Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3585

Search results for: single photodiode.

3585 Performance Analysis of SAC-OCDMA System using Different Detectors

Authors: Somaya A. Abd El Mottaleb, Ahmed Abd El Aziz, Heba A. Fayed, Moustafa H. Aly

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the performance of spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access using different detectors at different transmission distances using single photodiode detection technique. Modified double weight codes are used as signature codes. Simulation results show that the system using avalanche photo detector can move distance longer than that using positive intrinsic negative photo detector.

Keywords: avalanche photodiode, modified double weight, multiple access technique, single photodiode.

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
3584 Fabrication of InGaAs P-I-N Micro-Photodiode Sensor Array

Authors: Jyun-Hao Liao, Chien-Ju Chen, Chia-Jui Yu, Meng Chyi Wu, Chia-Ching Wu

Abstract:

In this letter, we reported the fabrication of InGaAs micro-photodiode sensor array with the rapid thermal diffusion (RTD) technique. The spin-on dopant source Zn was used to form the p-type region in InP layer. Through the RTD technique, the InP/InGaAs heterostructure was formed. We improved our fabrication on the p-i-n photodiode to micro size which pixel is 7.8um, and the pitch is 12.8um. The proper SiNx was deposited to form the passivation layer. The leakage current of single pixel decrease to 3.3pA at -5V, and 35fA at -10mV. The leakage current densities of each voltage are 21uA/cm² at -5V and 0.223uA/cm² at -10mV. As we focus on the wavelength from 0.9um to 1.7um, the optimized Si/Al₂O₃ bilayers are deposited to form the AR-coating.

Keywords: InGaAs, micro sensor array, p-i-n photodiode, rapid thermal diffusion, Zn diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
3583 An Experimental Study on the Measurement of Fuel to Air Ratio Using Flame Chemiluminescence

Authors: Sewon Kim, Chang Yeop Lee, Minjun Kwon

Abstract:

This study is aiming at establishing the relationship between the optical signal of flame and an equivalent ratio of flame. In this experiment, flame optical signal in a furnace is measured using photodiode. The combustion system which is composed of metal fiber burner and vertical furnace and flame chemiluminescence is measured at various experimental conditions. In this study, the flame chemiluminescence of laminar premixed flame is measured by using commercially available photodiode. It is experimentally investigated the relationship between equivalent ratio and photodiode signal. In addition, The strategy of combustion control method is proposed by using the optical signal and fuel pressure. The results showed that certain relationship between optical data of photodiode and equivalence ratio exists and this leads to the successful application of this system for instantaneous measurement of equivalence ration of the combustion system.

Keywords: flame chemiluminescence, photo diode, equivalence ratio, combustion control

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
3582 Design and Simulation of 3-Transistor Active Pixel Sensor Using MATLAB Simulink

Authors: H. Alheeh, M. Alameri, A. Al Tarabsheh

Abstract:

There has been a growing interest in CMOS-based sensors technology in cameras as they afford low-power, small-size, and cost-effective imaging systems. This article describes the CMOS image sensor pixel categories and presents the design and the simulation of the 3-Transistor (3T) Active Pixel Sensor (APS) in MATLAB/Simulink tool. The analysis investigates the conversion of the light into an electrical signal for a single pixel sensing circuit, which consists of a photodiode and three NMOS transistors. The paper also proposes three modes for the pixel operation; reset, integration, and readout modes. The simulations of the electrical signals for each of the studied modes of operation show how the output electrical signals are correlated to the input light intensities. The charging/discharging speed for the photodiodes is also investigated. The output voltage for different light intensities, including in dark case, is calculated and showed its inverse proportionality with the light intensity.

Keywords: APS, CMOS image sensor, light intensities photodiode, simulation

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3581 4-Channel CWDM Optical Transceiver Applying Silicon Photonics Ge-Photodiode and MZ-Modulator

Authors: Do-Won Kim, Andy Eu Jin Lim, Raja Muthusamy Kumarasamy, Vishal Vinayak, Jacky Wang Yu-Shun, Jason Liow Tsung Yang, Patrick Lo Guo Qiang

Abstract:

