Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: N. O. Alshehri

17 Detecting Black Hole Attacks in Body Sensor Networks

Authors: Sara Alshehri, Bayan Alenzi, Atheer Alshehri, Samia Chelloug, Zainab Almry, Hussah Albugmai

Abstract:

This paper concerns body area networks sensor that collect signals around a human body. The black hole attacks are the main security challenging problem because the data traffic can be dropped at any node. The focus of our proposed solution is to efficiently route data packets while detecting black hole nodes.

Keywords: body sensor networks, security, black hole, routing, broadcasting, OMNeT++

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16 Assessment of Image Databases Used for Human Skin Detection Methods

Authors: Saleh Alshehri

Abstract:

Human skin detection is a vital step in many applications. Some of the applications are critical especially those related to security. This leverages the importance of a high-performance detection algorithm. To validate the accuracy of the algorithm, image databases are usually used. However, the suitability of these image databases is still questionable. It is suggested that the suitability can be measured mainly by the span the database covers of the color space. This research investigates the validity of three famous image databases.

Keywords: image databases, image processing, pattern recognition, neural networks

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15 Snapchat’s Scanning Feature

Authors: Reham Banwair, Lana Alshehri, Sara Hadrawi

Abstract:

The purpose of this project is to identify user satisfaction with the AI functions on Snapchat, in order to generate improvement proposals that allow its development within the app. To achieve this, a qualitative analysis was carried out through interviews to people who usually use the application, revealing their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the usefulness of the AI. In addition, the background of the company and its introduction in these algorithms were analyzed. Furthermore, the characteristics of the three main functions of AI were explained: identify songs, solve mathematical problems, and recognize plants. As a result, it was obtained that 50% still do not know the characteristics of AI, 50% still believe song recognition is not always correct, 41.7% believe that math problems are usually accurate and 91.7% believes the plant detection tool is working properly.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, scanning, Snapchat, machine learning

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14 Single Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Rough Set and Its Application

Authors: K. M. Alsager, N. O. Alshehri

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed the notion of single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy rough set, by combining single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set and rough set. The combination of single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set and rough set is a powerful tool for dealing with uncertainty, granularity and incompleteness of knowledge in information systems. We presented both definition and some basic properties of the proposed model. Finally, we gave a general approach which is applied to a decision making problem in disease diagnoses, and demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach by a numerical example.

Keywords: single valued neutrosophic fuzzy set, single valued neutrosophic fuzzy hesitant set, rough set, single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy rough set

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13 Determination of Benzatropine in Hair by GC/MS after Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE)

Authors: Abdulsallam A. Bakdash, Aiyshah M. Alshehri, Hind M. Alenzi

Abstract:

Benzatropine (benztropine) is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease or involuntary movements due to the side effects of certain psychiatric drugs. We report in this study, results of a procedure for the determination of benzatropine in hair using LLE, once with methanol and second with phosphate buffer (pH 6.0), followed by filtration and then re-extraction with dichloromethane. A GC/MS method was developed and validated for this determination using selected ion monitoring (SIM) detection without derivatization. Linearity established over the concentration range 0.1-20.0 ng/mg hair, and the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.99. Recoveries were 52.2% and 21.1% using methanol and phosphate buffer extraction, respectively. Detection limits of benzatropine in hair were between 0.65 and 3.0 ng/mg hair, while the accuracy were 10.4% and 18.5% (RSD), respectively. We also applied this method to the analysis of soaked hair samples and demonstrated that the LLE using methanol meets the requirement for the analysis of benzatropine in hair.

Keywords: hair analysis, benzatropine, liquid-liquid extraction, GC/MS

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12 The Liability of Renewal: The Impact of Changes in Organizational Capability, Performance, Legitimacy and Pressure for Change

Authors: Alshehri Sultan

Abstract:

Organizational change has remained an important subject for many researchers in the field of organizations theory. We propose the importance of organizational liability of renewal through a model that examines how an organization can overcome potential rigidities in organizational capabilities from learning by changing capabilities. We examine whether an established organization can overcome liability of renewal by changes in organizational capabilities and how the organizational renewal process reflect on the balance between the dynamic aspect of organizational learning as demonstrated by changes in capabilities and the stabilizing aspects of organizational inertia. We found both positive relationship between organizational learning and performance, and between legitimacy and performance. Performance and legitimacy have, however, a negative relationship on the pressure for change.

