Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: reprocessing

18 A Review on the Re-Usage of Single-Use Medical Devices

Authors: Lucas B. Naves, Maria José Abreu

Abstract:

Reprocessing single-use device has attracted interesting on the medical environment over the last decades. The reprocessing technique was sought in order to reduce the cost of purchasing the new medical device, which can achieve almost double of the price of the reprocessed product. In this manuscript, we have done a literature review, aiming the reuse of medical device that was firstly designed for single use only, but has become, more and more, effective on its reprocessing procedure. We also show the regulation, the countries which allows this procedure, the classification of these device and also the most important issue concerning the re-utilization of medical device, how to minimizing the risk of gram positive and negative bacteria, avoid cross-contamination, hepatitis B (HBV), and C (HCV) virus, and also human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Keywords: reusing, reprocessing, single-use medical device, HIV, hepatitis B and C

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17 Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 3: Volume Reduction and Stabilization of Solid Waste

Authors: Masaumi Nakahara, Sou Watanabe, Hiromichi Ogi, Atsuhiro Shibata, Kazunori Nomura

Abstract:

In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, three types of experimental research, advanced reactor fuel reprocessing, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear fuel cycle technology, have been carried out at the Chemical Processing Facility. The facility has generated high level radioactive liquid and solid wastes in hot cells. The high level radioactive solid waste is divided into three main categories, a flammable waste, a non-flammable waste, and a solid reagent waste. A plastic product is categorized into the flammable waste and molten with a heating mantle. The non-flammable waste is cut with a band saw machine for reducing the volume. Among the solid reagent waste, a used adsorbent after the experiments is heated, and an extractant is decomposed for its stabilization. All high level radioactive solid wastes in the hot cells are packed in a high level radioactive solid waste can. The high level radioactive solid waste can is transported to the 2nd High Active Solid Waste Storage in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

Keywords: high level radioactive solid waste, advanced reactor fuel reprocessing, radioactive waste disposal, nuclear fuel cycle technology

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16 (Re)Processing of ND-Fe-B Permanent Magnets Using Electrochemical and Physical Approaches

Authors: Kristina Zuzek, Xuan Xu, Awais Ikram, Richard Sheridan, Allan Walton, Saso Sturm

Abstract:

Recycling of end-of-life REEs based Nd-Fe-B magnets is an important strategy for reducing the environmental dangers associated with rare-earth mining and overcoming the well-documented supply risks related to the REEs. However, challenges on their reprocessing still remain. We report on the possibility of direct electrochemical recycling and reprocessing of Nd-Fe(B)-based magnets. In this investigation, we were able first to electrochemically leach the end-of-life NdFeB magnet and to electrodeposit Nd–Fe using a 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium dicyanamide ([EMIM][DCA]) ionic liquid-based electrolyte. We observed that Nd(III) could not be reduced independently. However, it can be co-deposited on a substrate with the addition of Fe(II). Using advanced TEM techniques of electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) it was shown that Nd(III) is reduced to Nd(0) during the electrodeposition process. This gave a new insight into determining the Nd oxidation state, as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has certain limitations. This is because the binding energies of metallic Nd (Nd0) and neodymium oxide (Nd₂O₃) are very close, i. e., 980.5-981.5 eV and 981.7-982.3 eV, respectively, making it almost impossible to differentiate between the two states. These new insights into the electrodeposition process represent an important step closer to efficient recycling of rare piles of earth in metallic form at mild temperatures, thus providing an alternative to high-temperature molten-salt electrolysis and a step closer to deposit Nd-Fe-based magnetic materials. Further, we propose a new concept of recycling the sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets by direct recovering the 2:14:1 matrix phase. Via an electrochemical etching method, we are able to recover pure individual 2:14:1 grains that can be re-used for new types of magnet production. In the frame of physical reprocessing, we have successfully synthesized new magnets out of hydrogen (HDDR)-recycled stocks with a contemporary technique of pulsed electric current sintering (PECS). The optimal PECS conditions yielded fully dense Nd-Fe-B magnets with the coercivity Hc = 1060 kA/m, which was boosted to 1160 kA/m after the post-PECS thermal treatment. The Br and Hc were tackled further and increased applied pressures of 100 – 150 MPa resulted in Br = 1.01 T. We showed that with a fine tune of the PECS and post-annealing it is possible to revitalize the Nd-Fe-B end-of-life magnets. By applying advanced TEM, i.e. atomic-scale Z-contrast STEM combined with EDXS and EELS, the resulting magnetic properties were critically assessed against various types of structural and compositional discontinuities down to atomic-scale, which we believe control the microstructure evolution during the PECS processing route.

