent changes to adherence or status during follow-up. We report that a significantly larger number of women responded to treatment than men: [90% vs. 60% change in VAS scores with 87% vs. 65% change in OKS scores, respectively]. Women overall had a stronger positive response to treatment with reduced pain and improved mobility and function. Pre-injection, our cohort of women were in more pain with worse joint function which is quite common to see in orthopaedics. However, during the 2-year follow-up, they consistently maintained a lower incidence of discomfort with superior joint function. This data clearly identifies a clear need for further studies to identify the cell and molecular biological and other basis for these differences and be able to utilize this information for stratification in order to improve outcome for both women and men.

Keywords: gender differences, micro-fragmented adipose tissue, knee osteoarthritis, stem cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
7 Regeneration of Cesium-Exhausted Activated Carbons by Microwave Irradiation

Authors: Pietro P. Falciglia, Erica Gagliano, Vincenza Brancato, Alfio Catalfo, Guglielmo Finocchiaro, Guido De Guidi, Stefano Romano, Paolo Roccaro, Federico G. A. Vagliasindi

Abstract:

Cesium-137 (¹³⁷Cs) is a major radionuclide in spent nuclear fuel processing, and it represents the most important cause of contamination related to nuclear accidents. Cesium-137 has long-term radiological effects representing a major concern for the human health. Several physico-chemical methods have been proposed for ¹³⁷Cs removal from impacted water: ion-exchange, adsorption, chemical precipitation, membrane process, coagulation, and electrochemical. However, these methods can be limited by ionic selectivity and efficiency, or they present very restricted full-scale application due to equipment and chemical high costs. On the other hand, adsorption is considered a more cost-effective solution, and activated carbons (ACs) are known as a low-cost and effective adsorbent for a wide range of pollutants among which radionuclides. However, adsorption of Cs onto ACs has been investigated in very few and not exhaustive studies. In addition, exhausted activated carbons are generally discarded in landfill, that is not an eco-friendly and economic solution. Consequently, the regeneration of exhausted ACs must be considered a preferable choice. Several alternatives, including conventional thermal-, solvent-, biological- and electrochemical-regeneration, are available but are affected by several economic or environmental concerns. Microwave (MW) irradiation has been widely used in industrial and environmental applications and it has attracted many attentions to regenerating activated carbons. The growing interest in MW irradiation is based on the passive ability of the irradiated medium to convert a low power irradiation energy into a rapid and large temperature increase if the media presents good dielectric features. ACs are excellent MW-absorbers, with a high mechanical strength and a good resistance towards heating process. This work investigates the feasibility of MW irradiation for the regeneration of Cs-exhausted ACs. Adsorption batch experiments were carried out using commercially available granular activated carbon (GAC), then Cs-saturated AC samples were treated using a controllable bench-scale 2.45-GHz MW oven and investigating different adsorption-regeneration cycles. The regeneration efficiency (RE), weight loss percentage, and textural properties of the AC samples during the adsorption-regeneration cycles were also assessed. Main results demonstrated a relatively low adsorption capacity for Cs, although the feasibility of ACs was strictly linked to their dielectric nature, which allows a very efficient thermal regeneration by MW irradiation. The weight loss percentage was found less than 2%, and an increase in RE after three cycles was also observed. Furthermore, MW regeneration preserved the pore structure of the regenerated ACs. For a deeper exploration of the full-scale applicability of MW regeneration, further investigations on more adsorption-regeneration cycles or using fixed-bed columns are required.

Keywords: adsorption mechanisms, cesium, granular activated carbons, microwave regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
6 Multilocal Youth and the Berlin Digital Industry: Productive Leisure as a Key Factor in European Migration

Authors: Stefano Pelaggi

Abstract:

The research is focused on youth labor and mobility in Berlin. Mobility has become a common denominator in our daily lives but it does not primarily move according to monetary incentives. Labor, knowledge and leisure overlap on this point as cities are trying to attract people who could participate in production of the innovations while the new migrants are experiencing the lifestyle of the host cities. The research will present the project of empirical study focused on Italian workers in the digital industry in Berlin, trying to underline the connection between pleasure, leisure with the choice of life abroad. Berlin has become the epicenter of the European Internet start-up scene, but people suitable to work for digital industries are not moving in Berlin to make a career, most of them are attracted to the city for different reasons. This point makes a clear exception to traditional migration flows, which are always originated from a specific search of employment opportunities or strong ties, usually families, in a place that could guarantee success in finding a job. Even the skilled migration has always been originated from a specific need, finding the right path for a successful professional life. In a society where the lack of free time in our calendar seems to be something to be ashamed, the actors of youth mobility incorporate some categories of experiential tourism within their own life path. Professional aspirations, lifestyle choices of the protagonists of youth mobility are geared towards meeting the desires and aspirations that define leisure. While most of creative work places, in particular digital industries, uses the category of fun as a primary element of corporate policy, virtually extending the time to work for the whole day; more and more people around the world are deciding their path in life, career choices on the basis of indicators linked to the realization of the self, which may include factors like a warm climate, cultural environment. All indicators that are usually eradicated from the hegemonic approach to labor. The interpretative framework commonly used seems to be mostly focused on a dualism between Florida's theories and those who highlight the absence of conflict in his studies. While the flexibility of the new creative industries is minimizing leisure, incorporating elements of leisure itself in work activities, more people choose their own path of life by placing great importance to basic needs, through a gaze on pleasure that is only partially driven by consumption. The multi localism is the co-existence of different identities and cultures that do not conflict because they reject the bind on territory. Local loses its strength of opposition to global, with an attenuation of the whole concept of citizenship, territory and even integration. A similar perspective could be useful to search a new approach to all the studies dedicated to the gentrification process, while studying the new migrations flow.

Keywords: brain drain, digital industry, leisure and gentrification, multi localism

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
5 Edge Enhancement Visual Methodology for Fat Amount and Distribution Assessment in Dry-Cured Ham Slices

Authors: Silvia Grassi, Stefano Schiavon, Ernestina Casiraghi, Cristina Alamprese

Abstract:

Dry-cured ham is an uncooked meat product particularly appreciated for its peculiar sensory traits among which lipid component plays a key role in defining quality and, consequently, consumers’ acceptability. Usually, fat content and distribution are chemically determined by expensive, time-consuming, and destructive analyses. Moreover, different sensory techniques are applied to assess product conformity to desired standards. In this context, visual systems are getting a foothold in the meat market envisioning more reliable and time-saving assessment of food quality traits. The present work aims at developing a simple but systematic and objective visual methodology to assess the fat amount of dry-cured ham slices, in terms of total, intermuscular and intramuscular fractions. To the aim, 160 slices from 80 PDO dry-cured hams were evaluated by digital image analysis and Soxhlet extraction. RGB images were captured by a flatbed scanner, converted in grey-scale images, and segmented based on intensity histograms as well as on a multi-stage algorithm aimed at edge enhancement. The latter was performed applying the Canny algorithm, which consists of image noise reduction, calculation of the intensity gradient for each image, spurious response removal, actual thresholding on corrected images, and confirmation of strong edge boundaries. The approach allowed for the automatic calculation of total, intermuscular and intramuscular fat fractions as percentages of the total slice area. Linear regression models were run to estimate the relationships between the image analysis results and the chemical data, thus allowing for the prediction of the total, intermuscular and intramuscular fat content by the dry-cured ham images. The goodness of fit of the obtained models was confirmed in terms of coefficient of determination (R²), hypothesis testing and pattern of residuals. Good regression models have been found being 0.73, 0.82, and 0.73 the R2 values for the total fat, the sum of intermuscular and intramuscular fat and the intermuscular fraction, respectively. In conclusion, the edge enhancement visual procedure brought to a good fat segmentation making the simple visual approach for the quantification of the different fat fractions in dry-cured ham slices sufficiently simple, accurate and precise. The presented image analysis approach steers towards the development of instruments that can overcome destructive, tedious and time-consuming chemical determinations. As future perspectives, the results of the proposed image analysis methodology will be compared with those of sensory tests in order to develop a fast grading method of dry-cured hams based on fat distribution. Therefore, the system will be able not only to predict the actual fat content but it will also reflect the visual appearance of samples as perceived by consumers.

