Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 411

Search results for: lifelong fitness

411 General and Sport Specific Fitness Testing Practices: Global Developments

Authors: Peter Smolianov, Jed Smith, Lisa Chen, Steven Dion, Christopher Schoen, Jaclyn Norberg

Abstract:

This study compared general conditioning and sport specific fitness tests used in China, European Union (EU), Russia, and the United States. A constant content comparison method was used to identify the differences. Data from the study indicated that there were shared test components, including aerobic fitness, muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility. However, the testing components and items, as well as the cut-off values of the analyzed tests varied by country for the same gender and age. Culturally unique methods of testing and preparing for the tests were identified. Additionally, evidence revealed support for lifelong fitness and long-term sport participation through comprehensive fitness and wellness guidelines for different age groups and through new internet-based technologies.

Keywords: fitness testing, global trends, new developments, worldwide comparison

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
410 A Systematic Review on Lifelong Learning Programs for Community-Dwelling Older Adults

Authors: Xi Vivien Wu, Emily Neo Kim Ang, Yi Jung Tung, Wenru Wang

Abstract:

Background and Objective: The increase in life expectancy and emphasis on self-reliance for the older adults are global phenomena. As such, lifelong learning in the community is considered a viable means of promoting successful and active aging. This systematic review aims to examine various lifelong learning programs for community-dwelling older adults and to synthesize the contents and outcomes of these lifelong learning programs. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in July to December 2016. Two reviewers were engaged in the process to ensure creditability of the selection process. Narrative description and analysis were applied with the support of a tabulation of key data including study design, interventions, and outcomes. Results: Eleven articles, which consisted of five randomized controlled trials and six quasi-experimental studies, were included in this review. Interventions included e-health literacy programs with the aid of computers and the Internet (n=4), computer and Internet training (n=3), physical fitness programs (n=2), music program (n=1), and intergenerational program (n=1). All studies used objective measurement tools to evaluate the outcomes of the study. Conclusion: The systematic review indicated lifelong learning programs resulted in positive outcomes in terms of physical health, mental health, social behavior, social support, self-efficacy and confidence in computer usage, and increased e-health literacy efficacy. However, the lifelong learning programs face challenges such as funding shortages, program cuts, and increasing costs. A comprehensive lifelong learning program could be developed to enhance the well-being of the older adults at a more holistic level. Empirical research can be done to explore the effectiveness of this comprehensive lifelong learning program.

Keywords: community-dwelling older adults, e-health literacy program, lifelong learning program, the wellbeing of the older adults

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409 Evaluating a Holistic Fitness Program Used by High Performance Athletes and Mass Participants

Authors: Peter Smolianov, Jed Smith, Lisa Chen, Steven Dion, Christopher Schoen, Jaclyn Norberg

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This study evaluated the effectiveness of an experimental training program used to improve performance and health of competitive athletes and recreational sport participants. This holistic program integrated and advanced Eastern and Western methods of prolonging elite sports participation and enjoying lifelong fitness, particularly from China, India, Russia, and the United States. The program included outdoor, gym, and water training approaches focused on strengthening while stretching/decompressing and on full body activation-all in order to improve performance as well as treat and prevent common disorders and pains. The study observed and surveyed over 100 users of the program including recreational fitness and sports enthusiasts as well as elite athletes who competed for national teams of different countries and for Division I teams of National Collegiate Athletic Association in the United States. Different types of sport were studied, including territorial games (e.g., American football, basketball, volleyball), endurance/cyclical (athletics/track and field, swimming), and artistic (e.g., gymnastics and synchronized swimming). Results of the study showed positive effects on the participants’ performance and health, particularly for those who used the program for more than two years and especially in reducing spinal disorders and in enabling to perform new training tasks which previously caused back pain.

Keywords: lifelong fitness, injury prevention, prolonging sport participation, improving performance and health

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408 Lifelong Learning and Digital Literacies in Language Learning

Authors: Selma Karabinar

Abstract:

Lifelong learning can be described as a system where learning takes place for a person over the course of a lifespan and comprises formal, non-formal and informal learning to achieve the maximum possible improvement in personal, social, and vocational life. 21st century is marked with the digital technologies and people need to learn and adapt to new literacies as part of their lifelong learning. Our current knowledge gap brings to mind several questions: Do people with digital mindsets have different assumptions about affordances of digital technologies? How do digital mindsets lead language learners use digital technologies within and beyond classrooms? Does digital literacies have different significance for the learners? The presentation is based on a study attempted to answer these questions and show the relationship between lifelong learning and digital literacies. The study was conducted with learners of English language at a state university in Istanbul. The quantitative data in terms of participants' lifelong learning perception was collected through a lifelong learning scale from 150 students. Then 5 students with high and 5 with low lifelong learning perception were interviewed. They were questioned about their personal sense of agency in lifelong learning and how they use digital technologies in their language learning. Therefore, the qualitative data was analyzed in terms of their knowledge about digital literacies and actual use of it in their personal and educational life. The results of the study suggest why teaching new literacies are important for lifelong learning and also suggests implications for language teachers' education and language pedagogy.

Keywords: digital mindsets, language learning, lifelong learning, new literacies

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407 Physical Fitness Activities for Elementary School Pupils of Matacon Elementary School

Authors: Ariel B. Domagsang

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This study dealt with the physical fitness activities for elementary school pupils of Matacon Elementary School, Polangui South District, Albay Division are presented in this chapter. Specifically, it looked into the pre-post test performance based on the Physical Fitness Test which were subjected to statistical significant test of difference including health- and skill-related improvement. Finally, it came up with physical fitness activities to improve the physical fitness performance of the pupils. The descriptive method through survey using questionnaire-checklist, unstructured interview and document(ary) analysis were utilized in this research. There were 171 grades five and six pupil participants in this undertaking.

Keywords: Matakon, fitness acitivities, elementary schools, physical fitness of pupils

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406 The Comparison of Movement and Physical Fitness in Secondary Male Students in Altitude and Coastal Areas

Authors: Esmaeil Zabihi, Seyed Hossein Alavi

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The purpose of this study is a comparison of movement and physical fitness in athlete's male students in altitude and sea-level. The samples consist of 450 subjects in altitude and sea-level in Iran in years of 2013 which were selected randomly from the population. We investigated the effect of high altitude on the tests activity profile of youth high altitude and sea level residents. Methods 450 Sea Level (Mahmood Abad) and 450 Altitude-resident (Shahre-Kord) athlete students tests of physical fitness near sea level (-5 m) and in Altitude (2100 m). This study is Descriptive Research (causal-comparative research). The tests of physical fitness include pull-ups test, sit-ups test, agility test(4 9), 45 sprint test, 1600 m running, long jump, and flexibility test. For determining of different between the physical fitness of altitude and sea-level students was used t-test (P ≤ 0.05). The result of this study show that there is no significant difference between the average of pull-ups test, flexibility, 45 sprints, and agility (4 9) test of students in sea-level and altitude. But there is a significant difference between the average of sit-ups, 1600 m running and long jump in altitude. The students of altitude have higher power rather than sea-level. But the students of sea-level have stronger abdominal muscles and cardio-respiratory endurance rather than altitude. High altitude reduces the distance covered by youth athlete students during tests. Neither acclimatisation nor lifelong residence at high altitude protects against detrimental effects of altitude on tests activity profile.

Keywords: physical fitness, sea level, altitude areas, AAHPERD test

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
405 The Effect of Circuit Training on Aerobic Fitness and Body Fat Percentage

Authors: Presto Tri Sambodo, Suharjana, Galih Yoga Santiko

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Having an ideal body shape healthy body are the desire of everyone, both young and old. The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) the effect of block circuit training on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage, (2) the effect of non-block circuit training on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage, and (3) differences in the effect of exercise on block and non-circuit training block against aerobic fitness and body fat percentage. This research is an experimental research with the prestest posttest design Two groups design. The population in this study were 57 members of fat loss at GOR UNY Fitness Center. The retrieval technique uses purposive random sampling with a sample of 20 people. The instruments with rockport test (1.6 KM) and body fat percentage with a scale of bioelectrical impedance analysis omron (BIA). So it can be concluded the circuit training between block and non-block has a significant effect on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage. And for differences in the effect of circuit training between blocks and non-blocks, it is more influential on aerobic fitness than the percentage of body fat.