Keywords: electrochemistry, Nd-Fe-B, pulsed electric current sintering, recycling, reprocessing

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15 Comparison of Processing Conditions for Plasticized PVC and PVB

Authors: Michael Tupý, Jaroslav Císař, Pavel Mokrejš, Dagmar Měřínská, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová

Abstract:

The worldwide problem is that the recycled PVB is wildly stored in landfills. However, PVB have very similar chemical properties such as PVC. Moreover, both of them are used in plasticized form. Thus, the thermal properties of plasticized PVC obtained from primary production and the PVB was obtained by recycling of windshields are compared. It is carried out in order to find degradable conditions and decide if blend of PVB/PVC can be processable together. Tested PVC contained 38 % of plasticizer diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and PVB was plasticized with 28 % of triethylene glycol, bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (3GO). Thermal and thermo-oxidative decomposition of both vinyl polymers are compared such as DSC and OOT analysis. The tensile strength analysis is added.

Keywords: polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl butyral, recycling, reprocessing, thermal analysis, decomposition

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14 Using Nanofiber-Like Attapulgite Microfiltration Membranes to Treat Oily Wastewater

Authors: Shouyong Zhou, Meisheng Li, Yijiang Zhao

Abstract:

The environmentally acceptable disposal of oily wastewater is a current challenge to many industries. The membrane separation technologies, which is no phase change, without pharmaceutical dosing, reprocessing costs low, less energy consumption, etc., have been widely applied in oily wastewater treatment. In our lab, a kind of low cost ceramic microfiltration membranes with a separation layer of attapulgite nanofibers (attapulgite nanofiber-like microfiltration membranes) has been prepared and applied in the purification of cellulase fermentation broth and TiO2 nanoparticles system successfully. In this paper, this new attapulgite nanofiber-like microfiltration membrane was selected to try to separate water from oily wastewater. The oil-in water emulsion was obtained from mixing 1 g/L engine oil, 0.5 g/L Tween-80, 0.5 g/L Span-80 and distilled water at mild speed in blender for 2 min. The particle size distribution of the oil-in-water emulsion was controlled. The maximum steady flux and COD rejection for a 0.2 um attapulgite nanofiber-like microfiltration membrane can reach about 450 L. m-2. h-1 and 98% at 0.2 MPa. The results obtained in this work indicated that the attapulgite microfiltration membrane may represent a feasible pretreatment for oily wastewater.

Keywords: attapulgite, microfiltration membrane, oily wastewater, cross-flow filtration

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13 Bio-Furan Based Poly (β-Thioether Ester) Synthesized via Thiol-Michael Addition Polymerization with Tunable Structure and Properties

Authors: Daihui Zhang, Marie J. Dumont

Abstract:

A derivative of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was synthesized for the thiol-Michael addition reaction. The efficiency of the catalysts (base and nucleophiles) and side reactions during the thiol-Michael addition were investigated. Dimethylphenylphosphine efficiently initiated the thiol-Michael addition polymerization for synthesizing a series of bio-based furan polymers with different structure and properties. The benzene rings or hydroxyl groups present in the polymer chains increased the glass transition temperature (Tg) of poly (β-thioether ester). Additionally, copolymers with various compositions were obtained via adding different ratio of 1,6-hexanedithiols to 1,4-benzenedithiols. 1H NMR analysis revealed that experimental ratios of two dithiols monomers matched well with theoretical ratios. The occurrence of a reversible Diels-Alder reaction between furan rings and maleimide groups allowed poly (β-thioether ester) to be dynamically crosslinked. These polymers offer the potentials to produce materials from biomass that have both practical mechanical properties and reprocessing ability.