In this study, we demonstrate 4-channel coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) optical transceiver based on silicon photonics integrated circuits (PIC) of waveguide Ge-photodiode (Ge-PD) and Mach Zehnder (MZ)-modulator. 4-channel arrayed PICs of Ge-PD and MZ-modulator are verified to operate at 25 Gbps/ch achieving 4x25 Gbps of total data rate. 4 bare dies of single-channel commercial electronics ICs (EICs) of trans-impedance amplifier (TIA) for Ge-PD and driver IC for MZ-modulator are packaged with PIC on printed circuit board (PCB) in a chip-on-board (COB) manner. Each single-channel EIC is electrically connected to the one channel of 4-channel PICs by wire bonds to trace. The PICs have 4-channel multiplexer for MZ-modulator and 4-channel demultiplexer for Ge-PD. The 4-channel multiplexer/demultiplexer have echelle gratings for4 CWDM optic signals of which center wavelengths are 1511, 1531, 1553, and 1573 nm. Its insertion loss is around 4dB with over 15dB of extinction ratio.The dimension of 4-channel Ge-PD is 3.6x1.4x0.3mm, and its responsivity is 1A/W with dark current of less than 20 nA.Its measured 3dB bandwidth is around 20GHz. The dimension of the 4-channel MZ-modulator is 3.6x4.8x0.3mm, and its 3dB bandwidth is around 11Ghz at -2V of reverse biasing voltage. It has 2.4V•cmbyVπVL of 6V for π shift to 4 mm length modulator.5x5um of Inversed tapered mode size converter with less than 2dB of coupling loss is used for the coupling of the lensed fiber which has 5um of mode field diameter.The PCB for COB packaging and signal transmission is designed to have 6 layers in the hybrid layer structure. 0.25 mm-thick Rogers Duroid RT5880 is used as the first core dielectric layer for high-speed performance over 25 Gbps. It has 0.017 mm-thick of copper layers and its dielectric constant is 2.2and dissipation factor is 0.0009 at 10 GHz. The dimension of both single ended and differential microstrip transmission lines are calculated using full-wave electromagnetic (EM) field simulator HFSS which RF industry is using most. It showed 3dB bandwidth at around 15GHz in S-parameter measurement using network analyzer. The wire bond length for transmission line and ground connection from EIC is done to have less than 300 µm to minimize the parasitic effect to the system.Single layered capacitors (SLC) of 100pF and 1000pF are connected as close as possible to the EICs for stabilizing the DC biasing voltage by decoupling. Its signal transmission performance is under measurement at 25Gbps achieving 100Gbps by 4chx25Gbps. This work can be applied for the active optical cable (AOC) and quad small form-factor pluggable (QSFP) for high-speed optical interconnections. Its demands are quite large in data centers targeting 100 Gbps, 400 Gbps, and 1 Tbps. As the demands of high-speed AOC and QSFP for the application to intra/inter data centers increase, this silicon photonics based high-speed 4 channel CWDM scheme can have advantages not only in data throughput but also cost effectiveness since it reduces fiber cost dramatically through WDM.

Keywords: active optical cable(AOC), 4-channel coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM), communication system, data center, ge-photodiode, Mach Zehnder (MZ) modulator, optical interconnections, optical transceiver, photonics integrated circuits (PIC), quad small form-factor pluggable (QSFP), silicon photonics

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3580 InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiode Array ns-Response

Authors: Utpal Das, Sona Das

Abstract:

InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) Mid-wave infrared (MWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) have recently seen rapid development. However, in small pixel size large format FPAs, the occurrence of high mesa sidewall surface leakage current is a major constraint necessitating proper surface passivation. A simple pixel isolation technique in InAs/GaSb T2SL detector arrays without the conventional mesa etching has been proposed to isolate the pixels by forming a more resistive higher band gap material from the SL, in the inter-pixel region. Here, a single step femtosecond (fs) laser anneal of the T2SL structure of the inter-pixel T2SL regions, have been used to increase the band gap between the pixels by QW-intermixing and hence increase isolation between the pixels. The p-i-n photodiode structure used here consists of a 506nm, (10 monolayer {ML}) InAs:Si (1x10¹⁸cm⁻³)/(10ML) GaSb SL as the bottom n-contact layer grown on an n-type GaSb substrate. The undoped absorber layer consists of 1.3µm, (10ML)InAs/(10ML)GaSb SL. The top p-contact layer is a 63nm, (10ML)InAs:Be(1x10¹⁸cm⁻³)/(10ML)GaSb T2SL. In order to improve the carrier transport, a 126nm of graded doped (10ML)InAs/(10ML)GaSb SL layer was added between the absorber and each contact layers. A 775nm 150fs-laser at a fluence of ~6mJ/cm² is used to expose the array where the pixel regions are masked by a Ti(200nm)-Au(300nm) cap. Here, in the inter-pixel regions, the p+ layer have been reactive ion etched (RIE) using CH₄+H₂ chemistry and removed before fs-laser exposure. The fs-laser anneal isolation improvement in 200-400μm pixels due to spatially selective quantum well intermixing for a blue shift of ~70meV in the inter-pixel regions is confirmed by FTIR measurements. Dark currents are measured between two adjacent pixels with the Ti(200nm)-Au(300nm) caps used as contacts. The T2SL quality in the active photodiode regions masked by the Ti-Au cap is hardly affected and retains the original quality of the detector. Although, fs-laser anneal of p+ only etched p-i-n T2SL diodes show a reduction in the reverse dark current, no significant improvement in the full RIE-etched mesa structures is noticeable. Hence for a 128x128 array fabrication of 8μm square pixels and 10µm pitch, SU8 polymer isolation after RIE pixel delineation has been used. X-n+ row contacts and Y-p+ column contacts have been used to measure the optical response of the individual pixels. The photo-response of these 8μm and other 200μm pixels under a 2ns optical pulse excitation from an Optical-Parametric-Oscillator (OPO), shows a peak responsivity of ~0.03A/W and 0.2mA/W, respectively, at λ~3.7μm. Temporal response of this detector array is seen to have a fast response ~10ns followed typical slow decay with ringing, attributed to impedance mismatch of the connecting co-axial cables. In conclusion, response times of a few ns have been measured in 8µm pixels of a 128x128 array. Although fs-laser anneal has been found to be useful in increasing the inter-pixel isolation in InAs/GaSb T2SL arrays by QW inter-mixing, it has not been found to be suitable for passivation of full RIE etched mesa structures with vertical walls on InAs/GaSb T2SL.

Keywords: band-gap blue-shift, fs-laser-anneal, InAs/GaSb T2SL, Inter-pixel isolation, ns-Response, photodiode array

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3579 Single Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Rough Set and Its Application

Authors: K. M. Alsager, N. O. Alshehri

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed the notion of single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy rough set, by combining single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set and rough set. The combination of single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set and rough set is a powerful tool for dealing with uncertainty, granularity and incompleteness of knowledge in information systems. We presented both definition and some basic properties of the proposed model. Finally, we gave a general approach which is applied to a decision making problem in disease diagnoses, and demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach by a numerical example.

Keywords: single valued neutrosophic fuzzy set, single valued neutrosophic fuzzy hesitant set, rough set, single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy rough set

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3578 Single-Cell Visualization with Minimum Volume Embedding

Authors: Zhenqiu Liu

Abstract:

Visualizing the heterogeneity within cell-populations for single-cell RNA-seq data is crucial for studying the functional diversity of a cell. However, because of the high level of noises, outlier, and dropouts, it is very challenging to measure the cell-to-cell similarity (distance), visualize and cluster the data in a low-dimension. Minimum volume embedding (MVE) projects the data into a lower-dimensional space and is a promising tool for data visualization. However, it is computationally inefficient to solve a semi-definite programming (SDP) when the sample size is large. Therefore, it is not applicable to single-cell RNA-seq data with thousands of samples. In this paper, we develop an efficient algorithm with an accelerated proximal gradient method and visualize the single-cell RNA-seq data efficiently. We demonstrate that the proposed approach separates known subpopulations more accurately in single-cell data sets than other existing dimension reduction methods.

Keywords: single-cell RNA-seq, minimum volume embedding, visualization, accelerated proximal gradient method

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3577 Number of Parameters of Anantharam's Model with Single-Input Single-Output Case

Authors: Kazuyoshi Mori

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the parametrization of Anantharam’s model within the framework of the factorization approach. In the parametrization, we investigate the number of required parameters of Anantharam’s model. We consider single-input single-output systems in this paper. By the investigation, we find three cases that are (1) there exist plants which require only one parameter and (2) two parameters, and (3) the number of parameters is at most three.

Keywords: linear systems, parametrization, coprime factorization, number of parameters

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3576 Determining the Number of Single Models in a Combined Forecast

Authors: Serkan Aras, Emrah Gulay

Abstract:

Combining various forecasting models is an important tool for researchers to attain more accurate forecasts. A great number of papers have shown that selecting single models as dissimilar models, or methods based on different information as possible leads to better forecasting performances. However, there is not a certain rule regarding the number of single models to be used in any combining methods. This study focuses on determining the optimal or near optimal number for single models with the help of statistical tests. An extensive experiment is carried out by utilizing some well-known time series data sets from diverse fields. Furthermore, many rival forecasting methods and some of the commonly used combining methods are employed. The obtained results indicate that some statistically significant performance differences can be found regarding the number of the single models in the combining methods under investigation.

