Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5760

Search results for: modified double weight

5760 Performance Analysis of SAC-OCDMA System using Different Detectors

Authors: Somaya A. Abd El Mottaleb, Ahmed Abd El Aziz, Heba A. Fayed, Moustafa H. Aly

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the performance of spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access using different detectors at different transmission distances using single photodiode detection technique. Modified double weight codes are used as signature codes. Simulation results show that the system using avalanche photo detector can move distance longer than that using positive intrinsic negative photo detector.

Keywords: avalanche photodiode, modified double weight, multiple access technique, single photodiode.

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
5759 Ion-Acoustic Double Layers in a Non-Thermal Electronegative Magnetized Plasma

Authors: J. K. Chawla, S. K. Jain, M. K. Mishra

Abstract:

Ion-acoustic double layers have been studied in magnetized plasma. The modified Korteweg-de Vries (m-KdV) equation using reductive perturbation method is derived. It is found that for the selected set of parameters, the system supports rarefactive double layers depending upon the value of nonthermal parameters. It is also found that the magnetization affects only the width of the double layer. For a given set of parameter values, increases in the magnetization and the obliqueness angle (θ) between wave vector and magnetic field, affect the width of the double layers, however the amplitude of the double layers have no effect. An increase in the values of nonthermal parameter decreases the amplitude of the rarefactive double layer. The effect of the ion temperature ratio on the amplitude and width of the double layers are also discussed in detail.

Keywords: ion-acoustic double layers, magnetized electronegative plasma, reductive perturbation method, the modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
5758 Experimental Study on Modified Double Slope Solar Still and Modified Basin Type Double Slope Multiwick Solar Still

Authors: Piyush Pal, Rahul Dev

Abstract:

Water is essential for life and fresh water is a finite resource that is becoming scarce day by day even though it is recycled by hydrological cycle. The fresh water reserves are being polluted due to expanding irrigation, industries, urban population and its development. Contaminated water leads to several health problems. With the increasing demand of fresh water, solar distillation is an alternate solution which uses solar energy to evaporate water and then to condense it, thereby collecting distilled water within or outside the same system to use it as potable water. The structure that houses the process is known as a 'solar still'. In this paper, ‘Modified double slope solar still (MDSSS)’ & 'Modified double slope basin type multiwick solar still (MDSBMSS)' have been designed to convert saline, brackish water into drinking water. In this work two different modified solar stills are fabricated to study the performance of these solar stills. For modification of solar stills, Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP) and Acrylic sheets are used. The experiments in MDSBMSS and MDSSS was carried on 10 September 2015 & 5 November 2015 respectively. Performances of the stills were investigated. The amount of distillate has been found 3624 Ml/day in MDSBMSS on 10 September 2015 and 2400 Ml/day in MDSSS on 5 November 2015.

Keywords: contaminated water, conventional solar still, modified solar still, wick

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
5757 A Study on Weight-Reduction of Double Deck High-Speed Train Using Size Optimization Method

Authors: Jong-Yeon Kim, Kwang-Bok Shin, Tae-Hwan Ko

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to suggest a weight-reduction design method for the aluminum extrusion carbody structure of a double deck high-speed train using size optimization method. The size optimization method was used to optimize thicknesses of skin and rib of the aluminum extrusion for the carbody structure. Thicknesses of 1st underframe, 2nd underframe, solebar and roof frame were selected by design variables in order to conduct size optimization. The results of the size optimization analysis showed that the weight of the aluminum extrusion could be reduced by 0.61 tons (5.60%) compared to the weight of the original carbody structure.

Keywords: double deck high-speed train, size optimization, weigh-reduction, aluminum extrusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
5756 Investigation of Active Modified Atmosphere and Nanoparticle Packaging on Quality of Tomatoes

Authors: M. Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, S. H. Yoosefian, A. Mohammad-Razdari

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere on the postharvest quality of tomatoes stored at 6 ºC. The atmosphere composition used in the packaging was 7% O2 + 7% CO2 + 86% N2, and synthetic air (control). The variables measured were weight loss, firmness, color and respiration rate over 21 days. The results showed that the combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and modified atmosphere could extend the shelf life of tomatoes to 21 days and could influence the postharvest quality of tomatoes. Also, existence of Ag nanoparticles caused preventing from increasing weight loss, a*, b*, Chroma, Hue angle and reducing firmness and L*. As well as, tomatoes at Ag nanoparticle polyethylene films had lower respiration rate than Polyethylene and paper bags to 13.27% and 23.50%, respectively. The combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere was effective with regard to delaying maturity during the storage period, and preserving the quality of tomatoes.