Keywords: copolymers, Diels-Alder reaction, hydroxymethylfurfural, Thiol-Michael addition

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12 Application of Container Technique to High-Risk Children: Its Effect on Their Levels of Stress, Anxiety and Depression

Authors: Nguyen Thi Loan, Phan Ngoc Thanh Tra

Abstract:

Container is one of the techniques used in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EDMR) Therapy. This paper presents the positive results of applying Container technique to “high risk children”. The sample for this research is composed of 60 “high risk children” whose ages range from 11 to 18 years old, housed in Ho Chi Minh City Youth Center. They have been under the program of the Worldwide Orphans Foundation since August 2015 for various reasons such as, loss of parents, anti-social behaviors, homelessness, child labor among others. These “high risk children” are under high levels of stress, anxiety and depression. The subjects were divided into two groups: the control and the experimental with 30 members each. The experimental group was applied Container Technique and the instruments used to measure their levels of stress, anxiety, and depression are DASS-42 and ASEBA. Results show that after applying the Container Technique to the experimental group, there are significant differences between the two groups’ levels of stress, anxiety and depression. The experimental group’s levels of stress, anxiety and depression decreased significantly. The results serve as a basis for the researchers to make an appeal to psychologists to apply Container Technique in doing psychological treatment in a suitable context.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, container technique, EMDR

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11 Effective Sexual Assault Treatment as Viewed by Survivors and Expert Therapists

Authors: Avigail Moor

Abstract:

Rape and sexual assault have been widely linked to severe psychological sequelae, the recovery from which often requires professional help. Thanks to the current shift in societal attitudes towards sexual violence, the victim's perspective is increasingly being heard. The present study is yet another step in that direction. Through the investigation of what recovered survivors of sexual assault identify as the therapeutic interventions that most assisted them in overcoming their trauma, guidelines for optimal sexual assault treatment are established. These receive further support from a comparison with expert therapists as to what they view as being most conducive to recovery from rape. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 survivors who have experienced a successful course of therapy and 15 therapists with extensive expertise in the field. The results document considerable agreement between the two perspectives, which share much in common. First, irrespective of the specific techniques involved, both survivors and therapists placed the greatest importance on a respectful and validating therapeutic relationship, that operates to counter the dehumanization and degradation entailed in the assault. In addition, specific interventions were identified, which include the reprocessing of all rape-specific peri-traumatic reactions coupled with the intentional countering of their consequences within the therapeutic relationship. Together, these reports provide a detailed account of post-rape treatment needs and the interventions required for their effective resolution.

Keywords: sexual assault, rape, treatment efficacy, survivors

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10 Technologies in Municipal Solid Waste Management in Indian Towns

Authors: Gargi Ghosh

Abstract:

Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is an obligatory function of the local self-government as per the Indian constitution, and this paper gives a glimpse of the system in Indian towns focusing on its present state and use of technology in the system. The paper analyses the MSWM characteristics in 35 towns in the southern state of Karnataka. The lifestyle in these towns was found to be very sustainable with minimal disposal and considerable reuse. Average per capita waste generated in the towns ranged from 300 gm/person to 500 gm/person. The waste collection efficiency varied from 60% to 80%. The waste shows equal share of organic and non-organic waste composition with a low calorific value. Lack of capacity of the municipal body in terms of manpower, assets & knowledge and social consciousness were found to be two major issues in the system. Technical solutions in use in India at present are composting, organic re-reprocessing, bio-methanation, waste to energy etc. The tonnage of waste generated ranged from 8 TPD to 80 TPD. The feasibility of technology has been analysed in the context of the above characteristics. It was found that low calorific value and mixed nature of waste made waste to energy and bio methanation processes unsuitable. Composting – windrow and closed door was found best to treat the bulk of the waste. Organic–re-processors was planned for phase 2 of MSWM program in the towns with effective implementation of segregation at source. GPS and RFID technology was recommended for monitoring the collection process and increasing accountability of the citizens for effective implementation.