Keywords: circuit training, aerobic fitness, body fat percentage, healthy body

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404 Lifelong Education for Teachers: A Tool for Achieving Effective Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools in Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: Adzongo Philomena Ibuh, Aloga O. Austin

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The purpose of the study was to examine lifelong education for teachers as a tool for achieving effective teaching and learning. Lifelong education enhances social inclusion, personal development, citizenship, employability, teaching and learning, community and the nation, and the challenges of lifelong education were also discussed. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 80 teachers as sample from a population of 105 senior secondary school teachers in Makurdi local government area of Benue state. A 20-item self designed questionnaire subjected to expert validation and reliability was used to collect data. The reliability Alpha coefficient of 0.87 was established using Crombach Alpha technique, mean scores and standard deviation were used to answer the 2 research questions while chi-square was used to analyze data for the 2 hypotheses. The findings of the study revealed that, lifelong education for teachers can be used to achieve as a tool for achieving effective teaching and learning, and the study recommended among others that government, organizations and individuals should in collaboration put lifelong education programmes for teachers on the priority list. The paper concluded that the strategic position of lifelong education for teachers towards enhanced teaching and learning makes it imperative for all hands to be on deck to support the programme financially and otherwise.

Keywords: effective teaching and learning, lifelong education, teachers, tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
403 ICTs Knowledge as a Way of Enhancing Literacy and Lifelong Learning in Nigeria

Authors: Jame O. Ezema, Odenigbo Veronica

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The study covers the topic Information Communication and Technology (ICTs) knowledge as a way of enhancing Literacy and Lifelong learning in Nigeria. This work delved into defining of ICTs. Types of ICTs and media technologies were also mentioned. It further explained how ICTs can be strengthened and the uses of ICTs in education was duly emphasized. The paper also enumerated some side effects of ICTs on learners while the role of ICTs in enhancing literacy was explained. The study carried out strategies to use ICTs meaningfully in Literacy Programs and also emphasized the word lifelong learning in Nigeria. Some recommendations were made towards acquiring ICTs knowledge, so as to enhance Literacy and Lifelong learning in Nigeria.

Keywords: literacy, distance-learning, life-long learning for sustainable development, e-learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
402 Communication About Health and Fitness in Media and Its Hidden Message About Objectification

Authors: Emiko Suzuki

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Although fitness is defined as the body’s ability to respond to the demand of physical activity without undue fatigue in health science, in media oftentimes physical activity is presented as means to an attractive body rather than a fit and healthy one. Of all types of media, Instagram is becoming an increasingly persuasive source of information and advice on health and fitness, where individuals conceptualize what health and fitness mean for them. However, this user-generated and unregulated platform can be problematic, as it can communicate misleading information about health and fitness and possibly leading individuals to psychological problems such as eating disorders. In fact, previous research has shown that some messages that were posted with a tag that related to inspire others to do fitness, in fact, encouraged distancing the self from the internal needs of the body. For this reason, this present study aims to explore how health and fitness are communicated on Instagram by analyzing images and texts. A content analysis of images that were labeled with particular hashtags was performed, followed by a thematic analysis of texts from the same set of images. The result shows an interesting insight about messages about how health and fitness are communicated from companies through media, then digested and further shared among communities on Instagram. The study explores how the use of visual focused way of communicating health and fitness can lead to the dehumanization of human bodies.

Keywords: Instagram, fitness, dehumanization, body image, embodiment

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401 A Usability Framework to Influence the Intention to Use Mobile Fitness Applications in South Africa

Authors: Bulelani Ngamntwini, Liezel Cilliers

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South Africa has one of the highest prevalence of obese people on the African continent. Forty-six percent of the adults in South Africa are physically inactive. Fitness applications can be used to increase physical inactivity. However, the uptake of mobile fitness applications in South Africa has been found to be poor due to usability challenges with the technology. The study developed a usability framework to influence the intention to use mobile fitness applications in South Africa. The study made use of a positivistic approach to collect data. A questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from 377 respondents that have used mobile fitness applications in the past. A response rate of 80.90% was recorded. To analyse the data, the Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationships between the various hypotheses. There are four usability factors, efficiency, effectiveness, satisfaction, and learnability, which contribute to the intention of users to make use of mobile fitness applications. The study, therefore, recommends that for a mobile fitness application to be successful, these four factors must be considered and incorporated by developers when designing the applications.

Keywords: obese, overweight, physical inactivity, mobile fitness application, usability factors

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400 New Types of Fitness Equipment for Seniors-Based on Beginning Movement Load Training

Authors: Chia-Chi Chen, Tai-Sheng Huang

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Ageing society has been spread around the world. The global population is not only ageing but also declining. The structure of population has changed, which has a significant impact on both the economies and industries. Thus, how to be a healthy senior citizen to relieve the burden to the family and society will be a popular issue. Although fitness equipment manufacturing industry has been mature, the ageing population is still increasing. Therefore, this study aims to design an innovative style of fitness equipment for senior citizens, based on BMLT presented by Dr. Koyama Hirofumi. The analysis of current fitness equipment on the market and the future trend will be applied in the study. With the coming of information age, senior citizens in the future are the users of information product for sure, and the new style of fitness equipment will be combined with information technology as well. Through this study, it is believed to design an innovative style of fitness equipment for seniors and help them live heartier and happier lives.