Keywords: ag nanoparticles, modified atmosphere, polyethylene film, tomato

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
5755 Determination of Nanomolar Mercury (II) by Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Carbon Zinc/Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide – 3 (4-Methoxyphenyl) Propionate Nanocomposite Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Md Isa, Sharifah Norain Mohd Sharif, Norhayati Hashima

Abstract:

A mercury(II) sensor was developed by using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) paste electrode modified with Zn/Al layered double hydroxide-3(4-methoxyphenyl)propionate nanocomposite (Zn/Al-HMPP). The optimum conditions by cyclic voltammetry were observed at electrode composition 2.5% (w/w) of Zn/Al-HMPP/MWCNTs, 0.4 M potassium chloride, pH 4.0, and scan rate of 100 mVs-1. The sensor exhibited wide linear range from 1x10-3 M to 1x10-7 M Hg2+ and 1x10-7 M to 1x10-9 M Hg2+, with a detection limit of 1x10-10 M Hg2+. The high sensitivity of the proposed electrode towards Hg(II) was confirmed by double potential-step chronocoulometry which indicated these values; diffusion coefficient 1.5445 x 10-9 cm2 s-1, surface charge 524.5 µC s-½ and surface coverage 4.41 x 10-2 mol cm-2. The presence of 25-fold concentration of most metal ions had no influence on the anodic peak current. With characteristics such as high sensitivity, selectivity and repeatability the electrode was then proposed as the appropriate alternative for the determination of mercury(II).

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, mercury(II), modified carbon paste electrode, nanocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
5754 Determination of Nanomolar Mercury (II) by Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Carbon Zinc/Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide-3(4-Methoxyphenyl) Propionate Nanocomposite Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Md Isa, Sharifah Norain Mohd Sharif, Norhayati Hashim

Abstract:

A mercury(II) sensor was developed by using multi-walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) paste electrode modified with Zn/Al layered double hydroxide-3(4-methoxyphenyl) propionate nano composite (Zn/Al-HMPP). The optimum conditions by cyclic voltammetry were observed at electrode composition 2.5% (w/w) of Zn/Al-HMPP/MWCNTs, 0.4 M potassium chloride, pH 4.0, and scan rate of 100 mVs-1. The sensor exhibited wide linear range from 1x10-3 M to 1x10-7 M Hg2+ and 1x10-7 M to 1x10-9 M Hg2+, with a detection limit of 1 x 10-10 M Hg2+. The high sensitivity of the proposed electrode towards Hg(II) was confirmed by double potential-step chronocoulometry which indicated these values; diffusion coefficient 1.5445 x 10-9 cm2 s-1, surface charge 524.5 µC s-½ and surface coverage 4.41 x 10-2 mol cm-2. The presence of 25-fold concentration of most metal ions had no influence on the anodic peak current. With characteristics such as high sensitivity, selectivity and repeatability the electrode was then proposed as the appropriate alternative for the determination of mercury.

Keywords: Cyclic voltammetry, Mercury(II), Modified carbon paste electrode, Nanocomposite

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5753 Dominant Correlation Effects in Atomic Spectra

Authors: Hubert Klar

Abstract:

High double excitation of two-electron atoms has been investigated using hyperpherical coordinates within a modified adiabatic expansion technique. This modification creates a novel fictitious force leading to a spontaneous exchange symmetry breaking at high double excitation. The Pauli principle must therefore be regarded as approximation valid only at low excitation energy. Threshold electron scattering from high Rydberg states shows an unexpected time reversal symmetry breaking. At threshold for double escape we discover a broad (few eV) Cooper pair.

Keywords: correlation, resonances, threshold ionization, Cooper pair

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
5752 Physical and Rheological Properties of Asphalt Modified with Cellulose Date Palm Fibers

Authors: Howaidi M. Al-Otaibi, Abdulrahman S. Al-Suhaibani, Hamad A. Alsoliman

Abstract:

Fibers are extensively used in civil engineering applications for many years. In this study, empty fruit bunch of date palm trees were used to produce cellulose fiber that were used as additives in the asphalt binder. Two sizes (coarse and fine) of cellulose fibers were pre-blended in PG64-22 binder with various contents of 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, 6%, and 7.5% by weight of asphalt binder. The physical and rheological properties of fiber modified asphalt binders were tested by using conventional tests such as penetration, softening point and viscosity; and SHRP test such as dynamic shear rheometer. The results indicated that the fiber modified asphalt binders were higher in softening point, viscosity, and complex shear modulus, and lower in penetration compared to pure asphalt. The fiber modified binders showed an improvement in rheological properties since it was possible to raise the control binder (pure asphalt) PG from 64 to 70 by adding 6% (by weight) of either fine or coarse fibers. Such improvement in stiffness of fiber modified binder is expected to improve pavement resistance to rutting.