Keywords: solid waste management, Indian towns, waste management technology, waste charateristics

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9 Determination of Gold in Microelectronics Waste Pieces

Authors: S. I. Usenko, V. N. Golubeva, I. A. Konopkina, I. V. Astakhova, O. V. Vakhnina, A. A. Korableva, A. A. Kalinina, K. B. Zhogova

Abstract:

Gold can be determined in natural objects and manufactured articles of different origin. The up-to-date status of research and problems of high gold level determination in alloys and manufactured articles are described in detail in the literature. No less important is the task of this metal determination in minerals, process products and waste pieces. The latters, as objects of gold content chemical analysis, are most hard-to-study for two reasons: Because of high requirements to accuracy of analysis results and because of difference in chemical and phase composition. As a rule, such objects are characterized by compound, variable and very often unknown matrix composition that leads to unpredictable and uncontrolled effect on accuracy and other analytical characteristics of analysis technique. In this paper, the methods for the determination of gold are described, using flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry and gravimetric analysis technique. The techniques are aimed at gold determination in a solution for gold etching (KJ+J2), in the technological mixture formed after cleaning stainless steel members of vacuum-deposit installation with concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acids as well as in gold-containing powder resulted from liquid wastes reprocessing. Optimal conditions for sample preparation and analysis of liquid and solid waste specimens of compound and variable matrix composition were chosen. The boundaries of relative resultant error were determined for the methods within the range of gold mass concentration from 0.1 to 30g/dm3 in the specimens of liquid wastes and mass fractions from 3 to 80% in the specimens of solid wastes.

Keywords: microelectronics waste pieces, gold, sample preparation, atomic-absorption spectrophotometry, gravimetric analysis technique

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8 Imaginal and in Vivo Exposure Blended with Emdr: Becoming Unstuck, an Integrated Inpatient Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Authors: Merrylord Harb-Azar

Abstract:

Traditionally, PTSD treatment has involved trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy (TF CBT) to consolidate traumatic memories. A piloted integrated treatment of TF CBT and eye movement desensitisation reprocessing therapy (EMDR) of eight phases will fasten the rate memory is being consolidated and enhance cognitive functioning in patients with PTSD. Patients spend a considerable amount of time in treatment managing their traumas experienced firsthand, or from aversive details ranging from war, assaults, accidents, abuse, hostage related, riots, or natural disasters. The time spent in treatment or as inpatient affects overall quality of life, relationships, cognitive functioning, and overall sense of identity. EMDR is being offered twice a week in conjunction with the standard prolonged exposure as an inpatient in a private hospital. Prolonged exposure for up to 5 hours per day elicits the affect response required for EMDR sessions in the afternoon to unlock unprocessed memories and facilitate consolidation in the amygdala and hippocampus. Results are indicating faster consolidation of memories, reduction in symptoms in a shorter period of time, reduction in admission time, which is enhancing the quality of life and relationships, and improved cognition. The impact of events scale (IES) results demonstrate a significant reduction in symptoms, trauma symptoms inventory (TSI), and posttraumatic stressor disorder check list (PCL) that demonstrates large effect sizes to date. An integrated treatment approach for PTSD achieves a faster resolution of memories, improves cognition, and reduces the amount of time spent in therapy.