Keywords: combined forecast, forecasting, M-competition, time series

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3575 Analysis of Advanced Modulation Format Using Gain and Loss Spectrum for Long Range Radio over Fiber System

Authors: Shaina Nagpal, Amit Gupta

Abstract:

In this work, all optical Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) generated single sideband with suppressed carrier is presented to provide better efficiency. The generation of single sideband and enhanced carrier power signal using the SBS technique is further used to strengthen the low shifted sideband and to suppress the upshifted sideband. These generated single sideband signals are able to work at high frequency ranges. Also, generated single sideband is validated over 90 km transmission using single mode fiber with acceptable bit error rate. The results for an equivalent are then compared so that the acceptable technique is chosen and also the required quality for the optimum performance of the system is reported.

Keywords: stimulated Brillouin scattering, radio over fiber, upper side band, quality factor

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3574 Single Species vs Mixed Microbial Culture Degradation of Pesticide in a Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Karan R. Chavan, Srivats Gopalan, Kumudini V. Marathe

Abstract:

In the current work, the comparison of degradation of malathion by single species, Pseudomonas Stutzeri, and Activated Sludge/Mixed Microbial Culture is studied in a Membrane Bioreactor. Various parameters were considered to study the effect of single species degradation compared to degradation by activated sludge. The experimental results revealed 85-90% reduction in the COD of the Malathion containing synthetic wastewater. Complete reduction of malathion was observed within 24 hours in both the cases. The critical flux was 10 LMH for both the systems. Fouling propensity, Cake and Membrane resistances were calculated thus giving an insight regarding the working of Membrane Bioreactor-based on single species and activated sludge.

Keywords: fouling, membrane bioreactor, mixed microbial culture, single species

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3573 Single-Molecule Analysis of Structure and Dynamics in Polymer Materials by Super-Resolution Technique

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki

Abstract:

The physical properties of polymer materials are dependent on the conformation and molecular motion of a polymer chain. Therefore, the structure and dynamic behavior of the single polymer chain have been the most important concerns in the field of polymer physics. However, it has been impossible to directly observe the conformation of the single polymer chain in a bulk medium. In the current work, the novel techniques to study the conformation and dynamics of a single polymer chain are proposed. Since a fluorescence method is extremely sensitive, the fluorescence microscopy enables the direct detection of a single molecule. However, the structure of the polymer chain as large as 100 nm cannot be resolved by conventional fluorescence methods because of the diffraction limit of light. In order to observe the single chains, we developed the labeling method of polymer materials with a photo-switchable dye and the super-resolution microscopy. The real-space conformational analysis of single polymer chains with the spatial resolution of 15-20 nm was achieved. The super-resolution microscopy enables us to obtain the three-dimensional coordinates; therefore, we succeeded the conformational analysis in three dimensions. The direct observation by the nanometric optical microscopy would reveal the detailed information on the molecular processes in the various polymer systems.

Keywords: polymer materials, single molecule, super-resolution techniques, conformation

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3572 A Review on the Re-Usage of Single-Use Medical Devices

Authors: Lucas B. Naves, Maria José Abreu

Abstract:

Reprocessing single-use device has attracted interesting on the medical environment over the last decades. The reprocessing technique was sought in order to reduce the cost of purchasing the new medical device, which can achieve almost double of the price of the reprocessed product. In this manuscript, we have done a literature review, aiming the reuse of medical device that was firstly designed for single use only, but has become, more and more, effective on its reprocessing procedure. We also show the regulation, the countries which allows this procedure, the classification of these device and also the most important issue concerning the re-utilization of medical device, how to minimizing the risk of gram positive and negative bacteria, avoid cross-contamination, hepatitis B (HBV), and C (HCV) virus, and also human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Keywords: reusing, reprocessing, single-use medical device, HIV, hepatitis B and C

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3571 High Efficiency ZPS-PWM Dual-Output Converters with EMI Reduction Method

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Nobukazu Tsukiji, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi

Abstract:

In this paper, we study a Pulse-WidthModulation (PWM) controlled Zero-Voltage-Switching (ZVS) for single-inductor dual-output (SIDO) converters. This method can meet the industry demands for high efficiency due to ZVS and small size and low cost, thanks to single-inductor per multiple voltages. We show the single inductor single-output (SISO) ZVS buck converter with its operation and simulation and then the experimental results. Next proposed ZVS-PWM controlled SIDO converters are explained in the simulation. Finally we have proposed EMI reduction method with spread spectrum.