Keywords: aging society, BMLT (Beginning Movement Load Training), seniors, new style of fitness equipment

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399 Impact of Organic Architecture in Building Design

Authors: Zainab Yahaya Suleiman

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Physical fitness, as one of the most important keys to a healthy wellbeing, is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity. As a result, the fitness world is expanding every day. It is believed that a fitness centre is a place of healing and also the natural environment is vital to speedy recovery. The aim of this paper is to propose and designs a suitable location for a fitness centre in Batagarawa metropolis. Batagarawa city is enriched with four tertiary institutions with diverse commerce and culture but lacks the facility of a well-equipped fitness centre. The proposed fitness centre intends to be an organically sound centre that will make use of principles of organic architecture to create a new pleasant environment between man and his environments. Organic architecture is the science of designing a building within pleasant natural resources and features surrounding the environment. It is regarded as visual poetry and reinterpretation of nature’s principles; as well as embodies a settlement of person, place, and materials. Using organic architecture, the design was interlaced with the dynamic, organic and monumental features surrounding the environment. The city has inadequate/no facility that is considered organic where one can keep fit in a friendly, conducive and adequate location. Thus, the need for establishing a fitness centre to cater for this need cannot be over-emphasised. Conclusively, a fitness centre will be an added advantage to this fast growing centre of learning.

Keywords: organic architecture, fitness center, environment, natural resources, natural features, building design

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398 Improvment Efficiency of Fitness Clubs Operation

Authors: E. V. Kuzmicheva

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An attention is concentrated on a service quality estimation of sport services. A typical mathematical model was developed at the base of the «general economic theory of mass service» accounting pedagogical requirements of fitness services. Also it took into account a dependence of the club member number versus on a value of square of sport facilities. Final recommendations were applied to the fitness club resulted in some improvement of the quality sport service, an increasing of the revenue from club members and profit of clubs.

Keywords: fitness club, efficiency of operation, facilities, service quality, mass service

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
397 Task Scheduling on Parallel System Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Jasbir Singh Gill, Baljit Singh

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Scheduling and mapping the application task graph on multiprocessor parallel systems is considered as the most crucial and critical NP-complete problem. Many genetic algorithms have been proposed to solve such problems. In this paper, two genetic approach based algorithms have been designed and developed with or without task duplication. The proposed algorithms work on two fitness functions. The first fitness i.e. task fitness is used to minimize the total finish time of the schedule (schedule length) while the second fitness function i.e. process fitness is concerned with allocating the tasks to the available highly efficient processor from the list of available processors (load balance). Proposed genetic-based algorithms have been experimentally implemented and evaluated with other state-of-art popular and widely used algorithms.

Keywords: parallel computing, task scheduling, task duplication, genetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
396 Social Semantic Web-Based Analytics Approach to Support Lifelong Learning

Authors: Khaled Halimi, Hassina Seridi-Bouchelaghem

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The purpose of this paper is to describe how learning analytics approaches based on social semantic web techniques can be applied to enhance the lifelong learning experiences in a connectivist perspective. For this reason, a prototype of a system called SoLearn (Social Learning Environment) that supports this approach. We observed and studied literature related to lifelong learning systems, social semantic web and ontologies, connectivism theory, learning analytics approaches and reviewed implemented systems based on these fields to extract and draw conclusions about necessary features for enhancing the lifelong learning process. The semantic analytics of learning can be used for viewing, studying and analysing the massive data generated by learners, which helps them to understand through recommendations, charts and figures their learning and behaviour, and to detect where they have weaknesses or limitations. This paper emphasises that implementing a learning analytics approach based on social semantic web representations can enhance the learning process. From one hand, the analysis process leverages the meaning expressed by semantics presented in the ontology (relationships between concepts). From the other hand, the analysis process exploits the discovery of new knowledge by means of inferring mechanism of the semantic web.