Keywords: EMDR enhances cognitive functioning, faster consolidation of trauma memory, integrated treatment of TF CBT and EMDR, reduction in inpatient admission time

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7 Computer Modeling and Plant-Wide Dynamic Simulation for Industrial Flare Minimization

Authors: Sujing Wang, Song Wang, Jian Zhang, Qiang Xu

Abstract:

Flaring emissions during abnormal operating conditions such as plant start-ups, shut-downs, and upsets in chemical process industries (CPI) are usually significant. Flare minimization can help to save raw material and energy for CPI plants, and to improve local environmental sustainability. In this paper, a systematic methodology based on plant-wide dynamic simulation is presented for CPI plant flare minimizations under abnormal operating conditions. Since off-specification emission sources are inevitable during abnormal operating conditions, to significantly reduce flaring emission in a CPI plant, they must be either recycled to the upstream process for online reuse, or stored somewhere temporarily for future reprocessing, when the CPI plant manufacturing returns to stable operation. Thus, the off-spec products could be reused instead of being flared. This can be achieved through the identification of viable design and operational strategies during normal and abnormal operations through plant-wide dynamic scheduling, simulation, and optimization. The proposed study includes three stages of simulation works: (i) developing and validating a steady-state model of a CPI plant; (ii) transiting the obtained steady-state plant model to the dynamic modeling environment; and refining and validating the plant dynamic model; and (iii) developing flare minimization strategies for abnormal operating conditions of a CPI plant via a validated plant-wide dynamic model. This cost-effective methodology has two main merits: (i) employing large-scale dynamic modeling and simulations for industrial flare minimization, which involves various unit models for modeling hundreds of CPI plant facilities; (ii) dealing with critical abnormal operating conditions of CPI plants such as plant start-up and shut-down. Two virtual case studies on flare minimizations for start-up operation (over 50% of emission savings) and shut-down operation (over 70% of emission savings) of an ethylene plant have been employed to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed study.

Keywords: flare minimization, large-scale modeling and simulation, plant shut-down, plant start-up

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6 Exploration of Hydrocarbon Unconventional Accumulations in the Argillaceous Formation of the Autochthonous Miocene Succession in the Carpathian Foredeep

Authors: Wojciech Górecki, Anna Sowiżdżał, Grzegorz Machowski, Tomasz Maćkowski, Bartosz Papiernik, Michał Stefaniuk

Abstract:

The article shows results of the project which aims at evaluating possibilities of effective development and exploitation of natural gas from argillaceous series of the Autochthonous Miocene in the Carpathian Foredeep. To achieve the objective, the research team develop a world-trend based but unique methodology of processing and interpretation, adjusted to data, local variations and petroleum characteristics of the area. In order to determine the zones in which maximum volumes of hydrocarbons might have been generated and preserved as shale gas reservoirs, as well as to identify the most preferable well sites where largest gas accumulations are anticipated a number of task were accomplished. Evaluation of petrophysical properties and hydrocarbon saturation of the Miocene complex is based on laboratory measurements as well as interpretation of well-logs and archival data. The studies apply mercury porosimetry (MICP), micro CT and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (using the Rock Core Analyzer). For prospective location (e.g. central part of Carpathian Foredeep – Brzesko-Wojnicz area) reprocessing and reinterpretation of detailed seismic survey data with the use of integrated geophysical investigations has been made. Construction of quantitative, structural and parametric models for selected areas of the Carpathian Foredeep is performed on the basis of integrated, detailed 3D computer models. Modeling are carried on with the Schlumberger’s Petrel software. Finally, prospective zones are spatially contoured in a form of regional 3D grid, which will be framework for generation modelling and comprehensive parametric mapping, allowing for spatial identification of the most prospective zones of unconventional gas accumulation in the Carpathian Foredeep. Preliminary results of research works indicate a potentially prospective area for occurrence of unconventional gas accumulations in the Polish part of Carpathian Foredeep.