Keywords: DC-DC switching converter, zero-oltage switching control, single-inductor dual-output converter, EMI reduction, spread spectrum

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
3570 Efficient Single Relay Selection Scheme for Cooperative Communication

Authors: Sung-Bok Choi, Hyun-Jun Shin, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

This paper proposes a single relay selection scheme in cooperative communication. Decode and forward scheme is considered when a source node wants to cooperate with a single relay for data transmission. To use the proposed single relay selection scheme, the source node make a little different pattern signal which is not complex pattern and broadcasts it. The proposed scheme does not require the channel state information between the source node and candidates of the relay during the relay selection. Therefore, it is able to be used in many fields.

Keywords: relay selection, cooperative communication, df, channel codes

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
3569 Performance Evaluation of Single Basin Solar Still

Authors: Prem Singh, Jagdeep Singh

Abstract:

In an attempt to investigate the performance of single basin solar still for climate conditions of Ludhiana a single basin solar still was designed, fabricated and tested. The energy balance equations for various parts of the still are solved by Gauss-Seidel iteration method. Computer model was made and experimentally validated. The validated computer model was used to estimate the annual distillation yield and performance ratio of the still for Ludhiana. The Theoretical and experimental distillation yield were 4318.79 ml and 3850 ml, respectively for the typical day. The predicted distillation yield was 12.5% higher than the experimental yield. The annual distillation yield per square meter aperture area and annual performance ratio for single basin solar still is 1095 liters and 0.43 liters, respectively. The payback period for micro-stepped solar still is 2.5 years.

Keywords: solar distillation, solar still, single basin, still

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
3568 A Performance Study of Fixed, Single-Axis and Dual-Axis Photovoltaic Systems in Kuwait

Authors: A. Al-Rashidi, A. El-Hamalawi

Abstract:

In this paper, a performance study was conducted to investigate single and dual-axis PV systems to generate electricity in five different sites in Kuwait. Relevant data were obtained by using two sources for validation purposes. A commercial software, PVsyst, was used to analyse the data, such as metrological data and other input parameters, and compute the performance parameters such as capacity factor (CF) and final yield (YF). The results indicated that single and dual-axis PV systems would be very beneficial to electricity generation in Kuwait as an alternative source to conventional power plants, especially with the increased demand over time. The ranges were also found to be competitive in comparison to leading countries using similar systems. A significant increase in CF and YF values around 24% and 28.8% was achieved related to the use of single and dual systems, respectively.

Keywords: single-axis and dual-axis photovoltaic systems, capacity factor, final yield, Kuwait

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3567 The Simulation of Superfine Animal Fibre Fractionation: The Strength Variation of Fibre

Authors: Sepehr Moradi

Abstract:

This study investigates the contribution of individual Australian Superfine Merino Wool (ASFW) and Inner Mongolia Cashmere (IMC) fibres strength behaviour to the breaking force variation (CVBF) and minimum fibre diameter (CVₘFD) induced by actual single fibre lengths and the combination of length and diameter groups. Mid-side samples were selected for the ASFW (n = 919) and IMC (n = 691) since it is assumed to represent the average of the whole fleece. The average (LₘFD) varied for ASFW and IMC by 36.6 % and 33.3 % from shortest to longest actual single fibre length and -21.2 % and -21.7 % between longest-coarsest and shortest-finest groups, respectively. The tensile properties of single animal fibres were characterised using Single Fibre Analyser (SIFAN 4). After normalising for diversity in fibre diameter at the position of breakage, the parameters, which explain the strength behaviour within actual fibre lengths and combination of length-diameter groups, were the Intrinsic Fibre Strength (IFS) (MPa), Min IFS (MPa), Max IFS (MPa) and Breaking force (BF) (cN). The average strength of single fibres varied extensively within actual length groups and within a combination of length-diameter groups. IFS ranged for ASFW and IMC from 419 to 355 MPa (-15.2 % range) and 353 to 319 (-9.6 % range) and BF from 2.2 to 3.6 (63.6 % range) and 3.2 to 5.3 cN (65.6 % range) from shortest to longest groups, respectively. Single fibre properties showed no differences within actual length groups and within a combination of length-diameter groups, or was there a strong interaction between the strength of single fibre (P > 0.05) within remaining and removing length-diameter groups. Longer-coarser fibre fractionation had a significant effect on BF and IFS and all of the length groups showed a considerable variance in single fibre strength that is accounted for by diversity in the diameter variation along the fibre. There are many concepts for the improvement of the stress-strain properties of animal fibres as a means of raising a single fibre strength by simultaneous changes in fibre length and diameter. Fibre fractionation over a given length directly for single fibre strength or using the variation traits of fibre diameter is an important process used to increase the strength of the single fibre.