Keywords: connectivism, learning analytics, lifelong learning, social semantic web

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
395 Problems in Lifelong Education Course in Information and Communication Technology

Authors: Hisham Md.Suhadi, Faaizah Shahbodin, Jamaluddin Hashim, Nurul Huda Mahsudi, Mahathir Mohd Sarjan

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The study is the way to identify the problems that occur in organizing short courses lifelong learning in the information and communication technology (ICT) education which are faced by the lecturer and staff at the Mara Skill Institute and Industrial Training Institute in Pahang, Malaysia. The important aspects of these issues are classified to five which are selecting the courses administrative. Fifty lecturers and staff were selected as a respondent. The sample is selected by using the non-random sampling method purpose sampling. The questionnaire is used as a research instrument and divided into five main parts. All the data that gain from the questionnaire are analyzed by using the SPSS in term of mean, standard deviation and percentage. The findings showed that there are the problems occur in organizing the short course for lifelong learning in ICT education.

Keywords: lifelong Education, information and communication technology, short course, ICT education, courses administrative

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
394 The Development of Portable Application Software for Cardiovascular Fitness Norms of NDUM Cadet Students

Authors: Mohar Kassim, Hardy Azmir, Rahmat Sholihin Mokhtar

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The purpose of this study is to build portable application software to determine the level of cardiovascular fitness for cadet students of the National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM). Fitness in the context of this study refers to physical fitness, specifically the cardiovascular endurance level test battery in the form of a 2.4 km run test for UPNM cadet students. This run test will be conducted to measure, test, and evaluate the performance of UPNM cadet students. All the run test results can be recorded electronically inside the portable software and will later be able to show the level of cardiovascular fitness of every cadet student according to age and gender. This software can also calculate the body mass index (BMI). Normative survey method will be used in this study through the analysis of the 2.4 km run test results. The run test scores will be classified in interval and ratio scales. Based on the findings of this study, portable application software will produced. The software will be able to directly assist the Military Training Academy (ALK), Malaysian Armed Forces (ATM), and other relevant agencies in determining the level of cardiovascular fitness among their staff. The test can be done electronically and on portable mode. The next step to be taken is to have this application patented.

Keywords: development, software, application, portable, fitness norms, cardiovascular endurance

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393 Building Cardiovascular Fitness through Plyometric Training

Authors: Theresa N. Uzor

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The word cardiovascular fitness is a topic of much interest to people of Nigeria, especially during this time, some heart diseases run in families. Cardiovascular fitness is the ability of the heart and lungs to supply-rich blood to the working muscle tissues. This type of fitness is a health-related component of physical fitness that is brought about by sustained physical activity such as plyometric training. Plyometric is a form of advanced fitness training that uses fast muscular contractions to improve power and speed in the sports performance by coaches and athletes. Plyometric training involves a rapid stretching of muscle (eccentric phase) immediately followed by a concentric or shortening action of the same muscle and connective tissue. However, the most basic example of true plyometric training is running and can be safe for a wide variety of populations. This paper focused on building cardiovascular health through Plyometric Training. The centre focus of the article is cardiovascular fitness and plyometric training with factors of cardiovascular fitness. Plyometric training at any age provides multiple benefits even beyond weight control and weight loss, decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases, stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes, and other diseases, among other benefits of plyometric training to cardiovascular fitness. Participation in plyometric training will increase metabolism of an individual, thereby burning more calories even when at rest and reduces weight is also among the benefits of plyometric training. Some guidelines were recommended for planning plyometric training programme to minimise the chance of injury. With plyometric training in Nigeria, fortune can change for good, especially now that there has been an increase in cardiovascular diseases within the society for great savings would be saved.

Keywords: aerobic, cardiovascular, concentric, stretch-shortening cycle, plyometric

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392 The Effect of Health Program on the Fitness Ability of Abnormal BMI University Students

Authors: Hui-Fang Lee, Meng-Chu Liu, Wen-Chi Lu, Hsuan-Jung Hsieh

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The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of health program on the fitness ability of abnormal BMI students of Ching-Yun University of Science and Technology. In order to achieve this purpose, self-regulation theory and dietary education were applied, and the effect of 10-week sports activities and three-day diet records on pre-test and post-test of fitness activities was analyzed. There were 40 original participants. Then, nine people who were with normal BMI, low attendance or unfinished fitness test were eliminated from this research. The valid samples were 31 (77.5%) participants. The fitness activities included sit-bending, one minute sit-up, standing long jump, and three-minute stage boarding. The averages of three-day diet records were compared, and differences of pre-test and post-test of the four fitness activities were analyzed with paired-samples t test. The results showed that there was a significant difference between pre-test and post of male students’ BMI and one minute sit-up. Females’ sit-bending and one minute sit-up had the same effect. Females had high fat intake in three-day diet records. The research showed that the use of self-regulation theory and dietary education, the implementation of sports activities and three-day diet records could significantly enhance the physical fitness indicators or effects. While in the course of sports, we should guide students to think about the gap between self-behavior and ideal behavior, then realize the main reasons and improving methods, and finally go towards the goal and improve the effect of physical fitness.