Keywords: autochthonous Miocene, Carpathian foredeep, Poland, shale gas

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5 Development and Characterization of Expandable TPEs Compounds for Footwear Applications

Authors: Ana Elisa Ribeiro Costa, Sónia Daniela Ferreira Miranda, João Pedro De Carvalho Pereira, João Carlos Simões Bernardo

Abstract:

Elastomeric thermoplastics (TPEs) have been widely used in the footwear industry over the years. Recently this industry has been requesting materials that can combine lightweight and high abrasion resistance. Although there are blowing agents on the market to improve the lightweight, when these are incorporated into molten polymers during the extrusion or injection molding, it is necessary to have some specific processing conditions (e.g. effect of temperature and hydrodynamic stresses) to obtain good properties and acceptable surface appearance on the final products. Therefore, it is a great advantage for the compounder industry to acquire compounds that already include the blowing agents. In this way, they can be handled and processed under the same conditions as a conventional raw material. In this work, the expandable TPEs compounds, namely a TPU and a SEBS, with the incorporation of blowing agents, have been developed through a co-rotating modular twin-screw parallel extruder. Different blowing agents such as thermo-expandable microspheres and an azodicarbonamide were selected and different screw configurations and temperature profiles were evaluated since these parameters have a particular influence on the expansion inhibition of the blowing agents. Furthermore, percentages of incorporation were varied in order to investigate their influence on the final product properties. After the extrusion of these compounds, expansion was tested by the injection process. The mechanical and physical properties were characterized by different analytical methods like tensile, flexural and abrasive tests, determination of hardness and density measurement. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed. It was observed that it is possible to incorporate the blowing agents on the TPEs without their expansion on the extrusion process. Only with reprocessing (injection molding) did the expansion of the agents occur. These results are corroborated by SEM micrographs, which show a good distribution of blowing agents in the polymeric matrices. The other experimental results showed a good mechanical performance and its density decrease (30% for SEBS and 35% for TPU). This study suggested that it is possible to develop optimized compounds for footwear applications (e.g., sole shoes), which only will be able to expand during the injection process.

Keywords: blowing agents, expandable thermoplastic elastomeric compounds, low density, footwear applications

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4 Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 1: Overview and Activities in Chemical Processing Facility

Authors: Kazunori Nomura, Hiromichi Ogi, Masaumi Nakahara, Sou Watanabe, Atsuhiro Shibata

Abstract:

Chemical Processing Facility of Japan Atomic Energy Agency is a basic research field for advanced back-end technology developments with using actual high-level radioactive materials such as irradiated fuels from the fast reactor, high-level liquid waste from reprocessing plant. In the nature of a research facility, various kinds of chemical reagents have been offered for fundamental tests. Most of them were treated properly and stored in the liquid waste vessel equipped in the facility, but some were not treated and remained at the experimental space as a kind of legacy waste. It is required to treat the waste in safety. On the other hand, we formulated the Medium- and Long-Term Management Plan of Japan Atomic Energy Agency Facilities. This comprehensive plan considers Chemical Processing Facility as one of the facilities to be decommissioned. Even if the plan is executed, treatment of the “legacy” waste beforehand must be a necessary step for decommissioning operation. Under this circumstance, we launched a collaborative research project called the STRAD project, which stands for Systematic Treatment of Radioactive liquid waste for Decommissioning, in order to develop the treatment processes for wastes of the nuclear research facility. In this project, decomposition methods of chemicals causing a troublesome phenomenon such as corrosion and explosion have been developed and there is a prospect of their decomposition in the facility by simple method. And solidification of aqueous or organic liquid wastes after the decomposition has been studied by adding cement or coagulants. Furthermore, we treated experimental tools of various materials with making an effort to stabilize and to compact them before the package into the waste container. It is expected to decrease the number of transportation of the solid waste and widen the operation space. Some achievements of these studies will be shown in this paper. The project is expected to contribute beneficial waste management outcome that can be shared world widely.