Keywords: single animal fibre fractionation, actual length groups, strength variation, length-diameter groups, diameter variation along fibre

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3566 Invisible and Visible Helpers in Negotiating Child Parenting by Single Mothers: A Comparative Analysis of South Africa and Germany

Authors: Maud Mthembu, Tanusha Raniga, Michael Boecker

Abstract:

In South Africa and Germany, countless number of children are raised by single mothers with little or no support from the biological fathers. As evidenced in literature, having an involved father living at home can have a positive influence in the life of a child and the mother can be supported in her role. Often single parenting is seen as a causative factor in numerous psychological and social challenges which are faced by children from single-parent households, which is an indication of a pathological lens of viewing single parenting. The empirical data from our study reveals that single mothers in formal employment experience social, economic and emotional hardships of parenting. However, a sense of determination to raise healthy and well-balanced children using economic and social capital accessible to them was one of the key findings. The participants reported visible and invisible sources of support which creates an enabling environment for them to negotiate the challenges of parenting without support from non-residence fathers. Using a qualitative paradigm, a total of twenty professional single mothers were interviewed in Germany and South Africa. Four key themes emerged from the data analysis namely; internal locus of control, positive new experiences, access to economic capital and dependable social support. This study suggests that single mothers who are economically self-reliant and have access to bonding social capital are able to cope with the demands of single parenting. Understanding this multi-dimensional experience of parenting by single parents in formal employment is important to advocate for supportive working conditions for mothers.

Keywords: child parenting, child protection, single parenting, social capital

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3565 Single Event Transient Tolerance Analysis in 8051 Microprocessor Using Scan Chain

Authors: Jun Sung Go, Jong Kang Park, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

As semi-conductor manufacturing technology evolves; the single event transient problem becomes more significant issue. Single event transient has a critical impact on both combinational and sequential logic circuits, so it is important to evaluate the soft error tolerance of the circuits at the design stage. In this paper, we present a soft error detecting simulation using scan chain. The simulation model generates a single event transient randomly in the circuit, and detects the soft error during the execution of the test patterns. We verified this model by inserting a scan chain in an 8051 microprocessor using 65 nm CMOS technology. While the test patterns generated by ATPG program are passing through the scan chain, we insert a single event transient and detect the number of soft errors per sub-module. The experiments show that the soft error rates per cell area of the SFR module is 277% larger than other modules.

Keywords: scan chain, single event transient, soft error, 8051 processor

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3564 Evaluation of Soil Thermal-Entropy Properties with a Single-Probe Heat-Pulse Technique

Authors: Abdull Halim Abdull, Nasiman Sapari, Mohammad Haikal Asyraf Bin Anuar

Abstract:

Although soil thermal properties are required in many areas to improve oil recovery, they are seldom measured on a routine basis. Reasons for this are unclear, but may be related to a lack of suitable instrumentation and entropy theory. We integrate single probe thermal gradient for the radial conduction of a short-duration heat pulse away from a single electrode source, and compared it with the theory for an instantaneously heated line source. By measuring the temperature response at a short distance from the line source, and applying short-duration heat-pulse theory, we can extract all the entropy properties, the thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and conductivity, from a single heat-pulse measurement. Results of initial experiments carried out on air-dry sand and clay materials indicate that this heat-pulse method yields soil thermal properties that compare well with thermal properties measured by single electrode.

Keywords: entropy, single probe thermal gradient, soil thermal, probe heat

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3563 Efficient Pre-Processing of Single-Cell Assay for Transposase Accessible Chromatin with High-Throughput Sequencing Data

Authors: Fan Gao, Lior Pachter

Abstract:

The primary tool currently used to pre-process 10X Chromium single-cell ATAC-seq data is Cell Ranger, which can take very long to run on standard datasets. To facilitate rapid pre-processing that enables reproducible workflows, we present a suite of tools called scATAK for pre-processing single-cell ATAC-seq data that is 15 to 18 times faster than Cell Ranger on mouse and human samples. Our tool can also calculate chromatin interaction potential matrices, and generate open chromatin signal and interaction traces for cell groups. We use scATAK tool to explore the chromatin regulatory landscape of a healthy adult human brain and unveil cell-type specific features, and show that it provides a convenient and computational efficient approach for pre-processing single-cell ATAC-seq data.

