Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Soufiane Rafi

13 US Track And Field System: Examining Micro-Level Practices against a Global Model for Integrated Development of Mass and Elite Sport

Authors: Peter Smolianov, Steven Dion, Christopher Schoen, Jaclyn Norberg, Nicholas Stone, Soufiane Rafi

Abstract:

This study assessed the micro-level elements of track and field development in the US against a model for integrating high-performance sport with mass participation. This investigation is important for the country’s international sport performance, which declined relative to other countries and wellbeing, which in its turn deteriorated as over half of the US population became overweight. A questionnaire was designed for the following elements of the model: talent identification and development as well as advanced athlete support. Survey questions were validated by 12 experts, including academics, executives from sport governing bodies, coaches, and administrators. To determine the areas for improvement, the questionnaires were completed by 102 US track and field coaches representing the country’s regions and coaching levels. Possible advancements were further identified through semi-structured discussions with 10 US track and field administrators. The study found that talent search and development is a critically important area for improvement: 49 percent of respondents had overall negative perceptions, and only 16 percent were positive regarding these US track and field practices. Both quantitative survey results and open responses revealed that the key reason for the inadequate athlete development was a shortage of well-educated and properly paid coaches: 77 percent of respondents indicated that coach expertise is never or rarely high across all participant ages and levels. More than 40 percent of the respondents were uncertain of or not familiar with world’s best talent identification and development practices, particularly methods of introducing children to track and field from outside the sport’s participation base. Millions more could be attracted to the sport by adopting best international practices. First, physical education should be offered a minimum three times a week in all school grades, and track and field together with other healthy sports, should be taught at school to all children. Second, multi-sport events, including track and field disciplines, should be organized for everyone within and among all schools, cities and regions. Three, Australian and Eastern European methods of talent search at schools should be utilized and tailored to the US conditions. Four, comprehensive long term athlete development guidelines should be used for the advancement of the American Development Model, particularly track and field tests and guidelines as part of both school education and high-performance athlete development for every age group from six to over 70 years old. These world’s best practices are to improve the country’s international performance while increasing national sport participation and positively influencing public health.

Keywords: high performance, mass participation, sport development, track and field, USA

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12 Analytic Hierarchy Process

Authors: Hadia Rafi

Abstract:

To make any decision in any work/task/project it involves many factors that needed to be looked. The analytic Hierarchy process (AHP) is based on the judgments of experts to derive the required results this technique measures the intangibles and then by the help of judgment and software analysis the comparisons are made which shows how much a certain element/unit leads another. AHP includes how an inconsistent judgment should be made consistent and how the judgment should be improved when possible. The Priority scales are obtained by multiplying them with the priority of their parent node and after that they are added.

Keywords: AHP, priority scales, parent node, software analysis

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11 Light Car Assisted by PV Panels

Authors: Soufiane Benoumhani, Nadia Saifi, Boubekeur Dokkar, Mohamed Cherif Benzid

Abstract:

This work presents the design and simulation of electric equipment for a hybrid solar vehicle. The new drive train of this vehicle is a parallel hybrid system which means a vehicle driven by a great percentage of an internal combustion engine with 49.35 kW as maximal power and electric motor only as assistance when is needed. This assistance is carried out on the rear axle by a single electric motor of 7.22 kW as nominal power. The motor is driven by 12 batteries connecting in series, which are charged by three PV panels (300 W) installed on the roof and hood of the vehicle. The individual components are modeled and simulated by using the Matlab Simulink environment. The whole system is examined under different load conditions. The reduction of CO₂ emission is obtained by reducing fuel consumption. With the use of this hybrid system, fuel consumption can be reduced from 6.74 kg/h to 5.56 kg/h when the electric motor works at 100 % of its power. The net benefit of the system reaches 1.18 kg/h as fuel reduction at high values of power and torque.