Keywords: cellulose date palm fiber, fiber modified asphalt, physical properties, rheological properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
5751 Formulation and Evaluation of Mouth Dissolving Tablet of Ketorolac Tromethamine by Using Natural Superdisintegrants

Authors: J. P. Lavande, A. V.Chandewar

Abstract:

Mouth dissolving tablet is the speedily growing and highly accepted drug delivery system. This study was aimed at development of Ketorolac Tromethamine mouth dissolving tablet (MDTs), which can disintegrate or dissolve rapidly once placed in the mouth. Conventional Ketorolac tromethamine tablet requires water to swallow it and has limitation like low disintegration rate, low solubility etc. Ketorolac Tromethamine mouth dissolving tablets (formulation) consist of super-disintegrate like Heat Modified Karaya Gum, Co-treated Heat Modified Agar & Filler microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, friability, hardness, in vitro disintegration time, wetting time, in vitro drug release profile, content uniformity. The obtained results showed that low weight variation, good hardness, acceptable friability, fast wetting time. Tablets in all batches disintegrated within 15-50 sec. The formulation containing superdisintegrants namely heat modified karaya gum and heat modified agar showed better performance in disintegration and drug release profile.

Keywords: mouth dissolving tablet, Ketorolac tromethamine, disintegration time, heat modified karaya gum, co-treated heat modified agar

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
5750 Prediction of Heavy-Weight Impact Noise and Vibration of Floating Floor Using Modified Impact Spectrum

Authors: Ju-Hyung Kim, Dae-Ho Mun, Hong-Gun Park

Abstract:

When an impact is applied to a floating floor, noise and vibration response of high-frequency range is reduced effectively, while amplifies the response at low-frequency range. This means floating floor can make worse noise condition when heavy-weight impact is applied. The amplified response is the result of interaction between finishing layer (mortar plate) and concrete slab. Because an impact force is not directly delivered to concrete slab, the impact force waveform or spectrum can be changed. In this paper, the changed impact spectrum was derived from several floating floor vibration tests. Based on the measured data, numerical modeling can describe the floating floor response, especially at low-frequency range. As a result, heavy-weight impact noise can be predicted using modified impact spectrum.

Keywords: floating floor, heavy-weight impact, prediction, vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
5749 UML Model for Double-Loop Control Self-Adaptive Braking System

Authors: Heung Sun Yoon, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an activity diagram model for double-loop control self-adaptive braking system. Since activity diagram helps to improve visibility of self-adaption, we can easily find where improvement is needed on double-loop control. Double-loop control is adopted since the design conditions and actual conditions can be different. The system is reconfigured in runtime by using double-loop control. We simulated to verify and validate our model by using MATLAB. We compared single-loop control model with double-loop control model. Simulation results show that double-loop control provides more consistent brake power control than single-loop control.

Keywords: activity diagram, automotive, braking system, double-loop, self-adaptive, UML, vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
5748 Modified Design of Flyer with Reduced Weight for Use in Textile Machinery

Authors: Payal Patel

Abstract:

Textile machinery is one of the fastest evolving areas which has an application of mechanical engineering. The modular approach towards the processing right from the stage of cotton to the fabric, allows us to observe the result of each process on its input. Cost and space being the major constraints. The flyer is a component of roving machine, which is used as a part of spinning process. In the present work using the application of Hyper Works, the flyer arm has been modified which saves the material used for manufacturing the flyer. The size optimization of the flyer is carried out with the objective of reduction in weight under the constraints of standard operating conditions. The new design of the flyer is proposed and validated using the module of HyperWorks which is equally strong, but light weighted compared to the existing design. Dynamic balancing of the optimized model is carried out to align a principal inertia axis with the geometric axis of rotation. For the balanced geometry of flyer, air resistance is obtained theoretically and with Gambit and Fluent. Static analysis of the balanced geometry has been done to verify the constraint of operating condition. Comparison of weight, deflection, and factor of safety has been made for different aluminum alloys.