Keywords: self-regulation theory, dietary education, three-day diet records, physical fitness

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391 Lifelong Distance Learning and Skills Development: A Case Study Analysis in Greece

Authors: Eleni Giouli

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Distance learning provides a flexible approach to education, enabling busy learners to complete their coursework at their own pace, on their own schedule, and from a convenient location. This flexibility combined with a series of other issues; make the benefits of lifelong distance learning numerous. The purpose of the paper is to investigate whether distance education can contribute to the improvement of adult skills in Greece, highlighting in this way the necessity of the lifelong distance learning. To investigate this goal, a questionnaire is constructed and analyzed based on responses from 3,016 attendees of lifelong distance learning programs in the e-learning of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens in Greece. In order to do so, a series of relationships is examined including the effects of a) the gender, b) the previous educational level, c) the current employment status, and d) the method used in the distance learning program, on the development of new general, technical, administrative, social, cultural, entrepreneurial and green skills. The basic conclusions that emerge after using a binary logistic framework are that the following factors are critical in order to develop new skills: the gender, the education level and the educational method used in the lifelong distance learning program. The skills more significantly affected by those factors are the acquiring new skills in general, as well as acquiring general, language and cultural, entrepreneurial and green skills, while for technical and social skills only gender and educational method play a crucial role. Moreover, routine skills and social skills are not affected by the four factors included in the analysis.

Keywords: adult skills, distance learning, education, lifelong learning

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390 A Practical and Efficient Evaluation Function for 3D Model Based Vehicle Matching

Authors: Yuan Zheng

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3D model-based vehicle matching provides a new way for vehicle recognition, localization and tracking. Its key is to construct an evaluation function, also called fitness function, to measure the degree of vehicle matching. The existing fitness functions often poorly perform when the clutter and occlusion exist in traffic scenarios. In this paper, we present a practical and efficient fitness function. Unlike the existing evaluation functions, the proposed fitness function is to study the vehicle matching problem from both local and global perspectives, which exploits the pixel gradient information as well as the silhouette information. In view of the discrepancy between 3D vehicle model and real vehicle, a weighting strategy is introduced to differently treat the fitting of the model’s wireframes. Additionally, a normalization operation for the model’s projection is performed to improve the accuracy of the matching. Experimental results on real traffic videos reveal that the proposed fitness function is efficient and robust to the cluttered background and partial occlusion.

Keywords: 3D-2D matching, fitness function, 3D vehicle model, local image gradient, silhouette information

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389 Typology of Customers in Fitness Centres

Authors: Josef Voracek, Jan Sima

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The main purpose of our study is to state the basic types of fitness customers. This paper aims to create a specific customer typology in today’s fitness centres in the region of Prague. Our suggested typology of Prague fitness centres customers is based on answers to the questions: What are the customers like, what are their preferences, and what kinds of services do they use more often in Prague fitness centres? These are the main aspects of the presented typology. A survey was conducted on a sample of 1004 respondents from 48 fitness centres, which ran during May 2012. We used questionnaires and latent class analysis for the assessment and interpretation of data. Gender was especially the main filter criterion. In the population, there were 522 males and 482 females. Data were analysed using the LCA method. We identified 6 segments of typical customers, of which three are male and three are female. Each segment is influenced primarily by the age of customers, from which we can develop further characteristics, such as education, income, marital status, etc. Male segments use the main workout area above all, whilst female segments use a much wider range of services offered, for example, group exercises, personal training, and cardio theatres. LCA method was found to be the most suitable tool, because cluster analysis is very limited in the forms and numbers of variables and indicators. Models of 3 latent classes for each gender are optimal, as it is demonstrated by entropy indices and matrices of the likelihood of the membership to the classes. A probable weak point of the survey is the selection of fitness centres, because of the market in Prague is really specific.