Keywords: organizational capabilities, organizational liability, liability of renewal, pressure for change

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11 Investigating Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of the Effective Teaching Strategies

Authors: Zafer F. Alshehri

Abstract:

This paper investigated mathematics teachers' knowledge of the effective teaching strategies at the Southern Region of Saudi Arabia. Specifically, it aimed to identify a list of the effective strategies of teaching mathematics; the extent of mathematics teachers' knowledge of these strategies; and the differences (if any) of mathematics teachers' knowledge of these strategies regarding scientific degree, teaching experience, and educational sage. To achieve that, the researcher used the descriptive approach for preparing a list of effective mathematics teaching strategies and developing a questionnaire of a sample of (240) mathematics teachers. As a result, there were differences in teachers' knowledge of the effective teaching strategies, which ranked as a low, and the highest knowledge was in favor of higher degrees. In addition, there were a few recommendations and suggestions for developing mathematics teachers' knowledge of effective teaching strategies, such as involving in workshops of mathematics teaching strategies, integrating technology into mathematics teaching, and using research findings in the instruction process.

Keywords: mathematics teaching knowledge, mathematics teachers, effective mathematics teaching strategies

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10 The Impact of a Weak Constitutional Review of Executive Actions in Implementing Women Rights in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Aysha Alshehri

Abstract:

This paper provides a literature review of the sources of women’s rights under the Saudi legal framework, taking account of the constitutional primacy of Sharia under the Saudi legal system as well as the state’s obligations under international law. Building on one of the central aims of the paper, it conducts an exploration of how Saudi Arabia already has or might be further able to more clearly delineate its position and reservations in the adoptions of international human rights agreements while preserving its core religious beliefs and societal practices in regard to women’s rights at the domestic level. In this regard, the paper will consider the apparent tension between certain jurisprudential and customary aspects on gender equality and contemporary discourses of women’s rights from within and outside the Muslim world. Particular attention will be devoted to the question of the causes behind the lack of direct application of women’s rights mentioned by international reports and any challenges this may bring in the contexts of Saudi Arabia’s evolving gender equality policies.

Keywords: Islamic Constitution, executive actions, gender equality, judicial review

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9 Synthesis and Characterization of Thiourea-Formaldehyde Coated Fe3O4 ([email protected]) and Its Application for Adsorption of Methylene Blue

Authors: Saad M. Alshehri, Tansir Ahamad

Abstract:

Thiourea-Formaldehyde Pre-Polymer (TUF) was prepared by the reaction thiourea and formaldehyde in basic medium and used as a coating materials for magnetite Fe3O4. The synthesized polymer coated microspheres ([email protected]) was characterized using FTIR, TGA SEM and TEM. Its BET surface area was up to 1680 m2 g_1. The adsorption capacity of this ACF product was evaluated in its adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB) in water under different pH values and different temperature. We found that the adsorption process was well described both by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The kinetic processes of MB adsorption onto [email protected] were described in order to provide a more clear interpretation of the adsorption rate and uptake mechanism. The overall kinetic data was acceptably explained by a pseudo second-order rate model. Evaluated ∆Go and ∆Ho specify the spontaneous and exothermic nature of the reaction. The adsorption takes place with a decrease in entropy (∆So is negative). The monolayer capacity for MB was up to 450 mg g_1 and was one of the highest among similar polymeric products. It was due to its large BET surface area.

Keywords: TGA, FTIR, magentite, thiourea formaldehyde resin, methylene blue, adsorption

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8 Students’ Perceptions of the Use of Social Media in Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Omar Alshehri, Vic Lally

Abstract:

This paper examined the attitudes of using social media tools to support learning at a university in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, it investigated the students’ current usage of these tools and examined the barriers they could face during the use of social media tools in the education process. Participants in this study were 42 university students. A web-based survey was used to collect data for this study. The results indicate that all of the students were familiar with social media and had used at least one type of social media for learning. It was found out that all students had very positive attitudes towards the use of social media and welcomed using these tools as a supplementary to the curriculum. However, the results indicated that the major barriers to using these tools in learning were distraction, opposing Islamic religious teachings, privacy issues, and cyberbullying. The study recommended that this study could be replicated at other Saudi universities to investigate factors and barriers that might affect Saudi students’ attitudes toward using social media to support learning.