Keywords: single-cell, ATAC-seq, bioinformatics, open chromatin landscape, chromatin interactome

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3562 Study of Magnetic Nanoparticles’ Endocytosis in a Single Cell Level

Authors: Jefunnie Matahum, Yu-Chi Kuo, Chao-Ming Su, Tzong-Rong Ger

Abstract:

Magnetic cell labeling is of great importance in various applications in biomedical fields such as cell separation and cell sorting. Since analytical methods for quantification of cell uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are already well established, image analysis on single cell level still needs more characterization. This study reports an alternative non-destructive quantification methods of single-cell uptake of positively charged MNPs. Magnetophoresis experiments were performed to calculate the number of MNPs in a single cell. Mobility of magnetic cells and the area of intracellular MNP stained by Prussian blue were quantified by image processing software. ICP-MS experiments were also performed to confirm the internalization of MNPs to cells. Initial results showed that the magnetic cells incubated at 100 µg and 50 µg MNPs/mL concentration move at 18.3 and 16.7 µm/sec, respectively. There is also an increasing trend in the number and area of intracellular MNP with increasing concentration. These results could be useful in assessing the nanoparticle uptake in a single cell level.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, single cell, magnetophoresis, image analysis

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3561 Segmental Motion of Polymer Chain at Glass Transition Probed by Single Molecule Detection

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki

Abstract:

The glass transition phenomenon has been extensively studied for a long time. The glass transition of polymer materials is assigned to the transition of the dynamics of the chain backbone segment. However, the detailed mechanism of the transition behavior of the segmental motion is still unclear. In the current work, the single molecule detection technique was employed to reveal the trajectory of the molecular motion of the single polymer chain. The center segment of poly(butyl methacrylate) chain was labeled by a perylenediimide dye molecule and observed by a highly sensitive fluorescence microscope in a defocus condition. The translational and rotational diffusion of the center segment in a single polymer chain was analyzed near the glass transition temperature. The direct observation of the individual polymer chains revealed the intermittent behavior of the segmental motion, indicating the spatial inhomogeneity.

Keywords: glass transition, molecular motion, polymer materials, single molecule

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3560 Study on the Work-Life Balance of Selected Working Single Mothers in the Coastal Community of La Huerta, Paranaque

Authors: Idette Sheirina Biyo, Rhodora Lynn C. Lintag

Abstract:

This paper explores how the work-life balance of selected working single mothers situated in a coastal community is affecting their well-being. Working single mothers carry the responsibility of earning for their family while simultaneously exercising their motherhood. This study utilized a purposeful qualitative research through semi-structured interviews among ten working single mothers living in the coastal community of La Huerta, Parañaque in order to identify the following: a) experiences of the working single mothers, b) problems usually encountered, and c) how these problems are affecting their well-being. Dorothy Smith’s Feminist Standpoint theory is used as a theoretical lens in order to explain their work-life balance. Results have shown that despite their dual roles as the main income earners and heads of the households, they are not neglecting to care for their well-being. They consider getting sufficient rest, eating well, and going to church as forms of caring for their well-being. Other factors that affect their work-life balance include living arrangements, work hours, type of work, and income.

Keywords: coastal community, well-being, work-life balance, Working single mother

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3559 Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis of Bonded Single Lap Joint in Composite Material

Authors: A. Benhamena, L. Aminallah, A. Aid, M. Benguediab, A. Amrouche

Abstract:

The goal of this work is to analyze the severity of interfacial stress distribution in the single lap adhesive joint under tensile loading. The three-dimensional and non-linear finite element method based on the computation of the peel and shear stresses was used to analyze the fracture behaviour of single lap adhesive joint. The effect of the loading magnitude and the overlap length on the distribution of peel and shear stresses was highlighted. A good correlation was found between the FEM simulations and the analytical results.