Keywords: flyer, size optimization, textile, weight

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
5747 Deformation Behavior of Virgin and Polypropylene Modified Bituminous Mixture

Authors: Noor Zainab Habib, Ibrahim Kamaruddin, Madzlan Napiah

Abstract:

This paper present a part of research conducted to investigate the creep behavior of bituminous concrete mixture prepared with well graded using the dynamic creep test. The samples were prepared from unmodified control mix and Polypropylene modified bituminous mix. Unmodified or control mix was prepared with 80/100 grade bitumen while polypropylene modified mix was prepared using polypropylene PP polymer as modifier, blended with 80/100 Pen bitumen. The concentration of polymer in the blend was kept at 1%, 2%, and 3% by weight of bitumen content. For Dynamic Creep Test, Marshall Specimen were prepared at optimum bitumen content and then tested using IPC Global Universal Testing Machine (UTM), in order to investigate the creep stiffness of both modified and control mix. From the results obtained it was found that 1% and 2% PP modified bituminous mix offer better results in comparison to control and 3% PP modified mix samples. The results verify all the findings of empirical and viscosity test results which indicates that polymer modification induces stiffening effect in the binder. Enhanced viscous component of the binder was considered responsible for this change which eventually enhances the mechanical strength of the modified bituminous mixes.

Keywords: polymer modified bitumen, stiffness, creep, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
5746 The Effect of Double Fortification of Iron and Zinc of Synbiotic Fermented Milk on Growth of Rat

Authors: Endri Yuliati, Siti Helmyati, Narendra Yoga Hendarta, Moh. Darussalam, Maharani Jibbriella, Fauziah Oktavira Hayati Fakhruddin, Faisal Hanin

Abstract:

Background: Both of iron and zinc has vital role in growth. The prebiotics fermentation by probiotics lower the acidity of intestine thus increase mineral absorption. Objective: To know the effect of double fortification of synbiotic fermented milk on growth. Methods: An Indonesian local isolate, Lactobacillus plantarum Dad-13 and Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) were used in making synbiotic fermented milk. It, then was double fortified with 100 ppm Fe and 50 ppm Zn. A total of 15 Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups and given: synbiotic fermented milk (CO), synbiotic fermented milk with NaFeEDTA and Zn acetate (NZ) and synbiotic fermented milk with Fe gluconate and Zn acetate (FZ) every day for one month. Body weight and body length were measured before, every week and after intervention. Results: Body weight and body length were similar at baseline among three groups (p > 0.05). All groups showed similar growth after intervention, from 62,40 + 6,1 to 109,0 + 9,0; 62,0 + 7,9 to 110,3 + 14,2; and 64,40 + 4,7 to 115,1 + 7,7 g for CO, NZ, and FZ, respectively (p > 0.05). The body length after intervention was also similar (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Fortification of iron and zinc did not modify effect of synbiotic fermented milk on growth.

Keywords: probiotics, prebiotics, iron, zinc, growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
5745 Effect on Body Weight of Naltrexone/Bupropion in Overweight and Obese Participants with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Large Randomized Double-Blind Study

Authors: Amy Halseth, Kevin Shan, Kye Gilder, John Buse

Abstract:

The study assessed the effect of prolonged-release naltrexone 32 mg/bupropion 360 mg (NB) on cardiovascular (CV) events in overweight/obese participants at elevated CV risk. Participants must lose ≥ 2% body weight at 16 wks, without a sustained increase in blood pressure, to continue drug. The study was terminated early after second interim analysis with 50% of all CV events. Data on CV endpoints has been published. Current analyses focus on weight change. Intent-to-treat (ITT) population (placebo [PBO] N=4450, NB N=4455) was 54.5% female, 83.5% white, mean age 61 yrs, mean BMI 37.3 kg/m2; 85.2% had type 2 diabetes, 32.1% had CV disease, 17.4% had both. At 52 wks, ITT-LOCF analysis showed greater least squares mean percent change in weight (LSM%ΔBW) with NB (-3.1%; 95% CI -4.8, -1.4) vs PBO (-0.3%; 95% CI -1.9, 1.4). Both groups demonstrated greater weight loss while on-treatment (NB [-7.3%], PBO [-3.9%]). Odds ratios of 5% and 10% weight loss were 3.3 and 4.1 (ITT-LOCF), respectively, in NB over PBO. At 104 wks, on-treatment LSM%ΔBW was -6.3% with NB (n=1137) vs -3.5% with PBO (n=741). Major reasons for NB withdrawal were adverse events (AE, 29%) and patient decision (21%), with GI disorders being the most common. Weight loss with NB in this study, in an older population predominantly with diabetes and elevated CV risk, was somewhat lower than that observed in overweight/obese participants without diabetes and similar to participants with diabetes in Phase 3 studies.