Keywords: dry-cured ham, edge detection algorithm, fat content, image analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
4 Experimental and Simulation Results for the Removal of H2S from Biogas by Means of Sodium Hydroxide in Structured Packed Columns

Authors: Hamadi Cherif, Christophe Coquelet, Paolo Stringari, Denis Clodic, Laura Pellegrini, Stefania Moioli, Stefano Langè

Abstract:

Biogas is a promising technology which can be used as a vehicle fuel, for heat and electricity production, or injected in the national gas grid. It is storable, transportable, not intermittent and substitutable for fossil fuels. This gas produced from the wastewater treatment by degradation of organic matter under anaerobic conditions is mainly composed of methane and carbon dioxide. To be used as a renewable fuel, biogas, whose energy comes only from methane, must be purified from carbon dioxide and other impurities such as water vapor, siloxanes and hydrogen sulfide. Purification of biogas for this application particularly requires the removal of hydrogen sulfide, which negatively affects the operation and viability of equipment especially pumps, heat exchangers and pipes, causing their corrosion. Several methods are available to eliminate hydrogen sulfide from biogas. Herein, reactive absorption in structured packed column by means of chemical absorption in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions is considered. This study is based on simulations using Aspen Plus™ V8.0, and comparisons are done with data from an industrial pilot plant treating 85 Nm3/h of biogas which contains about 30 ppm of hydrogen sulfide. The rate-based model approach has been used for simulations in order to determine the efficiencies of separation for different operating conditions. To describe vapor-liquid equilibrium, a γ/ϕ approach has been considered: the Electrolyte NRTL model has been adopted to represent non-idealities in the liquid phase, while the Redlich-Kwong equation of state has been used for the vapor phase. In order to validate the thermodynamic model, Henry’s law constants of each compound in water have been verified against experimental data. Default values available in Aspen Plus™ V8.0 for the properties of pure components properties as heat capacity, density, viscosity and surface tension have also been verified. The obtained results for physical and chemical properties are in a good agreement with experimental data. Reactions involved in the process have been studied rigorously. Equilibrium constants for equilibrium reactions and the reaction rate constant for the kinetically controlled reaction between carbon dioxide and the hydroxide ion have been checked. Results of simulations of the pilot plant purification section show the influence of low temperatures, concentration of sodium hydroxide and hydrodynamic parameters on the selective absorption of hydrogen sulfide. These results show an acceptable degree of accuracy when compared with the experimental data obtained from the pilot plant. Results show also the great efficiency of sodium hydroxide for the removal of hydrogen sulfide. The content of this compound in the gas leaving the column is under 1 ppm.

Keywords: biogas, hydrogen sulfide, reactive absorption, sodium hydroxide, structured packed column

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
3 Design of a Human-in-the-Loop Aircraft Taxiing Optimisation System Using Autonomous Tow Trucks

Authors: Stefano Zaninotto, Geoffrey Farrugia, Johan Debattista, Jason Gauci

Abstract:

The need to reduce fuel and noise during taxi operations in the airports with a scenario of constantly increasing air traffic has resulted in an effort by the aerospace industry to move towards electric taxiing. In fact, this is one of the problems that is currently being addressed by SESAR JU and two main solutions are being proposed. With the first solution, electric motors are installed in the main (or nose) landing gear of the aircraft. With the second solution, manned or unmanned electric tow trucks are used to tow aircraft from the gate to the runway (or vice-versa). The presence of the tow trucks results in an increase in vehicle traffic inside the airport. Therefore, it is important to design the system in a way that the workload of Air Traffic Control (ATC) is not increased and the system assists ATC in managing all ground operations. The aim of this work is to develop an electric taxiing system, based on the use of autonomous tow trucks, which optimizes aircraft ground operations while keeping ATC in the loop. This system will consist of two components: an optimization tool and a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The optimization tool will be responsible for determining the optimal path for arriving and departing aircraft; allocating a tow truck to each taxiing aircraft; detecting conflicts between aircraft and/or tow trucks; and proposing solutions to resolve any conflicts. There are two main optimization strategies proposed in the literature. With centralized optimization, a central authority coordinates and makes the decision for all ground movements, in order to find a global optimum. With the second strategy, called decentralized optimization or multi-agent system, the decision authority is distributed among several agents. These agents could be the aircraft, the tow trucks, and taxiway or runway intersections. This approach finds local optima; however, it scales better with the number of ground movements and is more robust to external disturbances (such as taxi delays or unscheduled events). The strategy proposed in this work is a hybrid system combining aspects of these two approaches. The GUI will provide information on the movement and status of each aircraft and tow truck, and alert ATC about any impending conflicts. It will also enable ATC to give taxi clearances and to modify the routes proposed by the system. The complete system will be tested via computer simulation of various taxi scenarios at multiple airports, including Malta International Airport, a major international airport, and a fictitious airport. These tests will involve actual Air Traffic Controllers in order to evaluate the GUI and assess the impact of the system on ATC workload and situation awareness. It is expected that the proposed system will increase the efficiency of taxi operations while reducing their environmental impact. Furthermore, it is envisaged that the system will facilitate various controller tasks and improve ATC situation awareness.

Keywords: air traffic control, electric taxiing, autonomous tow trucks, graphical user interface, ground operations, multi-agent, route optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
2 Physico-Chemical Characterization of Vegetable Oils from Oleaginous Seeds (Croton megalocarpus, Ricinus communis L., and Gossypium hirsutum L.)

Authors: Patrizia Firmani, Sara Perucchini, Irene Rapone, Raffella Borrelli, Stefano Chiaberge, Manuela Grande, Rosamaria Marrazzo, Alberto Savoini, Andrea Siviero, Silvia Spera, Fabio Vago, Davide Deriu, Sergio Fanutti, Alessandro Oldani

Abstract:

According to the Renewable Energy Directive II, the use of palm oil in diesel will be gradually reduced from 2023 and should reach zero in 2030 due to the deforestation caused by its production. Eni aims at finding alternative feedstocks for its biorefineries to eliminate the use of palm oil by 2023. Therefore, the ideal vegetable oils to be used in bio-refineries are those obtainable from plants that grow in marginal lands, and with low impact on food-and-feed chain; hence, Eni research is studying the possibility of using oleaginous seeds, such as castor, croton, and cotton, to extract the oils to be exploited as feedstock in bio-refineries. To verify their suitability for the upgrading processes, an analytical protocol for their characterization has been drawn up and applied. The analytical characterizations include a step of water and ashes content determination, elemental analysis (CHNS analysis, X-Ray Fluorescence, Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy, ICP– Mass Spectrometry), and total acid number determination. Gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) is used to quantify the lipid content in terms of free fatty acids, mono-, di- and triacylglycerols, and fatty acids composition. Eventually, nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopies are exploited with GC-MS and Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance to study the composition of the oils. This work focuses on the GC-FID analysis of the lipid fraction of these oils, as the main constituent and of greatest interest for bio-refinery processes. Specifically, the lipid component of the extracted oil was quantified after sample silanization and transmethylation: silanization allows the elution of high-boiling compounds and is useful for determining the quantity of free acids and glycerides in oils, while transmethylation leads to a mixture of fatty acid esters and glycerol, thus allowing to evaluate the composition of glycerides in terms of fatty acids methyl esters (FAME). Cotton oil was extracted from cotton oilcake; croton oil was obtained by seed pressing and seeds and oilcake ASE extraction, while castor oil comes from seed pressing (not performed in Eni laboratories). GC-FID analyses reported that the cotton oil is 90% constituted of triglycerides and about 6% diglycerides, while free fatty acids are about 2%. In terms of FAME, C18 acids make up 70% of the total, and linoleic acid is the major constituent. Palmitic acid is present at 17.5%, while the other acids are in low concentration ( < 1%). Both analyzes show the presence of non-gas chromatographable compounds. Croton oils from seed pressing and extraction mainly contain triglycerides (98%). Concerning FAME, the main component is linoleic acid (approx. 80%). Oilcake croton oil shows a higher abundance of diglycerides (6% vs ca 2%) and a lower content of triglycerides (38% vs 98%) compared to the previous oils. Eventually, castor oil is mostly constituted of triacylglycerols (about 69%), followed by diglycerides (about 10%). About 85.2% of total FAME is ricinoleic acid, as a constituent of triricinolein, the most abundant triglyceride of castor oil. Based on the analytical results, these oils represent feedstocks of interest for possible exploitation as advanced biofuels.