Keywords: light car, hybrid system, PV panel, electric motor

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10 The Influence of an Occupation as a Calling on the Value of Job Security and Its Connection with Wage Levels

Authors: Malul Miki, Rafi Bar-El, Eithan Hourie

Abstract:

In this article, we test the influence of an occupation as a calling on the value of job security and its connection with wage levels. Our sample consists of 495 workers in Israel from 10 occupations in the public sector, who are assumed to have a relatively high level of job security, and the private sector, who are assumed to have less job security or none at all. These 10 occupations are social workers, lecturers, lawyers, administration workers, accountants, high school teachers, bank workers, high-tech worker, nurses and psychologists. Using regression analysis, we find that those who have occupations that the literature has defined as a calling value job security less than those in ordinary employment. In addition, salary level has no effect on this relationship. Finally, those who work in occupations that are regarded as a calling have less status quo bias than those in ordinary employment.

Keywords: calling, loss aversion, job security, status quo bias

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9 Effect of Different Parameters on the Swelling Behaviour of Thermo-Responsive Elastomers in a Nematogenic Solvent

Authors: Nouria Bouchikhi, Soufiane Bedjaoui, C. Tewfik Bouchaour, Lamia Alachaher Bedjaoui, Ulrich Maschke

Abstract:

Swelling properties and phase diagrams of binary systems composed of liquid crystalline networks and a low molecular mass liquid crystal (LMWLC) have been investigated. The networks were prepared by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of reactive mixtures including a monomer, a cross-linking agent and a photo-initiator. These networks were prepared using two cross-linking agents: 1,6 hexanedioldiacrylate (HDDA) and a mesogenic acrylic acid 6-(4’-(6-acryloyloxy-hexyloxy) biphenyl-4-yl oxy) hexyl ester (AHBH). The obtained dry networks were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, and immersed in an excess of a LMWLC solvent 4-cyano-4’-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), forming polymer gels. A detailed study by polarized optical microscopy allowed to determine the swelling degree of the gels and to follow the phase behavior of the solvent inside the polymer matrix in a wide range of temperature. It has been found that the gels undergo a sharp decrease of their swelling degree in response to an infinitesimal change of temperature. This finding adds new and interesting aspects on the actuators applications. We have subsequently explored the effect of different parameters on volume phase transition of these liquid crystalline materials. Such as the cross-linking density (CD), a nature of cross-linking agent and the photo initiator concentration.

Keywords: cross-linking density, liquid crystalline elastomers, phase diagrams, swelling

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8 Social Entrepreneurship and Organizational Effectiveness: Evidence from Malaysia

Authors: Fakhrul Anwar Zainol, Wan Norhayate Wan Daud, Zulhamri Abdullah, Mohd Rafi Yaacob

Abstract:

Malaysia has made great strides in eradicating poverty. Based on the latest figures of the 9th Malaysian Plan Mid-term review, the overall hardcore poverty percentage is down to 0.7%, and only 3.6% of the Malaysian population is living below the overall poverty line. While in the past significant efforts had been taken by the government through various developmental project to alleviate poverty in rural area had proven successful. Today, urban poverty in Malaysia is an increasingly visible phenomenon due to rural-urban migration and the natural population growth in urban areas. Given the changing dimensions and emerging new forms of poverty as a result of unwanted effects of development there is a dire need to re-examine and re-visit urban poverty in Malaysia. Based on the leaders’ perceptions, this study affirmed that social entrepreneurship organizations in Malaysia have try to overcome the urban poverty through social entrepreneurship. The new framework has been developed from the results of this study. It shows that social entrepreneurship contributed to the organizational effectiveness. This result indicates that it is important to have social entrepreneurship in order to increase the socio economy and achieve the organization’s mission. Therefore, this study has proven that social entrepreneurship is beneficial to the Malaysian.

Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship, Organizational Effectiveness, Urban Poverty, Malaysia.

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7 Evaluation of Labelling Conditions, Quality Control, and Biodistribution Study of 99mTc- D-Aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA)

Authors: Kalimullah Khan, Samina Roohi, Mohammad Rafi, Rizwana Zahoor

Abstract:

Labeling of 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) with 99 mTc was achieved by using tin chloride dihydrate (Sncl2.2H2O) as reducing agent. Radiochemical purity and labeling efficiency was determined by Whattman paper No.3 and instant thin layer chromatographic strips impregnated with silica gel (ITLC/SG). Labeling efficiency was dependent on many parameters such as amount of ligand, reducing agent, pH, and incubation time. Therefore, optimum conditions for maximum labeling were selected. Stability of 99 mTc- 5-ALA was also checked in fresh human serum. Tissue bio-distribution of 99 mTc-5-ALA was evaluated in Spargue Dawley rats. 5-ALA was 98% labeled with 99 mTc under optimum conditions, i.e. 100µg of 5-ALA, pH: 4, 10µg of Sncl2.2H2O and 30 minutes incubation at room temperature. 99 mTc labelled 5- ALA remained stable for 24 hours in human serum. Bio-distribution study (%ID/gm) in rats revealed that maximum accumulation of 99 mTc-5-ALA was in liver, spleen, stomach and intestine after half hour, 4 hours, and 24 hours. Significant activity in bladder and urine indicated urinary mode of excretion.

Keywords: 99mTc-ALA, aminolevulinic acid, quality control, radiopharmaceuticals

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6 Microalgae as Promising Biostimulants of Plant Tolerance Against Heavy Metals

Authors: Soufiane Fal, Abderahim Aasfar, Ali Ouhssain, Hasnae Choukri, Abelaziz Smouni, Hicham El Arroussi

Abstract:

Heavy metals contamination is a major environmental concern around the world. It has a harmful impact on plant productivity and poses a serious risk to humans and animals health. In the present study, the effect of Microalgae Crude Extract (MCE) on tomato growth and nutrients uptake exposed to 2 mM Pb2+ and Cd2+ was investigated. In results, 2 mM Pb2+ and Cd2+ showed a significant reduction of tomatobiomass and perturbation in nutrients absorption. Moreover, MCE application in tomato plant exposed to Pb2+ and Cd2+ showed a significant enhancement of biomass compared to tomato plants under Pb2+ and Cd2+. On the other hand, MCE application favoured heavy metals accumulation in root and inhibited their translocation to shoot as phytostabilisation mechanism. Tomato plants showed biochemical responses to Pb2+ and Cd2+ stress with elevation of scavenging enzymes and molecules such as POD, CAT, SOD, Proline, and polyphenols, etc. In addition, the treatment by MCE showed a significant reduction level of the majority of these parameters. Furthermore, the metabolomic analysis revealed a significant change in important metabolites. Pb2+ and Cd2+ showed decrease in SFA and increase of UFA, VLFA, alkanes, alkenes, sterols, which known accumulated as tolerance and resistance mechanism to heavy metal (H.M) stress. However, MCE treatment showed the inverse of these response to return tomato plants to normal state and enhanced tolerance and resistance to heavy metal stress. In the present study, we emphasized that MCE can alleviate H.M stress, enhance tomato plant growth nutrients absorption and improve biochemical responses.

Keywords: microalgae crude extract, heavy metal stress, nutrient uptake, metabolomic analysis, solanum lycopersicum (Tomato), phytostabilisation

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5 Dynamic Route Optimization in Vehicle Adhoc Networks: A Heuristics Routing Protocol

Authors: Rafi Ullah, Shah Muhammad Emaduddin, Taha Jilani

Abstract:

Vehicle Adhoc Networks (VANET) belongs to a special class of Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) with high mobility. Network is created by road side vehicles equipped with communication devices like GPS and Wifi etc. Since the environment is highly dynamic due to difference in speed and high mobility of vehicles and weak stability of the network connection, it is a challenging task to design an efficient routing protocol for such an unstable environment. Our proposed algorithm uses heuristic for the calculation of optimal path for routing the packet efficiently in collaboration with several other parameters like geographical location, speed, priority, the distance among the vehicles, communication range, and networks congestion. We have incorporated probabilistic, heuristic and machine learning based approach inconsistency with the relay function of the memory buffer to keep the packet moving towards the destination. These parameters when used in collaboration provide us a very strong and admissible heuristics. We have mathematically proved that the proposed technique is efficient for the routing of packets, especially in a medical emergency situation. These networks can be used for medical emergency, security, entertainment and routing purposes.