Keywords: contrave, mysimba, obesity, pharmacotherapy, weight loss

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5744 Role of Zinc in Catch-Up Growth of Low-Birth Weight Neonates

Authors: M. A. Abdel-Wahed, Nayera Elmorsi Hassan, Safaa Shafik Imam, Ola G. El-Farghali, Khadija M. Alian

Abstract:

Low-birth-weight is a challenging public health problem. Aim: to clarify role of zinc on enhancing catch-up growth of low-birth-weight and find out a proposed relationship between zinc effect on growth and the main growth hormone mediator, IGF-1. Methods: Study is a double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled trial conducted on low-birth-weight-neonates delivered at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital. It comprised 200 Low-birth-weight-neonates selected from those admitted to NICU. Neonates were randomly allocated into one of the following two groups: group I: low-birth-weight; AGA or SGA on oral zinc therapy at dose of 10 mg/day; group II: Low-birth-weight; AGA or SGA on placebo. Anthropometric measurements were taken including birth weight, length; head, waist, chest, mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps and sub-scapular skin-fold thicknesses. Results: At 12-month-old follow-up visit, mean weight, length; head (HC), waist, chest, mid-upper arm circumferences and triceps; also, infant’s proportions had values ≥ 10th percentile for weight, length and HC were significantly higher among infants of group I when compared to those of group II. Oral zinc therapy was associated with 24.88%, 25.98% and 19.6% higher proportion of values ≥ 10th percentile regarding weight, length and HC at 12-month-old visit, respectively [NNT = 4, 4 and 5, respectively]. Median IGF-1 levels measured at 6 months were significantly higher in group I compared to group II (median (range): 90 (19 – 130) ng/ml vs. 74 (21 – 130) ng/ml, respectively, p=0.023). Conclusion: Oral zinc therapy in low-birth-weight neonates was associated with significantly more catch-up growth at 12-months-old and significantly higher serum IGF-1 at 6-month-old.

Keywords: low-birth-weight, zinc, catch-up growth, neonates

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5743 Fabrication of Biosensor Based on Layered Double Hydroxide/Polypyrrole/Carbon Paste Electrode for Determination of Anti-Hypertensive and Prostatic Hyperplasia Drug Terazosin

Authors: Amira M. Hassanein, Nehal A. Salahuddin, Atsunori Matsuda, Toshiaki Hattori, Mona N. Elfiky

Abstract:

New insights into the design of highly sensitive, carbon-based electrochemical sensors are presented in this work. This was achieved by exploring the interesting properties of conductive (Mg/Al) layered double hydroxide- Dodecyl Sulphate/Polypyrrole nanocomposites which were synthesized by in-situ polymerization of pyrrole during the assembly of (Mg/Al) layered double hydroxide, and by employing the anionic surfactant Dodecyl sulphate as a modifier. The morphology and surface area of the nanocomposites changed with the percentage of Pyrrole. Under optimal conditions, the modified carbon paste electrode successfully achieved detection limits of 0.057 and 0.134 nmol.L-1 of Terazosin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human serum fluid, respectively. Moreover, the sensors are highly stable, reusable, and free from interference by other commonly present excipients in drug formulations.

Keywords: layered double hydroxide, polypyrrole, terazosin hydrochloride, square-wave adsorptive anodic stripping voltammetry

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5742 Modified Mangrove Pens for Polyculture System in Mud Crab (Scylla serrata) and Milkfish (Chanos chanos) Production

Authors: Laurence G. Almoguera, Vitaliana U. Malamug, Armando N. Espino, Marvin M. Cinense

Abstract:

The mangrove pens were modified to produce mud crab (Scylla serrata) and milkfish (Chanos chanos) in a polyculture system. The modification of mangrove pens was done by adding excavations inside the pen. The water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, and temperature) were monitored, the recovery and the production rate in each pen were evaluated. The experiment was conducted for a rearing period of 143 days in nine mangrove pens, each having an area of 32 m² with an average net enclosure height of 3 m from the soil surface. The three different pens constructed (existing design - with canal only, with 43% excavation by area, and 54% excavation by area) were designated as T₁, T₂, and T₃, respectively. All experimental units were stocked with 31 pieces of crablets (with 33.3 g average weight) and additional 130 pieces of milkfish fingerlings (with 0.11 g average weight) to the modified mangrove pens. The water quality parameters recorded in the pens were favorable for the growth and recovery of the mud crab and milkfish, except for dissolved oxygen (DO). It was found to be the reason for the total mortality of the stocked milkfish. For mud crab, the highest mean recovery was recorded in T₂ (34.41%), followed by T₃ (26.91%) and the lowest in T1 (21.50%). The production rate followed the same trend as the recovery, where T₂ (74.49 g/m²) obtained the highest, followed by T₃ (55 g/m2) and the lowest was in T₁ (34.87 g/m²). The statistical analysis revealed that the variations of the mud crab recovery were not significant, while in terms of production rate, modified mangrove pens were found to be more effective than the existing design. Due to the total mortality of the cultured milkfish, the current set-up of modified mangrove pens was found to be not suitable for the polyculture system of milkfish and mud crab production.