Keywords: chemical processing facility, medium- and long-term management plan of JAEA facilities, STRAD project, treatment of radioactive waste

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3 Integrated Management System Applied in Dismantling and Waste Management of the Primary Cooling System from the VVR-S Nuclear Reactor Magurele, Bucharest

Authors: Radu Deju, Carmen Mustata

Abstract:

The VVR-S nuclear research reactor owned by Horia Hubulei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) was designed for research and radioisotope production, being permanently shut-down in 2002, after 40 years of operation. All amount of the nuclear spent fuel S-36 and EK-10 type was returned to Russian Federation (first in 2009 and last in 2012), and the radioactive waste resulted from the reprocessing of it will remain permanently in the Russian Federation. The decommissioning strategy chosen is immediate dismantling. At this moment, the radionuclides with half-life shorter than 1 year have a minor contribution to the contamination of materials and equipment used in reactor department. The decommissioning of the reactor has started in 2010 and is planned to be finalized in 2020, being the first nuclear research reactor that has started the decommissioning project from the South-East of Europe. The management system applied in the decommissioning of the VVR-S research reactor integrates all common elements of management: nuclear safety, occupational health and safety, environment, quality- compliance with the requirements for decommissioning activities, physical protection and economic elements. This paper presents the application of integrated management system in decommissioning of systems, structures, equipment and components (SSEC) from pumps room, including the management of the resulted radioactive waste. The primary cooling system of this type of reactor includes circulation pumps, heat exchangers, degasser, filter ion exchangers, piping connection, drainage system and radioactive leaks. All the decommissioning activities of primary circuit were performed in stage 2 (year 2014), and they were developed and recorded according to the applicable documents, within the requirements of the Regulatory Body Licenses. In the presentation there will be emphasized how the integrated management system provisions are applied in the dismantling of the primary cooling system, for elaboration, approval, application of necessary documentation, records keeping before, during and after the dismantling activities. Radiation protection and economics are the key factors for the selection of the proper technology. Dedicated and advanced technologies were chosen to perform specific tasks. Safety aspects have been taken into consideration. Resource constraints have also been an important issue considered in defining the decommissioning strategy. Important aspects like radiological monitoring of the personnel and areas, decontamination, waste management and final characterization of the released site are demonstrated and documented.

Keywords: decommissioning, integrated management system, nuclear reactor, waste management

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2 Quantum Chemical Prediction of Standard Formation Enthalpies of Uranyl Nitrates and Its Degradation Products

Authors: Mohamad Saab, Florent Real, Francois Virot, Laurent Cantrel, Valerie Vallet

Abstract:

All spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants use the PUREX process (Plutonium Uranium Refining by Extraction), which is a liquid-liquid extraction method. The organic extracting solvent is a mixture of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and hydrocarbon solvent such as hydrogenated tetra-propylene (TPH). By chemical complexation, uranium and plutonium (from spent fuel dissolved in nitric acid solution), are separated from fission products and minor actinides. During a normal extraction operation, uranium is extracted in the organic phase as the UO₂(NO₃)₂(TBP)₂ complex. The TBP solvent can form an explosive mixture called red oil when it comes in contact with nitric acid. The formation of this unstable organic phase originates from the reaction between TBP and its degradation products on the one hand, and nitric acid, its derivatives and heavy metal nitrate complexes on the other hand. The decomposition of the red oil can lead to violent explosive thermal runaway. These hazards are at the origin of several accidents such as the two in the United States in 1953 and 1975 (Savannah River) and, more recently, the one in Russia in 1993 (Tomsk). This raises the question of the exothermicity of reactions that involve TBP and all other degradation products, and calls for a better knowledge of the underlying chemical phenomena. A simulation tool (Alambic) is currently being developed at IRSN that integrates thermal and kinetic functions related to the deterioration of uranyl nitrates in organic and aqueous phases, but not of the n-butyl phosphate. To include them in the modeling scheme, there is an urgent need to obtain the thermodynamic and kinetic functions governing the deterioration processes in liquid phase. However, little is known about the thermodynamic properties, like standard enthalpies of formation, of the n-butyl phosphate molecules and of the UO₂(NO₃)₂(TBP)₂ UO₂(NO₃)₂(HDBP)(TBP) and UO₂(NO₃)₂(HDBP)₂ complexes. In this work, we propose to estimate the thermodynamic properties with Quantum Methods (QM). Thus, in the first part of our project, we focused on the mono, di, and tri-butyl complexes. Quantum chemical calculations have been performed to study several reactions leading to the formation of mono-(H₂MBP), di-(HDBP), and TBP in gas and liquid phases. In the gas phase, the optimal structures of all species were optimized using the B3LYP density functional. Triple-ζ def2-TZVP basis sets were used for all atoms. All geometries were optimized in the gas-phase, and the corresponding harmonic frequencies were used without scaling to compute the vibrational partition functions at 298.15 K and 0.1 Mpa. Accurate single point energies were calculated using the efficient localized LCCSD(T) method to the complete basis set limit. Whenever species in the liquid phase are considered, solvent effects are included with the COSMO-RS continuum model. The standard enthalpies of formation of TBP, HDBP, and H2MBP are finally predicted with an uncertainty of about 15 kJ mol⁻¹. In the second part of this project, we have investigated the fundamental properties of three organic species that mostly contribute to the thermal runaway: UO₂(NO₃)₂(TBP)₂, UO₂(NO₃)₂(HDBP)(TBP), and UO₂(NO₃)₂(HDBP)₂ using the same quantum chemical methods that were used for TBP and its derivatives in both the gas and the liquid phase. We will discuss the structures and thermodynamic properties of all these species.