Keywords: barriers to social media use, benefits of social media use, higher education, Saudi Arabia, social media

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7 Conflict Causes within Construction Projects; Conflict Interaction across Project Phases

Authors: Abdullah Mohammed Alshehri

Abstract:

The projects in the construction industry have significantly increased, given its contribution to the overall Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the countries. Reflecting upon the complex nature and involvement of various agents, the study aims to analyze the conflicts cause within construction projects. Therefore, the study strived to come out with understanding the levels of conflict interaction across project phases. However, this conducted by investigating the association between antecedents and apparent conflicts inherent in. The study used a qualitative approach for collecting the data through a quantitative, semi-structured method. Formation of a questionnaire survey has been conducted for over 30 respondents. However, the survey came out with the identification of 25 conflict cause categories, which can take place in different construction project phases, including pre-design phase, pre-construction phase, construction phase, commissioning, and completion phase. For example, conflicts associated with inconsistencies or discrepancies within or between project documents, which took place at tendering time in the pre-construction phase were relatable with the selection of material specifications that should be supplied or used in the construction projects at the construction phase. Its analysis can provide comprehensive understanding, trace the root of the problem, which offers a roadmap to deepen the understanding of the conflict conditions and ‘course of action’ necessary for project management strategy actions toward avoiding or minimizing conflict causes at project life.

Keywords: construction, conflict causes, levels, interaction, phases

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6 Optimizing the Performance of Thermoelectric for Cooling Computer Chips Using Different Types of Electrical Pulses

Authors: Saleh Alshehri

Abstract:

Thermoelectric technology is currently being used in many industrial applications for cooling, heating and generating electricity. This research mainly focuses on using thermoelectric to cool down high-speed computer chips at different operating conditions. A previously developed and validated three-dimensional model for optimizing and assessing the performance of cascaded thermoelectric and non-cascaded thermoelectric is used in this study to investigate the possibility of decreasing the hotspot temperature of computer chip. Additionally, a test assembly is built and tested at steady-state and transient conditions. The obtained optimum thermoelectric current at steady-state condition is used to conduct a number of pulsed tests (i.e. transient tests) with different shapes to cool the computer chips hotspots. The results of the steady-state tests showed that at hotspot heat rate of 15.58 W (5.97 W/cm2), using thermoelectric current of 4.5 A has resulted in decreasing the hotspot temperature at open circuit condition (89.3 °C) by 50.1 °C. Maximum and minimum hotspot temperatures have been affected by ON and OFF duration of the electrical current pulse. Maximum hotspot temperature was resulted by longer OFF pulse period. In addition, longer ON pulse period has generated the minimum hotspot temperature.

Keywords: thermoelectric generator, TEG, thermoelectric cooler, TEC, chip hotspots, electronic cooling

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5 Evaluation of Reproductive Toxicity of Diazinon Pesticide in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Mohammad Alfaifi, Mohammed Alshehri

Abstract:

Organophosphates are among the most widely used synthetic insect pesticides. The widespread use of organophosphates has stimulated research into the possible existence of effects related with their reproductive toxic activity. The present study aimed to assess the effects of diazinon (DIZ) on male reproductive system. DIZ at the dose levels of 1.5, 3.0 and 9.0 mg/kg b. wt./day was administered orally to male rats of Wistar strain for 30 days to evaluate the toxic alterations in testicular histology, biochemistry, sperm dynamics and testosterone levels. The body weight of animals did not show any significant changes; however, a significant reduction was observed in testes weight. DIZ also brought about a marked reduction in epididymal and testicular sperm counts in exposed males and a decrease in serum testosterone concentration. Histopathological examination of testes showed mild to severe degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules at various dose levels. Fertility test showed 79% negative results. All these toxic effects are moderate at low doses and become severe at higher dose levels. From the results of the present study, it is concluded that DIZ induces severe testicular damage and results in a reduction in sperm count and thus affect fertility. Small changes in sperm counts are known to have adverse effects on human fertility. Therefore, application of such insecticide should be limited to a designed programme.