Keywords: aquasilviculture, milkfish, modified mangrove pen, mud crab, polyculture, production rate

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5741 An Experimental Investigation on Productivity and Performance of an Improved Design of Basin Type Solar Still

Authors: Mahmoud S. El-Sebaey, Asko Ellman, Ahmed Hegazy, Tarek Ghonim

Abstract:

Due to population growth, the need for drinkable healthy water is highly increased. Consequently, and since the conventional sources of water are limited, researchers devoted their efforts to oceans and seas for obtaining fresh drinkable water by thermal distillation. The current work is dedicated to the design and fabrication of modified solar still model, as well as conventional solar still for the sake of comparison. The modified still is single slope double basin solar still. The still consists of a lower basin with a dimension of 1000 mm x 1000 mm which contains the sea water, as well as the top basin that made with 4 mm acrylic, was temporarily kept on the supporting strips permanently fixed with the side walls. Equally ten spaced vertical glass strips of 50 mm height and 3 mm thickness were provided at the upper basin for the stagnancy of the water. Window glass of 3 mm was used as the transparent cover with 23° inclination at the top of the still. Furthermore, the performance evaluation and comparison of these two models in converting salty seawater into drinkable freshwater are introduced, analyzed and discussed. The experiments were performed during the period from June to July 2018 at seawater depths of 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm. Additionally, the solar still models were operated simultaneously in the same climatic conditions to analyze the influence of the modifications on the freshwater output. It can be concluded that the modified design of double basin single slope solar still shows the maximum freshwater output at all water depths tested. The results showed that the daily productivity for modified and conventional solar still was 2.9 and 1.8 dm³/m² day, indicating an increase of 60% in fresh water production.

Keywords: freshwater output, solar still, solar energy, thermal desalination

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5740 Effect of Rubber Tyre and Plastic Wastes Use in Asphalt Concrete Pavement

Authors: F. Onyango, Salim R. Wanjala, M. Ndege, L. Masu

Abstract:

Asphalt concrete pavements have a short life cycle, failing mainly due to temperature changes, traffic loading and ageing. Modified asphalt mixtures provide the technology to produce a bituminous binder with improved viscoelastic properties which remain in balance over a wider temperature range and loading conditions. In this research, 60/70 penetration grade asphalt binder was modified by adding 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 percent by weight of asphalt binder following the wet process and the mineral aggregate was modified by adding 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 percent crumb rubber by volume of the mineral aggregate following the dry process. The LDPE modified asphalt binder Rheological properties were evaluated. The laboratory results showed an increase in viscosity, softening point and stiffness of the binder. The modified asphalt was then used in preparing asphalt mixtures by Marshall Mix design procedure. The Marshall stability values for mixes containing 2% crumb rubber and 4% LDPE were found to be 30% higher than the conventional asphalt concrete mix.

Keywords: crumb rubber, dry process, hot mix asphalt, wet process

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
5739 Characterization of Waste Thermocol Modified Bitumen by Spectroscopy, Microscopic Technique, and Dynamic Shear Rheometer

Authors: Supriya Mahida, Sangita, Yogesh U. Shah, Shanta Kumar

Abstract:

The global production of thermocol increasing day by day, due to vast applications of the use of thermocole in many sectors. Thermocol being non-biodegradable and more toxic than plastic leads towards a number of problems like its management into value-added products, environmental damage and landfill problems due to weight to volume ratio. Utilization of waste thermocol for modification of bitumen binders resulted in waste thermocol modified bitumen (WTMB) used in road construction and maintenance technology. Modification of bituminous mixes through incorporating thermocol into bituminous mixes through a dry process is one of the new options besides recycling process which consumes lots of waste thermocol. This process leads towards waste management and remedies against thermocol waste disposal. The present challenge is to dispose the thermocol waste under different forms in road infrastructure, either through the dry process or wet process to be developed in future. This paper focuses on the use of thermocol wastes which is mixed with VG 10 bitumen in proportions of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% by weight of bitumen. The physical properties of neat bitumen are evaluated and compared with modified VG 10 bitumen having thermocol. Empirical characterization like penetration, softening, and viscosity of bitumen has been carried out. Thermocol and waste thermocol modified bitumen (WTMB) were further analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR).