Keywords: PUREX process, red oils, quantum chemical methods, hydrolysis

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1 A Simple Chemical Approach to Regenerating Strength of Thermally Recycled Glass Fibre

Authors: Sairah Bashir, Liu Yang, John Liggat, James Thomason

Abstract:

Glass fibre is currently used as reinforcement in over 90% of all fibre-reinforced composites produced. The high rigidity and chemical resistance of these composites are required for optimum performance but unfortunately results in poor recyclability; when such materials are no longer fit for purpose, they are frequently deposited in landfill sites. Recycling technologies, for example, thermal treatment, can be employed to address this issue; temperatures typically between 450 and 600 °C are required to allow degradation of the rigid polymeric matrix and subsequent extraction of fibrous reinforcement. However, due to the severe thermal conditions utilised in the recycling procedure, glass fibres become too weak for reprocessing in second-life composite materials. In addition, more stringent legislation is being put in place regarding disposal of composite waste, and so it is becoming increasingly important to develop long-term recycling solutions for such materials. In particular, the development of a cost-effective method to regenerate strength of thermally recycled glass fibres will have a positive environmental effect as a reduced volume of composite material will be destined for landfill. This research study has demonstrated the positive impact of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution, prepared at relatively mild temperatures and at concentrations of 1.5 M and above, on the strength of heat-treated glass fibres. As a result, alkaline treatments can potentially be implemented to glass fibres that are recycled from composite waste to allow their reuse in second-life materials. The optimisation of the strength recovery process is being conducted by varying certain reaction parameters such as molarity of alkaline solution and treatment time. It is believed that deep V-shaped surface flaws exist commonly on severely damaged fibre surfaces and are effectively removed to form smooth, U-shaped structures following alkaline treatment. Although these surface flaws are believed to be present on glass fibres they have not in fact been observed, however, they have recently been discovered in this research investigation through analytical techniques such as AFM (atomic force microscopy) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Reaction conditions such as molarity of alkaline solution affect the degree of etching of the glass fibre surface, and therefore the extent to which fibre strength is recovered. A novel method in determining the etching rate of glass fibres after alkaline treatment has been developed, and the data acquired can be correlated with strength. By varying reaction conditions such as alkaline solution temperature and molarity, the activation energy of the glass etching process and the reaction order can be calculated respectively. The promising results obtained from NaOH and KOH treatments have opened an exciting route to strength regeneration of thermally recycled glass fibres, and the optimisation of the alkaline treatment process is being continued in order to produce recycled fibres with properties that match original glass fibre products. The reuse of such glass filaments indicates that closed-loop recycling of glass fibre reinforced composite (GFRC) waste can be achieved. In fact, the development of a closed-loop recycling process for GFRC waste is already underway in this research study.

Keywords: glass fibers, glass strengthening, glass structure and properties, surface reactions and corrosion

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