Keywords: customer, fitness, latent class analysis, typology

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
388 The Relationship between Body Composition and Physical Fitness of Primary School Learners from a Pre-Dominantly Rural Province in South Africa

Authors: Howard Gomwe, Eunice Seekoe, Philemon Lyoka, Chioneso Show Marange, Dennyford Mafa

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There is arguably a lack of literature regarding body physical fitness and body composition amongst primary school learners in South Africa. For this reason, the study is aimed at investigating and accessing how body composition relates to physical fitness amongst primary school learners in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. In order to achieve this, a school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out among 876 primary school learners aged 9 to 14 years. Body composition indicators were measured and/or calculated, whilst physical fitness was evaluated according to the EUROFIT fitness standards by a 20 m shuttle run, push-ups, sit and reach as well as sit-ups. Out of 876 participants, a total of 870 were retained. Of these, 351 (40.34%) were boys, and 519 (59.66%) were girls. The average age of learners was 11.04 ± 1.50 years, with boys having a significantly (p = 0.002) higher mean age (M = 11.24; SD = 1.51 years) as compared to that of girls (M = 10.91; SD = 1.48 years). The non-parametric Spearman Rho correlation coefficients revealed several significant and negative relationships between body composition measurements with physical fitness characteristics, which were stronger in girls than in boys. The findings advocate for policymakers and responsible authorities to initiate the development of policies and interventions targeted at encouraging physical activity and health promotion among primary school learners in South Africa, especially in girls.

Keywords: BMI, body composition, body fat, children, physical fitness, primary school

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
387 Theoretical Literature Review on Lack of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Its Effects on Children

Authors: E. Abdi

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The purpose of this theoretical literature review is to study the relevant academic literature on lack of cardiorespiratory fitness and its effects on children. The total of thirty eight relevant documents were identified and considered for this review which nineteen of those were original research articles published in peer reviewed journals. The other nineteen articles were statistical documents. This document is structured to examine 4 effects in deficiency of cardiorespiratory fitness in school aged children: (a) obesity, (b) inadequate fitness level, (c) unhealthy life style, and (d) academics. The categories provide a theoretical framework for future studies. The results are broken down into 6 sections: (a) academics,( b) healthy life style, (c) low cost, (d) obesity, (e) Relative Age Effect (RAE), and (f) race/poverty. The study discusses that regular physical fitness assists children and adolescents to develop healthy physical activity behaviors which can be sustained throughout adult life. Conclusion suggests that advocacy for increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary behaviors at school and home are necessary.

Keywords: cardiorespiratory, endurance, physical activity, physical fitness

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386 The Impact of the Fitness Center Ownership Structure on the Service Quality Perception in the Fitness in Serbia

Authors: Dragan Zivotic, Mirjana Ilic, Aleksandra Perovic, Predrag Gavrilovic

Abstract:

As with the provision of other services, the service quality perception is one of the key factors that the modern manager must pay attention to. Countries in which the state regulation is in transition also have specific features in providing fitness services. Identification of the dimensions in which the most significant different service quality perception between different types of fitness centers, enables managers to profile the offer according to the wishes and expectations of users. The aim of the paper was the comparison of the quality of services perception in the field of fitness in Serbia between three categories of fitness centers: the privately owned centers, the publicly owned centers, and the Public-private partnership centers. For this research 350 respondents of both genders (174 men and 176 women) were interviewed, aged between 18 and 68 years, being beneficiaries of fitness services for at least 1 year. Administered questionnaire with 100 items provided information about the 15 basic areas in which they expressed the service quality perception in the gym. The core sample was composed of 212 service users in private fitness centers, 69 service users in public fitness centers and 69 service users in the public-private partnership. Sub-samples were equal in representation of women and men, as well as by age and length of use of fitness services. The obtained results were subject of univariate analysis with the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric analysis of variance. Significant differences between the analyzed sub-samples were not found solely in the areas of rapid response and quality outcomes. In the multivariate model, the results were processed by backward stepwise discriminant analysis that extracted 3 areas that maximize the differences between sub-samples: material and technical basis, secondary facilities and coaches. By applying the classification function 93.87% of private centers services users, 62.32% of public centers services users and 85.51% of the public-private partnership centers users of services were correctly classified (total 86.00%). These results allow optimizing the allocation of the necessary resources in profiling offers of a fitness center in order to optimally adjust it to the user’s needs and expectations.