Keywords: DSR, FESEM, FT-IR, thermocol wastes

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5738 Analysis of the Effect of GSR on the Performance of Double Flow Corrugated Absorber Solar Air Heater

Authors: S. P. Sharma, Som Nath Saha

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of Global Solar Radiation (GSR) on the performance of double flow corrugated absorber solar air heater. A mathematical model of a double flow solar air heater, in which air is flowing simultaneously over and under the absorbing plate is presented and solved by developing a computer program in C++ language. The performance evaluation is studied in terms of air temperature rise, energy, effective and exergy efficiencies. The performance of double flow corrugated absorber is compared with double flow flat plate and conventional solar air heaters. It is found that double flow effectively increases the air temperature rise and efficiencies in comparison to a conventional collector. However, corrugated absorber is more superior to that of flat plate double flow solar air heater. The results show that increasing the solar radiation leads to achieve higher air temperature rise and efficiencies.

Keywords: corrugated absorber, double flow, flat plate, solar air heater

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5737 Efficiency of Modified Granular Activated Carbon Coupled with Membrane Bioreactor for Trace Organic Contaminants Removal

Authors: Mousaab Alrhmoun, Magali Casellas, Michel Baudu, Christophe Dagot

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to improve removal of trace organic contaminants dissolved in activated sludge by the process of filtration with membrane bioreactor combined with modified activated carbon, for a maximum removal of organic compounds characterized by low molecular weight. Special treatment was conducted in laboratory on activated carbon. Tow reaction parameters: The pH of aqueous middle and the type of granular activated carbon were very important to improve the removal and to motivate the electrostatic Interactions of organic compounds with modified activated carbon in addition to physical adsorption, ligand exchange or complexation on the surface activated carbon. The results indicate that modified activated carbon has a strong impact in removal 21 of organic contaminants and in percentage of 100% of the process.

Keywords: activated carbon, organic micropolluants, membrane bioreactor, carbon

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5736 DNA and DNA-Complexes Modified with Electromagnetic Radiation

Authors: Ewelina Nowak, Anna Wisla-Swider, Krzysztof Danel

Abstract:

Aqueous suspensions of DNA were illuminated with linearly polarized visible light and ultraviolet for 5, 15, 20 and 40 h. In order to check the nature of modification, DNA interactions were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. For each illuminated sample, weight average molecular weight and hydrodynamic radius were measured by high pressure size exclusion chromatography. Resulting optical changes for illuminated DNA were investigated using UV-Vis spectra and photoluminescent. Optical properties show potential application in sensors based on modified DNA. Then selected DNA-surfactant complexes were illuminated with electromagnetic radiation for 5h. Molecular structure, optical characteristic were examinated for obtained complexes. Illumination led to changes of complexes physicochemical properties as compared with native DNA. Observed changes were induced by rearrangement of the molecular structure of DNA chains.

Keywords: biopolymers, deoxyribonucleic acid, ionic liquids, linearly polarized visible light, ultraviolet

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5735 Electrochemiluminescent Detection of DNA Damage Induced by Tetrachloro-1,4- Benzoquinone Using DNA Sensor

Authors: Tian-Fang Kang, Xue Sun

Abstract:

DNA damage induced by tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TCBQ), a reactive metabolite of pentachloro-phenol (PCP), was investigated using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with calf thymus double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) in this work. DNA modified films were constructed by layer-by-layer adsorption of polycationic poly(diallyldimethyl- ammonium chloride) (PDDA) and negatively charged ds-DNA on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The DNA intercalator [Ru(bpy)2(dppz)]2+ (bpy=2, 2′-bipyridine, dppz0dipyrido [3, 2-a: 2′,3′-c] phenazine) was chosen as an electrochemical probe to detect DNA damage. After the sensor was incubated in 0.1 M pH 7.3 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) for 30min, the intact PDDA/DNA film produced a sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal. However, after the sensor was incubated in 100 μM TCBQ or a mixed solution of 100 μM TCBQ and 2 mM H2O2, ECL signal decreased significantly. During the incubation of DNA in TCBQ or TCBQ-H2O2 solution, the double-helix of DNA was damaged, which resulted in the decrease of Ru-dppz bound to DNA. Additionally, the results were verified independently by fluorescence experiments. This paper provides a sensitive method to directly screen DNA damage induced by chemicals in the environment.