Keywords: organophosphates, reproductive toxicity, diazinon, fertility

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4 Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of Salvia officinals Extracts on Rat Bone Marrow

Authors: Mohammed A. Alshehri

Abstract:

Salvia officinalis is an aromatic plant member of the mint (Labiatae) family. It is popular kitchen herb. Not surprise to find that the name of this herb related to cure, in Latin language Salvia means to cure where officinalis means medicinal which answer why the sage has a top place in the list of medicinal plants. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic damage and cytological changes caused by exposure of the test organism (Rattusrattus) to Salvia officinals. For this purpose, adult female rats, weighing 200–250 g, were used as donors. A total of 36 adult Wister male rats were randomly assigned to five groups: the experimental groups (rats were intraperitonealy injected with Salvia officinalis pure extract at (0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 0.1mg/kg body weight, the same dose was administered once a day. Control group (rats were injected intraperitonealy physiological saline. And positive control were injected with Cyclophosphamide. On the 21st days following Salvia officinalis pure extract exposure, rats were sacrificed, and samples of bone marrow were collected. Following that, we performed a micronuclei (MN) test using MNNCE (Micro-nucleated normocromatic erythrocytes) and MNPCE (Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes), NDI (Nuclear division index), and cytological parameters using NDCI (nuclear division cytotoxicity index), necrotic, and apoptotic cells in rat's bone marrow samples. Results showed that there was a no significant increase in the frequency of micro-nucleatedas well as in cytological parameters in bone marrow cells. In light of these results, if Salvia officinalis pure extract may considered to be safe from the stand point of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity effects.

Keywords: Salvia officinalis, micronucleus, NDI, NDCI, toxicity, chromosomal aberrations

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3 Botulinum Toxin type A for Lower Limb Lengthening and Deformity Correction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Authors: Jawaher F. Alsharef, Abdullah A. Ghaddaf, Mohammed S. Alomari, Abdullah A. Al Qurashi, Ahmed S. Abdulhamid, Mohammed S. Alshehri, Majed Alosaimi

Abstract:

Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is the most popular therapeutic agent for muscle relaxation and pain control. Lately, BTX-A injection received great interest as a part of multimodal pain management for lower limb lengthening and deformity correction. This systematic review aimed to determine the role of BTX-A injection in pain management for during lower limb lengthening and/or deformity correction. We searched Medline, Embase, and CENTRAL. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the BTX-A injection to placebo for individuals undergoing lower limb lengthening and/or deformity correction. We sought to evaluate the following outcomes: pain on visual analogue scale (VAS), range of motion parameters, average opioid consumption, and adverse events. The standardized mean difference (SMD) was used to represent continuous outcomes while risk ratio (RR) was used to represent dichotomous outcomes. A total of 4 RCTs that enrolled 257 participants (337 limbs) deemed eligible. Adjuvant BTX-A injection showed a significant reduction in post-operative pain compared to placebo (SMD=–0.28, 95% CI –0.53 to –0.04). No difference was found between BTX-A injection and placebo in terms of range of motion parameters, average opioid consumption, or adverse events after surgical limb lengthening and/or deformity correction (RR= 0.77, 95% CI –0.58 to 1.03). Conclusions: Adjuvant BTX-A injection conferred a discernible reduction in post-operative pain during surgical limb lengthening and/or deformity without increasing the risk of adverse events.

Keywords: botulinum toxin type A, limb lengthening, distraction osteogenesis, deformity correction, pain management

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2 The Use of Information and Communication Technology within and between Emergency Medical Teams during a Disaster: A Qualitative study

Authors: Badryah Alshehri, Kevin Gormley, Gillian Prue, Karen McCutcheon

Abstract:

In a disaster event, sharing patient information between the pre-hospital Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Emergency Department (ED) hospitals is a complex process during which important information may be altered or lost due to poor communication. The aim of this study was to critically discuss the current evidence base in relation to communication between pre- EMS hospital and ED hospital professionals by the use of Information and Communication Systems (ICT). This study followed the systematic approach; six electronic databases were searched: CINAHL, Medline, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and IEEE Xplore Digital Library were comprehensively searched in January 2018 and a second search was completed in April 2020 to capture more recent publications. The study selection process was undertaken independently by the study authors. Both qualitative and quantitative studies were chosen that focused on factors that are positively or negatively associated with coordinated communication between pre-hospital EMS and ED teams in a disaster event. These studies were assessed for quality, and the data were analyzed according to the key screening themes which emerged from the literature search. Twenty-two studies were included. Eleven studies employed quantitative methods, seven studies used qualitative methods, and four studies used mixed methods. Four themes emerged on communication between EMTs (pre-hospital EMS and ED staff) in a disaster event using the ICT. (1) Disaster preparedness plans and coordination. This theme reported that disaster plans are in place in hospitals, and in some cases, there are interagency agreements with pre-hospital and relevant stakeholders. However, the findings showed that the disaster plans highlighted in these studies lacked information regarding coordinated communications within and between the pre-hospital and hospital. (2) Communication systems used in the disaster. This theme highlighted that although various communication systems are used between and within hospitals and pre-hospitals, technical issues have influenced communication between teams during disasters. (3) Integrated information management systems. This theme suggested the need for an integrated health information system that can help pre-hospital and hospital staff to record patient data and ensure the data is shared. (4) Disaster training and drills. While some studies analyzed disaster drills and training, the majority of these studies were focused on hospital departments other than EMTs. These studies suggest the need for simulation disaster training and drills, including EMTs. This review demonstrates that considerable gaps remain in the understanding of the communication between the EMS and ED hospital staff in relation to response in disasters. The review shows that although different types of ICTs are used, various issues remain which affect coordinated communication among the relevant professionals.

Keywords: emergency medical teams, communication, information and communication technologies, disaster

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
1 A Literature Review on the Use of Information and Communication Technology within and between Emergency Medical Teams during a Disaster

Authors: Badryah Alshehri, Kevin Gormley, Gillian Prue, Karen McCutcheon

Abstract:

In a disaster event, sharing patient information between the pre-hospitals Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Emergency Department (ED) hospitals is a complex process during which important information may be altered or lost due to poor communication. The aim of this study was to critically discuss the current evidence base in relation to communication between pre-EMS hospital and ED hospital professionals by the use of Information and Communication Systems (ICT). This study followed the systematic approach; six electronic databases were searched: CINAHL, Medline, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and IEEE Xplore Digital Library were comprehensively searched in January 2018 and a second search was completed in April 2020 to capture more recent publications. The study selection process was undertaken independently by the study authors. Both qualitative and quantitative studies were chosen that focused on factors which are positively or negatively associated with coordinated communication between pre-hospital EMS and ED teams in a disaster event. These studies were assessed for quality and the data were analysed according to the key screening themes which emerged from the literature search. Twenty-two studies were included. Eleven studies employed quantitative methods, seven studies used qualitative methods, and four studies used mixed methods. Four themes emerged on communication between EMTs (pre-hospital EMS and ED staff) in a disaster event using the ICT. (1) Disaster preparedness plans and coordination. This theme reported that disaster plans are in place in hospitals, and in some cases, there are interagency agreements with pre-hospital and relevant stakeholders. However, the findings showed that the disaster plans highlighted in these studies lacked information regarding coordinated communications within and between the pre-hospital and hospital. (2) Communication systems used in the disaster. This theme highlighted that although various communication systems are used between and within hospitals and pre-hospitals, technical issues have influenced communication between teams during disasters. (3) Integrated information management systems. This theme suggested the need for an integrated health information system which can help pre-hospital and hospital staff to record patient data and ensure the data is shared. (4) Disaster training and drills. While some studies analysed disaster drills and training, the majority of these studies were focused on hospital departments other than EMTs. These studies suggest the need for simulation disaster training and drills, including EMTs. This review demonstrates that considerable gaps remain in the understanding of the communication between the EMS and ED hospitals staff in relation to response in disasters. The review shows that although different types of ICTs are used, various issues remain which affect coordinated communication among the relevant professionals.

Keywords: communication, emergency communication services, emergency medical teams, emergency physicians, emergency nursing, paramedics, information and communication technology, communication systems

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