Keywords: aluminum 2024-T3 alloy, single-lap adhesive joints, Interface stress distributions, material nonlinear analysis, adhesive, bending moment, finite element method

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3558 New Moment Rotation Model of Single Web Angle Connections

Authors: Zhengyi Kong, Seung-Eock Kim

Abstract:

Single angle connections, which are bolted to the beam web and the column flange, are studied to investigate moment-rotation behavior. Elastic–perfectly plastic material behavior is assumed. ABAQUS software is used to analyze the nonlinear behavior of a single angle connection. The same geometric and material conditions with Yanglin Gong’s test are used for verifying finite element models. Since Kishi and Chen’s Power model and Lee and Moon’s Log model are accurate only for a limited range, simpler and more accurate hyperbolic function models are proposed. The equation for calculating rotation at ultimate moment is first proposed.

Keywords: finite element method, moment and rotation, rotation at ultimate moment, single-web angle connections

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3557 Single Cell Sorter Driven by Resonance Vibration of Cell Culture Substrate

Authors: Misa Nakao, Yuta Kurashina, Chikahiro Imashiro, Kenjiro Takemura

Abstract:

The Research Goal: With the growing demand for regenerative medicine, an effective mass cell culture process is required. In a repetitive subculture process for proliferating cells, preparing single cell suspension which does not contain any cell aggregates is highly required because cell aggregates often raise various undesirable phenomena, e.g., apoptosis and decrease of cell proliferation. Since cell aggregates often occur in cell suspension during conventional subculture processes, this study proposes a single cell sorter driven by a resonance vibration of a cell culture substrate. The Method and the Result: The single cell sorter is simply composed of a cell culture substrate and a glass pipe vertically placed against the cell culture substrate with a certain gap corresponding to a cell diameter. The cell culture substrate is made of biocompatible stainless steel with a piezoelectric ceramic disk glued to the bottom side. Applying AC voltage to the piezoelectric ceramic disk, an out-of-plane resonance vibration with a single nodal circle of the cell culture substrate can be excited at 5.5 kHz. By doing so, acoustic radiation force is emitted, and then cell suspension containing only single cells is pumped into the pipe and collected. This single cell sorter is effective to collect single cells selectively in spite of its quite simple structure. We collected C2C12 myoblast cell suspension by the single cell sorter with the vibration amplitude of 12 µmp-p and evaluated the ratio of single cells in number against the entire cells in the suspension. Additionally, we cultured the collected cells for 72 hrs and measured the number of cells after the cultivation in order to evaluate their proliferation. As a control sample, we also collected cell suspension by conventional pipetting, and evaluated the ratio of single cells and the number of cells after the 72-hour cultivation. The ratio of single cells in the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter was 98.2%. This ratio was 9.6% higher than that collected by conventional pipetting (statistically significant). Moreover, the number of cells cultured for 72 hrs after the collection by the single cell sorter yielded statistically more cells than that collected by pipetting, resulting in a 13.6% increase in proliferated cells. These results suggest that the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter driven by the resonance vibration hardly contains cell aggregates whose diameter is larger than the gap between the cell culture substrate and the pipe. Consequently, the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter maintains high cell proliferation. Conclusions: In this study, we developed a single cell sorter capable of sorting and pumping single cells by a resonance vibration of a cell culture substrate. The experimental results show the single cell sorter collects single cell suspension which hardly contains cell aggregates. Furthermore, the collected cells show higher proliferation than that of cells collected by conventional pipetting. This means the resonance vibration of the cell culture substrate can benefit us with the increase in efficiency of mass cell culture process for clinical applications.

Keywords: acoustic radiation force, cell proliferation, regenerative medicine, resonance vibration, single cell sorter

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3556 The Gradient Complex Protective Coatings for Single Crystal Nickel Alloys

Authors: Evgeniya Popova, Vladimir Lesnikov, Nikolay Popov

Abstract:

High yield complex coatings have been designed for thermally stressed cooled HP turbine blades from single crystal alloys ZHS32-VI-VI and ZHS36 with crystallographic orientation [001]. These coatings provide long-term protection of single crystal blades during operation. The three-layer coatings were prepared as follows: the diffusion barrier layer formation on the alloy surface, the subsequent deposition of the condensed bilayer coatings consisting of an inner layer based on Ni-Cr-Al-Y systems and an outer layer based on the alloyed β-phase. The structure, phase composition of complex coatings and reaction zone interaction with the single-crystal alloys ZHS32-VI and ZHS36-VI were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of complex protective coatings on the properties of heat-resistant nickel alloys was studied.

Keywords: single crystal nickel alloys, complex heat-resistant coatings, structure, phase composition, properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 250