Keywords: DNA damage, detection, electrochemiluminescence, sensor

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5734 The Effect of Global Solar Radiation on the Thermal and Thermohydraulic Performance of Double Flow Corrugated Absorber Solar Air Heater

Authors: Suresh Prasad Sharma, Som Nath Saha

Abstract:

This paper deals with the effect of Global Solar Radiation (GSR) on the performance of double flow solar air heater having corrugated plate as an absorber. An analytical model of a double flow solar air heater has been presented, and a computer program in C++ language has been developed to calculate the outlet air temperature, heat gain, pressure drop for estimating the thermal and thermohydraulic efficiencies. The performance of double flow corrugated absorber is compared with double flow flat plate and conventional solar air heaters. It is found that the double flow arrangement effectively increases the air temperature rise and efficiencies in comparison to a conventional collector. However, corrugated absorber is more superior to that of flat plate double flow solar air heater. The results indicate that increasing the solar radiation leads to achieve higher air temperature rise and efficiencies.

Keywords: corrugated absorber, double flow, flat plate, solar air heater

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
5733 Crumbed Rubber Modified Asphalt

Authors: Maanav M. Patel, Aarsh S. Mistry, Yash A. Dhaduk

Abstract:

Nowadays, only a small percentage of waste tyres are being land-filled. The Recycled Tyres Rubber is being used in new tyres, in tyre-derived fuel, in civil engineering applications and products, in molded rubber products, in agricultural uses, recreational and sports applications and in rubber modified asphalt applications. The benefits of using rubber modified asphalts are being more widely experienced and recognized, and the incorporation of tyres into asphalt is likely to increase. The technology with much different evidence of success demonstrated by roads built in the last 40 years is the rubberised asphalt mixture obtained through the so-called ‘‘wet process’’ which involves the utilisation of the Recycled Tyre Rubber Modified Bitumen (RTR-MBs). Since 1960s, asphalt mixtures produced with RTRMBs have been used in different parts of the world as solutions for different quality problems and, despite some downsides, in the majority of the cases they have demonstrated to enhance performance of road’s pavement. The present study aims in investigating the experimental performance of the bitumen modified with 15% by weight of crumb rubber varying its sizes. Four different categories of size of crumb rubber will be used, which are coarse (1 mm - 600 μm); medium size (600 μm - 300 μm); fine (300 μm150 μm); and superfine (150 μm - 75 μm). Common laboratory tests will be performed on the modified bitumen using various sizes of crumb rubber and thus analyzed. Marshall Stability method is adopted for mix design.

Keywords: Bitumen, CRMB, Marshall Stability Test, Pavement

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5732 Developing the P1-P7 Management and Analysis Software for Thai Child Evaluation (TCE) of Food and Nutrition Status

Authors: S. Damapong, C. Kingkeow, W. Kongnoo, P. Pattapokin, S. Pruenglamphu

Abstract:

As the presence of Thai children double burden malnutrition, we conducted a project to promote holistic age-appropriate nutrition for Thai children. Researchers developed P1-P7 computer software for managing and analyzing diverse types of collected data. The study objectives were: i) to use software to manage and analyze the collected data, ii) to evaluate the children nutritional status and their caretakers’ nutrition practice to create regulations for improving nutrition. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, called P1-P7. P1, P2 and P5 were for children and caretakers, and others were for institutions. The children nutritional status, height-for-age, weight-for-age, and weight-for-height standards were calculated using Thai child z-score references. Institution evaluations consisted of various standard regulations including the use of our software. The results showed that the software was used in 44 out of 118 communities (37.3%), 57 out of 240 child development centers and nurseries (23.8%), and 105 out of 152 schools (69.1%). No major problems have been reported with the software, although user efficiency can be increased further through additional training. As the result, the P1-P7 software was used to manage and analyze nutritional status, nutrition behavior, and environmental conditions, in order to conduct Thai Child Evaluation (TCE). The software was most widely used in schools. Some aspects of P1-P7’s questionnaires could be modified to increase ease of use and efficiency.

Keywords: P1-P7 software, Thai child evaluation, nutritional status, malnutrition

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
5731 Application of Double Side Approach Method on Super Elliptical Winkler Plate

Authors: Hsiang-Wen Tang, Cheng-Ying Lo

Abstract:

In this study, the static behavior of super elliptical Winkler plate is analyzed by applying the double side approach method. The lack of information about super elliptical Winkler plates is the motivation of this study and we use the double side approach method to solve this problem because of its superior ability on efficiently treating problems with complex boundary shape. The double side approach method has the advantages of high accuracy, easy calculation procedure and less calculation load required. Most important of all, it can give the error bound of the approximate solution. The numerical results not only show that the double side approach method works well on this problem but also provide us the knowledge of static behavior of super elliptical Winkler plate in practical use.

Keywords: super elliptical winkler plate, double side approach method, error bound, mechanic

Procedia PDF Downloads 241