Keywords: fitness, quality perception, management, public ownership, private ownership, public-private partnership, discriminative analysis

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385 The Visually Impaired Jogger: Enhancing Interaction and Fitness through the Fun Run

Authors: Zasha Romero, Joe Paschall

Abstract:

This poster will detail the importance of physical activity for the Visually Impaired students and how to promote inclusion in fitness through way of social gatherings and jogging. Furthermore, it will demonstrate how a Health & Kinesiology University Club cooperated in the journey of visually impaired students from participating in physical activity to completing their first 10K fun run. Purpose: The poster will detail how a university’s Health & Kinesiology Club developed a program to promote participation in fitness activities for visually impaired individuals. Also, it will detail their journey from participation in physical activity to completing a 10K fun run. Methods: In an effort to promote inclusion of all into physical activity, a university’s Health & Kinesiology Club developed a non-profit program to challenge visually impaired students to train and complete a 10 kilometer fun run in a South Texas town. The idea was to promote physical fitness through way of social interaction. In order to maintain runners interested, Club students developed training plans and strategies to be able to navigate in a race that was attended by over 18,000 runners. The idea was to promote interaction and life-long fitness amongst participants. Implications: This strategy was done in collaboration with different non-profit institutions to create awareness and provide opportunities for physical fitness, social interaction and life-long fitness skills associated with the jogging. The workshop provided collaboration amongst different entities and novel ideas to create opportunities for a typically underserved population.

Keywords: inclusion, participation, management, disability, fitness

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384 Marketing Mix Factor Affecting Decision Making Behavior in Using Fitness Service

Authors: Siri-Orn Champatong

Abstract:

The objectives of this research were to study the attitude of service marketing mix that affected the decision making behavior to use fitness service in case of the fitness in Thailand. This study employed by survey research and questionnaire was used to collect the data from 400 of consumers who have used the service and interested in using the service in the future. The descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze data. The results revealed that the attitude toward overall marketing mix was at moderate level. For particulars, attitude toward product and service aspects were at good level, however, attitude toward price, place, promotion, people, physical evidence and service quality aspects were at moderate level. The hypothesis testing results showed that attitude toward each aspect affected word of mouth, however, attitude toward product and service, place, promotion, people and physical evidence affected tendency to use fitness service at .05 statistically significant level.

Keywords: decision making behavior, fitness, marketing mix, marketing service

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383 A Study of Some Selected Anthropometric and Physical Fitness Variables of Junior Free Style Wrestlers

Authors: Parwinder Singh, Ashok Kumar

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between selected Anthropometric and physical fitness variables of Junior Free Style Wrestlers. Method: one hundred fifty (N = 150) male Junior Free Style Wrestlers were selected as subjects, and they were categorized into five groups according to their weight categories; each group was comprised of 30 wrestlers. Body Mass Index can be considered according to the World Health Organization. Body fat percentage was assessed by using Durnin and Womersley equation, and Bodyweight was checked with a weighing machine. Cardiovascular endurance was checked by the Havard Step test of junior freestyle wrestlers. Results: A statistically positive significant correlation was found between Body Weight and Body Mass Index, skinfold thickness, and Percentage Body Fat. Fitness index was observed as negatively significant relationship related with Body Weight, Percent Body Fat, and Body Mass Index. Conclusion: It is concluded that freestyle wrestling is a weight classified sport and physical fitness is the most important factor in freestyle wrestling; therefore, the correlation of the fitness index of the wrestlers with body composition is important. The results of the present study also demonstrated the effect of Age, Body Height, Body Weight, Body Mass Index, and percentage body fat of the aerobic fitness of junior freestyle wrestlers.

Keywords: aerobic fitness, anthropometry, fat percentage, free style wrestling, skinfold, strength

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382 The Influence of Self-Concept on the Tendency of Body Dysmorphic Disorder of Beauty Salon and Fitness Centre Customers in Malang

Authors: Yunita Kurniawati

Abstract:

The aim of the research is to understand the influence of self concept on the tendency for body dysmorphic disorder among beauty salon and fitness centre customers in Malang. Subjects in this study amounted to 200 of beauty salon and fitness centre customers in Malang. Subjects completed a self-concept scale and the tendency of body dysmorphic scale. This study was analyzed using simple linear regression. The result shows that there are 14% influence of self concept on the tendency of body dysmorphic disorder among customers of beauty salon and fitness centre in Malang.

Keywords: self concept, tendency of body dysmorphic disorder, beauty salon and fitness centre customers, Malang

Procedia PDF Downloads 327