Keywords: heuristics routing, intelligent routing, VANET, route optimization

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4 To Study the Effect of Drying Temperature Towards Extraction of Aquilaria subintegra Dry Leaves Using Vacuum Far Infrared

Authors: Tengku Muhammad Rafi Nazmi Bin Tengku Razali, Habsah Alwi

Abstract:

This article based on effect of temperature towards extraction of Aquilaria Subintegra. Aquilaria Subintegra which its main habitat is in Asia-tropical and particularly often found in its native which is Thailand. There is claim which is Aquilaria Subintegra contains antipyretic properties that helps fight fever. Research nowadays also shown that paracetamol consumed bring bad effect towards consumers. This sample will first dry using Vacuum Far Infrared which provides better drying than conventional oven. Soxhlet extractor used to extract oil from sample. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer used to analyze sample to determine its compound. Objective from this research was to determine the active ingredients that exist in the Aquilaria Subintegra leaves and to determine whether compound of Acetaminophen exist or not inside the leaves. Moisture content from 400C was 80%, 500C was 620% and 600C was 36%. The greater temperature resulting lower moisture content inside sample leaves. 7 components were identified in sample T=400C while only 5 components were identified in sample at T=50C and T=60C. Four components were commonly identified in three sample which is 1n-Hexadecanoic acid, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester (z,z,z), Vitamin E and Squalene. Further studies are needed with new series of temperature to refine the best results.

Keywords: aquilaria subintegra, vacuum far infrared, SOXHLET extractor, gas chromatography mass spectrometer, paracetamol

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3 Phytolith Analysis of Intrabasaltic Palaeosols (Bole Beds) from the Deccan Volcanic Province of Western India: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Sayyed Mohammed Rafi

Abstract:

Phytolith studies were carried out for the intrabasaltic bole beds occurring in the western part of the Deccan Volcanic Province. This preliminary study indicates the presence of multiform phytoliths both in red and green boles. Red bole indicates well preserved elongate phytoliths from Acanthaceae plants while bulky Bulliform phytoliths mainly from Pleioblastus/ Andropogonea/reeds plants. Degeneration of few phytoliths from red bole indicates either leaching/etching or some other activity that is responsible for such post-preservation conditions. Phytoliths from the green bole, however, seem to be well preserved as compared to those from the red bole. The phytoliths from green bole are mainly of Festucoid types (especially small square and rectangular types) indicating the presence of Chrysobalanaceae type of vegetation followed by elongate phytoliths from Acanthaceae plant types. The Multiform Trichomes seems to be derived from Panicoid/Andropogonoid/Burseraceae/Fabaceae while Bulliforms from Pleioblastus/Andropogonea/reeds. Presences of silicified woody elements from both red and green boles indicate the presence of dicotyledonous plants which could have been in the form of small shrubs. The degenerated phytoliths in red bole suggest leaching/etching or higher intensity of weathering suggesting the existence of well-drained conditions during its formation that enhanced the leaching activity while the presence of well-preserved phytoliths in green bole point towards the existence of damp and desiccated conditions during its formation. The prevalence of dry condition during red bole formation could suggest their formation under higher temperature as compared to green bole. Based on the phytolith analysis it is too early to comment on the palaeoclimates which could have prevailed during the bole bed formations. However a detailed micromorphological, as well as phytolith analysis of more samples, can throw light on the palaeoenvironmental conditions as well as the biological activity during their formation.

Keywords: Deccan volcanic province, intrabasaltic bole beds, palaeoclimate, phytoliths

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2 Effect of Downstream Pressure in Tuning the Flow Control Orifices of Pressure Fed Reaction Control System Thrusters

Authors: Prakash M.N, Mahesh G, Muhammed Rafi K.M, Shiju P. Nair

Abstract:

Introduction: In launch vehicle missions, Reaction Control thrusters are being used for the three-axis stabilization of the vehicle during the coasting phases. A pressure-fed propulsion system is used for the operation of these thrusters due to its less complexity. In liquid stages, these thrusters are designed to draw propellant from the same tank used for the main propulsion system. So in order to regulate the propellant flow rates of these thrusters, flow control orifices are used in feed lines. These orifices are calibrated separately as per the flow rate requirement of individual thrusters for the nominal operating conditions. In some missions, it was observed that the thrusters were operated at higher thrust than nominal. This point was addressed through a series of cold flow and hot tests carried out in-ground and this paper elaborates the details of the same. Discussion: In order to find out the exact reason for this phenomenon, two flight configuration thrusters were identified and hot tested in the ground with calibrated orifices and feed lines. During these tests, the chamber pressure, which is directly proportional to the thrust, is measured. In both cases, chamber pressures higher than the nominal by 0.32bar to 0.7bar were recorded. The increase in chamber pressure is due to an increase in the oxidizer flow rate of both the thrusters. Upon further investigation, it is observed that the calibration of the feed line is done with ambient pressure downstream. But in actual flight conditions, the orifices will be subjected to operate with 10 to 11bar pressure downstream. Due to this higher downstream pressure, the flow through the orifices increases and thereby, the thrusters operate with higher chamber pressure values. Conclusion: As part of further investigatory tests, two numbers of fresh thrusters were realized. Orifice tuning of these thrusters was carried out in three different ways. In the first trial, the orifice tuning was done by simulating 1bar pressure downstream. The second trial was done with the injector assembled downstream. In the third trial, the downstream pressure equal to the flight injection pressure was simulated downstream. Using these calibrated orifices, hot tests were carried out in simulated vacuum conditions. Chamber pressure and flow rate values were exactly matching with the prediction for the second and third trials. But for the first trial, the chamber pressure values obtained in the hot test were more than the prediction. This clearly shows that the flow is detached in the 1st trial and attached for the 2nd & 3rd trials. Hence, the error in tuning the flow control orifices is pinpointed as the reason for this higher chamber pressure observed in flight.

Keywords: reaction control thruster, propellent, orifice, chamber pressure

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1 Evaluation of the Photo Neutron Contamination inside and outside of Treatment Room for High Energy Elekta Synergy® Linear Accelerator

Authors: Sharib Ahmed, Mansoor Rafi, Kamran Ali Awan, Faraz Khaskhali, Amir Maqbool, Altaf Hashmi

Abstract:

Medical linear accelerators (LINAC’s) used in radiotherapy treatments produce undesired neutrons when they are operated at energies above 8 MeV, both in electron and photon configuration. Neutrons are produced by high-energy photons and electrons through electronuclear (e, n) a photonuclear giant dipole resonance (GDR) reactions. These reactions occurs when incoming photon or electron incident through the various materials of target, flattening filter, collimators, and other shielding components in LINAC’s structure. These neutrons may reach directly to the patient, or they may interact with the surrounding materials until they become thermalized. A work has been set up to study the effect of different parameter on the production of neutron around the room by photonuclear reactions induced by photons above ~8 MeV. One of the commercial available neutron detector (Ludlum Model 42-31H Neutron Detector) is used for the detection of thermal and fast neutrons (0.025 eV to approximately 12 MeV) inside and outside of the treatment room. Measurements were performed for different field sizes at 100 cm source to surface distance (SSD) of detector, at different distances from the isocenter and at the place of primary and secondary walls. Other measurements were performed at door and treatment console for the potential radiation safety concerns of the therapists who must walk in and out of the room for the treatments. Exposures have taken place from Elekta Synergy® linear accelerators for two different energies (10 MV and 18 MV) for a given 200 MU’s and dose rate of 600 MU per minute. Results indicates that neutron doses at 100 cm SSD depend on accelerator characteristics means jaw settings as jaws are made of high atomic number material so provides significant interaction of photons to produce neutrons, while doses at the place of larger distance from isocenter are strongly influenced by the treatment room geometry and backscattering from the walls cause a greater doses as compare to dose at 100 cm distance from isocenter. In the treatment room the ambient dose equivalent due to photons produced during decay of activation nuclei varies from 4.22 mSv.h−1 to 13.2 mSv.h−1 (at isocenter),6.21 mSv.h−1 to 29.2 mSv.h−1 (primary wall) and 8.73 mSv.h−1 to 37.2 mSv.h−1 (secondary wall) for 10 and 18 MV respectively. The ambient dose equivalent for neutrons at door is 5 μSv.h−1 to 2 μSv.h−1 while at treatment console room it is 2 μSv.h−1 to 0 μSv.h−1 for 10 and 18 MV respectively which shows that a 2 m thick and 5m longer concrete maze provides sufficient shielding for neutron at door as well as at treatment console for 10 and 18 MV photons.

Keywords: equivalent doses, neutron contamination, neutron detector, photon energy

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