Keywords: analytical protocol, biofuels, biorefinery, gas chromatography, vegetable oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
1 A Spatial Repetitive Controller Applied to an Aeroelastic Model for Wind Turbines

Authors: Riccardo Fratini, Riccardo Santini, Jacopo Serafini, Massimo Gennaretti, Stefano Panzieri

Abstract:

This paper presents a nonlinear differential model, for a three-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) suited for control applications. It is based on a 8-dofs, lumped parameters structural dynamics coupled with a quasi-steady sectional aerodynamics. In particular, using the Euler-Lagrange Equation (Energetic Variation approach), the authors derive, and successively validate, such model. For the derivation of the aerodynamic model, the Greenbergs theory, an extension of the theory proposed by Theodorsen to the case of thin airfoils undergoing pulsating flows, is used. Specifically, in this work, the authors restricted that theory under the hypothesis of low perturbation reduced frequency k, which causes the lift deficiency function C(k) to be real and equal to 1. Furthermore, the expressions of the aerodynamic loads are obtained using the quasi-steady strip theory (Hodges and Ormiston), as a function of the chordwise and normal components of relative velocity between flow and airfoil Ut, Up, their derivatives, and section angular velocity ε˙. For the validation of the proposed model, the authors carried out open and closed-loop simulations of a 5 MW HAWT, characterized by radius R =61.5 m and by mean chord c = 3 m, with a nominal angular velocity Ωn = 1.266rad/sec. The first analysis performed is the steady state solution, where a uniform wind Vw = 11.4 m/s is considered and a collective pitch angle θ = 0.88◦ is imposed. During this step, the authors noticed that the proposed model is intrinsically periodic due to the effect of the wind and of the gravitational force. In order to reject this periodic trend in the model dynamics, the authors propose a collective repetitive control algorithm coupled with a PD controller. In particular, when the reference command to be tracked and/or the disturbance to be rejected are periodic signals with a fixed period, the repetitive control strategies can be applied due to their high precision, simple implementation and little performance dependency on system parameters. The functional scheme of a repetitive controller is quite simple and, given a periodic reference command, is composed of a control block Crc(s) usually added to an existing feedback control system. The control block contains and a free time-delay system eτs in a positive feedback loop, and a low-pass filter q(s). It should be noticed that, while the time delay term reduces the stability margin, on the other hand the low pass filter is added to ensure stability. It is worth noting that, in this work, the authors propose a phase shifting for the controller and the delay system has been modified as e^(−(T−γk)), where T is the period of the signal and γk is a phase shifting of k samples of the same periodic signal. It should be noticed that, the phase shifting technique is particularly useful in non-minimum phase systems, such as flexible structures. In fact, using the phase shifting, the iterative algorithm could reach the convergence also at high frequencies. Notice that, in our case study, the shifting of k samples depends both on the rotor angular velocity Ω and on the rotor azimuth angle Ψ: we refer to this controller as a spatial repetitive controller. The collective repetitive controller has also been coupled with a C(s) = PD(s), in order to dampen oscillations of the blades. The performance of the spatial repetitive controller is compared with an industrial PI controller. In particular, starting from wind speed velocity Vw = 11.4 m/s the controller is asked to maintain the nominal angular velocity Ωn = 1.266rad/s after an instantaneous increase of wind speed (Vw = 15 m/s). Then, a purely periodic external disturbance is introduced in order to stress the capabilities of the repetitive controller. The results of the simulations show that, contrary to a simple PI controller, the spatial repetitive-PD controller has the capability to reject both external disturbances and periodic trend in the model dynamics. Finally, the nominal value of the angular velocity is reached, in accordance with results obtained with commercial software for a turbine of the same type.

Keywords: wind turbines, aeroelasticity, repetitive control, periodic systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 174